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1

NO{sub X} REDUCTION BEHAVIOR OF ALUMINA AND ZEOLITE CATALYSTS IN COMBINATION WITH NON-THERMAL PLASMA  

SciTech Connect

Lean burn gasoline and diesel engines provide improved fuel economy when compared to engines operating under stoichiometric fuel/air conditions. At the same time, lean burn and diesel engines present a problem for emission control. Because they operate under oxidizing conditions, the conventional three-way catalyst is not effective in NOx reduction [1,2]. In addition, the wide temperature range of automobile exhaust gases present a challenge for catalyst design. The temperature of exhaust gases from a light duty diesel engine can vary from 150 to 500 C, depending on the operating conditions. To date, a catalyst that operates with high NOx conversion efficiency over the entire operating range has not been found. Non-thermal plasma assisted catalysis has been shown to be a promising technology for NOx reduction in lean burn and diesel exhaust gases [3,4]. The approach exploited in this paper is to use a plasma in combination with several catalysts, each of which are active over unique temperature ranges. It was reported in the literature, that the one of the essential roles of plasma treatment is to oxidize NO to easier reducible NO2 [7]. In this contribution, the other important function of plasma treatment, namely partial oxidation of propylene, will be demonstrated.

Panov, A.G.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

3

Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Non-Thermal Plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Thermal Plasma Based Removal of Mercury Project Summary Powerspan Corp. will pilot test a multi-pollutant technology that converts mercury into mercuric oxide, nitrogen oxide...

6

Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NO{sub x} control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO{sub x} control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO{sub x} removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO{sub x} operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics.

Penetrante, B.M.

1993-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

Experimental Study of Non-thermal Plasma Injection System Converting NOx in Simulated Diesel Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the removal effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) after-treatment system on diesel engine harmful emissions, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor is designed, and the NOx removal effect is studied under the conditions of ... Keywords: Non-thermal Plasma(NTP), Dielectric Barrier Discharge(DBD, Diesel Engine, Nox

Jing Wang; Yixi Cai; Jun Wang; Dongli Ran

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Exhaust remediation using non-thermal (plasma) aftertreatments: A review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are four post combustion (nonthermal) plasma treatments on the table for reducing NOx in exhaust streams. This paper compares these techniques and suggests what appears to be a novel (8 inventions) and optimum path for development of auseful ehaust treatment system. We propose to use 5 GHz microwaves which will have a risetime of 20 ps, 100 times shorter than present state of the art and result in the best chemistry path by reduction ofplasma shielding, greater availability of atomic nitrogen, elimination of surface charging of dielectrics, avoidance of low threshold fields, and higher breakdown limit. We also propose combining a surface intrinsically into the plasma discharge. Novel embodiments are proposed for the pebbel bed discharge allowing an order of amgnitude increase of eidl-volume over the closest packing configuration.

Whealton, J.H.; Graves, R.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef* and J. M applications (1, 2) . Synthesis gas or syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) are used as a major. The conventional reformers allowing syngas production are based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons (3) following

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

A COMPACT CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE (CDD{trademark}) FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA GENERATION IN GASOLINE OR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Higher fuel economy targets and hybrid vehicles are increasing the marketability of diesel engines. But in order to implement the growth of diesels to achieve the fuel economy benefits, all emission regulation issues must be met. To do this traps and catalysts are being utilized. One of the main problems is finding a technology that enables the exhaust emission system to not only meet the emission requirements when new, but also to meet them at the regulated intermediate and full life requirements. Work is being done that enables catalysts to remain highly efficient throughout their full life. It is done by using a corona discharge device (CDD{trademark}) that introduces non-thermal plasma into the exhaust ahead of the converter. This low power device creates radicals that alter the chemistry of the exhaust so as to limit the poisoning of the catalyst. This can be done without so called ''purge'' cycles that lower fuel economy and degrade catalyst long-term durability. This device has been developed, not as a laboratory tool, but as a production ready product and is the first of its kind that is commercially available for testing. It is this product, the Corona Discharge Device, CDD{trademark}, which will be described.

Nowak,Victor J.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device  

SciTech Connect

Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

Charles Mones

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

UBIQUITOUS NON-THERMALS IN ASTROPHYSICAL PLASMAS: RESTATING THE DIFFICULTY OF MAINTAINING MAXWELLIANS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines the rather narrow conditions on a radiatively decoupled plasma where a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution can be assumed with confidence. The complementary non-thermal distribution with non-perturbative kurtosis is argued to have a much broader purview than has previously been accepted. These conditions are expressed in terms of the electron Knudsen number, K{sub e} , the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale length of electron pressure. Rather generally, f(v atomic or wave particle effects controlled by speeds v 0.01 is common in all main-sequence stellar atmospheres above approximately 0.05 stellar radii from the surface. The entire solar corona and wind are included in this regime where non-thermal distributions with kurtosis are shown to be ubiquitous, heat flux is not well modeled by Spitzer-Braginskii closure, and fluid modeling is qualitative at best.

Scudder, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 54420 (United States); Karimabadi, H., E-mail: jack-scudder@uiowa.edu [SciberQuest, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Large amplitude dust-acoustic double layers in non-thermal plasmas with positive and negative dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of large amplitude double layers in a plasma composed of cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, non-thermal ions and Boltzmann electrons is investigated using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. Both positive potential and negative potential double layers are found to be supported by the model. The variation of the maximum amplitudes of the double layers and corresponding Mach numbers are examined as a function of various plasma parameters. In particular, we investigate to what extent ion non-thermal effects are required for positive potential double layers to occur.

Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency Space Science, P O Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Existence domains of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons in non-thermal plasmas with positive and negative dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the traditional Sagdeev pseudopotential approach, the existence of large amplitude solitons is investigated for a plasma composed of cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, non-thermal ions and Boltzmann electrons. The lower and upper soliton Mach number limitations are determined as a function of various parameters and physical reasons are provided as to why these Mach number limits occur. Some regions in parameter space have been identified where only negative or positive solitons occur, whereas, other regions support the coexistence of both positive and negative potential solitons.

Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency Space Science, P O Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

18

COMPARISON OF PLASMA-CATALYST AND ACTIVE LEAN NOx CATALYST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of NO{sub x} control systems are being discussed for potential application to diesel engines. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to compare systems on an equal basis because data are run under different conditions, or reported against different test cycles, or not shown over a range of operating conditions. In addition, the fuel consumption penalty associated with the NO{sub x} control technologies is not always reported. In this paper, we compare two diesel NO{sub x} aftertreatment systems: (1) Plasma-Catalyst (PC): a nonthermal plasma followed by a catalyst; and (2) Active Lean NO{sub x} Catalyst (ALNC): a NO{sub x} catalyst designed to selectively reduce NO{sub x} using hydrocarbon (HC) in the form of diesel fuel. Fuel is added to the exhaust to increase HC above normal diesel levels. These systems will be described in more detail in this report.

Hoard, John

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

Non-Thermal Plasma Approach To Simultaneous Removal of NOx & Particulate Matter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Develop predictive performance and plasma chemistry tools for an NTP reactor Insights for reactor optimization and energy efficiency Qualitative screening of reactor design concepts Develop working model to guide reactor design Power requirements and operating parameters Geometry and properties Gap width and thickness, barrier material and thickness, etc Voltage requirements, frequency, space velocity Insights on or resolution of operational issues Diagnosis and interpretation of experiments

Kupe, Joachim

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability has not been observed. A new test cell specially designed to test the membranes has been constructed to provide basic science data on superpermeability.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a residence time of 18.8 s with a flow rate of 39.4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s (5 ft{sup 3}/h) and a specific energy of 13,000 J/l using niobium and platinum coated stainless steel tubes as cathodes. Under these conditions, the First Law efficiency for the system was 8%. Under similar reaction conditions, methane conversions were {approx}50% higher with niobium and platinum coated stainless steel cathodes than with a stainless steel cathode.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

Thomas, S.E.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

24

A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage  

SciTech Connect

Ar/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

80 HP PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYST SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US economy is linked to efficient heavy vehicle transportation and diesel remains the fuel of choice for mass transportation of goods and services. Diesel engines remain the most reliable and cost effective system for commerce. Recent deleterious effects of diesel exhaust on health and environment have led to an urgent need for cost effective technologies that would bring about reduction in NOx and PM. CARB estimates on-road diesel mobile source will contribute almost 50% NOx and 78% PM emissions by 2010. As a result recent Federal and State mandates have been adopted to reduce emissions from diesel exhaust to 1 Gm/bhp.-Hr of NOx and 0.05 Gm/bhp-hr of PM by the year 2007. The 2007 standard is to be achieved in a stepwise manner starting with the standards for 2002 namely 2 Gm/bhp-hr NOx and 0.1 Gm/bhp-hr of PM. 2002 standards are likely to be met by most engine manufacturer by some modified form of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system or by employing a sophisticated engine control system. Importance of cost effective technology requirement is further exaggerated by the fact that in recent years diesel engine production have increased dramatically see figure 1 and has out stripped the gasoline engine production almost 4:1 see figure 2. Currently gasoline engine employs a 3-way catalytic system for NOx and HC reduction and in order for the 3-way system to work the engine is run near stoichiometric air : fuel ratio so that exhaust has virtually no oxygen. This strategy has resulted in a poorer efficiency and hence less efficient utilization of our natural resources. By contrast diesel engine operate on a lean burn principals i.e. air rich and currently there are no commercial technologies available for treating NOx and PM. Technologies being considered for reducing NOx from lean burn (diesel) exhaust are; Lean NOx catalyst systems, NOx adsorber system, Selective Catalytic Reduction systems and plasma assisted catalyst system. Of all these technologies Plasma assisted catalyst system is probably the most attractive since it can use currently available fuel onboard.

Slone, Ralph

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

DYNAMOMETER EVALUATION OF PLASMA-CATALYST FOR DIESEL NOX REDUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-stage plasma-catalyst system was developed and tested on an engine dynamometer. Previous laboratory testing suggested high NOx efficiency could be obtained. With hexene reductant added to the exhaust, over 90% NOx reduction was observed. However, with diesel or Fischer-Tropsch reductant the catalyst efficiency rapidly dropped off. Heating the catalyst in air removed brown deposit from the surface and restored conversion efficiency. Following the engine tests, the used catalysts were evaluated. BET surface area decreased, and TPD revealed significant storage. This storage appears to be partly unburned diesel fuel that can be removed by heating to around 250-300 C, and partly hydrocarbons bonded to the surface that remain in place until 450-500 C. Laboratory testing with propene reductant demonstrated that the catalyst regains efficiency slowly even when operating temperature does not exceed 300 C. This suggests that control strategies may be able to regenerate the catalyst by occasional moderate heating.

Hoard, J; Schmieg, S; Brooks, D; Peden, C; Barlow, S; Tonkyn, R

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

27

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NOX IN OXYGEN RICH ENVIRONMENTS WITH PLASMA-ASSISTED CATALYSIS: CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ''lean-burn'' vehicle engines remains a challenge. In recent years, there have been a number of reports that show that a plasma device combined with a catalyst can reduce as high as 90% or more of NOx in simulated diesel and other ''lean-burn'' exhaust. In the case of propylene containing simulated diesel exhaust, the beneficial role of a plasma treatment is now thought to be due to oxidation of NO to NO2, and the formation of partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are more active for the catalytic reduction of NO2 than propylene. Thus, the overall system can be most usefully described as hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) enhanced by 'reforming' the exhaust with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) device. For plasma-enhanced catalysis, both zeolite- and alumina-based materials have shown high activity, albeit in somewhat different temperature ranges, when preceded by an NTP reactor. This paper will briefly describe our research efforts aimed at optimizing the catalyst materials for NTP-catalysis devices based, in part, on our continuing studies of the NTP- and catalytic-reaction mechanisms. Various alkali- and alkaline earth-cation-exchanged Y zeolites have been prepared, their material properties characterized, and they have been tested as catalytic materials for NOx reduction in laboratory NTP-catalysis reactors. Interestingly, NO2 formed in the plasma and not subsequently removed over these catalysts, will back-convert to NO, albeit to varying extents depending upon the nature of the cation. Besides this comparative reactivity, we will also discuss selected synthesis strategies for enhancing the performance of these zeolite-based catalyst materials. A particularly important result from our mechanistic studies is the observation that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, acetaldehyde has been found to be especially effective in the thermal reduction of both NO and NO2 over Ba- and Na-Y zeolite catalysts.

Peden, C; Barlow, S; Hoard, J; Kwak, J; *Balmer-Millar, M; *Panov, A; Schmieg, S; Szanyi, J; Tonkyn, R

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

30

NON-THERMAL PLASMA PROCESSING AND CHEMICAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... has been deposited a nickel grid that serves ... is supplied by a sinusoidal power supply whose ... Figure 2. Simplified block diagram of Silent Discharge ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Non thermal emission in clusters of galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I briefly review our current knowledge of the non thermal emission from galaxy clusters and discuss future prospect with Simbol-X. Simbol-X will map the hard X-ray emission in clusters, determine its origin and disentangle the thermal and non-thermal components. Correlated with radio observations, the observation of the non-thermal X-ray emission, when confirmed, will allow to map both the magnetic field and the relativistic electron properties, key information to understand the origin and acceleration of relativistic particles in clusters and its impact on cluster evolution.

Arnaud, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently CARB estimates on road diesel vehicles contribute 50% of the NOX and 78% of the particulates being discharged from mobile sources. Diesel emissions obviously must be reduced if future air quality targets are to be met. A critical technological barrier exists because there are no commercial technologies available, which can reduce NOX from diesel (lean), exhaust containing 5-15% O2 concentration. One promising approach to reducing NOX and particulates from diesel exhaust is to use a combination of plasma with catalyst. Plasma can be generated thermally or non-thermally. Thermal plasma is formed by heating the system to an exceedingly high temperature (>2000 C). High temperature requirements for plasma makes thermal plasma inefficient and requires skillful thermal management and hence is considered impractical for mobile applications. Non-thermal plasma directs electrical energy into the creation of free electrons, which in turn react with gaseous species thus creating plasma. A combination of non-thermal plasma with catalysts can be referred to Plasma Assisted Catalysts or PAC. PAC technology has been demonstrated in stationary sources where non-thermal plasma catalysis is carried out in presence of NH3 as a reductant. In stationary applications NO is oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate where it is condensed and removed. This approach is impractical for mobile application because of the ammonia requirement and the ultimate mechanism by which NOX is removed. However, if a suitable catalyst can be found which can use onboard fuel as reductant then the technology holds a considerable promise. NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS Ralph Slone, B. Bhatt and Victor Puchkarev NOXTECH INC. In addition to the development of an effective catalyst, a non-thermal plasma reactor needs be scaled and demonstrated along with a reliable and cost effective plasma power source and onboard HC source needs to be proven. Under the work sponsored by DOE and SCAQMD Noxtech is developing a cost effective and reliable PAC system for mobile applications. The goal of the program is to develop a suitable catalyst with the ability to remove high levels of NOx at reasonable space velocities. This new catalyst will then be used to scale the technology to treat exhaust from 80Hp engine and eventually to demonstrate the technology on 200 and 400 Hp engine applications. Using the 2004 EPA proposed regulation as a standard, it is clear in order for PAC system to be commercially viable it needs to remove NOX by 70% or better. It is further assumed from past experience that 30,000 HR-1 space velocities are necessary to ensure a good compact design.

Bhatt, B.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fluorine Abatement: Non-thermal Plasma for the Destruction ...  

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy. Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; ...

34

Sulfur tolerance of selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in a plasma  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO2 to achieve efficient reduction of NOx and particulates in diesel exhaust. These technologies include the use of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons, NOx adsorption, and continuously regenerated particulate trapping. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO2 is also active in converting SO2 to SO3 . The SO3 leads t o increase in particulates and/or poison active sites on the catalyst. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO2 without oxidizing SO2 to SO3 .

Penetrante, B; Brusasco, R M; Merritt, B T; Vogtlin, G E

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Fate of SO{sub 2} During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} to achieve efficient reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO{sub 2} is also active in converting SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without oxidizing SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO{sub 2}.

Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

37

EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington...

38

Non-Thermal Continuum toward SGRB2(N-LMH)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis of continuum antenna temperatures observed in the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) spectrometer bandpasses is presented for observations toward SgrB2(N-LMH). Since 2004, we have identified four new prebiotic molecules toward this source by means of rotational transitions between low energy levels; concurrently, we have observed significant continuum in the GBT spectrometer bandpasses centered at 85 different frequencies in the range of 1 to 48 GHz. The continuum heavily influences the molecular spectral features since we have observed far more absorption lines than emission lines for each of these new molecular species. Hence, it is important to understand the nature, distribution, and intensity of the underlying continuum in the GBT bandpasses for the purposes of radiative transfer, i.e. the means by which reliable molecular abundances are estimated. We find that the GBT spectrometer bandpass continuum is consistent with optically-thin, non thermal (synchrotron) emission with a flux density spectral index of -0.7 and a Gaussian source size of ~143" at 1 GHz that decreases with increasing frequency as nu^(-0.52). Some support for this model is provided by high frequency Very Large Array (VLA) observations of SgrB2.

