Sample records for non-isothermal multiphase reactive

  1. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured and porous media, and (5) porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure changes owing to mineral precipitation/dissolution (Sonnenthal et al., 1998, 2000, 2001; Spycher et al., 2003a). Subsequently, TOUGH2 V2 was released with additional EOS modules and features (Pruess et al., 1999). The present version of TOUGHREACT includes all of the previous extensions to the original version, along with the replacement of the original TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991) by TOUGH2 V2 (Pruess et al., 1999). TOUGHREACT has been applied to a wide variety of problems, some of which are included as examples, such as: (1) Supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al., 2001); (2) Mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems (Xu and Pruess, 2001a; Xu et al., 2004b; Dobson et al., 2004); (3) Mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al., 2003b and 2004a); (4) Coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in boiling unsaturated tuff for the proposed nuclear waste emplacement site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Sonnenthal et al., 1998, 2001; Sonnenthal and Spycher, 2000; Spycher et al., 2003a, b; Xu et al., 2001); (5) Modeling of mineral precipitation/dissolution in plug-flow and fracture-flow experiments under boiling conditions (Dobson et al., 2003); (6) Calcite precipitation in the vadose zone as a function of net infiltration (Xu et al., 2003); and (7) Stable isotope fractionation in unsaturated zone pore water and vapor (Singleton et al., 2004). The TOUGHREACT program makes use of 'self-documenting' features. It is distributed with a number of input data files for sample problems. Besides providing benchmarks for proper code installation, these can serve as a self-teaching tutorial in the use of TOUGHREACT, and they provide templates to help jump-start new applications. The fluid and heat flow part of TOUGHREACT is derived from TOUGH2 V2, so in addition to the current manual, users must have the manual of the TOUGH2 V2 (Pruess et al., 1999). The present version of TOUGHREACT provides the following TOUGH2 fluid property or 'EOS' (equation-of-state) modules: (1) EOS1 for

  2. TOUGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic M

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing, an overarchingInformationTHERMOANALYTICAL

  3. T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    At its most basic level, the injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites involves a system comprising the wellbore and the target reservoir. The wellbore is the only conduit available to emplace CO{sub 2} into reservoirs for long-term storage. At the same time, wellbores in general have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. We have developed a coupled wellbore and reservoir model for simulating the dynamics of CO{sub 2} injection and leakage through wellbores. The model describes the following processes: (1) upward or downward wellbore flow of CO{sub 2} and variable salinity water with transition from supercritical to gaseous CO{sub 2} including Joule-Thomson cooling, (2) exsolution of CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase as pressure drops, and (3) cross flow into or interaction with layers of surrounding rock (reservoirs). We use the Drift-Flux Model and related conservation equations for describing transient two-phase non-isothermal wellbore flow of CO{sub 2}-water mixtures under different flow regimes and interacting with surrounding rock. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission to the surrounding rock handled either semi-analytically or numerically. The momentum balance equation for the flow in the wellbore is solved numerically with a semi-explicit scheme. This manual provides instructions for compilation and use of the new model, and presents some example problems to demonstrate its use.

  4. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drift, heat was applied solely to the drift-center gridsquares) indicate grid block coordinates. Heat was appliedgrid block KCYC=KCYC+1 Time step: ?t Solve fluid and heat

  5. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  6. Gap formation and stability in non-isothermal protoplanetary discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Les, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several observations of transition discs show lopsided dust-distributions. A potential explanation is the formation of a large-scale vortex acting as a dust-trap at the edge of a gap opened by a giant planet. Numerical models of gap-edge vortices have thus far employed locally isothermal discs, but the theory of this vortex-forming or `Rossby wave' instability was originally developed for adiabatic discs. We generalise the study of planetary gap stability to non-isothermal discs using customised numerical simulations of disc-planet systems where the planet opens an unstable gap. We include in the energy equation a simple cooling function with cooling timescale $t_c=\\beta\\Omega_k^{-1}$, where $\\Omega_k$ is the Keplerian frequency, and examine the effect of $\\beta$ on the stability of gap edges and vortex lifetimes. We find increasing $\\beta$ lowers the growth rate of non-axisymmetric perturbations, and the dominant azimuthal wavenumber $m$ decreases. We find a quasi-steady state consisting of one large-scale, ...

  7. REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region are natural laboratories for studying the factors that promote long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. They also provide sites for storing additional CO{sub 2} if it can be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants in this part of the U.S.A. These natural reservoirs are developed primarily in sandstones and dolomites; shales, mudstones and anhydrite form seals. In many fields, stacked reservoirs are present, indicating that the gas has migrated up through the section. There are also geologically young travertine deposits at the surface, and CO{sub 2}-charged groundwater and springs in the vicinity of known CO{sub 2} occurrences. These near-surface geological and hydrological features also provide examples of the environmental effects of leakage of CO{sub 2} from reservoirs, and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (the first quarter of Year 3 of the project, i.e. October 1-December 31, 2002), the main achievements were: (1) Planning workshop for project participants as well as other Utah researchers involved in CO{sub 2} projects (22 October, 2002), and Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City; (2) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, 29 October, 2002; (3) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Fall Meeting of American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, 10 December, 2002; (4) Identification of dawsonite (sodium-aluminum carbonate) as a late stage mineral deposited in CO{sub 2} feedzone at Springerville, Arizona; (5) Successful matching of known physical constraints to flow beneath the Hunter cross section being used to simulate the effects of CO{sub 2} injection. In about 1000 years, most injected CO{sub 2} may be lost to the surface from the three shallowest reservoirs considered, assuming no reactive processes; and (6) Inclusion of reactive processes in numerical simulations, and indication that CO{sub 2} is sequestered for at 1000 years in form of dissolved CO{sub 2} and carbonate mineral precipitation.

  8. Dispersed Phase of Non-Isothermal Particles in Rotating Turbulent Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandya, R V R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest certain effects, caused by interaction between rotation and gravitation with turbulence structure, for the cooling/heating of dispersed phase of non-isothermal particles in rotating turbulent fluid flows. These effects are obtained through the derivation of kinetic or probability density function based macroscopic equations for the particles. In doing so, for one-way temperature coupling, we also show that homogeneous, isotropic non-isothermal fluid turbulence does not influence the mean temperature (though it influences mean velocity) of the dispersed phase of particles settling due to gravitational force in the isotropic turbulence.

  9. Non-isothermal preform infiltration during the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    the infiltration of a rectangular carbon fiber based preform with the NBV-800 epoxy resin and to optimize the VARTMNon-isothermal preform infiltration during the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM-element model is developed to analyze the infiltration of a fiber preform with resin under non- isothermal

  10. A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

  11. Lyapunov-based control of non isothermal continuous stirred tank reactors using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lyapunov-based control of non isothermal continuous stirred tank reactors using irreversible availability function is used as a Lyapunov function for the practical derivation of non linear control laws of the outlet flow of the CSTR. Several control laws are then derived which insure global asymptotic stability

  12. Modeling for non isothermal cavitation using four-equation Eric Goncalv`es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling for non isothermal cavitation using four-equation models Eric Goncalv`es LEGI-fluid solver has been developed to investigate the behaviour of cavitation models including thermodynamic between phases are studied. Numerical simulations are firstly performed on rarefaction cavitating problems

  13. Governing equations for unsaturated flow through woven fiber mats. Part 2. Non-isothermal reactive flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Krishna

    of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, EMS Building, 3200 N. Cramer Street, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA b S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc., 1525 Howe Street, Racine, WI 53403, USA Received 7 July 2003; revised 29 December 2003; accepted 1

  14. A single-phase, non-isothermal model for PEM fuel cells Hyunchul Ju, Hua Meng, Chao-Yang Wang *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A single-phase, non-isothermal model for PEM fuel cells Hyunchul Ju, Hua Meng, Chao-Yang Wang October 2004 Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell produces a comprehensive study of thermal and water management in PEM fuel cells. Numerical simulations reveal

  15. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (?) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (?) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(?)) decreased from 554 to 458?kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831?kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

  16. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  17. The effect of non-isothermality on the gravitational collapse of spherical clouds and the evolution of protostellar accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Vorobyov; Shantanu Basu

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role of non-isothermality in gravitational collapse and protostellar accretion by explicitly including the effects of molecular radiative cooling, gas-dust energy transfer, and cosmic ray heating in models of spherical hydrodynamic collapse. Isothermal models have previously shown an initial decline in the mass accretion rate \\dot{M}, due to a gradient of infall speed that develops in the prestellar phase. Our results show that: (1) in the idealized limit of optically thin cooling, a positive temperature gradient is present in the prestellar phase which effectively cancels out the effect of the velocity gradient, producing a near constant \\dot{M} in the early accretion phase; (2) in the more realistic case including cooling saturation at higher densities, \\dot{M} may initially be either weakly increasing or weakly decreasing with time, for low (T_d ~ 6 K) and high dust temperature (T_d ~ 10 K) cases, respectively. Hence, our results show that the initial decline in \\dot{M} seen in isothermal models is definitely not enhanced by non-isothermal effects, and is often suppressed by them. In all our models, \\dot{M} does eventually decline rapidly due to the finite mass condition on our cores and a resulting inward propagating rarefaction wave. Thus, any explanation for a rapid decline of $\\dot{M}$ in the accretion phase likely needs to appeal to the global molecular cloud structure and possible envelope support, which results in a finite mass reservoir for cores.

  18. Morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by solvo-thermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majeed Khan, M.A., E-mail: majeed_phys@yahoo.co.in [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, Sushil [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055 (India); Alsalhi, M.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alhoshan, Mansour [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamad, Tansir [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystals of copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) were synthesized by a solvo-thermal method. The structure, morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. Non-isothermal measurements at different heating rates were carried out and the crystallization kinetics of samples were analyzed using the most reliable non-isothermal kinetic methods. The kinetic parameters such as glass transition temperature, thermal stability, activation energy, Avrami exponent etc. were evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals have scientific and technological importance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples have been prepared by solvo-thermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesized samples exhibit excellent morphology and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of solar cell devices.

  19. Flow assurance and multiphase pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikhar, Hemant G.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ??????????????????????????????????? 50 Modern Production Engineering?????????????????????????????. 50 Artificial Lift???????????????????????????????????????? 52 Multiphase Pumping???????????????????????????????????. 52 Conventional Production System????????????????????????????? 53... Modern Artificial Lift???????????????????????????????????. 54 Multiphase Production System?????????????????????????????? 55 Tieback Distance????????????????????????????????????? 57 Multiphase Pump Types?????????????????????????????????. 59 Positive...

  20. Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Rutqvist, J.; Gorke, U.-J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kolditz, O.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work compares the performance of two alternative flow models for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic coupled processes in low permeable porous media: non-isothermal Richards and two-phase flow concepts. Both models take vaporization processes into account: however, the Richards model neglects dynamic pressure variations and bulk flow of the gaseous phase. For the comparison of the two approaches first published data from a laboratory experiment is studied involving thermally driven moisture flow in a partially saturated bentonite sample. Then a benchmark test of longer-term thermal-hydraulic behavior in the engineered barrier system of a geological nuclear waste repository is analyzed (DECOVALEX project). It was found that both models can be used to reproduce the vaporization process if the intrinsic permeability is relative high. However, when a thermal-hydraulic coupled problem has the same low intrinsic permeability for both the liquid and the gas phase, only the two-phase flow approach provides reasonable results.

  1. Multi-phasing CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stosic, Zoran V. [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational fluid dynamics for multiphase flows is an emerging field. Due to the complexity and divergence of multiphase thermal and hydraulic problems, further development of multiphase flow modelling, closure laws and numerical methods is needed in order to achieve the general purpose and optimised CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods, which will be applicable to the wide variety of multiphase flow problems. In the paper, an original approach to the various aspects of multiphase CFD modelling is presented. It is based on the multi-fluid modelling approach, development of necessary closure laws and derivation of appropriate numerical methods for efficient governing equations solution. Velocity and pressure fields are solved with the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) type pressure-corrector method developed for the multiphase flow conditions. For the solution of scalar parameters transport equations both implicit and explicit methods are presented. The implicit method is suitable for steady state, slow transients and problems without the sharp fronts propagation. Explicit method is developed in order to predict scalar parameters fronts propagation, as well as phase interface tracking problems. The challenge towards the multiphase flow solution on both the macro and micro level is presented in order to perform multiphase CFD simulations and analyses of multiphase flows in complex geometry of nuclear power plant components, such as nuclear fuel rod bundles thermal-hydraulics. Presented methodology and obtained CFD results comprise micro-scale phenomena of phases' separation, interface tracking, heated surfaces dry-out and critical heat flux occurrence, as well as macro-scale transport and distributions of phase volumes. (authors)

  2. Gas-solid carbonation of Ca(OH)2 and CaO particles under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions by using a thermogravimetric analyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Gas-solid carbonation of Ca(OH)2 and CaO particles under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions Gas Control 11, 3 (2012) 172-180" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.08.009 #12;2 Abstract The gas, quantify the gas-solid carbonation extent and the carbonation kinetics of Ca(OH)2 and CaO; and secondly

  3. Multiphase cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Thomas

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

  4. Transport phenomena in multiphase microfluidics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Zhizhao.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Multiphase microfluidics offers a great number of opportunities in different applications ranging from analytical chemistry, chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, to life science. The… (more)

  5. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahey, Richard T.

    MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER "ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF FRACTAL and multiphase flow & heat transfer will be stressed. This paper will begin by reviewing some important concepts

  6. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  7. Multiphase Turbulent Flow Ken Kiger -UMCP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    interacting ­ Distinguish multiphase and/or multicomponent · Liquid/Gas or Gas/Liquid · Gas/Solid · Liquid/Liquid ­ Technically, two immiscible liquids are "multi-fluid", but are often referred to as a "multiphase" flow due emulsions Multi-phase Steam bubble in H20 Ice slurry Coal particles in air Sand particle in H20 #12

  8. Multi-criteria based design approach of multiphase permanent magnet low speed synchronous machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dedicated to multiphase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) supplied by Pulse Width Modulation to use PWM VSI for supplying high power propulsion machines [1]. The induction machines and the PMSM can be easily considered in this instance since the constraint on the reactive power does not apply [2]. PMSM

  9. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  10. Accurate solution algorithms for incompressible multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.; Mosso, S.J.; Cerutti, J.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hochstein, J.I. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of advances in modeling multiphase incompressible flow are described. These advances include high-order Godunov projection methods, piecewise linear interface reconstruction and tracking and the continuum surface force model. Examples are given.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of multiphase flows in complex combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    Large-eddy simulation of multiphase flows in complex combustors S. V. Apte1 , K. Mahesh2 , F. Ham1 to accurately predict reacting multi-phase flows in practical combustors involving complex physical phenomena-turbine combustor geometries to evaluate the predictions made for multiphase, turbulent flow. 1 Introduction

  12. Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineering ap plications using TOUGH-FLAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Cappa, Frederic; Oldenburg, Curt; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN MULTIPHASE FLUID-FLOW RESERVOIR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONSin multiphase fluid-flow reservoir-engineering applications.in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineering applications.

  13. Continuous multi-phase feeding of broiler chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasril

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , continuous multi-phase feeding of broiler chickens using corn-soy diets does not appear to be justified by either increased performance or reduced nitrogen excretion....

  14. Reactive Maintenance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities.

  15. Gasificaton Transport: A Multiphase CFD Approach & Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitri Gidaspow; Veeraya Jiradilok; Mayank Kashyap; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive theories for the dispersion and mass transfer coefficients and to measure them in the turbulent fluidization regime, using existing facilities. A second objective was to use our multiphase CFD tools to suggest optimized gasifier designs consistent with aims of Future Gen. We have shown that the kinetic theory based CFD codes correctly compute: (1) Dispersion coefficients; and (2) Mass transfer coefficients. Hence, the kinetic theory based CFD codes can be used for fluidized bed reactor design without any such inputs. We have also suggested a new energy efficient method of gasifying coal and producing electricity using a molten carbonate fuel cell. The principal product of this new scheme is carbon dioxide which can be converted into useful products such as marble, as is done very slowly in nature. We believe this scheme is a lot better than the canceled FutureGen, since the carbon dioxide is safely sequestered.