J. M. Hollis; P. R. Jewell; Anthony J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Kinematics Around The Non-Thermal Superbubble In Ic 10  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

les, we find a typical expansion velocity of 50 to 70 km s -1 . Using a distance of 661 kpc (Sakai et al. 1999) and a diameter of 41.5 ## inferred from Yang & Skillman (1993), we calculate a radius of 66 pc for the superbubble. Adopting a density of 1.1 atoms cm -3 (Yang & Skillman 1993), the mass swept out by the superbubble is 4.8710 37 g (2.4510 4 solar masses). Instituto de Astronoma, UNAM, Apdo Postal 70-264, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F., Mexico (almudena,margarit @astroscu.unam.mx). Fig. 1. A close-up of the region of the non-thermal superbubble in H# with the Yang & Skillman, (1993) isocontours of the 49-cm flux superposed. This image was formed by summing up the velocity channels containing emission from IC 10. The heliocentric velocity of this galaxy is -344 km s -1 (de Vaucouleurs et al. 1991). With these values, the kinetic energy obtained is 6.09 to 11.9 erg. Supposing that 20% of a supernova's thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy and th

William Henney; José Franco; Marco Martos; Miriam Peńa; A. Bullejos; M. Rosado

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed 9: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State regulatory standards for eventual land disposal at the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 29, 1998 EA-1189: Finding of No Significant Impact Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste September 29, 1998 EA-1189: Final Environmental Assessment Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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41

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

Non-thermal X-ray Emission: An Alternative to Cluster Cooling Flows?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of experiments aimed at reducing the major problem with cooling flow models of rich cluster X-ray sources: the fact that most of the cooled gas or its products have not been found. Here we show that much of the X-ray emission usually attributed to cooling flows can, in fact, be modeled by a power-law component which is indicative of a source(s) other than thermal bremsstrahlung from the intracluster medium. We find that adequate simultaneous fits to ROSAT PSPCB and ASCA GIS/SIS spectra of the central regions of ten clusters are obtained for two-component models that include a thermal plasma component that is attributable to hot intracluster gas and a power-law component that is likely generated by compact sources and/or extended non-thermal emission. For five of the clusters that purportedly have massive cooling flows, the best-fit models have power-law components that contribute $\\sim$ 30 % of the total flux (0.14 - 10.0 keV) within the central 3 arcminutes. Because cooling flow mass deposition rates are inferred from X-ray fluxes, our finding opens the possibility of significantly reducing cooling rates.

Ian G. McCarthy; Michael J. West; Gary A. Welch

2001-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

43

Non-thermal radio emission from OB stars: an observer's view  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some early-type stars are detectable radio emitters; their spectra can present both thermal and non-thermal contributions. Here I review the public radio data on OB stars, focusing on the non-thermal sources. The analysis of the statistical results gives rise to many open questions that are expected to be addressed, at least in part, with the upgrades of current radio telescopes and the upcoming new generation instruments.

Benaglia, Paula

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Plasma Aftertreatment for Simultaneous Control of NOx and Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NO{sub x} converter. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The NO{sub 2} can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. This paper examines the energy density required for oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons and the fate of NO{sub 2} during the oxidation of the particulate carbon. The energy density required for complete oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons is shown to be unacceptably large. The reaction of NO{sub 2} with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO{sub 2} to NO. These results suggest that the use of a catalyst in combination with the plasma will be required to efficiently reduce the NO{sub x} and oxidize the SOF hydrocarbons.

Penetrante, B.M.; Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Pitz, W.J.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

45

LEAN NO{sub X} REDUCTION BY PLASMA ASSISTED CATA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The widespread use of light duty diesel engines in the United States would naturally lead to a large reduction of fuel consumption, due to their generally higher efficiency. By extension, savings in fuel consumption would decrease the total CO2 emitted from mobile sources. Although this is a desirable goal, at present a major stumbling block to increased diesel engine use is the difficulty in reducing noxious exhaust components, mainly NOx and particulates, to acceptable levels. We are studying the possibility of reducing NOx emissions through the combination of non-thermal plasma with appropriate catalysts. The broad outline of how this technique works has been worked out both experimentally and theoretically.1-3 The presently accepted model is that a non-thermal plasma in the presence of water, oxygen and hydrocarbon will efficiently convert NO to NO2, while only partially oxidizing the hydrocarbon present. Some catalysts will reduce NO2 (but not necessarily NO) i n the presence of excess oxygen if the proper hydrocarbon is present. In this paper we report results using non-thermal plasma in conjunction with a commonly available zeolite catalyst, NaY, to treat synthetic diesel exhaust. We focus on details of the heterogeneous chemistry on NaY by comparing the thermal and plasma driven chemistry. EXPERIMENT Details of our experiment have been published elsewhere, so only a brief summary is included here.4 Synthetic exhaust gas was created by blending gases from cylinders of known composition using mass flow controllers. Besides NO, the exhaust mixture included CO, CO2, propylene, water, oxygen and nitrogen. A typical mixture contained 6% oxygen, 2% water, and, unless otherwise noted, a 3:1 ratio of propylene to NOx. This corresponds to a 9:1 ratio on a C1 basis. CO and CO2 were sometimes included, but we found that their presence did not materially affect our results. For nitrogen balance experiments we omitted CO and CO2 and replaced the nitrogen bath gas with helium.

Tonkyn, Russell

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Thermal and non-thermal emission in the Cygnus X region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radio continuum observations detect non-thermal synchrotron and thermal bremsstrahlung radiation. Separation of the two different emission components is crucial to study the properties of diffuse interstellar medium. The Cygnus X region is one of the most complex areas in the radio sky which contains a number of massive stars and HII regions on the diffuse thermal and non-thermal background. More supernova remnants are expected to be discovered. We aim to develop a method which can properly separate the non-thermal and thermal radio continuum emission and apply it to the Cygnus X region. The result can be used to study the properties of different emission components and search for new supernova remnants in the complex. Multi-frequency radio continuum data from large-scale surveys are used to develop a new component separation method. Spectral analysis is done pixel by pixel for the non-thermal synchrotron emission with a realistic spectral index distribution and a fixed spectral index of beta = -2.1 for the t...

Xu, W F; Han, J L; Liu, F S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

operation and an electrical power worth $ 46 to destroy 1 kg of TCA at such operating conditions. 16 #12 air streams were passed and effects of various operational parameters on the destruction removal effluent indicated a decrease in the amount of CO generated with increasing RH with low CO/CO2 ratio of 1

Cal, Mark P.

48

Exhaust aftertreatment using plasma-assisted catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the field of catalysis, one application that has been classified as a breakthrough technology is the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in oxygen-rich environments using hydrocarbons. This breakthrough will require dramatic improvements in both catalyst and engine technology, but the benefits will be substantial for energy efficiency and a cleaner environment. Engine and automobile companies are placing greater emphasis on the diesel engine because of its potential for saving fuel resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The modern direct-injection diesel engine offers demonstrated fuel economy advantages unmatched by any other commercially-viable engine. The main drawback of diesel engines is exhaust emissions. A modification of existing oxidation catalyst/engine technology is being used to address the CO, hydrocarbon and particulates. However, no satisfactory solution currently exists for NO{sub x}. Diesel engines operate under net oxidizing conditions, thus rendering conventional three-way catalytic converters ineffective for the controlling the NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, using ammonia as a reductant, do exist for oxygen-rich exhausts; however, for transportation applications, the use of on-board hydrocarbon fuels is a more feasible, cost-effective, and environmentally-sound approach. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbons is one of the leading catalytic aftertreatment technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-burn engine exhaust (often referred to as lean-NO{sub x}). The objective is to chemically reduce the pollutant molecules of NO{sub x} to benign molecules such as N{sub 2}. Aftertreatment schemes have focused a great deal on the reduction of NO because the NO{sub x} in engine exhaust is composed primarily of NO. Recent studies, however, have shown that the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} serves an important role in enhancing the efficiency for reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. It has become apparent that preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} could improve both the efficiency and durability of lean-NO{sub x} catalysts. A non-thermal plasma is an efficient means for selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The use of a non-thermal plasma in combination with a lean-NO{sub x} catalyst opens the opportunity for catalysts that are more efficient and more durable compared to conventional catalysts. In the absence of hydrocarbons, the O radicals will oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}, and the OH radicals will further oxidize NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. In plasma-assisted catalysis it is important that the plasma oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without further producing acids.

Penetrante, B

2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

Laser Catalyst  

INL’s Laser Catalyst is a method for removing contaminant matter from a porous material. A polymer material is applied to a contaminated surface and ...

50

Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

SOLCOST - Version 3. 0. Solar energy design program for non-thermal specialists  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The SOLCOST solar energy design program is a public domain computerized design tool intended for use by non-thermal specialists to size solar systems with a methodology based on life cycle cost. An overview of SOLCOST capabilities and options is presented. A detailed guide to the SOLCOST input parameters is included. Sample problems showing typical imput decks and resulting SOLCOST output sheets are given. Details of different parts of the analysis are appended. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Electrostatic solitary structures in presence of non-thermal electrons and a warm electron beam on the auroral field lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed by satellites in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere. These ESWs are found to be having both positive and negative electrostatic potentials. Using the Sagdeeev psuedo-potential technique, arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves/double layers are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of non-thermally distributed hot electrons, fluid cold electrons, a warm electron beam, and ions. The inertia of the warm electrons, and not the beam speed, is essential for the existence of positive potential solitary structures. Existence domains for positive as well as negative potential electrostatic solitons/double layers are obtained. For the typical auroral region parameters, the electric field amplitude of the negative potential solitons is found to be in the range {approx}(3-30) mV/m and {approx}(5-80) mV/m for the positive potential solitons. For the negative potential solitons/double layers, the amplitudes are higher when their widths are smaller. On the other hand, the amplitude of the positive potential structures increase with their widths.

Singh, S. V. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Pillay, S. R. [School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different types of plasma torches including a high power steam plasma torch and .... Recovery of Palladium and Rhodium from Spent Automobile Catalysts by ...

55

Catalyst activator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

McAdon, Mark H. (Midland, MI); Nickias, Peter N. (Midland, MI); Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Schwartz, David J. (Lake Jackson, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous solid water (ASW) is a metastable form of water created by vapor deposition onto a cold substrate (typically less than 130 K). Since this unusual form of water only exists on earth in laboratories with highly specialized equipment, it is fair to ask why there is any interest in studying this esoteric material. Much of the scientific interest involves using ASW as a model system to explore the physical and reactive properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions. Other researchers are interested in ASW because it is believed to be the predominate form of water in the extreme cold temperatures found in many astrophysical and planetary environments. In addition, ASW is a convenient model system for studying the stability of metastable systems (glasses) and the properties of highly porous materials. A fundamental understanding of such properties has applications in a diverse range of disciplines including cryobiology, food science, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics and nuclear waste storage among others.There exist several excellent reviews on the properties of ASW and supercooled liquid water and a new comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this Account. Instead, we focus on our research over the past 15 years using molecular beams and surface science techniques to probe the thermal and non thermal properties of nanoscale films of ASW. We use molecular beams to precisely control the deposition conditions (flux, incident, energy, incident angle) to create compositionally-tailored, nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, at which time they transform into deeply supercooled liquids prior to crystallization. The advantage of this approach is that at temperatures near Tg the viscosity is approximately 15 orders of magnitude larger than a normal liquid, and therefore the crystallization kinetics are dramatically slowed, increasing the time available for experiments. For example, near Tg, on a typical laboratory time scale (e.g. {approx}1000 s), a water molecule moves less than a molecular distance. For this reason, nanoscale films help to probe the behavior and reactions of supercooled liquid at these low temperatures. ASW films can be used for investigating the non-thermal reactions relevant to radiolysis. In this account we will present a survey of our research on the thermal and non thermal properties of ASW using this approach.

Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

SUZAKU/WAM AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS OF NON-THERMAL ELECTRONS IN SOLAR MICROFLARES  

SciTech Connect

We report on hard X-ray spectroscopy of solar microflares observed by the Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM), on board the Suzaku satellite, and by RHESSI. WAM transient data provide wide energy band (50 keV-5 MeV) spectra over a large field of view ({approx}2{pi} sr) with a time resolution of 1 s. WAM is attractive as a hard X-ray solar flare monitor due to its large effective area ({approx}800 cm{sup 2} at 100 keV, {approx}13 times larger than that of RHESSI). In particular, this makes it possible to search for high energy emission in microflares that is well below the RHESSI background. The WAM solar flare list contains six GOES B-class microflares that were simultaneously observed by RHESSI between the launch of Suzaku in 2005 July and 2010 March. At 100 keV, the detected WAM fluxes are more than {approx}20 times below the typical RHESSI instrumental background count rates. The RHESSI and WAM non-thermal spectra are in good agreement with a single power law with photon spectral indices between 3.3 and 4.5. In a second step, we also searched the RHESSI microflare list for events that should be detectable by WAM, assuming that the non-thermal power-law emission seen by RHESSI extends to >50 keV. From the 12 detectable events between 2005 July and 2007 February, 11 were indeed seen by WAM. This shows that microflares, similar to regular flares, can accelerate electrons to energies up to at least 100 keV.

Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krucker, Saem; Lin, Robert P. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ohno, Masanori, E-mail: s.ishikawa@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

58

Non thermal emission from clusters of galaxies: the importance of a joint LOFAR/Simbol-X view  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deep radio observations of galaxy clusters have revealed the existence of diffuse radio sources ("halos" and "relics") related to the presence of relativistic electrons and weak magnetic fields in the intracluster volume. I will outline our current knowledge about the presence and properties of this non-thermal cluster component. Despite the recent progress made in observational and theoretical studies of the non-thermal emission in galaxy clusters, a number of open questions about its origin and its effects on the thermo-dynamical evolution of galaxy clusters need to be answered. I will show the importance of combining galaxy cluster observations by new-generation instruments such as LOFAR and Simbol-X. A deeper knowledge of the non-thermal cluster component, together with statistical studies of radio halos and relics, will allow to test the current cluster formation scenario and to better constrain the physics of large scale structure evolution.

Ferrari, C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Feasibility of plasma aftertreatment for simultaneous control of NOx and particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NOx converter. Particulate trapping in a plasma reactor can be accomplished by electrostatic precipitation. The soluble organic fraction of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the hydrocarbon-enhanced oxidation of NO to NO2 . The NO2 can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. The oxidation of the carbon fraction by NO2 can lead to reduction of NOx or backconversion of NO2 to NO. This paper examines the hydrocarbon and electrical energy density requirements in a plasma for maximum NOx conversion in both heavy-duty and light-duty diesel engine exhaust. The energy density required for complete oxidation of hydrocarbons is also examined and shown to be much greater than that required for maximum NOx conversion. The reaction of NO2 with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO2 to NO. These results suggest that the combination of the plasma with a catalyst will be required to reduce the NOx and oxidize the hydrocarbons. The plasma reactor can be operated occasionally in the arc mode to thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates.

Brusasco, R M; Merritt, B T; Penetrante, B; Pitz, W J; Vogtlin, G E

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions  

SciTech Connect

This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solid Catalyst – Alkylation  

This is a method used to reactivate solid/liquid catalysts used in INL’s super critical process to produce alkylates. The method brings the catalyst ...

62

Non-Thermal X-ray Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars and Their Wind Nebulae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a statistical study of the non-thermal X-ray emission of 27 young rotation powered pulsars (RPPs) and 24 pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) by using the Chandra and the XMM-Newton observations, which with the high spatial resolutions enable us to spatially resolve pulsars from their surrounding PWNe. We obtain the X-ray luminosities and spectra separately for RPPs and PWNe, and then investigate their distribution and relation to each other as well as the relation with the pulsar rotational parameters. In the pair-correlation analysis we find that: (1) the X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities of both pulsar and PWN (L_{psr} and L_{pwn}) display a strong correlation with pulsar spin down power Edot and characteristic age, and the scalings resulting from a simple linear fit to the data are L_{psr} \\propto Edot^{0.92 \\pm 0.04} and L_{pwn} \\propto Edot^{1.45 \\pm 0.08} (68% confidence level), respectively, however, both the fits are not statistically acceptable; (2) L_{psr} also shows a possible weak correlation with pulsar period P and period derivative Pdot, whereas L_{pwn} manifests a similar weak correlation with Pdot only; (3) The PWN photon index Gamma_{pwn} is positively correlated with L_{pwn} and L_{pwn}/Edot. We also found that the PWN X-ray luminosity is typically 1 to 10 times larger than that from the underlying pulsar, and the PWN photon indices span a range of ~1.5 to ~2. The statistic study of PWN spectral properties supports the particle wind model in which the X-ray emitting electrons are accelerated by the termination shock of the wind.

Xiang-Hua Li; Fang-Jun Lu; Zhuo Li

2007-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

63

Non-thermal high-energy emission from colliding winds of massive stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colliding winds of massive star binary systems are considered as potential sites of non-thermal high-energy photon production. This is motivated merely by the detection of synchrotron radio emission from the expected colliding wind location. Here we investigate the properties of high-energy photon production in colliding winds of long-period WR+OB-systems. We found that in the dominating leptonic radiation process anisotropy and Klein-Nishina effects may yield spectral and variability signatures in the gamma-ray domain at or above the sensitivity of current or upcoming gamma-ray telescopes. Analytical formulae for the steady-state particle spectra are derived assuming diffusive particle acceleration out of a pool of thermal wind particles, and taking into account adiabatic and all relevant radiative losses. For the first time we include their advection/convection in the wind collision zone, and distinguish two regions within this extended region: the acceleration region where spatial diffusion is superior to convective/advective motion, and the convection region defined by the convection time shorter than the diffusion time scale. The calculation of the Inverse Compton radiation uses the full Klein-Nishina cross section, and takes into account the anisotropic nature of the scattering process. This leads to orbital flux variations by up to several orders of magnitude which may, however, be blurred by the geometry of the system. The calculations are applied to the typical WR+OB-systems WR 140 and WR 147 to yield predictions of their expected spectral and temporal characteristica and to evaluate chances to detect high-energy emission with the current and upcoming gamma-ray experiments. (abridged)

A. Reimer; M. Pohl; O. Reimer

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

No-thermal plasma processing of VOCs and NO{sub x} at LLNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past few years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive research program on the application of non-thermal plasmas for air pollution control and abatement. This program combines an extensive modeling effort with an experimental facility and test program. We believe that there are two major issues to be addressed in order to apply non-thermal plasma processing to air pollution control; these are electrical energy consumption and byproduct identification. The thrust of our work has been to understand the scalability of the non-thermal process by focusing on the energy efficiency of the non-thermal process and to identify the byproducts to ensure that effluent gases from a non-thermal processor are benign. We have compared different types of electrical discharge reactors both theoretically and experimentally. Our interests in the application of non-thermal plasmas vary from the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NO{sub x} reduction for mobile applications. This paper will discuss the processing of both NO{sub x} and VOCs by non-thermal plasmas at LLNL.

Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Hawking Non-thermal and Thermal Radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter Black Hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the non-thermal and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek\\rq s opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.

Rahman, M Atiqur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

Matthew B. Loomis

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 2004, 49 (2), xxxx NON-THERMAL PLASMA CATALYTIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrocarbons can be carried out in a number of ways: steam reforming, thermo-catalytic reforming, partial

70

Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

Nguyen, H. Q.

71

Tungsten Cathode Catalyst for PEMFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final report for project to evaluate tungsten-based catalyst as a cathode catalyst for PEM cell applications.

Joel B. Christian; Sean P. E. Smith

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Glossary Term - Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bohr Radius Previous Term (Bohr Radius) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Ceres) Ceres Catalyst A catalyst is a substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction without being...

73

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2005 2035 Synthesis of Pt=ZrO2 Catalyst on Fecralloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The instru- ment used was a Sciex Elan model 250 ICP-MS equipped with a Babington nebulizer, water cooled dioxide in a water gas shift (WGS) reactor in the temperature range 400 C­500 C. Index Terms- cursor materials, substrate, plasma-processing, and calcining. The analysis section describes results

Pedrow, Patrick D.

74

Catalyst Management Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst used in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control in coal-fired power plants is susceptible to deactivation over time due to exposure to trace elements contained in the coal. In order to sustain the levels of NOx reduction needed to comply with regulatory requirements, periodic replacement of the catalyst modules with new or regenerated catalyst is an essential element in operating an SCR system. Catalyst management planning is a process whereby decisions are made about when ca...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

System for reactivating catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Methods of making textured catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

78

METHOD OF PURIFYING CATALYSTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It has been fuund that the presence of chlorine as an impurity adversely affects the performance of finely divided platinum catalysts such as are used in the isotopic exchange process for the production of beavy water. This chlorine impurity may be removed from these catalysts by treating the catalyst at an elevated temperature with dry hydrogen and then with wet hydrogen, having a hydrogen-water vapor volume of about 8: 1. This alternate treatment by dry hydrogen and wet hydrogen is continued until the chlorine is largely removed from the catalyst.

Joris, G.G.

1958-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Non-thermal X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission from the Colliding Wind Binary WR140  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WR140 is the archetype long-period colliding wind binary (CWB) system, and is well known for dramatic variations in its synchrotron emission during its 7.9-yr, highly eccentric orbit. This emission is thought to arise from relativistic electrons accelerated at the global shocks bounding the wind-collision region (WCR). The presence of non-thermal electrons and ions should also give rise to X-ray and gamma-ray emission from several separate mechanisms, including inverse-Compton cooling, relativistic bremsstrahlung, and pion decay. We describe new calculations of this emission and make some preliminary predictions for the new generation of gamma-ray observatories. We determine that WR140 will likely require several Megaseconds of observation before detection with INTEGRAL, but should be a reasonably strong source for GLAST.

J. M. Pittard; S. M. Dougherty

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Nanostructured catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

83

Uranium-Based Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium-Based Catalysts S. H. Overbury, Cyrus Riahi-Nezhad, Zongtao Zhang, Sheng Dai, and Jonathan Haire Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

84

Epoxidation catalyst and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

85

Catalysts and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Gao, Hanrong (Ames, IA)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

87

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

Plasmatron-catalyst system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

92

Catalyst Modeling and CLEERS - Emissions & Emission Controls...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst Modeling and CLEERS A large part of ORNL's efforts in catalyst research are geared toward model development of catalyst devices and engine systems. Experimental data...

93

Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

94

Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

95

Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalyst, Method Of Making, And Reactions Using The Catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Partial oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Intermittency on catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present paper provides an overview of results obtained in four recent papers by the authors. These papers address the problem of intermittency for the Parabolic Anderson Model in a \\emph{time-dependent random medium}, describing the evolution of a ``reactant'' in the presence of a ``catalyst''. Three examples of catalysts are considered: (1) independent simple random walks; (2) symmetric exclusion process; (3) symmetric voter model. The focus is on the annealed Lyapunov exponents, i.e., the exponential growth rates of the successive moments of the reactant. It turns out that these exponents exhibit an interesting dependence on the dimension and on the diffusion constant.

J. Gaertner; F. den Hollander; G. Maillard

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

99

Intermittency on catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present paper provides an overview of results obtained in four recent papers by the authors. These papers address the problem of intermittency for the Parabolic Anderson Model in a \\emph{time-dependent random medium}, describing the evolution of a 'reactant'' in the presence of a ``catalyst''. Three examples of catalysts are considered: (1) independent simple random walks; (2) symmetric exclusion process; (3) symmetric voter model. The focus is on the annealed Lyapunov exponents, i.e., the exponential growth rates of the successive moments of the reactant. It turns out that these exponents exhibit an interesting dependence on the dimension and on the diffusion constant.

Gärtner, J; Maillard, G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Process of making supported catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Subramanian, Somasundaram (Melvindale, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst, particularly useful in catalytic reforming and for producing highly pure aromatic hydrocarbons, comprising an alumina carrier and containing, expressed in proportion of the weight of the alumina carrier: 005 to 1% of platinum 01 to 4% of gallium, indium or thallium 01 to 2% of tungsten, and 1 to 10% of halogen.

Le P. J.; Malmaison, R.; Marcilly, C.; Martino, G.; Miquel, J.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

103

Sulfur condensation in Claus catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The heterogeneous reactions in which catalyst deactivation by pore plugging occur are listed and include: coke formation in petroleum processing, especially hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization catalysts; steam reforming and methnation catalysts; ammonia synthesis catalyst; and automobile exhause catalysts. The authors explain how the Claus process converts hydrogen sulfide produced by petroleum desulfurization units and gas treatment processes into elemental sulfur and water. More than 15 million tons of sulfur are recovered annually by this process. Commercial Claus plants appear to operate at thermodynamic equilibrium. Depending on the H2S content of the feed and the number of reactors, total H2S conversion to elemental sulfur can exceed 95%.

Schoffs, G.R.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

Alonso, Gabriel (Chihuahua, MX); Chianelli, Russell R. (El Paso, TX); Fuentes, Sergio (Ensenada, MX); Torres, Brenda (El Paso, TX)

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

105

Project Catalyst | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Project Catalyst Project Catalyst Jump to: navigation, search Name Project Catalyst Agency/Company /Organization ClimateWorks, European Climate Foundation Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Forestry Website http://www.project-catalyst.in References Project Catalyst[1] Project Catalyst Screenshot Contents 1 About 2 Resources 2.1 Tools 2.2 Programs 3 References About "Project Catalyst is an initiative of the ClimateWorks Foundation. ClimateWorks is a global, nonprofit philanthropic foundation headquartered in San Francisco, California with a network of affiliated foundations in China, India, the US, and the European Union. The ClimateWorks family of organizations focus on enacting policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions through three general policy areas: energy efficiency standards,

106

Binary ferrihydrite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fluorination process using catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

1983-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Binary ferrihydrite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

Huffman, Gerald P. (Lexington, KY); Zhao, Jianmin (Lexington, KY); Feng, Zhen (Lexington, KY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fluorination process using catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, Robert C. (Aiken, SC); Saturday, Kathy A. (Aiken, SC)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Tzou, Ming-Shin (Evanston, IL); Jiang, Hui-Jong (Evanston, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Catalyst systems and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

113

Catalyst Renewables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 75204 Product Pursue projects with low technical risk, stable fuel supply and prices, and long-term power purchase agreements References Catalyst Renewables1 LinkedIn...

114

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

115

K8, HVPE Homoepitaxy of p-Type GaN on n-Type Catalyst Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the growth of p-type HVPE GaN using catalyst free GaN nitride nanowires as a lattice matched substrate. The nanowires were grown using plasma ...

116

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers H. P. Gunterman, a A.membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in thecurves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly

Gunterman, Haluna P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cisco Catalyst 4503-E, Catalyst 4506-E, Catalyst 4507R-E ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The following figures illustrate the installation of the opacity shields for each platform. Figure 5: Catalyst 4503-E Opacity Shield Installation Page 23. ...

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Novel Reforming Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Molecular water oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers Title Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5322E Year of Publication 2011 Authors...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts  

This invention comprises an inexpensive catalyst system for water electrolyzers by replacing the noble-metal catalysts that are typically used in ...

122

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

123

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Materials - Catalysts for Diesel Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne's deNOx Catalyst Begins Extensive Diesel Engine Exhaust Testing Argonne's deNOx Catalyst Begins Extensive Diesel Engine Exhaust Testing denox monolith Argonne's deNOx catalyst can be prepared as a powder or a monolith. chris marshall Principal investigator Chris Marshall shows the monolith form of the Argonne deNOx catalyst with a sensor inserted for testing. doug longman Mechanical engineer Doug Longman inserts the instrumented deNOx catalyst monolith into the aftertreatment chamber of Argonne's heavy-duty Caterpillar diesel test engine. Background Diesel engines, while efficient, produce many undesirable combustion byproducts in their exhaust. While we tend to think of the sooty exhaust products we see as the bad stuff, it is the less-visible exhaust products such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) that create bigger problems.

125

Full-wave Simulations of LH Wave Propagation in Toroidal Plasma with non-Maxwellian Electron Distributions  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The generation of energetic tails in the electron distribution function is intrinsic to lower-hybrid (LH) heating and current drive in weakly collisional magnetically confined plasma. The effects of these deformations on the RF deposition profile have previously been examined within the ray approximation. Recently, the calculation of full-wave propagation of LH waves in a thermal plasma has been accomplished using an adaptation of the TORIC code. Here, initial results are presented from TORIC simulations of LH propagation in a toroidal plasma with non-thermal electrons. The required efficient computation of the hot plasma dielectric tensor is accomplished using a technique previously demonstrated in full-wave simulations of ICRF propagation in plasma with non-thermal ions.

E.J. Valeo, C.K. Phillips, P.T. Bonoli, J.C. Wright, M. Brambilla, and the RF SciDAC Team

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Textured Metal Catalysts for Heterogeneous Catalysis ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Textured Metal Catalysts for Heterogeneous Catalysis Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact ...

127

Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous Processing Systems Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

128

Chemical interactions in multimetal/zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This report treats four subject areas: PtCu/NaY and Pd/Cu/NaY catalysts; reducibility of Ni in PdNi/NaY catalysts; CO hydrogenation over PdNi/NaY catalysts; and PdFe/NaY, Ga/H-ZSM5 and PtGa/H-ZSM5 catalysts.

Sachtler, W.M.H.

1992-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (France, FR); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

Protsailo, Lesia

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Plasma-Catalysis During Temperature Transient Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combination of catalysts is used together with nonthermal plasma in simulated diesel exhaust, while the gas temperature is varied. The catalysts both store and convert pollutants. As a result, pollutant concentrations during temperature ramps are different than those at steady state conditions. The data are presented for plasma followed by BaY, alumina, and Pt catalysts in simulated exhaust. When temperature ramps from high to low, apparent NOx conversion is quite high. However, when temperature is ramped from low to high, lower apparent conversions are seen. In a typical test cycle, average NOx conversion between 100 and 400 C is 60%. Peak conversion during the down ramp is over 90%, and minimum conversion during the up ramp is 30%. The composition of the effluent gas also varies during the temperature cycle. Intermediates such as methyl nitrate and hydrogen cyanide are not present following the combination of catalysts.

Hoard, John

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

132

Necessary conditions on entanglement catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a pure state transformation $\\psi\\mapsto\\phi$ restricted to entanglement-assisted local operations with classical communication, we determine a lower bound for the dimension of a catalyst allowing that transformation. Our bound is stated in terms of the generalised concurrence monotones (the usual concurrence of two qubits is one such monotone). We further provide tools for deriving further conditions upon catalysts of pure state transformations.

Sanders, Yuval

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Necessary conditions on entanglement catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a pure state transformation $\\psi\\mapsto\\phi$ restricted to entanglement-assisted local operations with classical communication, we determine a lower bound for the dimension of a catalyst allowing that transformation. Our bound is stated in terms of the generalised concurrence monotones (the usual concurrence of two qubits is one such monotone). We further provide tools for deriving further conditions upon catalysts of pure state transformations.

Yuval Sanders; Gilad Gour

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

Creating a culture of assessment: A catalyst for organizational change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Culture of Assessment: A Catalyst for Organizational ChangeCulture of Assessment: A Catalyst for Organizational ChangeCulture of Assessment: A Catalyst for Organizational Change

Lakos, Amos; Phipps, Shelley

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-55226 Catalyst-Infiltrated Supporting Cathode for Thin-demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can beinfiltrating nano- sized catalyst particles into its pores

Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Studies of Various Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Pt Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed after reduction on tetrahedral and cubic catalysts.Prepared catalysts………..…….……………………. ………………..……..35reactions on shape controlled catalysts………………………………22 3.1.

Kaneko, Shinji

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Business Case Slide 22: High-Value: Catalysts - Description  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts - Description Graduate student examining candidate DU-bearing catalyst Graduate student examining candidate DU-bearing catalyst Description Use DUO2 to catalyze chemical...

138

Business Case Slide 24: High-Value: Catalysts - Program Focus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts - Program Focus Program Focus Off-gas cleanup catalysts (ORNL) Best form and substrate, effect of impurities Desulfurization catalyst (Rutgers) Proof-of-principle...

139

CO HYDROGENATION OVER CLEAN AND OXIDIZED RHODIUM FOIL AND SINGLE CRYSTAL CATALYSTS. CORRELATIONS OF CATALYST ACTIVITY, SELECTIVITY AND SURFACE COMPOSITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND OXIDIZED RHODIUM FOIL AND SINGLE CRYSTAL CATALYSTS.CORRELATIONS OF CATALYST ACTIVITY, SELECTIVITY AND SURFACEobserved over the clean Rh catalysts during the catalyzed

Castner, D.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Plasma heating in the very early and decay phases of solar flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the energy budgets of two single-loop solar flares under the assumption that non-thermal electrons are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) on September 20, 2002 and March 17, 2002, respectively. For both investigated flares we derived the energy fluxes contained in non-thermal electron beams from the RHESSI observational data constrained by observed GOES light-curves. We showed that energy delivered by non-thermal electrons was fully sufficient to fulfil the energy budgets of the plasma during the pre-heating and impulsive phases of both flares as well as during the decay phase of one of them. We concluded that in the case of the investigated flares there was no need to use any additional ad-hoc heating mechanisms other than heating by non-thermal electrons.

Falewicz, R; Rudawy, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Catalyst for coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

AE AURIGAE: FIRST DETECTION OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM A BOW SHOCK PRODUCED BY A RUNAWAY STAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Runaway stars produce shocks when passing through interstellar medium at supersonic velocities. Bow shocks have been detected in the mid-infrared for several high-mass runaway stars and in radio waves for one star. Theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by non-thermal radiative processes in a number sufficiently large to be detected in X-rays. To date, no stellar bow shock has been detected at such energies. We present the first detection of X-ray emission from a bow shock produced by a runaway star. The star is AE Aur, which was likely expelled from its birthplace due to the encounter of two massive binary systems and now is passing through the dense nebula IC 405. The X-ray emission from the bow shock is detected at 30'' northeast of the star, coinciding with an enhancement in the density of the nebula. From the analysis of the observed X-ray spectrum of the source and our theoretical emission model, we confirm that the X-ray emission is produced mainly by inverse Compton upscattering of infrared photons from dust in the shock front.