  16. alliage polycristallin multiphase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Multiphase Stirling Engines CiteSeer Summary: Analysis, design, fabrication, and experimental assessment of a...

  17. Wet-gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Evan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    encountered when operating under conditions with high gas volume fractions (GVF). Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency when operating under wet-gas conditions, GVF over 95%. Field operations have revealed severe vibration...

  18. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  19. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  20. Post-Project Performance Assessment of a Multi-Phase Urban Stream Restoration Project on Lower Codornices Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Docto, Mia; Hoffman, Johanna; Walls, Scott

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Multi-Phase Urban Stream Restoration Project on Lowerof a Multi-Phase Urban Stream Restoration Project on Lowerof a Multi-Phase Urban Stream Restoration Project on Lower

  1. Reactive Gliosis Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . By sensing the electric signals generated by other 3368 Reactive Gliosis #12;individuals, mormyrids are alsoReactive Gliosis Glial Scar Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions Neuroinflammation motor output. Reafferent Control in Electric Communication Reafferent Control in Electric Communication

  2. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  3. Performance Evaluation and CFD Simulation of Multiphase Twin-Screw Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patil, Abhay

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Twin-screw pumps are economical alternatives to the conventional multiphase system and are increasingly used in the oil and gas industry due to their versatility in transferring the multiphase mixture with varying Gas Void Fraction (GVF). Present...

  4. National laboratories` capabilities summaries for the DOE Virtual Center for Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, E.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Virtual Center For Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD) integrates and develops the resources of industry, government, academia, and professional societies to enable reliable analysis in multiphase computational fluid dynamics. The primary means of the VCMD focus will be by the creation, support, and validation of a computerized simulation capability for multiphase flow and multiphase flow applications. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the National Laboratories in this effort.

  5. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant advantages over other biomass processing methods with respect to separations. These 'green' alternatives employ a hybrid medium that, when operated supercritically, offers the prospect of tunable physicochemical properties. Solubility can be rapidly altered and phases partitioned selectively to precipitate or dissolve certain components by altering temperature or pressure in the near-critical region. The ability to tune the solvation properties of water in the highly compressible near-critical region facilitates partitioning of products or by-products into separate phases to separate and purify products. Since most challenges related to lipid extraction are associated with the industrial scale-up of integrated extraction systems, the new modeling capability offers the prospect of addressing previously untenable scaling issues.

  6. CONTINUOUSTIME FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTINUOUS­TIME FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY Zhangxin Chen­water system in groundwater hydrology is given. The system is written in a fractional flow formulation, i for an air­water system in groundwater hydrology, ff = a; w [1], [11], [26]: @(OEae ff s ff ) @t +r \\Delta

  7. Separator Design for Use in High GVF Multiphase Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cihak, Daniel

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirement of bringing an outside coolant source to run through the seals of a multiphase pump has always been a costly endeavor. Using a separator to extract liquid from the exhaust of the pump to use as a coolant is often more expensive than...

  8. Excitation and control of multi-phase periodic waves in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    the phase of the excited wave by the driver ("phase-locking") control the wave by varying parametersExcitation and control of multi-phase periodic waves in sine-Gordon equation Arkadiy Shagalovµcr U ()eff U ()eff Threshold condition for phase-locking: µ > µcr = 0.41 > cr = 3.28 3/2 0m 3

  9. PAPER 2004-277 A Multiphase Flow Approach to Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Richard G.

    and multiphase flow in a four component system, namely solids, fluidized solids, oil and gas. It is known sand particles from the solid skeleton as the mechanical (inter-granular) strength of the formation replacement, and environmental issues. There have been various works described in the literature on the study

  10. Benchmark ExperimentalDatabase for Multiphase Combustion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    Benchmark ExperimentalDatabase for Multiphase Combustion Model Input and Validation: Baseline Doppler Interferometer 2.3. FourierTransformInfrared Spectrometer Spray CombustionReactor -Baseline Case 3 for the combustion airflowrate (56.7m3h-'). Table 5. The locations and mean values of the wall temperatures. Table 6

  11. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samper, J. , Zheng, L. , Montenegro, L. , 2006c. CoupledSamper, J. , Zheng, L. , Montenegro, L. , Fernández, A.M. ,A.M. Fernández and L. Montenegro, 2008b, Inverse modeling of

  12. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.W. 1982. Factors affecting the corrosion of metals inatmosphere, Atmospheric Corrosion, Ed. W.H. Ailov, New York.P. , Minet, Y. 2007. Iron corrosion in Callovo–Oxfordian

  13. Reactive Multiphase behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers beneath the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region are natural laboratories for studying the factors that promote long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. They also provide sites for storing additional CO{sub 2} if it can be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants in this part of the U.S.A. These natural reservoirs are developed primarily in sandstones and dolomites; shales, mudstones and anhydrite form seals. In many fields, stacked reservoirs are present, indicating that the gas has migrated up through the section. There are also geologically young travertine deposits at the surface, and CO{sub 2}-charged groundwater and springs in the vicinity of known CO{sub 2} occurrences. These near-surface geological and hydrological features also provide examples of the environmental effects of leakage of CO{sub 2} from reservoirs, and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (the second quarter of Year 2 of the project, i.e. January 1-March 31, 2002), the main achievements were: (1) Field trips to the central Utah and eastern Arizona travertine areas to collect data and water samples to support study of surface CO{sub 2}-rich fluid leakage in these two areas. (2) Partial completion of a manuscript on natural analogues CO{sub 2} leakage from subsurface reservoirs. The remaining section on the chemistry of the fluids is in progress. (3) Improvements to CHEMTOUGH code to incorporate kinetic effects on reaction progress. (4) Submission of two abstracts (based on the above work) to the topical session at the upcoming GSA meeting in Denver titled ''Experimental, Field, and Modeling Studies of Geological Carbon Sequestration''. (5) Submission of paper to upcoming GGHT-6 conference in Kyoto. Co-PI S. White will attend this conference, and will also be involved in three other papers.

  14. REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The six coal-fired power plants located in the Colorado Plateau and southern Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. produce 100 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year. Thick sequences of collocated sedimentary rocks represent potential sites for sequestration of the CO{sub 2}. Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. The results are being incorporated into a series of two-dimensional numerical models that represent the major chemical and physical processes induced by injection. During reporting period covered here (March 30 to June 30, 2003), the main achievements were: Presentation of three papers at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia); Presentation of a poster at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists meeting; Co-PI organized and chaired a special session on Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual convention in Salt Lake City (May 12-15).

  15. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mallants, D. , 2002. Gas generation and migration in Boomof Post-Disposal Gas Generation in a Repository for SpentCorrosion-Induced Gas Generation in a Nuclear Waste

  16. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  17. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, J.A.; Rittner, M.N.; Youngdahl, C.J.; Weertman, J.R.

    1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound. 6 figs.

  18. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Woodridge, IL); Rittner, Mindy N. (Des Plaines, IL); Youngdahl, Carl J. (Westmont, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound.

  19. The Baryon Catastrophe and the multiphase intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. Gunn; P. A. Thomas

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the theories and observations which together have led to the concept of the Baryon Catastrophe: observations of the baryon fraction on the scale of clusters of galaxies appear to be at least three times as high as the universal baryon fraction predicted by the theory of primordial nucleosynthesis in a flat, $\\Omega_0 = 1$, universe. We investigate whether this discrepancy could be eliminated by treating the intracluster gas as a multiphase medium, and find that this treatment both lowers the calculated mass of gas in a cluster and increases the inferred gravitational potential. These combined effects can reduce the calculated baryon fraction by between a quarter and a half: the precise amount depends upon the volume fraction distribution of density phases in the gas but is independent of the temperature profile across the cluster. Thus moving to a multiphase intracluster medium cannot resolve the Baryon Catastrophe by itself; other possible causes and explanations are discussed.

  20. Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

  1. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  2. Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Multiphase Mo Silicide Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heatherly, L.; Liu, C.T.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase Mo silicide alloys containing T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}), Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo phases where prepared by both melting and casting (M and C) and powder metallurgical (PM) processes. Glassy phases are observed in PM materials but not in M and C materials. Microstructural studies indicate that the primary phase is Mo-rich solid solution in alloys containing {le}(9.4Si+13.8B, at. %) and T2 in alloys with {ge}(9.8Si+14.6B). An eutectic composition is estimated to be close to Mo-9.6Si-14.2B. The mechanical properties of multiphase silicide alloys were determined by hardness, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. The multiphase alloy MSB-18 (Mo-9.4Si-13.8B) possesses a flexure strength distinctly higher than that of MoSi{sub 2} and other Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicide alloys containing no Mo particles. Also, MSB-18 is tougher than MoSi{sub 2} by a factor of 4.

  3. RAREFIED PURE GAS TRANSPORT IN NON-ISOTHERMAL POROUS MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) - a : Thermal diffusivity (m2 .s-1 ) - Ag : Parameter in eq. (15) (-) - b(z, ) : Scattering kernel (m3 ) - B equation, homogenization Article_tt_part1_R1.tex; 15/01/2009; 11:27; p.1 hal-00269369,version1-15Jan2009 in space and velocity spaces (kg.m-9 .s3 )) Article_tt_part1_R1.tex; 15/01/2009; 11:27; p.2 hal-00269369

  4. A Fault-Tolerant Multiphase Permanent Magnet Generator for Marine Current Turbine Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Fault-Tolerant Multiphase Permanent Magnet Generator for Marine Current Turbine Applications on offshore wind turbine systems. Marine current turbines are characterized by a very difficult access feature. This paper deals with the use of a PM multiphase marine current turbine generator. With this kind

  5. Fast, Streaming 3D Levelset on the GPU for Smooth Multi-phase Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Fast, Streaming 3D Levelset on the GPU for Smooth Multi-phase Segmentation Ojaswa Sharma1 , Qin at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712-0027, USA {zqyork@ices,bajaj@cs}.utexas.edu Abstract. Level set method based. We show vol- umetric segmentation using higher order, multi-phase level set method with speedups

  6. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue 18 August 2010 Keywords: Compressible multiphase flow Fluid-mixture model Mapped grids Wave-propagation method Stiffened gas equation of state a b s t r a c t We describe a simple mapped-grid approach

  7. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue mapped grid approach for the efficient numerical simula- tion of compressible multiphase flow in general problems, J. Comput. Phys. 142 (1998) 208-242). A standard high-resolution mapped grid method in wave

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, JULY 2008 2201 Scalable Digital Multiphase Modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, JULY 2008 2201 Scalable Digital Multiphase Terms--Converter, digital, electronics, integrated cir- cuit (IC), modulator, multiphase, power through the Colorado Power Electronics Center. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor K. Strunz

  9. International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2013, Jeju, Korea, May 2631, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    through heat exchangers within variable phase turbines (VPTs). Enthalpy is then converted into kinetic energy when the refrigerant is flash evaporated and expanded through a multiphase nozzle. The multiphase mixture at the nozzle exit consists of gaseous refrigerant containing disperse mi- croscopic refrigerant

  10. An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives Fabien Meinguet*, Eric deals with an on-line fault detection method for multi-phase PMSM drives. The method is based an original method for detecting an abnormal asymmetrical behavior in five-phase PMSM drives and we apply

  11. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockett, A.A.; Yang, L.C.

    1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe{sub 2} where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor. 15 figs.

  12. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus A. (505 Park Haven Ct., Champaign, IL 61820); Yang, Li-Chung (1107 W. Green St. #328, Urbana, IL 61801)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe.sub.2 where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor.

  13. Towards improved methods for determining porous media multiphase flow functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Song

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    to the empirical relation by using the three-dimensional saturation and relaxation data. 7 CHAPTER II ESTIMATION OF POROUS MEDIA FLOW FUNCTIONS Multiphase flow functions are required to simulate the flow of multiple fluid phases through porous media....3) Snw + Sw = 1: (2.4) Together with boundary and initial conditions, Eqs. (2.1)-(2.4) provide a mathemat- ical model of three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow in porous media. Several properties have to be specified in the above model. The densities...

  14. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Gao, J. [ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Hamilton (Canada)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  15. Multi-Phase Flow: Direct Numerical Simulation Igor Bolotnov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface1JUN 2 5 2014Mud3-000 Multi-Phase

  16. Toward a new paradigm for reactive flow modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, Robert Gerard

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional reactive flow modeling provides a computational representation of shock initiation of energetic materials. Most reactive flow models require ad hoc assumptions to obtain robust simulations, assumptions that result from partitioning energy and volume change between constituents in a reactive mixture. For example, most models assume pressure and/or temperature equilibrium for the mixture. Many mechanical insults to energetic materials violate these approximations. Careful analysis is required to ensure that the model assumptions and limitations are not exceeded. One limitation is that the shock to detonation transition is replicated only for strong planar shocks. Many models require different parameters to match data from thin pulse, ramp wave, or multidimensional loading, an approach that fails for complex loading. To accurately simulate reaction under non-planar shock impact scenarios a new formalism is required. The continuum mixture theory developed by Baer and Nunziato is used to eliminate ad hoc assumptions and limitations of current reactive flow models. This modeling paradigm represents the multiphase nature of reacting condensed/gas mixtures. Comparisons between simulations and data are presented.

  17. MULTI-PHASE FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTIONS UNDER STRESS CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarado; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multiphase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) quantifying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture, and (c) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress on the nature of the rock and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual descriptions of the process are shown in the report while detailed analysis of the behavior of the distribution of fracture aperture is in progress. Both extensional and shear fractures are being considered. The initial multi-phase flow tests were done in extensional fractures. Several rock samples with induced shear fracture are being studies, and some of the new results are presented in this report. These samples are being scanned in order to quantify the distribution of apertures and the nature of the asperities. Low resolution images of fluids in a sample with a shear fracture were performed and they provide the confidence that flow patterns and saturations could be determined in the future. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective is to understand the impact of the fracture, its topology and occupancy on the nature of mass transfer between the matrix and the fracture. Counter-current imbibition next to the fracture was observed and quantified, including the influence of formation layering.

  18. Multiphase turbulent interstellar medium: some recent results from radio astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at d...

  19. A New Multiphase Model for Simulating Energetically Driven Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, D E; Murphy, M J

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper representation of particulate phenomena is important for the simulation of many non-ideal particle loaded explosives. These explosives present severe numerical difficulties to simulate because numerical approaches for packed particle beds often behave poorly for the dilute regime and the reverse is often true for methods developed for the dilute regime. This paper presents a multiphase framework for the simulation of these non-ideal explosives that accurately accounts for the particulate behavior in both of these regimes. The capability of this framework is enhanced by the use of prescribed PDF methods for both particle size distributions and the representation of chemical processes. We have validated this framework using several experimental methods that accommodate the separation of momentum flux measurements in two-phase blast flows.

  20. Multi-Phase Galaxy Formation and Quasar Absorption Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyeh H. Maller

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The central problem of galaxy formation is understanding the cooling and condensation of gas in dark matter halos. It is now clear that to match observations this requires further physics than the simple assumptions of single phase gas cooling. A model of multi-phase cooling (Maller & Bullock 2004) can successfully account for the upper cutoff in the masses of galaxies and provides a natural explanation of many types of absorption systems (Mo & Miralda-Escude 1996). Absorption systems are our best probes of the gaseous content of galaxy halos and therefore provide important constraints on models for gas cooling into galaxies. All physical processes that effect gas cooling redistribute gas and therefore are detectable in absorption systems. Detailed studies of the nature of gas in galaxy halos using absorption systems are crucial for building a correct theory of galaxy formation.

  1. Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.

  2. Direct numerical simulations of multiphase flow with applications to basaltic volcanism and planetary evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suckale, Jenny

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flows are an essential component of natural systems: They affect the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, shape the landscape of terrestrial planets, and govern subsurface flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Advancing ...

  3. Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jian

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency, even the breakdown of pumping function, when operating under wet gas conditions. Additionally, field operations have revealed significant vibration and thermal issues which can...

  4. Modeling twin-screw multiphase pump performance during periods of high gas volume fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Aditya

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pumping adds energy to an unprocessed effluent stream acting as a combined pump and compressor, permitting the recovery of oil and gas on an economical basis. In practice, multiphase production is characterized by wide fluctuations in the gas and liquid...

  5. Effects of buoyancy source composition on multiphase plume behavior in stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Aaron C. (Aaron Chunghin), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments are performed where a dense multiphase plume is released vertically in a salinity stratified ambient. The constituent phase composition of the initial buoyancy flux can be dense brine, particles, or a mixture ...

  6. Multiphase flow and Encapsulation simulations using the moment of fluid method 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Mark

    , spray cooling, icing, combustion and agricultural irrigation. The instability of the interface, mass exist for the accurate and effi- cient computation of multiphase flows. First, the density and viscosity

  7. Numerical and analytical studies of single and multiphase starting jets and plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ruo-Qian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase starting jets and plumes are widely observed in nature and engineering systems. An environmental engineering example is open-water disposal of sediments. The present study numerically simulates such starting ...

  8. Design and Construction of a High Pressure System for Evaluating Multiphase Twin-Screw Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Theodore Isaac

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Twin-screw pumps are currently sold by manufacturers without adequate data predicting the pump behavior when pumping multiphase mixtures. In light of the fact that pump behavior is known to change significantly under these conditions, a new closed...

  9. Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the Budget Period II (October 09, 2004-April 30, 2006) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section In this investigation, the concept of CMSS{copyright} has been developed and is proven through simulation studies and validated by experimental data. As part of the second phase of the project (Budget Period II--10/09/2004-04/30/2006) experimental investigation of the integrated CMSS{copyright} for different configurations has been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the individual separation components, and determine how they will affect the performance of each other when integrated in the CMSS{copyright}. An intelligent control system is also developed to improve the total system efficiency of Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright}). In mature oil fields, water handling poses a huge problem. Thus water knock out at the earliest stage helps in significant cost savings during handling, separation and transportation of oil. One of the objectives of the CMSS{copyright} configuration is to knock out free water from the upstream fluids. The results from theoretical and experimental studies show that Free Water Knock Out (FWKO) CMSS{copyright} system can be readily deployed in the field using the control system strategies designed, implemented and tested in this study.

  10. MULTI-PHASE FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTIONS UNDER STRESS CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarado; H. Yasuhara; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn

    2002-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multiphase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (1) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology using high-resolution x-ray microtomography, (2) modeling of fracture permeability in the presence of asperities and confining stress, and (3) simulation of two-phase fluid flow in a fracture and a layered matrix. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. The distribution of fracture aperture is a difficult issue that we are studying and developing methods of quantification. The difficulties are both numerical and conceptual. Numerically, the three-dimensional data sets include millions, and sometimes, billions of points, and pose a computational challenge. The conceptual difficulties derive from the rough nature of the fracture surfaces, and the heterogeneous nature of the rock matrix. However, the high-resolution obtained by the imaging system provides us a much needed measuring environment on rock samples that are subjected to simultaneous fluid flow and confining stress. Pilot multi-phase experiments have been performed, proving the ability to detect two phases in certain large fractures. The absolute permeability of a fracture depends on the behavior of the asperities that keep it open. A model is being developed that predicts the permeability and average aperture of a fracture as a function of time under steady flow of water including the pressure solution at the asperity contact points. Several two-phase flow experiments in the presence of a fracture tip were performed in the past. At the present time, we are developing an inverse process using a simulation model to understand the fluid flow patterns in the presence of a fracture, and the interactions between fluid flow in the fracture and the adjacent matrix. Preliminary results demonstrate that the flow patterns are significantly impacted by the presence of the fracture. Bypassing is quantified and we expect to be able to extract from the modeling the distribution of properties in the fracture and the adjacent matrix.

  11. Experimental characterization of energetic material dynamics for multiphase blast simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Wright, Elton K.; Baer, Melvin R.; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently there is a substantial lack of data for interactions of shock waves with particle fields having volume fractions residing between the dilute and granular regimes, which creates one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of energetic material detonation. To close this gap, a novel Multiphase Shock Tube has been constructed to drive a planar shock wave into a dense gas-solid field of particles. A nearly spatially isotropic field of particles is generated in the test section by a gravity-fed method that results in a spanwise curtain of spherical 100-micron particles having a volume fraction of about 19%. Interactions with incident shock Mach numbers of 1.66, 1.92, and 2.02 were achieved. High-speed schlieren imaging simultaneous with high-frequency wall pressure measurements are used to reveal the complex wave structure associated with the interaction. Following incident shock impingement, transmitted and reflected shocks are observed, which lead to differences in particle drag across the streamwise dimension of the curtain. Shortly thereafter, the particle field begins to propagate downstream and spread. For all three Mach numbers tested, the energy and momentum fluxes in the induced flow far downstream are reduced about 30-40% by the presence of the particle field. X-Ray diagnostics have been developed to penetrate the opacity of the flow, revealing the concentrations throughout the particle field as it expands and spreads downstream with time. Furthermore, an X-Ray particle tracking velocimetry diagnostic has been demonstrated to be feasible for this flow, which can be used to follow the trajectory of tracer particles seeded into the curtain. Additional experiments on single spherical particles accelerated behind an incident shock wave have shown that elevated particle drag coefficients can be attributed to increased compressibility rather than flow unsteadiness, clarifying confusing results from the historical database of shock tube experiments. The development of the Multiphase Shock Tube and associated diagnostic capabilities offers experimental capability to a previously inaccessible regime, which can provide unprecedented data concerning particle dynamics of dense gas-solid flows.

  12. Multiphase production through hilly terrain pipelines in Cusiana oilfield, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, T.J.; Fairhurst, C.P.; Nelson, C.J.; Becerra, H.; Bailey, R.S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cusiana oilfield in Colombia is currently producing about 180,000 bpd through a complex multiphase flowline network. The terrain of the area is very hilly, with substantial elevation changes along the length of the lines. Prediction of pressure drop using industry standard correlations has been very variable in its accuracy. A revised pressure drop method, including the effect of slug formation and decay, has been produced, with appreciably better performance. Field data on flow regime characteristics from several of the lines are presented to show a transition from surging/slugging to a steady {open_quote}homogeneous{close_quote} flow at relatively low mixture velocity. The effect of slug flow on slugcatcher performance has also been assessed, both by direct measurement, and by use of a dynamic simulator. The simulator is used to test new control schemes prior to implementation. At low flowing velocities one line has been seen to undergo large pressure swings and to exhibit slug production due to liquid accumulation and sweepout. This effect is described, and re-produced using a transient simulator.

  13. Inhibition of slug front corrosion in multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.J. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Jepson, W.P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion at the slug front at the bottom of a pipeline is identified as one of the worst cases of corrosion occurring in the pipeline which carries unprocessed multiphase production with a high level of CO{sub 2} gas. One objective of the study in recommending a subsea completion to shore was to determine if commercial corrosion inhibitors can control this type of corrosion using carbon steel pipeline. Thus, inhibitors which showed excellent performance in the lab using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode system (RCE) were further evaluated to confirm their performance in a flow loop simulating the test conditions predicted from the flow modeling for the proposed pipeline. The performance profile of two commercial inhibitors were determined in a 4 in. flow loop at 7O C, 100 psig CO{sub 2} partial pressure in corrosive brines with or without ethylene glycol and/or light hydrocarbon. Results showed that the carbon steel pipeline could be adequately protected at low temperature using a commercial corrosion inhibitor to meet the designed life of the pipeline. Ethylene glycol, which is used in the pipeline to prevent hydrate formation, reduces the corrosivity of the brine and gives no effect on inhibitor performance under the slug flow conditions. A good agreement in inhibitor performance was observed between the flow loop and the RCE testing. The uninhibited corrosion rate of the test brine in this study is in good agreement with the predicted value using deWaard and Williams correlation for CO{sub 2} corrosion.

  14. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  15. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  16. Multi-Phase Fracture-Matrix Interactions Under Stress Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarao; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi

    2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multi-phase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) counter-current fluid transport between the matrix and the fracture, (c) studying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture and two-phase flow, and (d) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress, on the nature of the rock, and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual and detailed descriptions of the process are shown in the report. Both extensional and shear fractures have been considered. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective was to understand the impact of the fracture, its topology and occupancy on the nature of mass transfer between the matrix and the fracture. Counter-current imbibition next to the fracture was observed and quantified, including the influence of formation layering. A group of Shear fractures were studied, with layers perpendicular and parallel to the main axis of the sample. The structures of the fractures as well as their impact on absolute permeability and on oil displacement by water were evaluated. Shear fractures perpendicular to the layers lead to a wide distribution of pores and to an overall increase in absolute permeability. Shear fractures parallel to the layers lead to an overall increase in absolute permeability, but a decrease in displacement efficiency. This DoE project funded or partially funded three Ph.D. and four M.Sc. students at the Pennsylvania State University. The results from the research have yielded several abstracts, presentations and papers. Much of the work is still in the process of being published.

  17. Pore-scale characteristics of multiphase flow in porous media: A comparison of airwater and oilwater experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Pore-scale characteristics of multiphase flow in porous media: A comparison of air­water and oil area, we have used a synchrotron-based CMT technique to obtain high-resolution 3D images of flow Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multi-phase flow; NAPLs; Porous media; Microtomography

  18. Subsea Solution for Anti-Slug Control of Multiphase Risers* E. Jahanshahi1, S. Skogestad1, M. Lieungh2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Subsea Solution for Anti-Slug Control of Multiphase Risers* E. Jahanshahi1, S. Skogestad1, M-slug control of multi-phase risers at offshore oil-fields. With new advances in the subsea tech- nology-side valve. However, a subsea choke valve placed at the well-head can not be used for preventing the riser

  19. Some Specific CASL Requirements for Advanced Multiphase Flow Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the diversity of physical phenomena occuring in boiling, flashing, and bubble collapse, and of the length and time scales of LWR systems, it is imperative that the models have the following features: • Both vapor and liquid phases (and noncondensible phases, if present) must be treated as compressible. • Models must be mathematically and numerically well-posed. • The models methodology must be multi-scale. A fundamental derivation of the multiphase governing equation system, that should be used as a basis for advanced multiphase modeling in LWR coolant systems, is given in the Appendix using the ensemble averaging method. The remainder of this work focuses specifically on the compressible, well-posed, and multi-scale requirements of advanced simulation methods for these LWR coolant systems, because without these are the most fundamental aspects, without which widespread advancement cannot be claimed. Because of the expense of developing multiple special-purpose codes and the inherent inability to couple information from the multiple, separate length- and time-scales, efforts within CASL should be focused toward development of a multi-scale approaches to solve those multiphase flow problems relevant to LWR design and safety analysis. Efforts should be aimed at developing well-designed unified physical/mathematical and high-resolution numerical models for compressible, all-speed multiphase flows spanning: (1) Well-posed general mixture level (true multiphase) models for fast transient situations and safety analysis, (2) DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation)-like models to resolve interface level phenmena like flashing and boiling flows, and critical heat flux determination (necessarily including conjugate heat transfer), and (3) Multi-scale methods to resolve both (1) and (2) automatically, depending upon specified mesh resolution, and to couple different flow models (single-phase, multiphase with several velocities and pressures, multiphase with single velocity and pressure, etc.) A unified, multi-scale approach is advocated to extend the necessary foundations and build the capability to simultaneously solve the fluid dynamic interface problems (interface resolution) as well as multiphase mixtures (homogenization).

  20. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  1. Using a multiphase flow code to model the coupled effects of repository consolidation and multiphase brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term repository assessment must consider the processes of (1) gas generation, (2) room closure and expansions due to salt creep, and (3) multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the complex coupling between these three processes. The mechanical creep closure code SANCHO was used to simulate the closure of a single, perfectly sealed disposal room filled with water and backfill. SANCHO uses constitutive models to describe salt creep, waste consolidation, and backfill consolidation, Five different gas-generation rate histories were simulated, differentiated by a rate multiplier, f, which ranged from 0.0 (no gas generation) to 1.0 (expected gas generation under brine-dominated conditions). The results of the SANCHO f-series simulations provide a relationship between gas generation, room closure, and room pressure for a perfectly sealed room. Several methods for coupling this relationship with multiphase fluid flow into and out of a room were examined. Two of the methods are described.

  2. A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE KEITH exchange membrane fuel cell is a highly porous material which acts to distribute reactant gases uniformly perturbation, fuel cell electrodes, free surface. AMS subject classifications. 35B40, 35K55, 76R99, 76S05 1

  3. Power factor correction of an electrical drive system based on multiphase machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Power factor correction of an electrical drive system based on multiphase machines Khoudir MAROUANI_tabache@yahoo.com Abstract--This paper deals with the energy efficiency improvement of an electrical drive which can be used both in wind energy conversion or motor drive applications. A power factor (PF) control scheme

  4. The mathematical structure of multiphase thermal models of flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The mathematical structure of multiphase thermal models of flow in porous media By Daniel E.A. van with the formulation and numerical solution of equations for modelling multicomponent, two-phase, thermal fluid flow typical flow behaviour that occurs during fluid injection into a reservoir. Keywords: porous media flow

  5. The Effect of Slip Velocity on Saturation for Multiphase Condensing Mixtures in a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    The Effect of Slip Velocity on Saturation for Multiphase Condensing Mixtures in a PEM Fuel Cell in computed results reported in the fuel cell literature, but which has not yet received a satisfactory to treat the slip velocity between phases. Keywords: Condensation ­ Two Phase Flow ­ PEM Fuel Cell ­ Slip

  6. Excitation of multiphase waves of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation by capture into resonances L. Friedland*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedland, Lazar

    and the stability of driven, phase-locked solutions in these cases are discussed. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.71 into resonances and adiabatic synchronization phase- locking in the driven system. First applicationsExcitation of multiphase waves of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation by capture into resonances L

  7. Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds to mixing. Droplet- based microfluidics offers a simple method of achieving rapid mixing and transport of using flow of immiscible fluids in microfluidic channels to form plugs containing multiple aqueous

  8. Photovoltaic effect in multiphase Bi-Mn-O thin J. P. Chakrabartty,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photovoltaic effect in multiphase Bi-Mn-O thin films J. P. Chakrabartty,1 R. Nechache,2,4 C and therefore the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Specifically, a higher Bi/Mn ratio (towards unity separation. ©2013 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (160.2260) Ferroelectrics

  9. Conduction in Multiphase ParticulateFibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitectured carbon networks, typically in the form electronically February 7, 2003. Several promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitecturedConduction in Multiphase ParticulateĂ?Fibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

  10. A wave propagation method for compressible multiphase flow on mapped grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A wave propagation method for compressible multiphase flow on mapped grids K.-M. Shyue Department with a stiffened gas equation of state on body-fitted mapped grids in general two- and three-dimensional geometries, Body-fitted mapped grids, Wave propagation method, Stiffened gas equation of state 2000 MSC: 65M06, 65M

  11. Unsteady, high Reynolds number validation cases for a multi-phase CFD analysis tool have been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Robert Francis

    and constituent volume fraction transport/generation for liquid, condensable vapor and non-condensable gas fields1 Abstract Unsteady, high Reynolds number validation cases for a multi-phase CFD analysis tool have of the effect of cavitation number, Reynolds number and turbulence model has been made. Analysis of the modeled

  12. 1 Copyright 1999 by ASME MULTI-PHASE CFD ANALYSIS OF NATURAL AND VENTILATED CAVITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Robert Francis

    volume fraction transport/generation for liquid, condensable vapor and non-con- densable gas fields between condensable vapor and non-condensable gas, a requirement of our current applica- tion. By solving1 Copyright © 1999 by ASME MULTI-PHASE CFD ANALYSIS OF NATURAL AND VENTILATED CAVITATION ABOUT

  13. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS MSc. Hans in an oil production system is developed. Each well may be manipulated by injecting lift gas and adjusting in the maximum oil flow rate, water flow rate, liquid flow rate, and gas flow rate. The wells may also

  14. Stretch-flangeability of strong multiphase S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    steel, Dual phase steel, Strength Introduction Several methods have been designed to characteriseStretch-flangeability of strong multiphase steels S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Stretch test data to indicate flangeabilty. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of steel

  15. Surface tension of multi-phase flow with multiple junctions governed by the variational principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shigeki Matsutani; Kota Nakano; Katsuhiko Shinjo

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie, Nardone, Scardovelli, Zaleski and Zanetti (J. Comp. Phys. \\vol{113} \\yr{1994} \\pages{134-147}) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase ($N$-phase, $N\\ge2$) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation of motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  16. Characterization of non-Darcy multiphase flow in petroleum bearing formations. Annual status report, May 14, 1991--May 13, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.D.; Civan, F.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research are: Develop a proper theoretical model for characterizing non-Darcy multi-phase flow in petroleum bearing formations. Develop an experimental technique for measuring non-Darcy flow coefficients under multiphase flow at insitu reservoir conditions. Develop dimensional consistent correlations to express the non-Darcy flow coefficient as a function of rock and fluid properties for consolidated and unconsolidated porous media. The research accomplished during the period May 1991--May 1992 focused upon theoretical and experimental studies of multiphase non-Darcy flow in porous media.