Lopez-Santiago, J.; Pereira, V.; De Castro, E. [Dpto. de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Miceli, M.; Bonito, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR), CCT La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Albacete-Colombo, J. F. [Centro Universitario Regional Zona Atlantica (CURZA), Universidad Nacional del COMAHUE, Monsenor Esandi y Ayacucho, 8500 Viedma, Rio Negro (Argentina); Damiani, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

143

Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project overview - Cluster chemistry - Catalysts and supports * Experimental - Novel catalyst preparation * Results - Metal cluster size - Electrochemical properties * Summary...

144

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

145

Catalysts for improved fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A. [and others

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

On-line regeneration of hydrodesulfurization catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrotreating catalyst is regenerated as it concurrently hydrotreats a hydrocarbon fuel by introducing a low concentration of oxygen into the catalyst bed either continuously or periodically. At low oxygen concentrations the carbon deposits on the catalyst are burned off without harming the catalyst and without significantly affecting the hydrotreating process. In a preferred embodiment the hydrotreating process is hydrodesulfurization, and regenerating is done periodically with oxygen concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 volume percent.

Preston, Jr., John L. (Hebron, CT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells  

limitations for the oxygen reduction reaction. The result is a catalyst particularly advantageous for use in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

149

Database - Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Deactivation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst deactivation is a critical parameter controlling to a large extent achievable catalyst life, as well as overall SCR system performance. Accurate assessment and prediction of catalyst deactivation is required to adequately manage reactor potential. EPRI has on-going efforts underway aimed at better understanding the factors that affect catalyst deactivation, especially as a function of fuel, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions, in hopes of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (BCCL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

Not Available

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts - Energy Innovation ...  

Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Vol. 28: ...

152

Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

153

Catalyst-assisted Probabilistic Entanglement Transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are concerned with catalyst-assisted probabilistic entanglement transformations. A necessary and sufficient condition is presented under which there exist partial catalysts that can increase the maximal transforming probability of a given entanglement transformation. We also design an algorithm which leads to an efficient method for finding the most economical partial catalysts with minimal dimension. The mathematical structure of catalyst-assisted probabilistic transformation is carefully investigated.

Yuan Feng; Runyao Duan; Mingsheng Ying

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

154

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Reconditioning as Part of Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous EPRI work on catalyst reconditioning for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems sought to offer guidance to catalyst users as to the expected performance of reconditioned catalysts, both in the short term and long term, as well as to offer guidance as to the actual processes used for catalyst reconditioning. The present work seeks to compile these past efforts into a single document offering maximum utility to catalyst end users. In addition, the report updates previous findings where pract...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes  

SciTech Connect

Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

Garg, D.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Attrition and carbon formation on iron catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A serious engineering problem that needs to be addressed in the scale-up of slurry-phase, Fischer-Tropsch reactors is attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst. Attrition, which can break down the catalyst into particles too small to filter, results from both mechanical and chemical forces. This study examines the chemical causes of attrition in iron catalysts. A bench-scale, slurry-phase CSTR is used to simulate operating conditions that lead to attrition of the catalyst. The average particle size and size distribution of the catalyst samples are used to determine the effect of slurry temperature, reducing gas, gas flow rate and time upon attrition of the catalyst. Carbon deposition, a possible contributing factor to attrition, has been examined using gravimetric analysis and TEM. Conditions affecting the rate of carbon deposition have been compared to those leading to attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst.

Kohler, S.D.; Harrington, M.S.; Jackson, N.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shroff, M.; Kalakkad, D.S.; Datye, A.K. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 {mu}m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm{sup 2}. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, M.S.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

163

Model Catalysts: Simulating the Complexities of Heterogeneous Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface-science investigations have contributed significantly to heterogeneous catalysis in the past several decades. Fundamental studies of reactive systems on metal single crystals have aided researchers in understanding the effect of surface structure on catalyst reactivity and selectivity for a number of important reactions. Recently, model systems, consisting of metal clusters deposited on planar oxide surfaces, have facilitated the study of metal particle-size and support effects. These model systems not only are useful for carrying out kinetic investigations, but are also amenable to surface spectroscopic techniques, thus enabling investigations under realistic pressures and at working temperatures. By combining surface-science characterization methods with kinetic measurements under realistic working conditions, researchers are continuing to advance the molecular-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis and are narrowing he pressure and material gap between model and real-world catalysts.

Gao, Feng; Goodman, D. W.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Atmospheric Pressure Low Current Plasma for Syngas Production from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract – Atmospheric pressure low current arc discharge between graphite electrodes with conical geometry in liquid ethanol/water mixture was investigated. Syngas production was demonstrated over large experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on discharge aspects. It is shown from pictures that the behavior of low current arc discharge with consumable electrodes represents non-stationary plasma. The energetic properties of plasmas can be used to carry out many applications, particularly in discharge based systems. Recently, research interest focuses on the Non Thermal Plasma (NTP) treatment of hydrocarbons, alcohol, or biomass aimed to improve the yield of synthetic gas (syngas: H2+CO) production at low cost [1, 4]. Experiments were performed on a plasma reactor consisting of two graphite electrodes with conical shape

Ahmed Khacef; Khadija Arabi; Olivier Aubry; Jean Marie Cormier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Catalyst regeneration apparatus with radial flow distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus is described for regenerating spent hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. Catalyst particles in a vertically-elongated movable tapered bed are contacted with a hot oxygen-containing gas stream in order to remove, by means of combustion, coke which accumulated on the catalyst particles while they were used in a hydrocarbon conversion zone. Catalyst moves downward under the influence of gravity. The catalyst bed is tapered such that the thickness of the bed, in a dimension which is transverse to the direction of catalyst movement, varies from a minimum at the top of the tapered bed to a maximum at the bottom of the tapered bed. Gas passes through the tapered bed in a direction which is substantially transverse to the direction of catalyst movement. Substantially, all of the catalyst in the bed is in contact with the flowing gas. The variation in bed thickness causes a varying gas flow rate through the bed, from a maximum flow rate at the top of the tapered bed to a minimum flow rate at the bottom of the tapered bed and reduces the time that catalyst is exposed to high temperature gases. This flow pattern results in the delivery of oxygen in a manner which more closely matches the oxygen requirement for combustion at each point in the tapered bed. Advantages of the invention include increased coke burning capacity and longer catalyst life. Catalytic reforming is an example of a hydrocarbon conversion process in which the invention may be advantageously employed. 9 figs.

Sechrist, P.A.; Koves, W.J.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

168

Intermittency on catalysts: voter model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study intermittency for the parabolic Anderson equation with a space-time random potential describing the evolution of a "reactant" under the influence of a "catalyst", where the catalyst is given by the voter model with opinions 0 and 1 that are updated according to a random walk transition kernel starting from either the Bernoulli measure or the equilibrium measure. We show that the annealed Lyapunov exponents of the solution are trivial when the random walk is not strongly transient, but display an interesting dependence on the diffusion constant when the random walk is strongly transient. Compared with our earlier work, the main obstacle is the non-reversibility of the voter model dynamics, since this precludes the application of spectral techniques. The duality with coalescing random walks is key to our analysis, and leads to a representation formula for the Lyapunov exponents that allows for the application of large deviation techniques.

Gärtner, J; Maillard, G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

171

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The Existence of Quantum Entanglement Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Without additional resources, it is often impossible to transform one entangled quantum state into another with local quantum operations and classical communication. Jonathan and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566(1999)] presented an interesting example showing that the presence of another state, called a catalyst, enables such a transformation without changing the catalyst. They also pointed out that in general it is very hard to find an analytical condition under which a catalyst exists. In this paper we study the existence of catalysts for two incomparable quantum states. For the simplest case of $2\\times 2$ catalysts for transformations from one $4\\times 4$ state to another, a necessary and sufficient condition for existence is found. For the general case, we give an efficient polynomial time algorithm to decide whether a $k\\times k$ catalyst exists for two $n\\times n$ incomparable states, where $k$ is treated as a constant.

Xiaoming Sun; Runyao Duan; Mingsheng Ying

2003-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

Regenerated Plate Type SCR Catalyst Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology has become the technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission limits for many coal fired electric generating plants. With the aging of the domestic SCR fleet, the average age of catalysts currently in use has increased; and many facilities are now considering replacement or regeneration of the catalyst materials. Facilities planning to integrate SCR catalyst regeneration into their operations need to understand the overall performa...

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

174

SCR Catalyst Management for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of EPRI projects conducted over the past several years have examined the effects of SCR catalyst on mercury speciation. These projects have focused on the various factors influencing mercury oxidation, related to both the flue gas conditions and the catalysts themselves. However, the majority of these studies have only examined the speciation at the SCR inlet and outlet. Much less is known about the interlayer speciation, however, which is very important when developing catalyst management ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

1983-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

177

Nano-Structured Nobel Metal Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nobel Metal Catalysts Nobel Metal Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Reforming Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Nano- Structured Nobel Metal Catalysts Based on Hexametallate Architecture for the Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Methods for generating synthesis gas from hydrocarbon feedstocks routinely involve the use of a catalyst-a material that speeds up the reaction, but itself is not consumed-to make this process economically feasible. Sulfur, higher hydrocarbons, and olefins present a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate conventional

178

Process for coal liquefaction using electrodeposited catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of solid hydrocarbonaceous materials is disclosed. Particles of such materials are electroplated with a metal catalyst and are then suspended in a hydrocarbon oil and subjected to hydrogenolysis to liquefy the solid hydrocarbonaceous material. A liquid product oil is separated from residue solid material containing char and the catalyst metal. The catalyst is recovered from the solid material by electrolysis for reuse. A portion of the product oil can be employed as the hydrocarbon oil for suspending additional particles of catalyst coated solid carbonaceous material for hydrogenolysis.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When...

180

Heterogeneous Catalyst for Improved Selectivity of Biomass ...  

Technology Marketing Summary. In today’s industrial processes, heterogeneous catalysts are widely used because of their stability and ease of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Available Technologies: Catalyst Patterning for Scalable CVD ...  

Nano- & Micro-technology; Software and IT ; Licensing Interest Form Receive Customized Tech Alerts. Catalyst Patterning for Scalable CVD Growth of Graphene Nanoribbon.

182

Information Technology Solutions Designer Catalysts for ...  

petroleum industry’s “workhorse” catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feed stocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels.

183

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst - Energy ...  

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and ...

184

Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions  

SciTech Connect

A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Experimental and theoretical study of exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by a non-thermal arc discharge for syngas production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-thermal arc discharge for syngas production A. Lebouvier1,2 , F. Fresnet2 , F. Fabry1 , V. Boch2 , V. Rohani1% and a conversion rate of 95% have been reached which correspond to a syngas dry molar fraction of 25%. For the most and promote H2O and CO2 production. Keywords: Plasma reformer, syngas, diesel fuel reforming, NOx trap. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. Structure of Metallic Catalysts ; Academic Press: London,pretreatments of the Rh catalysts and analyzing thea Pt(octahedra)/SBA-15 catalyst increased from 0.01 to 28

Coble, Inger M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Focussing the view on Nature's water-splitting catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation in synthetic Mn-catalyst. Inorg. Chem. 43, 264-Nature’s water-splitting catalyst Samir Zein 1,2 , Leonid V.Nature’s water splitting catalyst Abstract About 3 billion

Yano, Junko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells A direct methanol fuel cell...

191

A Goldilocks Catalyst: Nanocluster 'just right' for Recycling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goldilocks Catalyst A Goldilocks Catalyst Nanocluster 'just right' for recycling carbon dioxide February 21, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry, Energy Technologies, Franklin Contact: John...

192

Self-oscillations on a partially wetted catalyst pellet in ? ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and the vapor–gas phases on wetted and dry catalyst pellets, respectively. ... perature and flooding states of the catalyst pellet was first observed, which were ...

193

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), ...

194

Novel metalloporphyrin catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work was done for developing biomimetic oxidation catalysts. Two classes of metalloporphyrin catalysts were studied. The first class of catalysts studied were a novel series of highly substituted metalloporphyrins, the fluorinated iron dodecaphenylporphyrins. These homogeneous metalloporphyrin catalysts were screened for activity as catalysts in the oxidation of hydrocarbons by dioxygen. Results are discussed with respect to catalyst structural features. The second type of catalysts studied were heterogeneous catalysts consisting of metalloporphyrins applied to inorganic supports. Preliminary catalytic testing results with these materials are presented.

Showalter, M.C.; Nenoff, T.M.; Shelnutt, J.A.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Integrated current collector and catalyst support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

Bregoli, Lawrence J. (Southwick, MA)

1985-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

197

Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

198

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

199

Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

Doctor, Richard D. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

Doctor, R.D.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Porosimetric study of catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The porosimetry of the catalyst layer made by the 'decal process' was studied using mercury porosirnetry. The comparison of the porosimetric profiles between the carbon powder and the catalyst supported on carbon suggests that the loading of the catalyst onto the Vulcan XC-72 carbon changes the porosimetry of the catalyst/carbon. The porosimetry of the catalyst layer depends on the catalyst used and the Nafion content. Boiling the catalyst layer effectively increases the pore area and the porosity of the catalyst layer. The correlation of porosimetric data with performance of catalyst layers suggests that the Nafion content in catalyst layers plays a vital role on the structure of catalyst layer such as pore size and pore distribution and further influences the performance of PE:FC.

Xie, J. (Jian); Wilson, K. V. (Kennard V.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Design of Catalytic Materials for Plasma Assisted Catalysis System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years, the Plasma Assisted Catalysis (PAC) approach for controlling NOx and/or particulate emissions from mobile diesel engines has received a significant amount of attention from researchers. Substantial work has been performed by various researchers to develop an understanding of the reaction mechanisms in a plasma reactor in conjunction with conventional lean-NOx catalyst materials. However, less effort has been devoted to systematically investigating new catalyst materials specifically designed for application in the PAC system. Since it is believed that plasma produces a unique environment for a catalyst bed (i.e. oxidation of NO to NO2 and partial oxidation/reforming of hydrocarbon reductants in the exhaust), new catalytic materials that take advantage of the plasma reactor conditions need to be studied. Optimum catalyst materials will be required in order to develop a PAC system that achieves maximum deNOx performance over the wide range of operating conditions in which the system will be required to operate for application on heavy duty diesel engines. This presentation discusses the issues involved in designing catalytic materials for achieving high NOx conversion in a laboratory test PAC system, and what is required to improve the catalyst materials further for application in an on-engine environment.

Park, Paul W.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

204

PLASMA GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

Foster, J.S. Jr.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

205

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Principal accomplishments have been achieved in all three areas of selective catalytic oxidation of methane that have been pursued in this research project. These accomplishments are centered on the development of catalyst systems that produce high space time yields of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon products, formaldehyde, and methanol from methane/air mixtures at moderate temperatures and at ambient pressure. The accomplishments can be summarized as the following: the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed here has been further optimized to produce 2 kg of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/kg catalyst/hr at 550C; V{sub 2}O{sub 5}SiO{sub 2} catalysts have been prepared that produce up to 1.5 kg formaldehyde/kg catalyst/hr at 630C with CO{sub 2} selectivities; and a novel dual bed catalyst system has been designed and tested that produces over 100 g methanol/kg catalyst/hr at 600C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Improving and inventing catalysts with computers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic aftertreatment emerged as the only promising technology. As no catalyst existed at that time, a new catalyst-process had to be developed. A major industry-wide research effort was mounted which, in the case of General Motors alone involved testing of over 1,500 catalyst formulations, submitted by some 82 prospective catalyst manufacturers, involving over 5,000 General Motors employees, and 22 million test miles before the catalyst was commercialized in the fall of 1974. Computational methods can provide major inroads. Deterministic modeling of kinetics and transport can be carried out with increasingly more detail as computational speed increases. At present, new catalyst design still must proceed through a stage of conceptualization and invention that is not readily modeled. It is driven by experts who successfully employ heuristics (a set of empirical rules gained through time and experience). Through inherently nondeterministic and provisional, heuristics can be addressed computationally with expert or knowledge-based systems. This is one way for the computer to help solve catalyst design problems.

Foley, H.C.; Lowenthal, E.E. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high ...  

Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems United States Patent

208

The three way catalyst efficiency and the gas temperature difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work refers to the examination of the three way catalyst efficiency, testing the exhaust gases temperature difference (?T) at the inlet and outlet of the catalyst, using gasoline - ethanol mixtures for fuel, at a catalyst engine functioning ... Keywords: bioethanol, gas emissions, three way catalyst

Charalampos Arapatsakos; Panagiotis Lefakis

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Protocol for Laboratory Testing of SCR Catalyst: 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the widespread deployment of selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR) throughout the U.S. fleet of coal fired utility boilers, there was a need to establish standardized protocols to test catalyst. In 2006, EPRI issued a protocol that provided a uniform basis for testing SCR catalyst. In 2007, a wide range of industry representatives, including members of the Post-Combustion NOx Control Program, catalyst vendors, an independent catalyst testing laboratory, a catalyst reconditioner, and a provider of ...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Catalyst Reaction (CatReact) Version 1.2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst Reaction (CatReact) is a spreadsheet-based software tool that helps operators of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems in coal-fired power plants make catalyst management decisions throughout the lifetime of the plant.   The program determines when future catalyst additions or replacements will be necessary and calculates the operations and maintenance costs of the SCR system. Cost elements include 1) catalyst purchases, 2) labor to add or replace catalyst, 3) reagent usage, ...