  17. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M. (Big Bear City, CA); Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel (Torrance, CA); Kinoshita, Michael H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  18. An Inertial Cell Model for the Drag Force in Multi-phase Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tupper, Gary; Mainza, Aubrey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for the drag coefficient of a sphere in a concentrated system is described. It is based upon a cell-averaged model for the Stokes regime combined with a physically motivated extrapolation to arbitrary Reynolds number. It can be used as an alternative to the isolated particle drag coefficient in Euler-Lagrange modelling of solid-liquid multi-phase flow.The corresponding drag force also provides a dynamic bed equation for use in Euler-Euler modelling.

  19. Results towards a Scalable Multiphase Navier-Stokes Solver for High Reynolds Number Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Travis Brandon

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    RESULTS TOWARDS A SCALABLE MULTIPHASE NAVIER-STOKES SOLVER FOR HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS A Dissertation by TRAVIS BRANDON THOMPSON Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements... Brandon Thompson ABSTRACT The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have proven formidable for nearly a century. The present di culties are mathematical and computational in nature; the computational requirements, in particular, are exponentially...

  20. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  1. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  2. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  3. Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Kaiser

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. The related 'complex radiation impedance density' is introduced to represent the field's local reluctance to radiate.

  4. Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Gerald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

  5. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  6. TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase nonisothermal flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulators for multiphase fluid and heat flows in permeable media have been under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for more than 10 yr. Real geofluids contain noncondensible gases and dissolved solids in addition to water, and the desire to model such `compositional` systems led to the development of a flexible multicomponent, multiphase simulation architecture known as MULKOM. The design of MULKOM was based on the recognition that the mass-and energy-balance equations for multiphase fluid and heat flows in multicomponent systems have the same mathematical form, regardless of the number and nature of fluid components and phases present. Application of MULKOM to different fluid mixtures, such as water and air, or water, oil, and gas, is possible by means of appropriate `equation-of-state` (EOS) modules, which provide all thermophysical and transport parameters of the fluid mixture and the permeable medium as a function of a suitable set of primary thermodynamic variables. Investigations of thermal and hydrologic effects from emplacement of heat-generating nuclear wastes into partially water-saturated formations prompted the development and release of a specialized version of MULKOM for nonisothermal flow of water and air, named TOUGH. TOUGH is an acronym for `transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat` and is also an allusion to the tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The TOUGH2 code is intended to supersede TOUGH. It offers all the capabilities of TOUGH and includes a considerably more general subset of MULKOM modules with added capabilities. The paper briefly describes the simulation methodology and user features.

  7. Sampling device for withdrawing a representative sample from single and multi-phase flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apley, Walter J. (Pasco, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Creer, James M. (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid stream sampling device has been developed for the purpose of obtaining a representative sample from a single or multi-phase fluid flow. This objective is carried out by means of a probe which may be inserted into the fluid stream. Individual samples are withdrawn from the fluid flow by sampling ports with particular spacings, and the sampling parts are coupled to various analytical systems for characterization of the physical, thermal, and chemical properties of the fluid flow as a whole and also individually.

  8. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  9. Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; DeCroix, David; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, Wei; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, Kringan; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian-Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian-Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  10. Multi-phase CFD modeling of solid sorbent carbon capture system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, Ronald W. [U.S. DOE; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. David [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian–Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian–Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  11. Mechanism-based Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) for Predicting Property Degradations in Multiphase Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Li, Dongsheng; Ryu, Seun; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative understanding of the evolving thermal-mechanical properties of a multi-phase material hinges upon the availability of quantitative statistically representative microstructure descriptions. Questions then arise as to whether a two-dimensional (2D) or a three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) should be considered as the statistically representative microstructure. Although 3D models are more representative than 2D models in general, they are usually computationally expensive and difficult to be reconstructed. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of a 2D RVE in predicting the property degradations induced by different degradation mechanisms with the multiphase solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material as an example. Both 2D and 3D microstructure RVEs of the anodes are adopted to quantify the effects of two different degradation mechanisms: humidity-induced electrochemical degradation and phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation. The predictions of the 2D model are then compared with the available experimental measurements and the results from the 3D model. It is found that the 2D model, limited by its inability of reproducing the realistic electrical percolation, is unable to accurately predict the degradation of thermo-electrical properties. On the other hand, for the phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation, both 2D and 3D microstructures yield similar results, indicating that the 2D model is capable of providing computationally efficient yet accurate results for studying the structural degradation within the anodes.

  12. Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

  13. 5th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xian, China, 36 July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    5th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xian, such as hemangiomas and port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, are congenital and pro- gressive vascular malformations of the dermis. To remove them, laser energy is irradiated at appropriate wavelengths inducing permanent thermal

  14. Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV in a multiphase transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Ko, Che Ming.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiplicity and elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb-Pb collisions at center of mass energy root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV from the Large Hadron Collider are studied in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. With the standard parameters...

  15. Abstract --A systematic framework for reliability assessment and fault-tolerant design of multiphase dc-dc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    reliability. Index Terms--Markov reliability modeling, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaics, switch1 Abstract -- A systematic framework for reliability assessment and fault-tolerant design of multiphase dc-dc converters deployed in photovoltaic applications is presented. System-level steady

  16. Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow and Inclined Wellbore Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30975 Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow, 163245 SPEUT. Abstract Pressure drop prediction in pipes is an old petroleum engineering problem. There is a long history of attempts to develop empirical correlations to predict the pressure drop in pipes. Some

  17. Experimental investigation of the use of drag reducing agents in conjunction with twin-screw multiphase pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrillo Plazas, Gabriel D

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigate of the effect of pump speed on DRA degradation. Two flow loops were utilized. The first consisted of 98 ft. of 3-inch diameter pipe and 112 ft. of 2-inch pipe. The second loop called blow-down was used to by pass the multiphase pump. Liquid and gas...

  18. A non-isothermal model of a nickelmetal hydride cell , M. Mohammedb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) to avoid oxygen gas generation during over discharge and has extra capacity to avoid hydrogen gas generation during over- charge. Since the metal hydride material gradually loses capacity through usage due. The side reaction at the positive electrode is oxygen evolu- tion and at the negative electrode oxygen

  19. NON-ISOTHERMAL INJECTION MOULDING WITH RESIN CURE AND PREFORM DEFORMABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preziosi, Luigi

    Transfer Molding), SRIM (Structural Resin Injection Molding), SCRIMP (Seeman Com- posite Resin Infusion

  20. Growing and moving low-mass planets in non-isothermal disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. -J. Paardekooper; G. Mellema

    2007-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the interaction of a low-mass planet with a protoplanetary disk with a realistic treatment of the energy balance by doing radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. We look at accretion and migration rates and compare them to isothermal studies. We used a three-dimensional version of the hydrodynamical method RODEO, together with radiative transport in the flux-limited diffusion approach. The accretion rate, as well as the torque on the planet, depend critically on the ability of the disk to cool efficiently. For densities appropriate to 5 AU in the solar nebula, the accretion rate drops by more than an order of magnitude compared to isothermal models, while at the same time the torque on the planet is positive, indicating outward migration. It is necessary to lower the density by a factor of 2 to recover inward migration and more than 2 orders of magnitude to recover the usual Type I migration. The torque appears to be proportional to the radial entropy gradient in the unperturbed disk. These findings are critical for the survival of protoplanets, and they should ultimately find their way into population synthesis models.

  1. Growing and moving low-mass planets in non-isothermal disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paardekooper, S -J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the interaction of a low-mass planet with a protoplanetary disk with a realistic treatment of the energy balance by doing radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. We look at accretion and migration rates and compare them to isothermal studies. We used a three-dimensional version of the hydrodynamical method RODEO, together with radiative transport in the flux-limited diffusion approach. The accretion rate, as well as the torque on the planet, depend critically on the ability of the disk to cool efficiently. For densities appropriate to 5 AU in the solar nebula, the accretion rate drops by more than an order of magnitude compared to isothermal models, while at the same time the torque on the planet is positive, indicating outward migration. It is necessary to lower the density by a factor of 2 to recover inward migration and more than 2 orders of magnitude to recover the usual Type I migration. The torque appears to be proportional to the radial entropy gradient in the unperturbed disk. These findings ar...

  2. Does the schock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rukhadze, A A; Samkharadze, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders of an ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal plasma $T_e>>T_i$ only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude and front width are obtained.

  3. RESIK Solar X-ray flare element abundances on a non-isothermal assumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylwester, B; Sylwester, J; Kepa, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar X-ray spectra from the RESIK crystal spectrometer on the {\\em CORONAS-F} spacecraft (spectral range $3.3-6.1$~\\AA) are analyzed for thirty-three flares using a method to derive abundances of Si, S, Ar, and K, emission lines of which feature prominently in the spectra. For each spectrum, the method first optimizes element abundances then derives the differential emission measure as a function of temperature based on a procedure given by Sylwester et al. and Withbroe. This contrasts with our previous analyses of RESIK spectra in which an isothermal assumption was used. The revised abundances (on a logarithmic scale with $A({\\rm H}) = 12$) averaged for all the flares in the analysis are $A({\\rm Si}) = 7.53 \\pm 0.08$ (previously $7.89 \\pm 0.13$), $A({\\rm S}) = 6.91 \\pm 0.07$ ($7.16 \\pm 0.17$), $A({\\rm Ar}) = 6.47 \\pm 0.08$ ($6.45 \\pm 0.07$), and $A({\\rm K}) = 5.73 \\pm 0.19$ ($5.86 \\pm 0.20$), with little evidence for time variations of abundances within the evolution of each flare. Our previous estimates of...

  4. AOI 1— COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di#14;fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  5. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Reactive Power Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujin, P R; Linda, M Mary

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive power plays an important role in supporting the real power transfer by maintaining voltage stability and system reliability. It is a critical element for a transmission operator to ensure the reliability of an electric system while minimizing the cost associated with it. The traditional objectives of reactive power dispatch are focused on the technical side of reactive support such as minimization of transmission losses. Reactive power cost compensation to a generator is based on the incurred cost of its reactive power contribution less the cost of its obligation to support the active power delivery. In this paper an efficient Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based reactive power optimization approach is presented. The optimal reactive power dispatch problem is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. The objective of the proposed PSO is to minimize the total support cost from generators and reactive compensators. It is achieved by maintaining the whole system power loss as minimum...

  6. Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Project

  7. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  8. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  9. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1993-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  10. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

  11. Multi-phase flow well test analysis in multi-layer reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jatmiko, W.; Archer, J.S. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Daltaban, T.S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the performance of an oil well under multi-phase flow test conditions when the reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point pressure and is correspond with the performance of dissolved gas reservoirs. The model reservoir comprises two commingled layer, where a well test is conducted on a fully perforated interval. The water phase is assumed immobile. The main objective of this work is to interpret the flowing well pressure response and to predict reservoir characteristics based on its performance. The work presented is based on a constant terminal rate analysis, but it can also applied to constant bottomhole pressure and can be used to predict the Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR).

  12. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  13. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  14. TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. This report includes a detailed description of governing equations, program architecture, and user features. Enhancements in data inputs relative to TOUGH are described, and a number of sample problems are given to illustrate code applications. 46 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. A thermodynamical formulation for chemically active multi-phase turbulent flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, G.; Cao, J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized thermodynamics for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid mixtures in turbulent state of motion is formulated. The global equations of balance for each phase are ensemble averaged and the local conservation laws for the mean motions are derived. The averaged and the local conservation laws for the mean motions are derived. The averaged form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality is used and the thermodynamics of the chemically active mixtures in turbulent motion is studied. Particular attention is given to the species concentration and chemical reaction effects, in addition to transport and interaction of the phasic fluctuation energies. Based on the averaged entropy inequality, constitutive equations for the stresses, energy, heat and mass fluxes of various species are developed. The explicit governing equations of motion are derived and discussed.

  16. Integrated acoustic phase separator and multiphase fluid composition monitoring apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for down hole gas separation from the multiphase fluid flowing in a wellbore or a pipe, for determining the quantities of the individual components of the liquid and the flow rate of the liquid, and for remixing the component parts of the fluid after which the gas volume may be measured, without affecting the flow stream, are described. Acoustic radiation force is employed to separate gas from the liquid, thereby permitting measurements to be separately made for these two components; the liquid (oil/water) composition is determined from ultrasonic resonances; and the gas volume is determined from capacitance measurements. Since the fluid flows around and through the component parts of the apparatus, there is little pressure difference, and no protection is required from high pressure differentials.

  17. Circulating fluidized bed hydrodynamics experiments for the multiphase fluid dynamics research consortium (MFDRC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelfke, John Barry; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tortora, Paul Richard; Bhusarapu, Satish (; ); Trujillo, Steven Mathew

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted to study the multiphase gas-solid flow in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB). This report describes the CFB experimental facility assembled for this program, the diagnostics developed and/or applied to make measurements in the riser section of the CFB, and the data acquired for several different flow conditions. Primary data acquired included pressures around the flow loop and solids loadings at selected locations in the riser. Tomographic techniques using gamma radiation and electrical capacitance were used to determine radial profiles of solids volume fraction in the riser, and axial profiles of the integrated solids volume fraction were produced. Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking was used to measure solids velocities, fluxes, and residence time distributions. In addition, a series of computational fluid dynamics simulations was performed using the commercial code Arenaflow{trademark}.

  18. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  19. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  20. DENSE MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION: CONTINUUM MODEL FOR POLY-DISPERSED SYSTEMS USING KINETIC THEORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses Bogere

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the applicability of the FCMOM approach to the kinetic equations describing the particle flow dynamics. For monodispersed systems the fundamental equation governing the particle flow dynamics is the Boltzmann equation. During the project, the FCMOM was successfully applied to several homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems in different flow regimes, demonstrating that the FCMOM has the potential to be used to solve efficiently the Boltzmann equation. However, some relevant issues still need to be resolved, i.e. the homogeneous cooling problem (inelastic particles cases) and the transition between different regimes. In this report, the results obtained in homogeneous conditions are discussed first. Then a discussion of the validation results for in-homogeneous conditions is provided. And finally, a discussion will be provided about the transition between different regimes. Alongside the work on development of FCMOM approach studies were undertaken in order to provide insights into anisotropy or particles kinetics in riser hydrodynamics. This report includes results of studies of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures and analysis of momentum re-distribution in risers due to particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions. The study of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures entailed both simulation and experimental studies of two particles sizes in a riser and, a brief discussion of what was accomplished will be provided. And finally, a discussion of the analysis done on momentum re-distribution of gas-particles flow in risers will be provided. In particular a discussion of the remaining work needed in order to improve accuracy and predictability of riser hydrodynamics based on two-fluid models and how they can be used to model segregation in risers.