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

217

Metal catalyst technique for texturing silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Textured silicon solar cells and techniques for their manufacture utilizing metal sources to catalyze formation of randomly distributed surface features such as nanoscale pyramidal and columnar structures. These structures include dimensions smaller than the wavelength of incident light, thereby resulting in a highly effective anti-reflective surface. According to the invention, metal sources present in a reactive ion etching chamber permit impurities (e.g. metal particles) to be introduced into a reactive ion etch plasma resulting in deposition of micro-masks on the surface of a substrate to be etched. Separate embodiments are disclosed including one in which the metal source includes one or more metal-coated substrates strategically positioned relative to the surface to be textured, and another in which the walls of the reaction chamber are pre-conditioned with a thin coating of metal catalyst material.

Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Get Expertise Researcher Susan Hanson Inorganic Isotope & Actinide Chem Email Researcher Ruilian Wu Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Researcher Louis "Pete" Silks Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Vanadium is an inexpensive, earth-abundant metal that is well suited for promoting oxidations in air. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is

219

Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

Ganguli, Partha S. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Catalysts for Destruction of Air Pollutants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Destruction of Air Pollutants Catalysts for Destruction of Air Pollutants U.S. industries and the U.S. Department of Energy must manage a variety of off-gas wastes consisting of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Designing Chemical Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing Chemical Catalysts: There's an App for That By Mike Ross January 19, 2012 A big reason for publishing scientific results is to inform others who can then use your data...

223

Clean gasoline reforming with superacid catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to: (a) determine if a coal-derived naphtha can be hydrotreated to produce a product with a sufficiently low heteroatom content that can be used for reforming, (b) identify hydrocarbon compounds in the naphtha with concentrations greater than 0.5 wt %, (c) develop a Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] heavily chlorided catalyst and determine the activity, selectivity and deactivation of this catalyst using model compounds and the hydrotreated naphtha, and (d) develop both a sulfated Pt/ZrO[sub 2] and Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2] catalyst formulations and determine the activity, selectivity and deactivation of these catalysts using model compounds and d warranted, the hydrotreated naphtha.

Davis, B.H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Oxford Catalysts Group plc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxford Catalysts Group plc Oxford Catalysts Group plc Jump to: navigation, search Name Oxford Catalysts Group plc Place Oxford, United Kingdom Zip OX2 6UD Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Developer of catalysts for room-temperature hydrogen production, hot steam production and Fischer-Tropsch processes. Coordinates 43.781517°, -89.571699° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.781517,"lon":-89.571699,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

225

Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

Hsu, R.H.

2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to selectively oxidize methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons and to oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol, in high space time yields under relatively mild reaction conditions. Results in this document are reported under the headings: methane oxidation over silica, methane oxidation over Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, and oxidative coupling of methane over sulfate-doped Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. 24 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Hart, Todd R. (Kennewick, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

231

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

232

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

233

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

234

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

235

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O' Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

237

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O' Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

238

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

239

Spectrum of Solar Type I Continuum Noise Storm in the 50- 80 MHz band, and Plasma characteristics in the associated source region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuum observations of a solar noise storm in the frequency range of 50-80 MHz observed with the Gauribidanur radio spectrograph during 2000 September, 26 & 27, are presented here. The radio spectral index of the noise storm continuum in the band 50- 80 MHz is found to be ? 3.65 during the above period. The Noise Storm continuum radiation is explained as a consequence of the non-thermal, plasma emission mechanism. The beam-density of suprathermal electrons is estimated for the coronal plasma near the source region of storm radiation. Supplementary evidence for the density-estimate is provided by way of analysing the imaging data from the SXT on-board the Yohkoh spacecraft, and the LASCO, MDI, and EIT on board the SoHO spacecraft. Subject headings: Sun: radio radiation — radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

G. A. Shanmugha Sundaram; K. R. Subramanian

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Monte carlo simulations of segregation in Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and design of Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSJ.H. Sinfelt, Bimetallic Catalysts: Discoveries, concepts,of segregation in Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles Guofeng Wang

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

One-Pot Formation of Functionalized Indole and Benzofuran Derivatives Using a Single Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst Reji N. Nair • Paul J. Lee •bifunctional ruthenium catalyst for cyclization of terminalof transi- tion metal based catalysts have been reported to

Nair, Reji N.; Lee, Paul J.; Grotjahn, Douglas B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Well-Defined, Silica-Supported Tungsten Imido Alkylidene Olefin Metathesis Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

olefin metathesis catalyst. Bouchra Rhers, a Alain Salameh,active propene metathesis catalyst, which can achieve 16000W-based olefin metathesis catalyst through the reaction of [

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a thinner electrode catalyst layer, thereby improvingmass transport and catalyst utilization. ReferencesSurfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts A Dissertation submitted in

Alia, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and truly tune the catalyst to the reaction. References 1.Gavriilidis, A. Varma, Catalyst Design, Cambridge UniversityStructure of Metallic Catalysts, Academic Press, London,

Contreras, A.M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Reaction selectivity studies on nanolithographically-fabricated platinum model catalyst arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structure of Metallic Catalysts. Academic Press, London,R. Structure of Metallic Catalysts. Academic Press, London,Ethylene on Metallic Catalysts, National Standard Reference

Grunes, Jeffrey Benjamin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as Efficient Oxygen- Evolving Catalysts Feng Jiao and Heinzof efficient and robust catalysts for the chemicaltransformations. Catalysts need to exhibit turnover

Jiao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Bifunctional Solid Catalysts for the Selective Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bifunctional Solid Catalysts for the Selective Conversion ofat Springerlink.com Abstract Solid catalysts based on SBA-15methylfurfural (HMF). The catalysts incorporate thioether

Crisci, Anthony J.; Tucker, Mark H.; Dumesic, James A.; Scott, Susannah L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Surface Structures of Cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo Catalyst Nanoparticles from Monte Carlo Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo Catalyst Nanoparticles from Montefuel cells, new electrode catalysts that have less preciousto designing Pt bimetallic catalysts is knowledge of the

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Cyclohexene Photo-oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolved ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolvedperformance of vanadia catalysts [5] even though hydrationabsorption spectrum of these catalysts into the visible [

Mul, Guido

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

THE MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS OVER SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structure of Metallic Catalysts", Academic Press Inc. , Newselectivity of these catalysts. Several appendices dealingOver Supported Ruthenium Catalysts ABSTRACT The effects of

Kellner, Carl Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Intermittency on catalysts: symmetric exclusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We continue our study of intermittency for the parabolic Anderson equation $\\partial u/\\partial t = \\kappa\\Delta u + \\xi u$, where $u\\colon \\Z^d\\times [0,\\infty)\\to\\R$, $\\kappa$ is the diffusion constant, $\\Delta$ is the discrete Laplacian, and $\\xi\\colon \\Z^d\\times [0,\\infty)\\to\\R$ is a space-time random medium. The solution of the equation describes the evolution of a ``reactant'' $u$ under the influence of a ``catalyst'' $\\xi$. In this paper we focus on the case where $\\xi$ is exclusion with a symmetric random walk transition kernel, starting from equilibrium with density $\\rho\\in (0,1)$. We consider the annealed Lyapunov exponents, i.e., the exponential growth rates of the successive moments of $u$. We show that these exponents are trivial when the random walk is recurrent, but display an interesting dependence on the diffusion constant $\\kappa$ when the random walk is transient, with qualitatively different behavior in different dimensions. Special attention is given to the asymptotics of the exponents for $\\kappa\\to\\infty$, which is controlled by moderate deviations of $\\xi$ requiring a delicate expansion argument. In G\\"artner and den Hollander \\cite{garhol04} the case where $\\xi$ is a Poisson field of independent (simple) random walks was studied. The two cases show interesting differences and similarities. Throughout the paper, a comparison of the two cases plays a crucial role.

J. Gaertner; F. den Hollander; G. Maillard

2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

253

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

254

Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Stepwise method determines source of FCC catalyst losses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of guidelines for fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) monitoring and a logical, stepwise approach to troubleshooting FCC catalyst losses is discussed. This will help process or operations engineers find the causes of such losses. A thorough understanding of the entire catalyst stem during normal operations establishes the base line data necessary for troubleshooting. A comprehensive, ongoing analysis of catalyst losses include: catalyst balance, fresh catalyst physical properties, equilibrium catalyst properties, fine particle size distribution, pressure surveys, and line and restriction orifice records. The paper goes on to identify each step in monitoring these operations and properties.

Fletcher, R. [Akzo-Nobel Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

256

Method of depositing a catalyst on a fuel cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fuel cell electrodes comprising a minimal load of catalyst having maximum catalytic activity and a method of forming such fuel cell electrodes. The method comprises vaporizing a catalyst, preferably platinum, in a vacuum to form a catalyst vapor. A catalytically effective amount of the catalyst vapor is deposited onto a carbon catalyst support on the fuel cell electrode. The electrode preferably is carbon cloth. The method reduces the amount of catalyst needed for a high performance fuel cell electrode to about 0.3 mg/cm.sup.2 or less.

Dearnaley, Geoffrey (San Antonio, TX); Arps, James H. (San Antonio, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Effect of a catalyst on the kinetics of reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) by active charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) powder with particles of active charcoal has been studied extensively in the absence and presence of catalysts. The optimum temperature at the charging zone has been optimized to get a maximum water-soluble strontium sulfide value. The strontium value has been analyzed using a chemical method, which was verified by the instrumental method using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The conversion-time data have been analyzed by using a modified volume-reaction (MVR) model, and the effect of the catalyst on kinetic parameters has been elucidated. It was found that potassium carbonate, potassium dichromate, sodium carbonate, and sodium dichromate catalysts were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily in the reduction of the celestite (SrSO{sub 4}).

Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B.; Apte, S.K.; Dongare, M.K.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research focus: - Impact of sulfur on: Catalyst performance; Short term catalyst durability. This presentation summarizes results from fresh catalyst performance evaluations - WVU contracted to conduct DOC and Lean NOx catalyst testing for DECSE DECSE program. (experimental details discussed previously)

Whitacre, Shawn D.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

259

Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Electron acceleration during three-dimensional relaxation of an electron beam-return current plasma system in a magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of acceleration during non-linear electron-beam relaxation in magnetized plasma in the case of electron transport in solar flares. The evolution of electron distribution functions is computed using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell electromagnetic code. Analytical estimations under simplified assumptions are made to provide comparisons. We show that, during the non-linear evolution of the beam-plasma system, the accelerated electron population appears. We found that, although the electron beam loses its energy efficiently to the thermal plasma, a noticeable part of the electron population is accelerated. For model cases with initially monoenergetic beams in uniform plasma, we found that the amount of energy in the accelerated electrons above the injected beam-electron energy varies depending the plasma conditions and could be around 10-30% of the initial beam energy. This type of acceleration could be important for the interpretation of non-thermal electron populations in solar f...

Karlicky, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

268

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in...

269

Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Title Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kusoglu, Ahmet, Anthony...

270

BSA 02-27: Catalysts for Hydrogenation and Hydrosilylation of ...  

... (30 mM) at 23 °C and 4 atm H 2 in CD 2 Cl 2. Homogeneous catalysts are usually more selective than heterogeneous catalysts, but they are often difficult to recycle.

271

Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

272

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. [Catalyst precursors for molybdenum-based catalyst and iron-based catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Materials Design of Advanced Performance Metal Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of materials design to the fabrication of advanced metal catalysts is highlighted, with particular emphasis on the construction of relatively complex contact structures surrounding metal nanoparticles. Novel advanced metal catalysts can be synthesized via encapsulation of metal nanoparticles into oxide shells, immobilization of metal oxide core-shell structures on solid supports, post-modification of supported metal nanoparticles by surface coating, and premodification of supports before loading metal nanoparticles. Examples on how these materials structures lead to enhanced catalytic performance are illustrated, and a few future prospects are presented.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method for producing iron-based catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov January 2012 Significance * Oxidizes heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury, in gas streams * Uses partially combusted coal ("Thief" carbon) * Yields an inexpensive catalyst * Cheap enough to be a disposable catalyst * Cuts long-term costs * Simultaneously addresses oxidation and adsorption issues Applications * Any process requiring removal of heavy

278

Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous Processing ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous Processing Systems. ...

279

Catalyst structure and method of fischer-tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Vanderwiel, David P [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Baker, Eddie G [Pasco, WA

2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

280

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Idaho National Laboratory. Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) is a tested ...

282

Numerical study of reaction in porous catalysts under composition modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in monolithic NOx storage and reduction catalyst." Topics in2007). "Model for NOx storage/reduction in the presence of

Hsiao, Hsu-Wen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Substituted pyridine ligands and related water-soluble catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Versatile Group VIII metathesis catalysts, as can be used in a range of polymerization reactions and other chemical methodologies.

Emrick, Todd S. (Deerfield, MA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The promoter(s) Mn oxide or Mn oxide and Zr oxide are added to a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst combined with the molecular sieve TC-103 or TC-123 such that the resultant catalyst demonstrates improved product selectivity, stability and catalyst life. The improved selectivity is evidenced by lower methane production, higher C5+ yield and increased olefin production.

Miller, James G. (Pearl River, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Support Defined Novel Catalyst for Enhanced Fischer-Tropsch Activity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Four distinct Fisher-Tropsch catalysts were prepared through the incipient wetness technique. These catalysts were Fe-Zn-Ru/alumina, Fe-Zn-Ru/K/alumina, Fe-Zn-Ru/silica, and Fe-Zn-Ru/K/silica. The physical characterization of the catalysts… (more)

Lievers, Ashley Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Recycling and Disposal of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has become widespread within the utility industry as a means of controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The technology uses a solid catalyst that deactivates over time; and thus significant volumes of catalyst will need regeneration, recycle, or disposal. This study examined issues related to spent catalyst recycle and disposal.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

288

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ‘lean-burn’ vehicle engines remains a challenge. In this program, we have been developing a novel plasma/catalyst technology for the remediation of NOx under lean (excess oxygen) conditions, specifically for compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) diesel engines that have significant fuel economy benefits over conventional stoichiometric gasoline engines. Program efforts included: (1) improving the catalyst and plasma reactor efficiencies for NOx reduction; (2) studies to reveal important details of the reaction mechanism(s) that can then guide our catalyst and reactor development efforts; (3) evaluating the performance of prototype systems on real engine exhaust; and (4) studies of the effects of the plasma on particulate matter (PM) in real diesel engine exhaust. Figure 1 is a conceptual schematic of a plasma/catalyst device, which also shows our current best understanding of the role of the various components of the overall device for reducing NOx from the exhaust of a CIDI engine. When this program was initiated, it was not at all clear what the plasma was doing and, as such, what class of catalyst materials might be expected to produce good results. With the understanding of the role of the plasma (as depicted in Figure 1) obtained in this program, faujasite zeolite-based catalysts were developed and shown to produce high activity for NOx reduction of plasma-treated exhaust in a temperature range expected for light-duty diesel engines. These materials are the subject of a pending patent application, and were recognized with a prestigious R&D100 Award in 2002. In addition, PNNL staff were awarded a Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Award in 2003 “For Excellence in Technology Transfer”. The program also received the DOE’s 2001 CIDI Combustion and Emission Control Program Special Recognition Award and 2004 Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Special Recognition Award.

Barlow, Stephan E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Howden, Ken; Hoard, John W.; Cho, Byong; Schmieg, Steven J.; Brooks, David J.; Nunn, Steven; Davis, Patrick

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

SciTech Connect

Water uptake profiles of proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in the form of capillary-pressure saturation (Pc-S) curves. The curves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly hydrophilic and require capillary pressures as low as -80 kPa to eject imbibed water. Comparison of materials made with and without Pt indicates a difference in water ejection and uptake phenomena due to the presence of Pt. The addition of Pt increases the tendency of the catalyst layer to retain water. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is used to characterize the water-vapor sorption onto Nafion, Pt/C, and C surfaces. The DVS results align with the trends found from the Pc-S curves and show an increased propensity for water uptake in the presence of Pt. The effect of the ion in Nafion, sodium or protonated form, is also compared and demonstrates that although the protonation of the Nafion in the catalyst layer also increases hydrophilicity, the effect is not as great as that caused by Pt.

Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony H.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

297

Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. Three different SCR catalysts are being studied. These are honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts are manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Test methods and experimental procedures were developed for current and future testing. The methods and procedures equalize factors influencing mercury adsorption and oxidation (surface area, catalyst activity, and pore structure) that normally differ for each catalyst type. Initial testing was performed to determine the time necessary for each catalyst to reach surface-adsorption equilibrium. In addition, the fraction of Hg oxidized by each of the SCR catalyst types is being investigated, for a given amount of catalyst and flow rate of mercury and flue gas. The next major effort will be to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to changes in mercury concentration and with respect to HCl concentration. Hg-sorption equilibrium times will also be investigated with respect to ammonia concentration in the simulated flue gas.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Near Critical Catalyst Reactant Branching Processes with Controlled Immigration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near critical catalyst-reactant branching processes with controlled immigration are studied. The reactant population evolves according to a branching process whose branching rate is proportional to the total mass of the catalyst. The bulk catalyst evolution is that of a classical continuous time branching process; in addition there is a specific form of immigration. Immigration takes place exactly when the catalyst population falls below a certain threshold, in which case the population is instantaneously replenished to the threshold. Such models are motivated by problems in chemical kinetics where one wants to keep the level of a catalyst above a certain threshold in order to maintain a desired level of reaction activity. A diffusion limit theorem for the scaled processes is presented, in which the catalyst limit is described through a reflected diffusion, while the reactant limit is a diffusion with coefficients that are functions of both the reactant and the catalyst. Stochastic averaging principles under ...

Budhiraja, Amarjit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts Project Summary Full Title: Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for PEMFC: Catalyst Selection through Molecular Modeling and Durability Studies Project ID: 147 Principal Investigator: Branko Popov Brief Description: The University of South Carolina is synthesizing novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts with similar activity and stability as Pt for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Keywords: Catalyst; oxygen reduction; non precious metals; molecular modeling; durability Purpose Develop highly active and stable carbon-based metal-free catalysts and carbon composite catalysts with strong Lewis basicity to facilitate the ORR. Performer Principal Investigator: Branko Popov Organization: University of South Carolina Address: 2C19 Swearingen, Chemical Engineering, 301 Main Street

303

Refiner details ``best practices`` approach to catalyst selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalysts are critical to hydrocarbon processing in refineries. Refiners spend millions of dollars per year on catalysts. This cost, however, pales in comparison to the impact that catalysts can have. The lost opportunity from not using the right catalyst, or an unscheduled shutdown caused by a catalyst-related problem, can be an order of magnitude higher than the cost of the catalyst itself. Chevron Products Co. has adopted a best practices approach to addressing technical and operational issues in refining. A subset of the best-practices program includes the testing, selection, and monitoring of catalysts for Chevron`s fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), catalytic reforming, and hydroprocessing units. The paper discusses these practices.

Krishna, A.S. [Chevron Products Co., El Segundo, CA (United States); Arndt, J.H. [Chevron Products Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kuehler, C.W.; Kramer, D.C. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Plasma valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

PLASMA ENERGIZATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A method is given for ion cyclotron resonance heatthg of a magnetically confined plasma by an applied radio-frequency field. In accordance with the invention, the radiofrequency energy is transferred to the plasma without the usual attendent self-shielding effect of plasma polarlzatlon, whereby the energy transfer is accomplished with superior efficiency. More explicitly, the invention includes means for applying a radio-frequency electric field radially to an end of a plasma column confined in a magnetic mirror field configuration. The radio-frequency field propagates hydromagnetic waves axially through the column with the waves diminishing in an intermediate region of the column at ion cyclotron resonance with the fleld frequency. In such region the wave energy is converted by viscous damping to rotational energy of the plasma ions. (AEC)

Furth, H.P.; Chambers, E.S.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

PLASMA DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

Baker, W.R.

1961-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

307

Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

Major objectives of the present project are to develop a better understanding of the roles of the catalyst and the liquefaction solvent in the coal liquefaction process. An open question concerning the role of the catalyst is whether intimate contact between the catalyst and the coal particles is important or required. To answer this question, it had been planned to coat an active catalyst with a porous silica coating which was found to retain catalyst activity while preventing actual contact between catalyst and coal. Consultation with people in DuPont who coat catalysts for increasing abrasion resistance have indicated that only portions of the catalyst are coated by their process (spray drying) and that sections of uncoated catalyst remain. For that reason, it was decided to suspend the catalyst in a basket separated from the coal in the reactor. The basket walls were to be permeable to the liquefaction solvent but not to the coal particles. Several such baskets were constructed of stainless steel with holes which would not permit passage of coal particles larger than 30 mesh. Liquefactions run with the coal of greater than 30 mesh size gave normal conversion of coal to liquid in the absence of catalyst in the basket, but substantially increased conversion when Ni/Mo on alumina catalyst was in the basket. While this result is interesting and suggestive of some kind of mass transfer of soluble material occurring between the catalyst and the coal, it does not eliminate the possibility of breakdown of the coal particle into particle sizes permeable to the basket. Indeed, a small amount of fine coal has been found inside the basket. To determine whether fine coal from breakdown of the coal particles is responsible for the conversion, a new basket is being prepared with 0.5{micro}m pore size.

Michael T. Klein

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hydroprocessing of solvent-refined coal: catalyst-screening results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of screening four catalysts for hydroprocessing a 50 wt% mixture of SRC-I in a prehydrogenated creosote oil using a continuous flow unit. All catalysts employed were nickel-molybdates with varying properties. Reaction conditions were 2000 psi, 8 SCFH of hydrogen, volume hourly space velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 cc of SRC-I/hr/cc of catalyst, and 48 hours at 750/sup 0/F followed by 72 hours at 780/sup 0/F. The results indicate that the Shell 324 catalyst is best for hydrogenation of the feedstock but only marginally better than CB 81-44 for denitrogenation. The CB 81-44 catalyst may be slightly better than Shell 324 for the conversion of the +850/sup 0/F fraction of the feedstock. Desulfurization was uniformly high for all catalysts. Catalysts with a bimodal pore size distribution (i.e., SMR7-6137(1)) appear to be better for denitrogenation than unimodal catalysts (i.e., SMR7-6137(4)) containing the same metals loading. Unimodal catalysts (i.e., Shell 324) with higher metals loadings are comparable to bimodal catalysts (i.e., CB 81-44) containing less metals. The results indicate that pore size distribution and metals loading are important parameters for high activity. Catalysts with a unimodal pore volume distribution are capable of being restored to their original state, while bimodal ones experience a loss in surface area and pore volume and an increase in pellet density. This is attributed to the more efficient use of the interior surface area of the catalyst, which results in higher accumulation of coke and metals. Since coke can be removed via controlled oxidation, the irreversible loss is due to the higher concentrations of metals in the catalyst.

Stiegel, G.J.; Tischer, R.E.; Polinski, L.M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Catalyst vendors take aim at emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standards for emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources are expected to become more stringent under the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA). For years, scrubbing, incineration and other end-of-pipe methods have been used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical and hydrocarbon processes. This paper reports that operating companies are now looking to catalyst manufacturers for technologies to meet higher standards. For the most part, development efforts have been centered on reducing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs for attainment of national ambient air quality standards for ozone under CAA's Title I. Now though, catalyst manufacturers are setting their sights on NO{sub x}.

Matthey, J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fuel cell applications for novel metalloporphyrin catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project utilized Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) to develop a new class of metalloporphyrin materials for use as catalysts for two fuel cell reactions. The first reaction is the reduction of oxygen at the fuel cell cathode, and this reaction was the main focus of the research. The second reaction we attempted to catalyze was the oxidation of methanol at the anode. Two classes of novel metalloporphyrins were developed. The first class comprised the dodecaphenylporphyrins whose steric bulk forces them into a non-planar geometry having a pocket where oxygen or methanol is more tightly bound to the porphyrin than it is in the case of planar porphyrins. Significant improvements in the catalytic reduction of oxygen by the dodecaphenyl porphyrins were measured in electrochemical cells. The dodecaphenylporphyrins were further modified by fluorinating the peripheral phenyl groups to varying degrees. The fluorination strongly affected their redox potential, but no effect on their catalytic activity towards oxygen was observed. The second class of porphyrin catalysts was a series of hydrogen-bonding porphyrins whose interaction with oxygen is enhanced. Enhancements in the interaction of oxygen with the porphyrins having hydrogen bonding groups were observed spectroscopically. Computer modeling was performed using Molecular Simulations new CERIUS2 Version 1.6 and a research version of POLYGRAF from Bill Goddard`s research group at the California Institute of Technology. We reoptimized the force field because of an error that was in POLYGRAF and corrected a problem in treatment of the metal in early versions of the program. This improved force field was reported in a J. Am. Chem. Soc. manuscript. Experimental measurements made on the newly developed catalysts included the electrochemical testing in a fuel cell configuration and spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis, Raman and XPS) to characterize the catalysts.

Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Doddapaneni, N.; Zavadil, K.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Lloyd Crossing Sustainable Urban Design Plan and Catalyst Project - Portland, Oregon [2005 EDRA/Places Award -- Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban Design Plan and Catalyst Project—Portland, Oregonsensitivity. The associated Catalyst Project attempts toUrban Design Plan and Catalyst Project—Jury Comments Brager:

Hayter, Jason Alexander

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACTIVITY OF PLATINUM CATALYSTS. Journal of Catalysis 1966,SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC-CLUSTER CATALYSTS. Journal of Catalysisnanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst. Chem. Commun. 1999, (

Renzas, James Russell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System. • B. Procedures. Catalyst Preparation Infrared DiskPreparation. Catalyst Characterization. PreliminaryReduction by CO Over a Pt Catalyst," M.S. thesis, Department

Lorimer, D.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Engineering a cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-propanediol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosynthetica cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosyntheticcan be engineered as a catalyst for the photosynthetic

Li, Han; Liao, James C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cationic Ruthenium Catalysts for Olefin Hydrovinylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stereoselective carbon?carbon bond formation is one of the most important types of bond construction in organic chemistry. A mild and acid free catalyst system for the hydrovinylation reaction utilizing a cationic, ruthenium center is described. A catalytic amount of RuHCl(CO)(PCy3)2 (2) activated with AgOTF or AgSbF6 at room temperature was found to be an effective catalyst system for the hydrovinylation of vinylarenes and the intramolecular hydrovinylation (IHV) of 1,6-dienes. Vinylarenes with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents reacted with ethylene at room temperature to provide the desired 3-arylbutenes in moderate to excellent yield (60-99%) under mild reaction conditions, while the IHV reaction of 1, 6 dienes provided greater than 90% of product conversion. We also developed the first hydrovinylation catalyst containing a chelating, bidentate phosphine ligand that provides the desired product. Our ruthenium-based catalytic system has also proven to give an appealing reactivity profile in favor of the desired arylbutenes without promoting undesirable oligomerization and isomerization.

Sanchez, Richard P., Jr

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Achieving DOE�¢����s stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

Vivek S. Murthi (Primary Contact), Elise Izzo, Wu Bi, Sandra Guerrero and Lesia Protsailo

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

Characterization of active sites in zeolite catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Atomic-level details of the interaction of adsorbed molecules with active sites in catalysts are urgently needed to facilitate development of more effective and/or environmentally benign catalysts. To this end the authors have carried out neutron scattering studies combined with theoretical calculations of the dynamics of small molecules inside the cavities of zeolite catalysts. The authors have developed the use of H{sub 2} as a probe of adsorption sites by observing the hindered rotations of the adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule, and they were able to show that an area near the four-rings is the most likely adsorption site for H{sub 2} in zeolite A while adsorption of H{sub 2} near cations located on six-ring sites decreases in strength as Ni {approximately} Co > Ca > Zn {approximately} Na. Vibrational and rotational motions of ethylene and cyclopropane adsorption complexes were used as a measure for zeolite-adsorbate interactions. Preliminary studies of the binding of water, ammonia, and methylamines were carried out in a number of related guest-host materials.

Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bug, A. [Swarthmore Coll., PA (United States); Nicol, J.M. [MOLTECH (United States)] [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Plasma Nitrocarburizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...heat pollution Reduced processing times Reduced energy consumption Reduced treatment gas consumption Industrial plasma nitrocarburizing processing modules contain: Vacuum furnace Vacuum system Gas supply with gas mixing and pressure control system Electric power supply unit Microprocessor control unit...

322

Integrated model-based control and diagnostic monitoring for automotive catalyst systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated model-based automotive catalyst control and diagnostic monitoring system is presented. This system incorporates a simplified dynamic catalyst model that describes oxygen storage and release in the catalyst and predicts the post-catalyst ... Keywords: automotive catalyst, model predictive control, on-board diagnostic monitoring

Kenneth R. Muske; James C. Peyton Jones

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory) A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National

324

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory) A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National

325

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

326

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects A photo of a large white tank the size of a water heater. Several metal fittings stick out of the sides of the tank. Thin tubes are attached to some of the fittings and lead to flow meters and other metal pipes. Researchers use experimental data from this four-inch fluidized bed reactor to develop and validate gasification process models. NREL uses chemical analysis to study biomass-derived products online during the conversion process. Catalysts are used in the thermochemical conversion process to convert tars (a byproduct of gasification) to syngas and to convert syngas to liquid transportation fuels. Among the chemical and catalyst science projects at NREL are: Catalyst Fundamentals NREL is working to develop and understand the performance of catalyst and

327

Method for regeneration and activity improvement of syngas conversion catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the treatment of single particle iron-containing syngas (synthes.s gas) conversion catalysts comprising iron, a crystalline acidic aluminosilicate zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12, a pore size greater than about 5 Angstrom units and a constraint index of about 1-12 and a matrix. The catalyst does not contain promoters and the treatment is applicable to either the regeneration of said spent single particle iron-containing catalyst or for the initial activation of fresh catalyst. The treatment involves air oxidation, hydrogen reduction, followed by a second air oxidation and contact of the iron-containing single particle catalyst with syngas prior to its use for the catalytic conversion of said syngas. The single particle iron-containing catalysts are prepared from a water insoluble organic iron compound.

Lucki, Stanley J. (Runnemede, NJ); Brennan, James A. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Reforming with an improved platinum-containing catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is disclosed a catalyst, which catalyst comprises a physical particle-form mixture of a component A and a component B , said component A comprising one or more group VIII noble metals and a combined halogen deposed on a refractory inorganic oxide and said component B comprising a metal from group IVB or group VB of the periodic table of elements and a combined halogen deposed on a refractory inorganic oxide. Such catalyst is suitable for use in a hydrocarbon conversion reaction zone. The catalyst can be employed in a process for the reforming of a hydrocarbon stream, which process comprises contacting said stream in a reaction zone under reforming conditions and in the presence of hydrogen with said catalyst. The catalyst is not presulfided. A preferred process comprises contacting a hydrocarbon stream that contains a substantial amount of sulfur.

Bertolacini, R.J.; Lysholm, D.L.; Pellet, R.J.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Annual technical report, September 30, 1993--September 29, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay catalyst was prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} at above 300{degrees}C. The delaminated pillard clay was characterized by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) chemical analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction) structure and line broadening analyses, micropore size probing, and Moessbauer analysis. These analyses showed that the catalyst contained fragmented Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay forming {open_quotes}house-of-cards{close_quotes} structure with dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles approximately 170 {angstrom} in size. The SCR activity of the delaminated pillard clay was higher than the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, and also higher than the undelaminated pillard clay and supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, under conditions with SO{sub 2}. Infrared measurements of adsorbed NH{sub 3} showed strong Bronsted acidity which was caused possibly by interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and clay.

Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Yang, R.T.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Status of the Development and Assessment of Advanced NOx Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an interim report summarizing the status of EPRI's advanced nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction catalyst development efforts in 2000. Concepts for that are more effective, lower cost, and may not have the problems associated with the standard vanadium pentoxide - titanium dioxide (V2O5-TiO2) NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts that have been assessed under this program. The primary efforts in 2000 included further development of an ultra-high efficiency (UHE) catalyst, determining wheth...

2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

335

Enhanced catalyst stability for cyclic co methanation operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is thereafter reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Enhanced catalyst stability for long term, cyclic operation is obtained by the incorporation of an alkali or alkaline earth dopant in a silica binding agent added to the catalyst-support additive composition.

Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports  

SciTech Connect

Commercial spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts provided by Engelhard and Albemarle were used as supports for Fe-based catalysts with the goal of improving the attrition resistance of typical F-T catalysts. Catalysts with the Ruhrchemie composition (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 spent FCC on mass basis) were prepared by wet impregnation. XRD and XANES analysis showed the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in calcined catalysts. FeC{sub x} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were present in the activated catalysts. The metal composition of the catalysts was analyzed by ICP-MS. F-T activity of the catalysts activated in situ in CO at the same conditions as used prior to the attrition tests was measured using a fixed bed reactor at T = 573 K, P = 1.38 MPa and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 0.67. Cu and K promoted Fe supported over Engelhard provided spent FCC catalyst shows relatively good attrition resistance (8.2 wt% fines lost), high CO conversion (81%) and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons selectivity (18.3%).

Adeyinka Adeyiga

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

337

Table III: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

III: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Stationary All targets must be achieved simultaneously Characteristics Units Calendar year 2002 status a 2005 2010...

338

Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts - Energy ...  

Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also very expensive. The catalytic activity per gram of platinum can be increased by using a ...

339

Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive All targets must be achieved simultaneously Characteristics Units Calendar year 2002 status a 2005 2010...