  1. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges [AREVA NC (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactors, Japan and the Japanese utility TEPCO faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges: substantial amounts of radioactive mixed seawater and freshwater accumulated in the basements of four reactor and other buildings on the site. This water held varying levels of contamination due to the fact that it had been in contact with damaged fuel elements in the cores and with other contaminated components. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons of water with contamination levels up to the order of 1 Ci/l. Time was of the essence to avoid overflow of this accumulated water into the ocean. AREVA proposed, designed and implemented a water treatment solution using a proven chemical coprecipitation process with ppFeNi reagent, which is currently in use for effluent treatment on several nuclear sites including AREVA sites. In addition to the extremely short schedule the other challenge was to adapt the chemical treatment process to the expected composition of the Fukushima water and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of salinity on process performance. It was also necessary to define operating conditions for the VEOLIA equipment that had been selected for implementation of the process in the future facility. The operation phase began on June 17, and by the end of July more than 30,000 tons of highly radioactive saltwater had been decontaminated - the Decontamination Factor (DF) for Cesium was ?10{sup 4}. It allowed recycling the contaminated water to cool the reactors while protecting workers and the environment. This paper focuses on the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad water treatment unit project that was part of the TEPCO general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the principles of the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad, related on-the-fly R and D, an explanation of system implementation challenges, and a brief summary of operation results to date. AREVA's response to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi crisis was multi-phased: emergency aid and relief supply was sent within days after the accident; AREVA-Veolia engineering teams designed and implemented a water treatment solution in record time, only 3 months; and AREVA continues to support TEPCO and propose solutions for waste management, soil remediation and decontamination of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site. Despite the huge challenges, the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad project has been a success: the water treatment unit started on time and performed as expected. The performance is the result of many key elements: AREVA expertise in radioactive effluents decontamination, Veolia know-how in water treatment equipments in crisis environment, and of course AREVA and Veolia teams' creativity. The project success is also due to AREVA and Veolia teams' reactivity and high level of commitment with engineering teams working 24/7 in Japan, France and Germany. AREVA and Veolia deep knowledge of the Japanese industry ensured that the multi-cultural exchanges were not an issue. Finally the excellent overall project management and execution by TEPCO and other Japanese stakeholders was very efficient. The emergency water treatment was a key step of the roadmap towards restoration from the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi that TEPCO designed and keeps executing with success. (authors)

  2. Ensemble phase averaging equations for multiphase flows in porous media, part I: the bundle-of-tubes model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bundle-of-tubes construct is used as a model system to study ensemble averaged equations for multiphase flow in a porous material. Momentum equations for the fluid phases obtained from the method are similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. We study properties of the additional terms, and the conditions under which the averaged equations can be approximated by the diffusion model or the extended Darcy's law as often used in models for multiphase flows in porous media. Although the bundle-of-tubes model is perhaps the simplest model for a porous material, the ensemble averaged equation technique developed in this paper assumes the very same form in more general treatments described in Part 2 of the present work (Zhang 2009). Any model equation system intended for the more general cases must be understood and tested first using simple models. The concept of ensemble phase averaging is dissected here in physical terms, without involved mathematics through its application to the idealized bundle-of-tubes model for multiphase flow in porous media.

  3. Deep Reactive Ion Etching | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeep Reactive Ion

  4. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  5. Anisotropic reactive ion etching of vanadium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radle, Byron K

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Weichold Vanadium dioxide (V02) was anisotropically reactive ion etched using carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) . CF4, as an etch gas, provided the chemistry along with the control needed to achieve an anisotropic etch. This chemistry was practically inert... with vanadium quite easily. This leads to interest in using a fluorine- based chemistry. The goal of this research is to produce a selective anisotropic reactive ion etch for VO2 /photoresist using only carbon tetrafluoride (CFq) . Reactive ion etching...

  6. Thickness-based adaptive mesh refinement methods for multi-phase flow simulations with thin regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaodong [The State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Vigor, E-mail: vigor.yang@aerospace.gatech.edu [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In numerical simulations of multi-scale, multi-phase flows, grid refinement is required to resolve regions with small scales. A notable example is liquid-jet atomization and subsequent droplet dynamics. It is essential to characterize the detailed flow physics with variable length scales with high fidelity, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, two thickness-based mesh refinement schemes are developed based on distance- and topology-oriented criteria for thin regions with confining wall/plane of symmetry and in any situation, respectively. Both techniques are implemented in a general framework with a volume-of-fluid formulation and an adaptive-mesh-refinement capability. The distance-oriented technique compares against a critical value, the ratio of an interfacial cell size to the distance between the mass center of the cell and a reference plane. The topology-oriented technique is developed from digital topology theories to handle more general conditions. The requirement for interfacial mesh refinement can be detected swiftly, without the need of thickness information, equation solving, variable averaging or mesh repairing. The mesh refinement level increases smoothly on demand in thin regions. The schemes have been verified and validated against several benchmark cases to demonstrate their effectiveness and robustness. These include the dynamics of colliding droplets, droplet motions in a microchannel, and atomization of liquid impinging jets. Overall, the thickness-based refinement technique provides highly adaptive meshes for problems with thin regions in an efficient and fully automatic manner.

  7. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  8. Multiphase flow simulations of a moving fluidized bed regenerator in a carbon capture unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Avik; Pan, Wenxiao; Suh, Dong-Myung; Huckaby, E. D.; Sun, Xin

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To accelerate the commercialization and deployment of carbon capture technologies, computational fuid dynamics (CFD)-based tools may be used to model and analyze the performance of carbon cap-ture devices. This work presents multiphase CFD-based ow simulations for the regenerator|a device responsible for extracting CO2 from CO2-loaded sorbent particles before the particles are recycled. The use of solid particle sorbents in this design is a departure from previously reported systems, where aque-ous sorbents are employed. Another new feature is the inclusion of a series of perforated plates along the regenerator height. The in uence of these plates on sorbent distribution is examined for varying sorbent holdup, uidizing gas velocity, and particle size. The residence time distribution of sorbents is also measured to classify the low regime as plug ow or well-mixed ow. The purpose of this work is to better understand the sorbent ow characteristics before reaction kinetics of CO2 desorption can be implemented.

  9. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  10. Exploring the reactivity of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinberg, Christine Elaine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Introduction: The Reactivity of Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases constitute a remarkable family of enzymes that oxidize small, inert hydrocarbon substrates using ...

  11. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils with reactive material in a trench cut through a contaminated ground water aquifer....

  12. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  13. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  14. REACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS AND AUGMENTED MEDIA SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperstock, Jeremy R.

    REACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS AND AUGMENTED MEDIA SPACES by Jeremy R. Cooperstock A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto © Copyright by Jeremy R. Cooperstock, 1996 #12;ii REACTIVE

  15. The Multiphase Halo of NGC 891: WIYN H-alpha and BVI Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Christopher Howk; Blair D. Savage

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new, deep optical images (BVI+H-alpha) of the interstellar medium (ISM) far above the plane of NGC 891. These sub-arcsecond images give a direct visual view of two physically distinct ``phases'' of the thick interstellar disk of this galaxy. A dense phase of the thick disk ISM is observed in our BVI images as highly-structured dust-bearing clouds viewed against the stellar light of the galaxy. These structures are traceable to heights |z|=2 kpc from the midplane. Very few highly-structured dust features are present at |z|>2 kpc. The more prominent dust structures have gas masses in excess of 10^5 solar masses, each having visual extinctions well in excess of unity. A warm ionized phase of the high-z ISM is observed through its well-studied H-alpha emission. Our images of the well-studied diffuse ionized medium, to date the highest-resolution observations of this phase of the ISM in NGC 891, show it is relatively smoothly distributed with some filamentary structure superposed on this smooth background. There is little correspondence between the H-alpha emitting material and the absorbing dust structures. These two phases of the multiphase high-z ISM are physically distinct. The H-alpha emission is being heavily extincted in many places by the dense dust-bearing medium. Our H-alpha observations show evidence for several discrete H II regions at large distances from the midplane (to |z|=2 kpc). The presence of these H II regions in the thick disk of NGC 891 suggests that on-going star formation may be present in some of the dense, high-z clouds visible in our images. (Abstract Abridged)

  16. Summary of applications of TOUGH2 to the evaluation of multiphase flow processes at the WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeze, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility for the underground disposal of transuranic waste in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP repository is located 655 m below the land surface in the lower portion of the Salado Formation, which is comprised of beds of pure and impure halite with thin interbeds of anhydrite and related clay seams. The regional dip of the Salado Formation is approximately 1{degree} southeast in the vicinity of the repository. The proposed waste storage area has eight waste disposal panels, each of which will contain seven rooms. The repository is designed to follow a single stratigraphic horizon. Due to the dip, the north end of the repository will be about 10 meters higher than the south end. Waste that is emplaced in the disposal rooms will generate gas due to microbial degradation, anoxic corrosion, and radiolysis. Brine inflow to the rooms from the surrounding Salado Formation may significantly influence the gas generation rate and the total amount of gas generated. The salt surrounding the repository will creep in response to the excavation, reducing the room volume. Gas generation in the room may increase the pressure sufficiently to drive brine and gas into the surrounding Salado Formation. Migration of gas and brine in the Salado is an important factor in evaluating the performance of the repository. The studies summarized in this paper have. been performed to evaluate brine and gas flow processes in the WIPP disposal system and to identify some of the important processes. These studies are done in support of, but are not part of, the formal Performance Assessment (PA) effort. Because of probabilistic and system-scale requirements, the PA effort uses the Sandia-developed BRAGFLO (BRine And Gas FLOw) code for multiphase flow calculations.

  17. Numerical modeling of multiphase plumes: a comparative study between two-fluid and mixed-fluid integral models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhaumik, Tirtharaj

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -field effects of a multiphase plume of liquid CO2 droplets in ocean water finds potential in estimating the environmental risks involved due to deep-ocean sequestration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, which is one of the proposed alternatives (Liro... for the diffuser orifice diameter, air-flow rate and the number of such ports necessary to dissolve a measured quantity of air in a given time of operation will also be studied. 3.3. Case 3: CO2 Sequestration in the Ocean Sequestration of carbon dioxide and other...

  18. Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    reactive support and voltage control services. Keywords ­ Competitive Electricity Markets, Reactive PowerReactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges George Gross^, Paolo Marannino° and Gianfranco Chicco* ^ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

  19. SAMFT1D: Single-phase and multiphase flow and transport in 1 dimension. Version 2.0, Documentation and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.S.; Huyakorn, P.S.; Panday, S.; Park, N.S.; Kool, J.B. [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a one-dimensional numerical model, SAMFT1D, developed to simulate single-phase and multiphase fluid flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code for single-phase and multiphase flow and transport are presented. The code is constructed to handle single-phase as well as two or three-phase flow conditions using two integrated sets of computational modules. The fully implicit scheme is used in the code for both single-phase and multiphase flow simulations. Either the Crank-Nicholson scheme or the fully implicit scheme may be used in the transport simulation. The single-phase modules employ the Galerkin and upstream weighted residual finite element techniques to model flow and transport of water (aqueous phase) containing dissolved single-species contaminants concurrently or sequentially, and include the treatment of various boundary conditions and physical processes. The multiphase flow modules use block-centered finite difference techniques to simulate two or three-phase flow problems, and treat different boundary conditions in terms of source/sink terms fully implicitly. Whereas the multiphase solute transport modules employ finite element schemes to handle single-species transport in multiphase fluid systems. This document has been produced as a user`s manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and simulation restart procedures.

  20. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

  1. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive transport and mineral precipitation in porous and fractured porous media. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive...

  2. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  3. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  4. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  5. Fossil plant layup and reactivation conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fossil Plant Layup and Reactivation Conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on April 14--15, 1992. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI and hosted by Entergy Services, Inc. to bring together representatives from utilities, consulting firms, manufacturers and architectural engineers. Eighteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to layup procedures and practices, and reactivation case studies. A panel discussion was held on the second day to interactively discuss layup and reactivation issues. More than 80 people attended the Conference. This report contains technical papers and a summary of the panel discussion. Of the eighteen papers, three are related to general, one is related to regulatory issues, three are related to specific equipment, four are related to layup procedures and practices, and seven are layup and reactivation case studies.

  6. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  7. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  8. Consideration of spatial effects in reactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveenko, I. P., E-mail: matveenko@ippe.ru; Lititskii, V. A.; Shokod'ko, A. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Various methods of considering spatial effects in reactivity measurements are presented. These methods are employed both at the critical (mainly fast-neutron) facilities and at the BN-600 reactor.

  9. Systematic approach for chemical reactivity evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldeeb, Abdulrehman Ahmed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Screening Tool (RSST) and the Automatic Pressure Tracking Adiabatic Calorimeter (APTAC) were employed to evaluate the reactive systems experimentally. The RSST detected exothermic behavior and measured the overall liberated energy. The APTAC simulated...

  10. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  11. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Concepts, Treatment, and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Chris

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder characterized by controversy, both with respect to its definition and its treatment. By definition, the RAD diagnosis attempts to characterize and explain the origin of ...

  12. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warwas, Edwin James

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J, WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967' Major... Subject: Chemistry RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J. WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAST ER OF S CIENCE January...

  13. 6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi'an, China, 11-15 July 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi in pipeline transportation, where it is important to identify and control bottlenecks influence on production be viewed as the hydrodynamic equivalent of the Mach number for gas flows. Simplified hydraulic theories

  14. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 29, NO. 11, PAGES 3727-3740, NOVEMBER 1993 Modeling of Multiphase Transport of Multicomponent Organic Contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 29, NO. 11, PAGES 3727-3740, NOVEMBER 1993 Modeling of Multiphase. Although these organic liquids are designatedas "nonaque- ous," i.e., immiscible with water, their solubilities in water are, in fact, sufficientto render large quantities of ground- water unfit for human use

  15. Eoeective Recognizability and Model Checking of Reactive Fioeo Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutre, Grégoire

    Electre. For this, we deøne a particular behavioral model for Electre programs, Reactive Fioeo Au­ tomata speciøed with the reactive language Electre [CR95]. A reactive pro­ gram is supposed to reactEoeective Recognizability and Model Checking of Reactive Fioeo Automata G. Sutre 1 , A. Finkel 1

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Multiphase Flows in Gas-Diffusion-Layer (GDL) of a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiladitya Mukherjeea; J. Vernon Cole; Kunal Jainb; Ashok Gidwania

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved power density and freeze-thaw durability in automotive applications of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) requires effective water management at the membrane. This is controlled by a porous hydrophobic gas-diffusion-layer (GDL) inserted between the membrane catalyst layer and the gas reactant channels. The GDL distributes the incoming gaseous reactants on the catalyst surface and removes excess water by capillary action. There is, however, limited understanding of the multiphase, multi-component transport of liquid water, vapor and gaseous reactants within these porous materials. This is due primarily to the challenges of in-situ diagnostics for such thin (200 -? 300 {microns}), optically opaque (graphite) materials. Transport is typically analyzed by fitting Darcy's Law type expressions for permeability, in conjunction with capillary pressure relations based on formulations derived for media such as soils. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing predictive models for transport in GDLs and related porous media. Such models could be applied to analyze and optimize systems based on the interactions between cell design, materials, and operating conditions, and could also be applied to evaluating material design concepts. Recently, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has emerged as an effective tool in modeling multiphase flows in general, and flows through porous media in particular. This method is based on the solution of a discrete form of the well-known Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for molecular distribution, tailored to recover the continuum Navier-Stokes flow. The kinetic theory basis of the method allows simple implementation of molecular forces responsible for liquid-gas phase separation and capillary effects. The solution advances by a streaming and collision type algorithm that makes it suitable to implement for domains with complex boundaries. We have developed both single and multiphase LB models and applied them to simulate flow through porous GDL materials. We will present an overview of the methods as implemented, verification studies for both microstructure reconstruction and transport simulations, and application to single- and two-phase transport in GDL structures. The applications studies are designed to both improve understanding of transport within a given structure, and to investigate possible routes for improving material properties through microstructure design.

  17. Assessment of the application of acoustic emission technology for monitoring the presence of sand under multiphase flow condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Alej, M., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Mba, D., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Yeung, H., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 OAL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup ?1} to 2.0 ms{sup ?1} and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup ?1} to 1.0 ms{sup ?1}. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)

  18. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  19. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.

  20. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  1. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  2. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion-bearing sodalites contained in the multiphase ceramic matrix are present as mixed-anion sodalite phases. These results suggest the multiphase FBSR NAS material may be a viable host matrix for long-lived, highly mobilie radionuclides which is a critical aspect in the management of nuclear waste.

  3. Experimental Determination of the Speciation, Partitioning, and Release of Perrhenate as a Chemical Surrogate for Pertechnetate from a Sodalite-Bearing Multiphase Ceramic Waste Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL; Lukens, Wayne W [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fitts, Jeffrey P [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Tang, Guoping [ORNL] [ORNL; Jantzen, C M [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion-bearing sodalites contained in the multiphase ceramic matrix are present as mixed-anion sodalite phases. These results suggest the multiphase FBSR NAS material may be a viable host matrix for long-lived, highly mobilie radionuclides which is a critical aspect in the management of nuclear waste.

  4. Numerical simulation of the non-isothermal developing flow of a nonlinear viscoelastic fluid in a rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikoleris, Teo

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    = 0. 4 36-element mesh ( ? ) vs. 144-element mesh (- - - -) Stress component ws?profiles at Nu, = 0. 4 36-element mesh ( ) vs. 144-element mesh (- - - -) 71 72 74 75 76 Stress component r vs. Niv, (Ep/R) = 108 C ( ~ ), (Ep/R) = 54 C (o), (Ep/R...) = 27 C (p) . . 82 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page 45. 46. 48. Stress component v ?vs. Nvv, (Ep/R)~ = 108 C ( ~ ), (Ep/R)~ = 54 C (o), (Ep/R)~ Stress component rss vs. Nvv, (Ep/R): 108 C ( ~ ) (Ep/R): 54 C (o) (Ep/R) Stress component r...

  5. Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    density Speci?c heat capacity of liquid phase Speci?c heatspeci?c heat capacity of the solid phase, the liquid phase,Heat capacity Heat conductivity Intrinsic permeability of liquid

  6. A practical method for estimating non-isothermal and formation damage skin factors for cold water injection wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warland, Arild

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    numerical model to analyze cold waterflooding in a warm reservoir. His model considered the effect of relative permeability and the dependence of viscosity on temperature. He analyzed a limited number of pressure falloff tests and concluded that pressure.... and Gogarty, W. B. : "Pressure Falloff Analysis in Reservoirs With Fluid Banks, " J. Pet. Tech. (July 1974), 809-818. 10. Weinstein, H. G. : "Cold Waterflooding a Warm Reservoir, " SPE paper No. 5083 presented at the 49th Annual Fall Meeting of the Society...

  7. Studies on Waterborne Pathogen Reactivation after Disinfection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Jasjeet

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ultraviolet (LP UV) irradiation at five titanium dioxide (TiO_(2)) concentrations (1 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 0.75 g/L, and 0.1 g/L) to achieve 5 log_(10) reduction of a laboratory E. coli K-12 strain (ATCC® 10798). Regrowth and reactivation of E. coli in dark and light...

  8. Gasification reactivities of solid biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of the biomass based gasification processes require knowledge about the biomass feedstocks characteristics and their typical gasification behaviour in the process. In this study, the gasification reactivities of various biomasses were investigated in laboratory scale Pressurized Thermogravimetric apparatus (PTG) and in the PDU-scale (Process Development Unit) Pressurized Fluidized-Bed (PFB) gasification test facility of VTT.

  9. Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    for the last decade. Most of their work involves depleted uranium, a more common form of uraniumMarch 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many

  10. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive Power from Distributed Energy”, The Electricityvoltage. Electricity consumers’ demand for reactive power ison electricity supply security, the costs of local reactive

  11. Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud Hottelier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodik, Rastisla

    Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud Hottelier James Ide Doug Kimelman Ras Bodik Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

  13. Three-dimensional multiphase segmentation of X-ray CT data of porous materials using a Bayesian Markov random field framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Ramaprasad; Tuller, Markus; Fink, Wolfgang; Wildschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.); (Ariz)

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancements in noninvasive imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) have led to a recent surge of applications in porous media research with objectives ranging from theoretical aspects of pore-scale fluid and interfacial dynamics to practical applications such as enhanced oil recovery and advanced contaminant remediation. While substantial efforts and resources have been devoted to advance CT technology, microscale analysis, and fluid dynamics simulations, the development of efficient and stable three-dimensional multiphase image segmentation methods applicable to large data sets is lacking. To eliminate the need for wet-dry or dual-energy scans, image alignment, and subtraction analysis, commonly applied in X-ray micro-CT, a segmentation method based on a Bayesian Markov random field (MRF) framework amenable to true three-dimensional multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, several heuristic and deterministic combinatorial optimization schemes required to solve the labeling problem of the MRF image model were implemented and tested for computational efficiency and their impact on segmentation results. Test results for three grayscale data sets consisting of dry glass beads, partially saturated glass beads, and partially saturated crushed tuff obtained with synchrotron X-ray micro-CT demonstrate great potential of the MRF image model for three-dimensional multiphase segmentation. While our results are promising and the developed algorithm is stable and computationally more efficient than other commonly applied porous media segmentation models, further potential improvements exist for fully automated operation.

  14. The Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems In Ptolemy II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems In Ptolemy II by Paul Whitaker Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, in partial;_____________________________________________________________________ Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems in Ptolemy II ii Abstract The Synchronous Reactive (SR) domain

  15. Autonomic Reactive Systems via Online Learning Sanjit A. Seshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Autonomic Reactive Systems via Online Learning Sanjit A. Seshia Department of Electrical@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract-- Reactive systems are those that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment- covering a class of reactive systems from run-time failures. This class of systems comprises those whose

  16. Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mali, Amol D.

    Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali Electrical Engg. & Computer robots need to be reactive and robust. Behavior-based robots that identify and repair the failures have of reactivity and robustness have been hitherto only informally used and have been loaded with var- ious

  17. A Synchronous Approach to Reactive System Design1 Charles Andr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André, Charles

    our experience teaching discrete-event reactive systems to Electrical Engineering students. The courseA Synchronous Approach to Reactive System Design1 Charles André I3S Laboratory ­ UNSA/CNRS BP 121 This paper was presented at the 12th EAEEIE Annual Conf., 14-16 May 2001, Nancy (France). Abstract Reactive

  18. On Some Properties of Instantaneous Active and Reactive Powers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    On Some Properties of Instantaneous Active and Reactive Powers Leszek S. CZARNECKI, Fellow IEEE Louisiana State University, USA Abstract: Some features of the instantaneous active and reactive powers p control. Also it was shown that the instantaneous reactive power q cannot be interpreted as a measure

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHASE FLOW, TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN HEAVY OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yannis C. Yortsos

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is final report for contract DE-AC26-99BC15211. The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress. The report consists mainly of a compilation of various topical reports, technical papers and research reports published produced during the three-year project, which ended on May 6, 2002 and was no-cost extended to January 5, 2003. Advances in multiple processes and at various scales are described. In the area of internal drives, significant research accomplishments were made in the modeling of gas-phase growth driven by mass transfer, as in solution-gas drive, and by heat transfer, as in internal steam drives. In the area of vapor-liquid flows, we studied various aspects of concurrent and countercurrent flows, including stability analyses of vapor-liquid counterflow, and the development of novel methods for the pore-network modeling of the mobilization of trapped phases and liquid-vapor phase changes. In the area of combustion, we developed new methods for the modeling of these processes at the continuum and pore-network scales. These models allow us to understand a number of important aspects of in-situ combustion, including steady-state front propagation, multiple steady-states, effects of heterogeneity and modes of combustion (forward or reverse). Additional aspects of reactive transport in porous media were also studied. Finally, significant advances were made in the flow and displacement of non-Newtonian fluids with Bingham plastic rheology, which is characteristic of various heavy oil processes. Various accomplishments in generic displacements in porous media and corresponding effects of reservoir heterogeneity are also cited.

  20. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  1. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  2. Mined land reclamation by biological reactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozon, J.S.; Konya, C.J.; Lukovic, S.S.; Lundquist, R.G.; Olah, J.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mine reclamation technique, developed in Europe, restores land to full productivity within two years without topsoil replacement. The method deliberately reestablishes within one year following mining, the required biological balance between microbes, enzymes, and trace elements in the rock spoil rather than waiting five or more years for natural processes to restore balance. The technique is called Biological Reactivation (BR). This paper discusses the feasibility of BR reclamation after surface mining operations in the US. Staff of the Ohio Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute completed an OSM-sponsored research project on BR in which physical and chemical tests characterized 140 spoil samples obtained from 10 surface mining operations. Test results indicated that Biological Reactivation technology could be effectively applied, at least in the test areas sampled within Appalachia. Preliminary estimates make clear that the new technique reduces reclamation costs on prime farmland by approximately 95% compared to topsoil segregation and replacement methods.

  3. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  4. Energy Dependence of Directed Flow in Au+Au Collisions from a Multi-phase Transport Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Y. Chen; J. X. Zuo; X. Z. Cai; F. Liu; Y. G. Ma; A. H. Tang

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The directed flow of charged hadron and identified particles has been studied in the framework of a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model, for $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200, 130, 62.4, 39, 17.2 and 9.2 GeV. The rapidity, centrality and energy dependence of directed flow for charged particles over a wide rapidity range are presented. AMPT model gives the correct $v_1(y)$ slope, as well as its trend as a function of energy, while it underestimates the magnitude. Within the AMPT model, the proton $v_1$ slope is found to change its sign when the energy increases to 130 GeV - a feature that is consistent with ``anti-flow''. Hadronic re-scattering is found having little effect on $v_1$ at top RHIC energies. These studies can help us to understand the collective dynamics at early times in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and they can also be served as references for the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  5. T2WELL/ECO2N

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002966IBMPC00 T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water  http:..esd.lbl.gov/tough/licensing.html 

  6. The effects of gas-fluid-rock interactions on CO2 injection and storage: Insights from reactive transport modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Y.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Possible means of reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions include injecting CO{sub 2} in petroleum reservoirs for Enhanced Oil Recovery or storing CO{sub 2} in deep saline aquifers. Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into subsurface reservoirs would induce a complex interplay of multiphase flow, capillary trapping, dissolution, diffusion, convection, and chemical reactions that may have significant impacts on both short-term injection performance and long-term fate of CO{sub 2} storage. Reactive Transport Modeling is a promising approach that can be used to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO{sub 2} and associated gas-fluid-rock interactions. This presentation will summarize recent advances in reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and review key technical issues on (1) the short- and long-term behavior of injected CO{sub 2} in geological formations; (2) the role of reservoir mineral heterogeneity on injection performance and storage security; (3) the effect of gas mixtures (e.g., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) on CO{sub 2} storage; and (4) the physical and chemical processes during potential leakage of CO{sub 2} from the primary storage reservoir. Simulation results suggest that CO{sub 2} trapping capacity, rate, and impact on reservoir rocks depend on primary mineral composition and injecting gas mixtures. For example, models predict that the injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with H{sub 2}S in both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs lead to acidified zones and mineral dissolution adjacent to the injection well, and carbonate precipitation and mineral trapping away from the well. Co-injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and in particular with SO{sub 2} causes greater formation alteration and complex sulfur mineral (alunite, anhydrite, and pyrite) trapping, sometimes at a much faster rate than previously thought. The results from Reactive Transport Modeling provide valuable insights for analyzing and assessing the dynamic behaviors of injected CO{sub 2}, identifying and characterizing potential storage sites, and managing injection performance and reducing costs.

  7. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  8. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

  9. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingsheng

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    released and the rate of energy released for a specific reactive chemical. 2.1 DSC DSC is a popular screening tool (safe and fast) and can provide an overall indication of exothermic activity of the chemical being tested. In a DSC, a sample and a... endothermic or exothermic reaction. When the rate of heat generation in the sample exceeds a particular value, the heat supply to the sample is cut off and this additional heat gain is attributed to exothermic activity within the sample.17 From the DSC...

  11. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Laramie, WY, NJ); Chen, James M. (Rahway, NJ); Yang, Ralph T. (Amherst, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  12. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.

    1980-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  13. Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows 1 Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    premixed combustion is recently a theme of interest in gas turbines and other industrial applications flames #12;2 Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows for gas turbine application. In: International Gas combustion LES in- cluding thickened flame model A. Hosseinzadeh, A. Sadiki, J. Janicka (TU Darmstadt) Lean

  14. Exact regularized point particle method for multi-phase flows in the two-way coupling regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gualtieri; F. Picano; G. Sardina; C. M. Casciola

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate flows have been largely studied under the simplifying assumptions of one-way coupling regime where the disperse phase do not react-back on the carrier fluid. In the context of turbulent flows, many non trivial phenomena such as small scales particles clustering or preferential spatial accumulation have been explained and understood. A more complete view of multiphase flows can be gained calling into play two-way coupling effects, i.e. by accounting for the inter-phase momentum exchange between the carrier and the suspended phase, certainly relevant at increasing mass loading. In such regime, partially investigated in the past by the so-called Particle In Cell (PIC) method, much is still to be learned about the dynamics of the disperse phase and the ensuing alteration of the carrier flow. In this paper we present a new methodology rigorously designed to capture the inter-phase momentum exchange for particles smaller than the smallest hydrodynamical scale, e.g. the Kolmogorov scale in a turbulent flow. In fact, the momentum coupling mechanism exploits the unsteady Stokes flow around a small rigid sphere where the transient disturbance produced by each particle is evaluated in a closed form. The particles are described as lumped, point masses which would lead to the appearance of singularities. A rigorous regularization procedure is conceived to extract the physically relevant interactions between particles and fluid which avoids any "ah hoc" assumption. The approach is suited for high efficiency implementation on massively parallel machines since the transient disturbance produced by the particles is strongly localized in space around the actual particle position. As will be shown, hundred thousands particles can therefore be handled at an affordable computational cost as demonstrated by a preliminary application to a particle laden turbulent shear flow.

  15. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  16. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based chemicals from complex aqueous mixtures. SeparationPurification of Biomass...

  17. Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

  18. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Chemically Reactive Working Fluids Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators...

  19. Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of...

  20. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  1. Completing the complex Poynting theorem: Conservation of reactive energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Kaiser

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem is extended canonically to a time-scale domain $(t, s)$ by replacing the phasors of time-harmonic fields by the analytic signals $X(r, t+is)$ of fields $X(r,t)$ with general time dependence. The imaginary time $s>0$ is shown to play the role of a time resolution scale, and the extended Poynting theorem splits into two conservation laws: its real part gives the conservation in $t$ of the scale-averaged active energy at fixed $s$, and its imaginary part gives the conservation in $s$ of the scale-averaged reactive energy at fixed $t$. At coarse scales (large $s$, slow time), where the system reduces to the circuit level, this may have applications to the theory of electric power transmission and conditioning. At fine scales (small $s$, fast time) it describes reactive energy dynamics in radiating systems.

  2. The Specification and Execution of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Specification and Execution of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems by Stephen Anthony in Engineering---Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences in the GRADUATE DIVISION of the UNIVERSITY of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems Copyright ĂŁ 1997 by Stephen Anthony Edwards #12; Abstract

  3. A Modified Reactive Control Framework for Cooperative Mobile Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Modified Reactive Control Framework for Cooperative Mobile Robots J. Salido a , J.M. Dolan a , J Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon Univ. Pittsburgh, PA 15213­3890 USA. Purely reactive approaches such as that of Brooks are efficient, but lack a mechanism for global control

  4. Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting Le Chen,, Esther of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 has remained relatively underexplored. Here, we report the synthesis of BiVO4 thin films by reactive

  5. Reactive Rearrangement of Parts under Sensor Inaccuracy: Particle Filter Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactive Rearrangement of Parts under Sensor Inaccuracy: Particle Filter Approach Hal^uk Bayram, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Bogazici University, Bebek 34342 Istanbul Turkey Abstract-- The paper will be left undisturbed, the robot is required to employ a reactive strategy. A feedback-based event

  6. Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan NPJ Vogtla¨nder1 , WPM Tamboer1 open. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to degrade and depolymerize carbohydrates, and to playDa in skeletal muscle, ranging from 120 kDa in brain to 190 kDa in the Torpedo electric organ.8

  7. Towards Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems Insa Fuhrmann David Broman Steven Smyth Reinhard von Hanxleden Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems Insa Fuhrmann1 , David Broman2,3 , Steven Smyth1

  8. Reactive ion etched substrates and methods of making and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rucker, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA); Shediac, Rene (Oakland, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Havenstrite, Karen L. (New York, NY)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are substrates comprising reactive ion etched surfaces and specific binding agents immobilized thereon. The substrates may be used in methods and devices for assaying or isolating analytes in a sample. Also disclosed are methods of making the reactive ion etched surfaces.