340

Development of Ni-Fe Hydrogenation Catalyst from D. Gigas ...  

Development of Ni-Fe Hydrogenation Catalyst from D. Gigas Hydrogenase Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

TransForum v4n1 - Bifunctional Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEW BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTS PROMISE DRAMATIC NOx REDUCTIONS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES Truck manufacturers will need new technologies to help them meet EPA regulations that...

342

Novel catalyst for selective NOx reduction using hydrocarbons ...  

This invention discloses a catalyst and process for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust streams under lean burn conditions using hydrocarbons as the reductant.

343

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

gas, coal, or biomass • Enhances the potential use of oxygenates as neat fuels or fuel additives • Develops a catalyst with high selectivity for ...

344

Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

346

Synthesis of Ni-Al Intermetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts by Vacuum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... methanol decomposition and methane steam reforming, indicating a possibility to develop Ni-Al intermetallic compounds as catalysts for hydrogen production.

347

Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using ...  

A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described. Skip to Content. Skip to ...

348

Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mercury Oxidation and Capture over SCR Catalysts in Simulated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SCR catalysts were tested for oxidation and capture of elemental mercury ... EBSD Analysis of Complex Microstructures of CSP? Processed Low Carbon ...

350

The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Precipitated iron catalysts are expected to be used in the next generation of slurry reactors for the large-scale production of transportation fuels from synthesis gas. These reactors may operate at higher temperatures and lower H {sub 2}: CO ratios relative to the Sasol Arge reactor. The feasibility of iron catalysts has been demonstrated under relatively mild Arge-type conditions but not under the more severe slurry conditions. The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors.

Shah, P.P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Science and Engineering of Durable Ultralow PGM Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the electroactive sites. Recent novel approaches include the nanoengineering of core shell catalysts and Pt particles of unusual geometries such as nanowireswhiskers. The...

352

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode  

combination of biomass and earth-abundant metals has resulted in a durable catalyst for splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, which can be used as ...

353

Taking Cues from Nature to Develop Better Biofuel Catalysts ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Taking Cues from Nature to Develop Better Biofuel Catalysts August 27, 2013 Printer-friendly version Scientists working at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) are...

354

New Catalyst Opens Way to Next-Generation Fuel Cells  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

A new highly stable catalyst developed at Brookhaven Lab lowers barriers to commercial use of fuel cells in vehicles and stationary applications.

Snyder, Kendra

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

ORNL-grown oxygen 'sponge' presents path to better catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presents path to better catalysts, energy materials This schematic depicts a new ORNL-developed material that can easily absorb or shed oxygen atoms. This schematic depicts...

356

Method of distributing liquefaction catalysts in solid carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material. 2 tables.

Weller, S.W.

1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Supercomputers Help a Catalyst Reach its Full Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by catalysts are crucial to many industrial processes. In fertilizer production, chemical companies combine copious amounts of molecular hydrogen with nitrogen to produce...

358

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

359

Toward Catalyst Design from Theoretical Calculations (464th Brookhaven Lecture)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalysts have been used to speed up chemical reactions as long as yeast has been used to make bread rise. Today, catalysts are used everywhere from home kitchens to industrial chemical factories. In the near future, new catalysts being developed at Brookhaven Lab may be used to speed us along our roads and highways as they play a major role in solving the world’s energy challenges. During the lecture, Liu will discuss how theorists and experimentalists at BNL are working together to formulate and test new catalysts that could be used in real-life applications, such as hydrogen-fuel cells that may one day power our cars and trucks.

Liu, Ping (BNL Chemistry Dept)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells  

oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the ...

362

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rate Data o a o u a a Catalyst Loading • . Reaction Time . •and Pressure Effect of CO-catalysts and Additives .Co-catalysts • • a. Zinc Metal • b. Nickel and Nickel

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Photosynthetic Mn 4 Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopystructure of the Mn 4 Ca catalyst at high-resolution whichthe structure of Mn 4 Ca catalyst as it cycles through the

Yano, Junko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and atomic arrangement of catalyst surface under reactionof reactant molecules on the catalyst surfaces are the norm.Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage Feng

Tao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Wonseok Yoon*CA 94720, USA The cathode catalyst layer within a proton-with low Pt-loading catalyst layers. Model results

Yoon, Wonseok

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Multi-Ligand Based Pd Catalyst for C–N Cross-Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An alternative approach to catalyst development, which led to a Pd catalyst based on two biarylphosphine ligands for C?N cross-coupling reactions, is reported. By effectively being able to take the form of multiple catalysts ...

Fors, Brett P.

367

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Promotion of iron-group catalysts by a calcium salt inet al. , Effects of metal catalysts on CO 2 gasificationbiomass tars with iron oxide catalysts, Fuel, 2008, 87, 451-

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

olefin yields are obtained on catalysts containing isolatededge energies for VO x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts Figure 2. Ramanspectra for VO x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts (obtained at 298 K in

Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Monte Carlo Simulations of Segregation in Pt-Ni Catalyst Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Segregation in Pt-Ni Catalyst Nanoparticles Guofengsurface chemistry of catalyst nanoparticles (also called "Pt-Ni alloy is an electro-catalyst of interest in the air

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, Michel A.; Ross, Philip N.; Baskes, M.I.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

PLASMA DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)

Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.

1962-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Review Article Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews various types of heterogeneous acid-base catalysts for fragrances preparation. Catalytic activities of the various types of heterogeneous acid and base catalysts in fragrances preparation, i.e. nonzeolitic, zeolitic, and mesoporous molecular sieves, have been reported. Generally, heterogeneous acid catalysts are more commonly used in fragrance synthesis as compared to heterogeneous base catalysts. Heteropoly acids and hydrotalcites type catalysts are widely used as heterogeneous acid and base catalysts, respectively. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.

H. Hartati; Mardi Santoso; Sugeng Triwahyono; Didik Prasetyoko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Pd-Au high-surface area catalysts are used in industry to improve activity and selectivity, a thorough understanding of the nature of these enhancements is lacking. A molecular-level understanding of catalytic reactions under actual reaction conditions is the ultimate goal. This thesis is mainly focused on the application of Pd-Au supported catalysts for vinyl acetate synthesis and CO oxidation reactions using highsurface area catalysts. We have attempted to improve the conventional Pd-Au based catalyst by synthesizing novel acetate-based and polymer-based catalysts. The corresponding catalytic reactivity and selectivity were measured and compared to conventional Pd-Au based catalyst systems. Subsequent characterization was performed using characterization techniques, such as, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From our bimetallic catalytic studies, it was evident that the addition of Au to Pd leads to increased reactivity and selectivity. This surface modification is an important factor in the altered reaction kinetics for vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis and CO oxidation reactions. Promoted and unpromoted Pd-Au/SiO2/K+ catalyst were used for VA synthesis and the effect of pre-adsorbed O2, acetic acid and the role of oxygen were explored. The VA reaction rate of novel acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst was 3.5 times higher than conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Also, 100% selectivity was obtained for acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 at 130 oC and the VA formation rate was comparable to that of conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Therefore, the acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst seems very promising and can be explored further. Also, Pd(1):Au(4)/SiO2 catalysts demonstrate 100% CO conversion at much lower temperatures (90 oC) compared with other Pd-Au based catalysts. Furthermore, we were successful in obtaining sufficient CO oxidation activity with increased metal loading (5 wt%) and these catalysts did not deactivate under above-ambient reaction temperature conditions, which make 1:4 Pd- Au/SiO2 catalyst a good candidate for further exploration in CO oxidation reactions.

Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

373

CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts, development and testing of metal oxide based H2SO4 catalysts, support of the ILS for catalyst studies, conducting a long term catalyst stability test at anticipated operating temperatures and pressures, and developing capabilities for conducting pressurized catalyst tests.

Daniel M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRS) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modem coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the FT catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity.

Jothimurugesan, K. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Goodwin, J.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Spivey, J.J.; Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., NC (United States)

1997-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

Studies of plasma transport  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the charge-coupled device camera and other plasma diagnostic equipment used to measure plasma density and other plasma properties. (LSP)

Malmberg, J.H.; O' Neil, T.M.; Driscoll, C.F.

1991-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

Britton, M.D.

1995-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

379

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

380

PLASMA HEATING IN THE VERY EARLY AND DECAY PHASES OF SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we analyze the energy budgets of two single-loop solar flares under the assumption that non-thermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 September 20 and 2002 March 17, respectively. For both investigated flares we derived the energy fluxes contained in NTE beams from the RHESSI observational data constrained by observed GOES light curves. We showed that energy delivered by NTEs was fully sufficient to fulfill the energy budgets of the plasma during the pre-heating and impulsive phases of both flares as well as during the decay phase of one of them. We concluded that in the case of the investigated flares there was no need to use any additional ad hoc heating mechanisms other than heating by NTEs.

Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, 51-622 Wroclaw, ul. Kopernika 11 (Poland); Siarkowski, M., E-mail: falewicz@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: rudawy@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: ms@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622 Wroclaw, ul. Kopernika 11 (Poland)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Putting a Smiley Face on the Dragon: Wal-Mart as Catalyst to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Dragon: Wal-Mart as Catalyst to U.S. -China Trade Emekthat Wal-Mart acts as a catalyst to greater imports and

Basker, Emek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

TransForum v8n2 - DeNOX Catalyst License  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Fuel Technologies Gets Worldwide License for Argonne-developed Diesel DeNOX Catalyst Argonne chemist Chris Marshall (front) displays a container of the catalyst while...

383

Catalysts for interconversion of CO2H2 and formic acid  

Catalyst compounds for the energetically feasible interconversion CO2 plus H2and formic acid are disclosed as are methods for using the catalysts for ...

384

Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils: Theory and PracticeChapter 7 Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils: Theory and Practice Chapter 7 Catalysts Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 7 Catalysts from the book ...

385

Phosphorylated Mesoporous Carbon as a Solid Acid Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous carbon catalyst supports are attractive due to their wide chemical stability while potentially increasing masstransport through and providing a path for larger molecules to access catalytic sites. Herein we report the synthesis of a 10 phosphorylated mesoporous carbon solid-acid catalyst characterized by NH3-TPD and isopropanol dehydration.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Ma, Zhen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

IN SITU Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements  

SciTech Connect

SCR catalyst management has become an important operations and maintenance activity for coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. To facilitate this activity, a method to determine Catalyst Activity in situ is being developed. This report describes the methodology and presents the results of a two ozone season demonstration conducted at Alabama Power Company's Gorgas Unit 10 during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons. The results showed that the in situ measurements are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements and the technique has some advantages over the traditional laboratory method of determining Catalyst Activity and Reactor Potential. SCR Performance is determined by the overall Reactor Potential (the product of the Catalyst Activity and the available surface area per unit of flue gas). The in situ approach provides a direct measurement of Reactor Potential under actual operating conditions, whereas laboratory measurements of Catalyst Activity need to be coupled with estimates of catalyst pluggage and flue gas flowrate in order to assess Reactor Potential. The project also showed that the in situ activity results can easily be integrated into catalyst management software to aid in making informed catalyst decisions.

Fossil Energy Research

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Ahn, Hongsang (Evanston, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Report of 1,000 Hour Catalyst Longevity Evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a 1,000 hour, high-pressure, catalyst longevity test for the decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is used for both the sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle. By the time of the delivery date of April 17, 2009, for project milestone no. 2NIN07TC050114, the 1% Pt/TiO2 catalyst had been in the reaction environment for 658 hours. During the first 480 hours of testing, the catalyst activity provided stable, near-equilibrium yields of 46.8% SO2 and 22.8% O2. However, product yields declined at sample exposure times >480 hours. At 658 hours of operation, catalyst activity (based on oxygen yield) declined to 57% relative to the stable period of catalyst activity. Thus, as of April 17, this catalyst did not provide the desired stability level of <10% degradation per 1,000 hours. The experiment was terminated on April 27, after 792 hours, when a fitting failed and the catalyst was displaced from the reactor such that the sample could not be recovered. Oxygen conversion at the end of the experiment was 12.5% and declining, suggesting that at that point, catalyst activity had decreased to 54% of the initial level.

Daniel M. Ginosar

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst having an improved steam treated, acid extracted LZ-210 support is taught. The new catalyst system demonstrates improved product selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions evidenced by lower methane production, higher C.sub.5.sup.+ yield and increased olefin production.

Miller, James G. (Pearl River, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Research Approach for Aging and Evaluating Diesel Exhaust catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emissions control devices that could lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks and buses in the 2002-2004 model years. West Virginia University is evaluating: - Diesel Oxidation Catalysts - Lean NOX Catalysts

Wayne, Scott

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

394

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improve NOx regeneration calibration developed in DECSE Phase I project to understand full potential of NOx adsorber catalyst over a range of operating temperatures. Develop and demonstrate a desulfurization process to restore NOx conversion efficiency lost to sulfur contamination. Investigate effect of desulfurization process on long-term performance of the NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tomazic, Dean

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fixed-bed reforming with mid-cycle catalyst addition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fixed-bed catalytic reforming process is described in which on-stream operation is begun with the catalyst retention volume in the first reactor less than 99% full and additional catalyst is added to said reactor while on-stream.

Houston, R.J.; McCoy, C.S.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

396

Burning plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

400

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

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401

Long life hydrocarbon conversion catalyst and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a catalyst that has at least four layers, (1) porous support, (2) buffer layer, (3) interfacial layer, and optionally (4) catalyst layer. The buffer layer provides a transition of thermal expansion coefficient from the porous support to the interfacial layer thereby reducing thermal expansion stress as the catalyst is heated to high operating temperatures. The method of the present invention for making the at least three layer catalyst has the steps of (1) selecting a porous support, (2) solution depositing an interfacial layer thereon, and optionally (3) depositing a catalyst material onto the interfacial layer; wherein the improvement comprises (4) depositing a buffer layer between the porous support and the interfacial layer.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

2002-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

403

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

404

The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies 2009 Kickoff Meeting The Science And Engineering of Durable Ultralow PGM Catalysts Eric Brosha, Neil Henson and Fernando Garzon (PI) LANL 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory (lead participant) Ballard Power Systems (BPS) University of California Riverside (UCR) University of New Mexico (UNM) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) *Development of durable, high mass activity Platinum Group Metal cathode catalysts *Elucidation of the fundamental relationships between PGM catalyst shape, particle size and activity *Optimization of the cathode electrode layer to maximize the performance of PGM catalysts *Understanding the performance degradation mechanisms of high mass activity cathode catalysts *Development and testing of fuel cells using ultra-low loading high activity

405

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities A photo of a man in a white lab coat and dark goggles looking at a microscope. A bright green light shines down from the microscope lens and illuminates a round glass tray containing small white beads. The Laser Raman Spectrometer is used to obtain phase and structural identification information for catalysts used in the thermochemical conversion process. NREL researchers use chemical and catalyst science to assess and improve biochemical and thermochemical conversion throughout the processes, from analyzing feedstocks to improving the yield of desired end products. Catalyst Science Syngas produced during gasification contains tars that are contaminants, but these tars can be reformed to more syngas using tar-reforming

406

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H2 ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C5 + selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation. An HPR series of proprietary catalysts was prepared to further improve the attrition resistance. Based on the experience gained, a proprietary HPR-43 catalyst has been successfully spray dried in 500 g quantity. This catalyst showed 95 % CO conversion over 125 h and had less than 4 % methane selectivity. Its attrition resistance was one of the highest among the catalyst tested.

James G. Goodwin, Jr.; James J. Spivey; K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

407

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to develop producing active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to synthesize such catalysts on a large scale for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. A mixed oxalate of Fe, Cu, and K was prepared; a catalyst will be prepared from this material. An evaluation run was performed on an Fe-based UCI catalyst, which was shown to produce low levels of C[sub 1] and C[sub 2] paraffins; e.g., at the end of the run, when the catalyst was converting 60% of the CO, the C[sub 1] and C[sub 2] paraffin selectivities were 4.2 and 1.0, respectively.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

408

Reforming with an improved platinum-containing catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalyst is disclosed which comprises a physical particle-form mixture of a Component A and a Component B. Said Component A comprises one or more Group VIII noble metals and combined halogen deposed on a refractory inorganic oxide and said Component B comprising a metal from Group IVB or Group VB of the Periodic Table of Elements and a combined halogen deposed on a refrac inorganic oxide. Such catalyst is suitable for use in a hydrocarbon conversion reaction zone. The catalyst can be employed in a process for the reforming of a hydrocarbon stream, which process comprises contacting said stream in a reaction zone under reforming conditions and in the presence hydrogen with said catalyst. The catalyst is not presulfided. A preferred process comprises contacting a hydrocarbon stream that contains a substantial amount of sulfur.

Pellet, R.J.; Bertolacini, R.J.; Lysholm, D.L.

1983-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

HALGREN DL

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project - honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. Most experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal will be performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation graph will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature and later sulfur will be investigated after this is complete. Also, last quarter's tests showed a potential linear relationship between SO3 conversion and mercury oxidation. As a result, SO3 samples will be taken more frequently to investigate each catalyst's ability to selectively oxidize mercury.

Alex J. Berry; Thomas K. Gale

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant unit (the most successful bubble column slurry reactor performance to date), and sets new standards of performance for ''high alpha'' iron catalysts.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. X. Lang; Dr. S. Chokkaram; Dr. L. Nowicki; G. Wei; Dr. Y. Ding; Dr. B. Reddy; Dr. S. Xiao

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

414

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was greater. Catalyst coating of low-pressure-drop screens was of particular interest as this project was being developed. However, it was discovered that URS was already heavily involved in the pursuit of this same technology, being funded by DOE, and reporting significant success. Hence, testing of SCR catalysts became a major focus of the project. Three different commercial SCR catalysts were examined for their ability to oxidize mercury in simulated flue-gas. Similar performance was observed from each of the three commercial catalysts, both in terms of mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} generation. Ammonia injection hindered mercury oxidation at low HCl concentrations (i.e., {approx}2 ppmv), yet had little impact on mercury oxidation at higher HCl concentrations. On the other hand, SO{sub 2} oxidation was significantly reduced by the presence of ammonia at both low and high concentrations of HCl.

Thomas K. Gale

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Ceramic Monolith-Structured Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports recent research results about impact of different catalyst bed configurations on FT reaction product distribution. A CoRe/?-alumina catalyst is prepared in bulk particle form and tested in the packed bed reactor at a size of 60 to 100 mesh. The same catalyst is ball milled and coated on a ceramic monolith support structure of channel size about 1mm. The monolith catalyst module is tested in two different ways, as a whole piece and as well-defined channels. Steady-state reaction conversion is measured at various temperatures under constant H2/CO feed ratio of 2 and reactor pressure of 25 bar. Detailed product analysis is performed. Significant formation of wax is evident with the packed particle bed and with the monolith catalyst that is improperly packed. By contrast, the wax formation is not detected in the liquid product by confining the reactions inside the monolith channel. This study presents an important finding about the structured catalyst/reactor system that the product distribution highly depends on the way how the structured reactor is set up. Even if the same catalyst and same reaction conditions (T, P, H2/oil ratio) are used, hydrodynamics (or flow conditions) inside a structured channel can have a significant impact on the product distribution.

Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

Grubbs, Robert H

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

BSA 07-17: Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and ...  

Tags: catalyst, fuel cell. Find a Technology. Search our technologies by categories or by keywords. Search ...

422

A carbon riveted Pt/Graphene catalyst with high stability for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pt/Graphene catalyst was prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process, and carbonization was riveted onto the catalyst surface to enhance the catalyst stability. The physical properties of the obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Methanol electrooxidation, Pt/Graphene, Stability

Xiaowei Liu, Jialin Duan, Hailong Chen, Yufeng Zhang, Xuelin Zhang

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Energy and economic savings from improved catalysts: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The energy, economic costs and benefits of applying the materials-by-design concept to catalysts were estimated. Catalysts are of particular interest because of the competitive challenge from Japan, West Germany, and France. Initial estimates developed in this study reveal a potential capital cost savings of $31 billion and an operating cost savings of $69 billion for chemical and petroleum refining plants over a 15-year period. The findings of this study substantiate the claim that a major US effort to enhance materials-by-design technology is warranted, at least for catalyst materials. In addition, this technology would ensure pre-eminence by the US industry.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The role of catalyst activation on the activity and attrition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of this work indicate that magnetite is not catalytically active for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) in precipitated, unsupported iron catalysts, but the formation of the carbide phase is necessary to obtain FTS activity. The transformation of magnetite to carbide, though essential to obtain FTS activity, also causes the catalyst to break down. This can lead to severe problems during operation in a commercial slurry phase reactor. The results presented here imply that activation and attrition are simultaneous and complementary processes. In another study, we show that the catalyst can also under go attrition on a micron scale which is caused by lack of strength of the forces binding the catalyst primary particles in the agglomerates. Both these processes can make wax separation and product recovery extremely difficult. In this study, we have also shown that H{sub 2} reduction of this catalyst to metallic iron is detrimental to subsequent catalyst activity and causes a loss of surface area due to sintering of the iron crystallites. Reduction to metallic Fe also causes impurities such as S to segregate to the surface causing a complete loss of FTS activity. It has been shown that even submonolayer amounts of S can cause a dramatic decrease in FTS activity, hence reduction to metallic Fe should be avoided during activation of these catalysts. We have shown, however, that a mild H{sub 2} reduction to magnetite does not lead to S segregation to the surface, and is therefore acceptable.

Datye, A.K.; Shroff, M.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, M.S.; Coulter, K.E.; Sault, A.G.; Jackson, N.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes and catalysts are disclosed for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided. 1 fig.

Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

427

Processes and catalysts for conducting fischer-tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided.

Singleton, Alan H. (Marshall Township, Allegheny County, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Allison Park, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.2, Comparison of patented F-T cobalt catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on the information provided in patents assigned to Gulf, Shell, Exxon, and Statoil, a series of catalysts has been prepared consisting of 12--20 wt. % cobalt, a second metal promoter (Ru or Re), and an oxide promoter such as lanthana, zirconia, or alkali oxide, the support being alumina, silica, or titania. All catalysts have been extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts have been evaluated in terms of their activity, selectivity both in a fixed bed reactor and in a slurry bubble column reactor, and the results correlated with their physico-chemical properties.

Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

430

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCR Catalyst Blinding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Catalyst Blinding SCR Catalyst Blinding University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) is determining the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. A secondary goal will be to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysts. Specific objectives include (1) identify candidate coals and blends for testing under bench-scale conditions, (2) conduct bench-scale testing to screen coals and identify key conditions for full-scale testing, (3) design and construct an SCR slipstream test chamber for sampling at full-scale facilities, (4) conduct testing at full-scale testing, (5) identify SCR blinding mechanisms, rates, and cleaning methods as well as mercury conversion efficiencies, and (6) interpret data, prepare a report, and attend sponsor meetings to present information and recommendations.

431

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

432

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions (Topic 1c) Radoslav Atanasoski DOE/3M Award DE-EE0000456 Kickoff meeting for new DOE Fuel Cell projects from solicitation DE-PS36-08GO98009 and lab call DE-PS36-08GO98010 Washington DC, Sept. 30, 2009 2 Timeline * Project start date: August 1, 2009 * Project end date: July 31, 2013 * Percent complete: ~ 5% Collaborations * Dalhousie University (subcontractor) - Dr. David Stevens; High-throughput catalyst synthesis and basic characterization * Oak Ridge National Lab (subcontractor) - Dr. Karren More; TEM Characterization * 3M Team: George Vernstrom Greg Haugen Mark Debe Radoslav Atanasoski Project Overwiew Durable Catalysts for Transient Conditions- July 01, 2009  Barriers C. Electrode Performance

433

Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support - Energy Innovation Portal  

A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a ...

434

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, J.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Extraction of nanosized cobalt sulfide from spent hydrocracking catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al) from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to ...

Samia A. Kosa, Eman Z. Hegazy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation.

JAMES G. GOODWIN, JR.; JAMES J. SPIVEY; K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; SANTOSH K. GANGWAL

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

Halow, J.S.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A rate equation for carbon monoxide consumption showing first order in CO and 0.5 order in hydrogen indicates the rate controlling step involves dissociated hydrogen. The inhibition of the rate with carbon dioxide is also shown. Examination of the hydrocarbon distributions indicates a see-saw effect with the C[sub 4]s representing the fulcrum and methane and C[sub 5][sup +] the end points. The shift in the distributions tends to be towards the C[sub 5][sup +] for high pressures and long residence times. This distribution can be shifted by incorporating Ti into the catalysts, but the optimum amount of Ti needs to be determined. The sol gel method of preparing the catalysts tends to produce a less active catalyst than by precipitation of a zirconyl salt. The most active catalyst contained approximately 2% Th/ZrO[sub 2

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

440

Neutral bimetallic transition metal phenoxyiminato catalysts and related polymerization methods  

SciTech Connect

A catalyst composition comprising a neutral bimetallic diphenoxydiiminate complex of group 10 metals or Ni, Pd or Pt is disclosed. The compositions can be used for the preparation of homo- and co-polymers of olefinic monomer compounds.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Rodriguez, Brandon A. (Evanston, IL); Delferro, Massimiliano (Chicago, IL)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-thermal plasma catalyst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

Weiss, Steven E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Corrosion protection of reforming equipment during regeneration of the catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors discuss the important process of catalytic reforming to produce the basic components of high-octane gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum chemistry. Wide use is made of two-stage oxidative regeneration--coke burning and oxychlorination. This increases the activity of the catalysts. The authors developed a two-stage industrial method of corrosion protection for the low-temperature equipment of catalytic reforming plants during catalyst regeneration. The system is washed, before catalyst regeneration, with an aqueous solution of KLOE-15 in order to remove corrosion products already present. During catalyst regeneration, KLOE-15 and a neutralizing additive are fed in. The method is technically simple and economically effective, and has been introduced in a number of petroleum refineries.

Altsybeeva, A.I.; Andreeva, G.A.; Prasolova, O.N.; Ratner, E.M.; Reshetnikov, S.M.; Teslya, B.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Nanocomposite catalysts for soot combustion and propane steam reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanocomposite system, CuO-Ag/CeO 2, has been successfully developed to complete carbon black combustion by 400*C. This novel catalyst has excellent potential for application in the emission control of soot particulates ...

He, Hong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

It Takes a Village: Students as a Catalyst for Conservation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

It Takes a Village: Students as a Catalyst for Conservation Speaker(s): Julie Osborn Date: January 23, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Successful conservation projects must...

445

Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The products recovered from both the ALD and other processes were water-white (even those from the low temperature, low residence time (high space velocity), low conversion runs). These results indicate that highly upgraded recycle lube oils can be produced using ALD-deposited active metal catalysts. The use of H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR for the characterization of the treated lube oils has been shown to be effective.

Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( ES)

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

446

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. During this past quarter, it was discovered that long periods (12 - 24 hours) are required to equilibrate the catalysts in the system. In addition, after the system has been equilibrated, operational changes to temperature, gas concentration, or flow rate shifts the equilibrium, and steady-state must be reestablished, which can require as much as twelve additional hours per condition change. In the last quarter of testing, it was shown that the inclusion of ammonia had a strong effect on the oxidation of mercury by SCR catalysts, both in the short-term (a transitional period of elemental and oxidized mercury off gassing) and the long-term (less steady-state mercury oxidation). All experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. In the next quarter, parametric testing will be expanded to include flue gases simulating power plants burning Midwestern and Eastern coals, which are higher in sulfur and chlorine. Also, the isolation of such gases as hydrogen chloride (HCl), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) will be investigated. All of these efforts will be used to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to flue gas composition, temperature, and flow rate.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SRC) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous EPRI publication (1022073) provided a detailed literature review on the propensity of the alkali and alkaline earth metals sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and the Group (V) elements phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) to deactivate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in commercial flue gas cleaning systems. It also listed the conditions under which such deactivation has been reported. This report extends this earlier work to predict the transformation of SCR catalyst ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Staging Effects on Catalyst Deactivation with Powder River Basin Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the current study were to investigate cost benefits or disadvantages resulting from operating Powder River Basin (PRB-) fired boilers at different combustion staging levels. The study's inherent assumption is that increased staging levels increases catalyst deactivation, requiring less ammonia consumption at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit but more catalyst replacement events. The program sought to evaluate the impacts of staging on total SCR operation and maintenance (OM) ...

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fuel Effects on Catalyst Life and Deactivation Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides case studies and catalyst performance supplemental data to aid EPRI members in the management of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) installations, particularly as related to the firing of both PRB and bituminous coals. The report discusses the primary deactivation mechanisms, along with analytical techniques to help members identify the primary modes of deactivation in their specific catalyst fleet. In addition, it offers benchmark data about the deactivation rates expected dependin...

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

450

Catalyst Screening and Kinetic Studies Using Microchannel Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A multi-parallel microchannel reactor system is described, as related to catalyst screening and discovery for heat-intensive heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Example systems are detailed, in which the rapid heat transfer of the screening device is utilized to maintain isothermal operation in multiple channels for catalyst screening as well as kinetic investigations. The advantages of the system and pertinent results are discussed, specifically for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol oxidation to formaldehyde, and methanol steam reforming.

Cao, Chunshe; Palo, Daniel R.; Tonkovich, Annalee Y.; Wang, Yong

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Equilibrium Characteristics of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Power River Basin (PRB) coal applications, phosphorus (P) is known as the primary catalyst poison. Recent utility experience shows that some units burning PRB coal are deactivating the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst more rapidly than others. The exact mechanism is not well understood but could be related to boiler type or combustion modifications leading to increased levels of phosphorus vaporization. With increased levels of phosphorus in flue gas, greater quantities of phosphorus would...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Sealock, John L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two phase catalyst is disclosed with one or more transition metals such as Cu, Co, Fe, Ag and Mo supported on a molecular sieve having a pore size not greater than 8 .ANG. along with a stabilizing oxide of one or more of the oxides of Zr, Mo, V, Nb or the rare earths coating the molecular sieve. A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described.

Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Neylon, Michael K. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

The calculation of satellite line structures in highly stripped plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recently developed high-resolution x-ray spectrographs have made it possible to measure satellite structures from various plasma sources with great detail. These lines are weak optically thin lines caused by the decay of dielectronic states and generally accompany the resonance lines of H-like and He-like ions. The Los Alamos atomic physics and kinetics codes provide a unique capability for calculating the position and intensities of such lines. These programs have been used to interpret such highly resolved spectral measurements from pulsed power devices and laser produced plasmas. Some of these experiments were performed at the LANL Bright Source and Trident laser facilities. The satellite structures are compared with calculations to diagnose temperatures and densities. The effect of non-thermal electron distributions of electrons on calculated spectra was also considered. Collaborations with Russian scientists have added tremendous value to this research die to their vast experience in x-ray spectroscopy.

Abdallah, J. Jr.; Kilcrease, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

White, Curt M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Quiring, Michael S. (Katy, TX); Jensen, Karen L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hickey, Richard F. (Bethel Park, PA); Gillham, Larry D. (Bartlesville, OK)

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

458

Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives are to develop active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. For a H[sub 2]-CO in molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, catalyst performance target is 88% CO+H[sub 2] conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe, with no more than 4% methane/ethane selectivity and 1% conversion loss per week. During this period, it was found that the performance of the slurry-phase iron and copper oxide-based catalyst depends on the amount of K. Five catalysts with differing K contents were studied. The catalysts with the lowest K were more active than the ones with higher K levels. The one with the middle K level was judged best.

Frame, R.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

460

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

Burtron H. Davis

1999-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials that discourage us from pursuing these materials further.

Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

462

EFFECTS OF LEWIS ACID CATALYSTS ON THE HYDROGENATION AND CRACKING OF TWO-RING AROMATIC AND HYDROAROMATIC STRUCTURES RELATED TO COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Zinc Chloride Catalysts in an Extracting Medium", LBL-EFFECTS OF LEWIS ACID CATALYSTS ON THE HYDROGENATION ANDEffects of Lewis Acid Catalysts on the Hydrogenation and

Salim, Sadie S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fisher-Tropsch catalyst. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reverse micelle catalyst preparation method has been used to prepare catalysts on four supports: magnesium oxide, carbon, alumina- titania and steamed Y zeolite. These catalysts were not as active as a reference catalyst prepared during previous contracts to Union Carbide Corp. This catalyst was supported on steamed Y zerolite support and was impregnated by a pore-filling method using a nonaqueous solvent. Additional catalysts were prepared via pore- filling impregnation of steamed Y zeolites. These catalysts had levels of cobalt two to three and a half times as high as the original Union Carbide catalyst. On a catalyst volume basis they were much more active than the previous catalyst; on an atom by atom basis the cobalt was about of the same activity, i.e., the high cobalt catalysts` cobalt atoms were not extensively covered over and deactivated by other cobalt atoms. The new, high activity, Y zerolite catalysts were not as stable as the earlier Union Carbide catalyst. However, stability enhancement of these catalysts should be possible, for instance, through adjustment of the quantity and/or type of trace metals present. A primary objective of this work was determination whether small amounts of ruthenium could enhance the activity of the cobalt F-T catalyst. The reverse micelle catalysts were not activated by ruthenium, indeed scanning transmission electronic microscopy (STEM) analysis provided some evidence that ruthenium was not present in the cobalt crystallites. Ruthenium did not seem to activate the high cobalt Y zeolite catalyst either, but additional experiments with Y zeolite-supported catalysts are required. Should ruthenium prove not to be an effective promoter under the simple catalyst activation procedure used in this work, more complex activation procedures have been reported which are claimed to enhance the cobalt/ruthenium interaction and result in activity promotion by ruthenium.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

OVERVIEW OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS WITH COBALT CATALYSTS This review of the use of cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-Draft OVERVIEW OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS WITH COBALT CATALYSTS SUMMARY This review of the use. It is primarily intended to define catalyst formulations, both available to the public and of limited use because using cobalt catalysts has been extensively reviewed [1-3]. The Bureau of Mines review [3

Kentucky, University of

465

Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

466