  9. Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

  10. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    , nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous acid (HONO) produced by internalOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds from light-duty vehicles. At the San Jose and wLA sites

  11. ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS By JORGE ANTONIO JEREZ transport experiments; Dr. Barbara Williams and Jason Shira from University of Idaho for providing access-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS Abstract by Jorge Antonio Jerez Briones, Ph.D. Washington

  12. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey, E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Zeier, Wolfgang G. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States); Melot, Brent C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating reactive oxygen Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure and surface relaxation Summary: reactivity of each type of oxygen the adsorption of hydrogen over different oxygen sites is studied. Full... oxygen is the reactive...

  16. Metal-Pyrrolide Complexes in Three-fold Symmetry: Synthesis, Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, William Hill

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harman AStructure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harmanlost time. Dave taught me magnetism and what it takes to win

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of iridium complexes bearing the ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizpe, Luis (Luis Alfredo)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis, structure, and reactivity properties of three iridium square planar complexes bearing the anionic phosphine ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene (DPB) are described. Reactivity studies show a rate enhancement ...

  18. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulate reactive oxygen Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactive oxygen Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: accumulate reactive oxygen Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 CLINICAL CONCEPTS AND...

  20. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach Re-direct Destination: The reactivity of sandstones was studied under...

  1. Physical Separation and Multiphase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    - research into CVD and HVOF coatings for subsea choke valve applications. s US Navy - understanding the processes of charge generation in gear contacts as a predictive maintenance tool. s DRA/UoS - corrosion

  2. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  3. Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray A. Berry

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

  4. The Safe Storage Study for Autocatalytic Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lijun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report, Improving Reactive Hazard Management, there are 37 out of 167 accidents, which occurred in a storage tank or a storage area. This fact demonstrates that thermal runaway...

  5. Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BHT is a common antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations and when oxidized it forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species which can undergo nucleophilic addition. This research investigated ...

  6. Evaluation of Methods to Predict Reactivity of Gold Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relationship to the concept of frontier molecular orbital theory. The d-band theory of Hammer and Nřrskov is perhaps the most widely used predictor of reactivity on metallic...

  7. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  8. Dynamic Reactive Power Control of Isolated Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falahi, Milad

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents dynamic reactive power control of isolated power systems. Isolated systems include MicroGrids in islanded mode, shipboard power systems operating offshore, or any other power system operating in islanded mode intentionally...

  9. Mechanical properties of amorphous Lix Si alloys: a reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was downloaded on 08102013 at 15:46 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Mechanical properties of amorphous Li x Si alloys: a reactive force field study View the table...

  10. Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

  11. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

  12. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  13. Application of the ''reactivity constraint approach'' to automatic reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, J.A.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''reactivity constraint approach'' is described and demonstrated to be an effective and reliable means for the automatic control of power in nuclear reactors. This approach functions by restricting the effect of the delayed neutron populations to that which can be balanced by an induced change in the prompt population. This is done by limiting the net reactivity to the amount that can be offset by reversing the direction of motion of the automated control mechanism. The necessary reactivity constraints are obtained from the dynamic period equation, which gives the instantaneous reactor period as a function of the reactivity and the rate of change of reactivity. The derivation of this equation is described with emphasis on the recently obtained ''alternate'' formulation. Following a discussion of the behavior of each term of this alternate equation as a function of reactivity, its use in the design and operation of a nonlinear, closed-loop, digital controller for reactor power is in the design and operation of a nonlinear, closed-loop, digital controller for reactor power is described. Details of the initial experimental trials of the resulting controller are given.

  14. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  15. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.

  16. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition of Ozone via Passive Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition) homogeneous reactions with indoor pollutants. The #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 latter

  17. Application of Partial-Order Methods to Reactive Programs with Event Memorization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with event memorization. The reactive systems are specified with an asynchronous reactive language Electre, 3 (2001) 287-316" #12;2 Electre: an Asynchronous Reactive Language with Event Memorization 3 2 of a semantic model of an asyn- chronous reactive language: Electre [PRH92, CR95]. Indeed, this language

  18. Development and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Science Reactive Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yang

    for plume rise, plume visibility, and stack opacity (5). Examples of other reactive plume models include

  19. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for each source rock. This allowed the bulk rate of oil and gas generation for a source rockEarly maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive

  20. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  1. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  2. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  3. Plasma & reactive ion etching to prepare ohmic contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a metal and a layer of p-type CdTe surface by plasma etching and reactive ion etching comprising: a) placing a CdS/CdTe layer into a chamber and evacuating said chamber; b) backfilling the chamber with Argon or a reactive gas to a pressure sufficient for plasma ignition; and c) generating plasma ignition by energizing a cathode which is connected to a power supply to enable the plasma to interact argon ions alone or in the presence of a radio-frequency DC self-bias voltage with the p-CdTe surface.

  4. Dielectric covered hairpin probe for its application in reactive plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogna, G. S.; Gaman, C.; Turner, M. M. [NCPST, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Karkari, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Center, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The hairpin probe is a well known technique for measuring local electron density in low temperature plasmas. In reactive plasmas, the probe characteristics are affected by surface sputtering, contamination, and secondary electron emission. At higher densities, the plasma absorbs the entire electromagnetic energy of hairpin and hence limits the density measurements. These issues can be resolved by covering the hairpin surface with a thin layer of dielectric. In this letter, the dielectric contribution to the probe characteristics is incorporated in a theory which is experimentally verified. The dielectric covering improves the performance of probe and also allows the hairpin tip to survive in reactive plasma where classical electrical probes are easily damaged.

  5. Non-Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA) and Semi-Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA) FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Langhorst; Nikki Rasmussen; Andrew Robinson

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers have proposed prototypes for future lightweight armor systems that reside in a technology gap between explosive reactive armor and passive armor. The targets were designed to react under impact and throw a steel front plate into the path of the projectile, forcing the projectile to engage more of the front plate during its penetration process. These prototypes are intended to exhibit the enhanced efficiency of explosive reactive armor without the collateral damage often associated with explosive reactive armor. One of the prototype systems, Semi Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA), functions similarly to explosive reactive armor, but features a reactive material that reacts much slower than explosive reactive armor. Two different SERA test groups were built and featuring different ratios of aluminum Teflon(copyright) powders pressed into 0.5 in. thick energetic tiles and sandwiched between 0.25 in. thick RHA plates. The other prototype system, Non Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA), utilizes the strain energy in compressed rubber to launch a front flyer plate into the path of an incoming projectile. It is comprised of a 1 in. thick rubber layer sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates with bolt holes around the perimeter. Bolts are inserted through the entire target and tightened to compress the rubber sheet to significant strain levels (approximately 40%). A fourth group of targets was tested as a control group. It featured a 0.5 in. thick rubber sheet sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates, similar to the NERA test articles, but the rubber is uncompressed. The four test groups (uncompressed rubber, compressed rubber, 70/30 Al/PTFE, 50/50 Al/PTFE) were each fabricated with three identical test articles in each group. All twelve targets were subjected to ballistic testing at the National Security Test Range on July 17, 2013. They were tested with 0.5 in. diameter steel rods shot at a consistent velocity at each target. In order to characterize the energetic materials, break wires were embedded in the targets and burn velocities were measured. The residual mass method was used to compare the target performance of each group and final performance data is presented below.

  6. MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER Engineering and Economics of Electricity Research Group (E3 RG) CORNELL UNIVERSITY E3 RG contributing authors: Robert Thomas, Director the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and in part by the National Science

  7. Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids Henning Struchtrup Institute with a distributed form of surface tension. The model describes chemistry, diffusion, viscosity and heat transfer tension at the front. Keywords: Binary mixtures, Surface tension, Irreversible thermodynamics, Hele

  8. Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leue, Stefan

    of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may depend are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of one cycle may rely on the repetitionsDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

  9. Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    processes of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may in which cycle executions are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of oneDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

  10. Active and reactive power in stochastic resonance for energy harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubota, Madoka; Hikihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power allocation to active and reactive power in stochastic resonance is discussed for energy harvesting from mechanical noise. It is confirmed that active power can be increased at stochastic resonance, in the same way of the relationship between energy and phase at an appropriate setting in resonance.

  11. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    . Heavy metals are leached as ground water reaches the exposed ores. Arizona has a rich historyPermeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Acid Mine) is defined as the presence heavy metals, increased acidity, and sulfate as a direct result of mining

  12. Reactive materials can quickly form plugs for blowout control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flak, L.H. [Wright Boots and Coots, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of reactive materials, or gunk, can react directly with produced fluids (oil, condensate, or brine) or with an additionally injected fluid to form a plug to kill blowout wells or shut off large flow paths. Several recent blowouts were successfully controlled with reactive plugs; other conventional methods would have been more difficult operationally and cost more. Several plug mixtures are available on the market and can be made to suit the type of application and any particular environmental concerns. With proper planning and application, reactive plugs should be considered as a prime well control method when injection into the blowout flow path is available. This method of blowout control can save significant time and expense. The paper discusses the two basic methods of using reactive fluids depending on the flow path available, the use of cements, application steps, environmental concerns, and three case histories: a horizontal well in Texas, a high pressure, high temperature well offshore Louisiana, and a gas blowout in Argentina.

  13. Substituent Effects on the Reactivity of the Silicon-Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Canada L8S 4M1 Received April 28, 2000 ABSTRACT Laser flash photolysis of various organosilicon compounds as a reactive intermediate in the high-temperature pyrolysis of a silacyclobutane deriva- tive.9 Hundreds describes our efforts to employ these techniquess laser flash photolysis methods in particularsto study

  14. Author's personal copy Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    on the surface [18]. Hence the effect of lithium on plasma­wall interactions is expected to dependAuthor's personal copy Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface S.S. Harilal a, *, J in fusion devices [1­5]. For example, wall conditioning with thin lithium layers gives rise to low hydrogen

  15. A REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    deterministic forward commodity price which, in most cases, historical data demonstrates to be quite volatileA REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY Meimei Zhang and operating cash flow. This industry is usually considered high risk because of historically volatile

  16. Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, Robert G. (Glenville, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY); Gregurech, Steve (Scotia, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

  17. Stability, electronic structure and reactivity of the polymerized fullerite forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability, electronic structure and reactivity of the polymerized fullerite forms V.V. Belavina , L density distribution from selected crystal orbitals of polymerized C60 forms was carried out. Linear chain with the highest occupied (HO) and lowest unoccupied (LU) bands. The polymerized C60 forms were found to be less

  18. Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Study of Reactive Transport of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Bay, MA, shed light on coupled control of chemistry and hydrology on reactive transport), phosphate (5), and oxyanions of molybdenum (6) and uranium (7, 8) in aquifers. In addition

  19. Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

  20. Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters Ivan Rodero, Eun techniques used to alleviate thermal anomalies (i.e., hotspots) in cloud datacenter's servers of by reducing such as voltage scaling that also can be applied to reduce the temperature of the servers in datacenters. Because

  1. Generalized Chemical Reactivity of Curved Surfaces: Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Deepak

    . Following the decomposition, the total reaction energy Etotal, which is the index of chemical reactivity, can be divided into three terms: strain energy Estrain, C-X binding energy EC-X, and global relaxation in a CNT can enhance the hydrogenation energy at the location of the excess deformation so

  2. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  3. Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions Systems Using Polymeric and poultry production wastewater effluents. The sorbent used was a cross-linked polyamine (PAA,HCl) polymeric poultry and aquaculture wastewater effluents. Upon treatment, phosphorus anion concentrations were reduced

  4. Abduction with Negation as Failure for Active and Reactive Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toni, Francesca

    Abduction with Negation as Failure for Active and Reactive Rules Fariba Sadri and Francesca Toni suggested abductive logic programming as a suitable formalism to represent active databases and intelligent agents. In particular, abducibles in abductive logic programs can be used to repre- sent actions

  5. Nitrogen dynamics in flow-through microcosms of reactive media.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    wastewater inputs to estuaries is similarly an important issue. Individual wastewater treatments have been University, Worcester MA December 19, 2005 Marine Biological Laboratory 1 #12;Abstract There have been many, the Marine Biological Laboratory is currently testing two experimental permeable reactive barriers along

  6. A Simple Mixture Theory for Isothermal and Non-isothermal Flows of n Newtonian and Generalized Newtonian Constituents including Interaction Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirst, Thomas Thayer

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    for boundary value problems using finite element processes based on a residual functional, that is, least squares processes in which local approximations are considered in H(k,p) scalar product spaces. Fully developed flow between parallel plates and 1...

  7. Azimuthal anisotropies of reconstructed jets in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV in a multiphase transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao-Wu Nie; Guo-Liang Ma

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Azimuthal anisotropies of reconstructed jets [$v_{n}^{jet} (n=2, 3)$] have been investigated in Pb+Pb collisions at the center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV within a framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. The $v_{2}^{jet}$ is in good agreement with the recent ATLAS data. However, the $v_{3}^{jet}$ shows a smaller magnitude than $v_{2}^{jet}$, and approaches zero at a larger transverse momentum. It is attributed to the path-length dependence in which the jet energy loss fraction depends on the azimuthal angles with respect to different orders of event planes. The ratio $v_{n}^{jet}/\\varepsilon_{n}$ increases from peripheral to noncentral collisions, and $v_{n}^{jet}$ increases with the initial spatial asymmetry ($\\varepsilon_{n}$) for a given centrality bin. These behaviors indicate that the $v_{n}^{jet}$ is produced by the strong interactions between jet and the partonic medium with different initial geometry shapes. Therefore, azimuthal anisotropies of reconstructed jet are proposed as a good probe to study the initial spatial fluctuations, which are expected to provide constraints on the path-length dependence of jet quenching models.

  8. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends – A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Universitŕ di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Mistretta, Maria Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Universitŕ di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, ed. 6, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour.

  9. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  10. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale Vikranth scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical

  11. An Aircraft Electric Power Testbed for Validating Automatically Synthesized Reactive Control Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu , Huan

    An Aircraft Electric Power Testbed for Validating Automatically Synthesized Reactive Control reactive synthesis; testbed; aircraft electric power system 1. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Aircraft of Pennsylvania utopcu@seas.upenn.edu ABSTRACT Modern aircraft increasingly rely on electric power for sub

  12. Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1 V photoaligning layers by thin layers of reactive mesogens, strong enhancement in LC alignment stability layer, the photoalignment technique minimizes me- chanical damage and electric charging, provides

  13. Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine chemistry in the eastern tropical Atlantic boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    doi:10.1029/2008GL036666, 2009 Pollution-enhanced reactiveE. S. Saltzman (2009), Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine5 L08810 LAWLER ET AL. : POLLUTION-ENHANCED CLX IN THE MBL

  14. Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkes, Amanda Erin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their high surface area (and hence, increased reactivity) nanocrystals can be used as reactive precursors in the low-temperature synthesis of solid state materials. When nanocrystals are used as reactants, the temperatures needed...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - atom-diatom reactive scattering Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diatom reactive scattering Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atom-diatom reactive scattering Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Eur. Phys....

  16. Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser Daria Riabinina,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser ablation Daria Riabinina reactive laser ablation in oxygen atmosphere followed by annealing. We observe a strong photoluminescence size, obtained independently by fitting photoluminescence spectra and from x-ray diffraction patterns

  17. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fang, Jianwen; Koen, Yakov M.

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown ...

  18. Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in oxygen chemisorption. Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in...

  19. Using Reactive Rules to Guide a Forward-Chaining Murray Shanahan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanahan, Murray

    1 Using Reactive Rules to Guide a Forward-Chaining Planner Murray Shanahan Department of Electrical.shanahan@ic.ac.uk Keywords: planning and execution, reactive planning, robot planning Abstract This paper presents a planning technique in which a flawed set of reactive rules is used to guide a stochastic forward-chaining search

  20. A pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui

    for medium-frequency modulated direct-current dc reactive sputter deposition of electrical insulators at the target surface inherent to high- deposition-rate reactive sputtering of electrical insulators. TypicallyA pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators G

  1. Abstract This paper reviews specific issues and challenges in reactive power management within the competitive electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    and physical considerations and so depends on the market players and the electricity market rules. Reactive local nature of reactive power restricts its ability to be transmitted over electrically large distancesAbstract ­ This paper reviews specific issues and challenges in reactive power management within

  2. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Effect of Reactive Power Limit Modeling on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    , generator capability curves, maximum loadability, voltage stability, electrical energy markets, reactive- active power in electric power systems. Although there are other important reactive power sourcesTO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Effect of Reactive Power Limit Modeling on Maximum

  3. CARIBBEAN COLLOQUIUM ON POWER QUALITY (CCPQ), JUNE 2003 100 Defining Reactive Power in Circuit Transients via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    CARIBBEAN COLLOQUIUM ON POWER QUALITY (CCPQ), JUNE 2003 100 Defining Reactive Power in Circuit the notion of reactive power during circuit transients. The definition we propose is based on the concept, namely Short- Time Fourier Coefficients and Haar Wavelets. We illustrate this "dynamic" reactive power

  4. Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables for reactive untimed infinite state systems called input- output extended finite automaton (I/O-EFA), which of a finite bisimilar abstraction. The results are illustrated through examples that model reactive software

  5. Toward Optimized Bioclogging and Biocementation Through Combining Advanced Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    and electrical techniques); (ii) developing and using a reactive transport simulator capable of predicting and Reactive Transport Modeling Approaches Christopher G Hubbard1 , Susan S. Hubbard1 , Yuxin Wu1 , Vikranth heterogeneities at the field scale. Optimization of these strategies requires advances in mechanistic reactive

  6. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power to control voltage of distribution networks with DG using reactive power compensation approach. In this paper profile within the specified limits, it is essential to regulate the reactive power of the compensators

  7. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji, Kripa Keerthi generate reactive oxygen species under biologically rele- vant conditions via the sequence of reactions by reactive oxygen species generated in this manner may contribute to the cytotoxic properties of leinamycin

  8. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    , methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

  9. Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems Part I: Mathematical derivations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems ­ Part I-species reactive transport equations coupled through sorption and sequential first-order reactions are commonly. Although researchers have been attempting to solve various forms of these reactive transport equations

  10. VOF-BASED SIMULATION OF REACTIVE MASS TRANSFER ACROSS DEFORMABLE INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    . of the bubbles is there- fore of fundamental importance for effective design of the reactor. In case of fast-based approach for the Direct Numerical Simulation of reactive mass transfer in gas-liquid flows is described simulation results are presented for non reactive and reactive mass transfer from rising gas bubbles

  11. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  12. Reactivity impact of delayed neutron spectra on MCNP calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosteller, R.D.; Werner, C.J.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new features in MCNP4C, the latest version of the MCNP Monte Carlo code, include the capability to sample from delayed as well as prompt fission emission spectra. Previous versions of MCNP all have sampled exclusively from prompt spectra. Delayed neutrons typically account for <1% of all neutrons emitted from fission, but the emission spectra for delayed neutrons are somewhat softer than those for prompt neutrons. Because of the softer spectrum, delayed neutrons are less likely to leak from the system, and they also are less likely to cause fission in isotopes that have an effective threshold for fission (e.g., {sup 238}U and {sup 240}Pu). Consequently, the inclusion of delayed neutron spectra can have a small but significant effect on reactivity calculations. This study performs MCNP4C calculations for a series of established benchmarks and quantifies the reactivity impact of the delayed neutron spectra.

  13. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  14. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

  15. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  16. Dynamics of inelastic and reactive gas-surface collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoliar, L.A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of inelastic and reactive collisions in atomic beam-surface scattering are presented. The inelastic scattering of hyperthermal rare gaseous atoms from three alkali halide surfaces (LiF, NaCl, GI)was studied to understand mechanical energy transfer in unreactive systems. The dynamics of the chemical reaction in the scattering of H(D) atoms from the surfaces of LIF(001) and the basal plane of graphite were also studied.

  17. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  18. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susmikanti, Mike [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)] [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia); Dewayatna, Winter [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)] [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  19. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  20. KINETIC MODELING OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION OVER A COBALT CATALYST IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR FOR INCORPORATION INTO A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia Gribik; Doona Guillen, PhD; Daniel Ginosar, PhD

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently multi-tubular fixed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) are used in commercial Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are a number of advantages of the SBCR compared to fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The main advantage of the SBCR is that temperature control and heat recovery are more easily achieved. The SBCR is a multiphase chemical reactor where a synthesis gas, comprised mainly of H2 and CO, is bubbled through a liquid hydrocarbon wax containing solid catalyst particles to produce specialty chemicals, lubricants, or fuels. The FT synthesis reaction is the polymerization of methylene groups [-(CH2)-] forming mainly linear alkanes and alkenes, ranging from methane to high molecular weight waxes. The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the FT process in a SBCR. This paper discusses the incorporation of absorption and reaction kinetics into the current hydrodynamic model. A phased approach for incorporation of the reaction kinetics into a CMFD model is presented here. Initially, a simple kinetic model is coupled to the hydrodynamic model, with increasing levels of complexity added in stages. The first phase of the model includes incorporation of the absorption of gas species from both large and small bubbles into the bulk liquid phase. The driving force for the gas across the gas liquid interface into the bulk liquid is dependent upon the interfacial gas concentration in both small and large bubbles. However, because it is difficult to measure the concentration at the gas-liquid interface, coefficients for convective mass transfer have been developed for the overall driving force between the bulk concentrations in the gas and liquid phases. It is assumed that there are no temperature effects from mass transfer of the gas phases to the bulk liquid phase, since there are only small amounts of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. The product from the incorporation of absorption is the steady state concentration profile of the absorbed gas species in the bulk liquid phase. The second phase of the model incorporates a simplified macrokinetic model to the mass balance equation in the CMFD code. Initially, the model assumes that the catalyst particles are sufficiently small such that external and internal mass and heat transfer are not rate limiting. The model is developed utilizing the macrokinetic rate expression developed by Yates and Satterfield (1991). Initially, the model assumes that the only species formed other than water in the FT reaction is C27H56. Change in moles of the reacting species and the resulting temperature of the catalyst and fluid phases is solved simultaneously. The macrokinetic model is solved in conjunction with the species transport equations in a separate module which is incorporated into the CMFD code.

  1. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vince Maio

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  2. Multi-phase glass-ceramics as a waste form for combined fission products: alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, multi-phase silicate-based glass-ceramics were investigated as an alternate waste form for immobilizing non-fissionable products from used nuclear fuel. Currently, borosilicate glass is the waste form selected for immobilization of this waste stream, however, the low thermal stability and solubility of MoO{sub 3} in borosilicate glass translates into a maximum waste loading in the range of 15-20 mass%. Glass-ceramics provide the opportunity to target durable crystalline phases, e.g., powellite, oxyapatite, celsian, and pollucite, that will incorporate MoO{sub 3} as well as other waste components such as lanthanides, alkalis, and alkaline earths at levels 2X the solubility limits of a single-phase glass. In addition a glass-ceramic could provide higher thermal stability, depending upon the properties of the crystalline and amorphous phases. Glass-ceramics were successfully synthesized at waste loadings of 42, 45, and 50 mass% with the following glass additives: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and SiO{sub 2} by slow cooling form from a glass melt. Glass-ceramics were characterized in terms of phase assemblage, morphology, and thermal stability. The targeted phases: powellite and oxyapatite were observed in all of the compositions along with a lanthanide borosilicate, and cerianite. Results of this initial investigation of glass-ceramics show promise as a potential waste form to replace single-phase borosilicate glass.

  3. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.

    2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

  4. Survey of Reactive Power Planning Methods Wenjuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Survey of Reactive Power Planning Methods Wenjuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract Reactive power planning (RPP) involves optimal allocation and determination to solve the RPP problem. Index Terms -- reactive power planning, reactive power optimization, optimal

  5. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  6. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  7. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,--SpeedingSpeedingSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingReactive

  8. Low Reactivity SI Engine Lubricant Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term Storage ofEnergyReactivity SI Engine

  9. Redox-Reactive Membrane Vesicles produced by Shewanella. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 RevisionDivision andIonRedox-Reactive

  10. Project Profile: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309Department ofDepartmentProjectatChemically Reactive Working

  11. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  12. Synthesis of belite cement clinker of high hydraulic reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kacimi, Larbi [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: kacimi20002000@yahoo.fr; Simon-Masseron, Angelique [Laboratoire des Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, CNRS UMR 7016, Universite de Haute-Alsace, 3, rue Alfred-Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse cedex (France)], E-mail: A.Simon@univ-mulhouse.fr; Salem, Souria [Departement d'Architecture, Faculte de Genie Civile, USTO-Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: zinaisalem@yahoo.fr; Ghomari, Abdelhamid [Departement de Chimie, U.A.I.B., Route de Belahcel, Mostaganem (Algeria)], E-mail: belkey@hotmail.com; Derriche, Zoubir [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with the increase of the cooling rate of belite clinker, by using the water quenching for the chemical stabilization of reactive belite, which improves the hydraulic properties of this clinker. The addition of adequate mineralizers, as NaF and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, contributes to the improvement of the clinker properties obtained at low burning temperature. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of this clinker. The samples were analyzed by means of a scanning electronic microscope connected with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to detect the composition of the belite phase and its morphology. Physical and mechanical properties of this clinker cement were determined. The results show that the belite clinker obtained at 1150 {sup o}C, with lime saturation factor 0.67, is characterized by a great hydraulic reactivity, similar to that of the ordinary alite clinker. The addition of 2% of NaF and the water quenching improved the chemical, mineralogical and structural properties, while improving the cement hydraulic properties.

  13. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  14. Reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splittings in microdisk resonators coupled to waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the optomechanical design introduced by M. Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223901 (2009)], which is very effective for investigation of the effects of reactive coupling. We show the normal mode splitting that is due solely to reactive coupling rather than due to dispersive coupling. We suggest feeding the waveguide with a pump field along with a probe field and scanning the output probe for evidence of reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splitting.

  15. Effect of different intravenous iron preparations on lymphocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subpopulation survival.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ajay; Zhuo, Jiaying; Zha, Junli; Reddy, Srinivasa; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV iron compounds induced greater intracellular ROS generation,IV iron preparations on intracellular reactive oxygen species generationIV iron preparations on intracellular immune cell ROS generation

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - acquired reactive perforating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies and Information Sciences 2 Thesis for the Degree of Licentiate of Philosophy Reactive Shared Objects Summary: variations in order to achieve good perfor- mance...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-glutathione peroxidase-antibody reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges George Gross, Paolo... -mail: gianfranco.chicco@polito.it Abstract -- This paper reviews...

  18. Accelerated test methods for evaluating alkali-silica reactivity of recycled concrete aggregates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert C (Author)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis reports the findings of a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of Accelerated Tests in evaluating the Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Recycled Concrete… (more)

  19. Modelling of reactive gas transport in unsaturated soil. A coupled thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical approach.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masum, Shakil Al

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents the development of a reactive gas transport equation under coupled framework of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical (THCM) behaviour of variably saturated… (more)

  20. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

  1. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  2. Distributed control for optimal reactive power compensation in smart microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolognani, Saverio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of optimal reactive power compensation for the minimization of power distribution losses in a smart microgrid. We first propose an approximate model for the power distribution network, which allows us to cast the problem into the class of convex quadratic, linearly constrained, optimization problems. We also show how this model provides the tools for a distributed approach, in which agents have a partial knowledge of the problem parameters and state, and can only perform local measurements. Then, we design a randomized, gossip-like optimization algorithm, providing conditions for convergence together with an analytic characterization of the convergence speed. The analysis shows that the best performance can be achieved when we command cooperation among agents that are neighbors in the smart microgrid topology. Numerical simulations are included to validate the proposed model and to confirm the analytic results about the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  4. Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Bernhardt L. Trout; Leonardo Guidoni

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as $N^3-N^4$, where $N$ is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  5. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, La Sapienza - Universitŕ di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Trout, Bernhardt L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Guidoni, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universitŕ degli studi de L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  6. Curie temperature of multiphase nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skomski, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Sellmyer, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Curie temperature and the local spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnetic nanocomposites are investigated. The macroscopic character of the critical fluctuations responsible for the onset of ferromagnetic order means that there is only one Curie temperature, independent of the number of magnetic phases present. The Curie temperature increases with the grain size and is, in general, larger than predicted from the volume averages of the exchange constants. However, the Curie-temperature enhancement is accompanied by a relative reduction of the spontaneous magnetization. Due to the quadratic dependence of the permanent-magnet energy product on the spontaneous magnetization, this amounts to a deterioration of the magnets performance. The length scale on which an effective intergranular exchange coupling is realized (coupling length) depends on the Curie-temperature difference between the phases and on the spacial distribution of the local interatomic exchange. As a rule, it is of the order of a few interatomic distances; for much bigger grain sizes the structures mimic an interaction-free ensemble of different ferromagnetic materials. This must be compared to the magnetic-anisotropy coupling length, which is of the order of 10 nm. The difference is explained by the nonrelativistic character of the Curie-temperature problem. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Intelligent Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Mini-Hydro Power Stations for Maximisation of Real

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    1 Intelligent Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Mini-Hydro Power Stations for Maximisation Control (APFC) modes. The ability to export active and reactive power from mini-hydro power generators electrical power generation from renewable resources. Additionally, the potential early retiral of central

  8. ORNL/TM-2008/083 A Tariff for Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/083 A Tariff for Reactive Power 2008 Prepared by Christopher Tufon, Pacific Gas & Electric Company Alan G. Isemonger, California Independent System Operator Brendan Kirby, ORNL, Knowledge and Transportation Science Division A Tariff for Reactive Power Christopher Tufon Alan G. Isemonger Brendan Kirby

  9. Small Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources for Reactive Power Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    to provide reactive power support. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical generators connected to ac power grids mustSmall Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources for Reactive Power Support Alejandro D. Dom´inguez-Garc´ia, Christoforos N. Hadjicostis, Philip T. Krein, and Stanton T. Cady Department of Electrical and Computer

  10. Specification and Design of Reactive Systems B.S. (National Chiao-Tung University) 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Reactive Systems by Bilung Lee Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering ­ Electrical Engineering and ComputerSpecification and Design of Reactive Systems by Bilung Lee B.S. (National Chiao-Tung University of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering ­ Electrical Engineering and Computer

  11. Parameters of Postocclusive Reactive Hyperemia Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Peripheral Vascular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    Parameters of Postocclusive Reactive Hyperemia Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients PRESERN-STRUKELJ,2 and DAMIJAN MIKLAVC IC 1 1 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering study was to determine the parameters of the postocclusive reactive hyperemia test that could help

  12. Intelligent Network-Layer Management for Wireless Mesh Networks: Dynamic Tuning of a Reactive Routing Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    1 Intelligent Network-Layer Management for Wireless Mesh Networks: Dynamic Tuning of a Reactive Routing Protocol Dan Marconett, Minsoo Lee, Xiaohui Ye and S. J. Ben Yoo Dept. of Electrical and Computer learning to dynamically modify reactive routing protocol parameters in real-time, to better facilitate

  13. Automatic Testing of Reactive Systems \\Lambda Pascal Raymond, Xavier Nicollin, Nicolas Halbwachs y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halbwachs, Nicolas

    Automatic Testing of Reactive Systems \\Lambda Pascal Raymond, Xavier Nicollin, Nicolas Halbwachs y V'erimag z , Grenoble ­ France Daniel Weber x Schneider Electric, Grenoble ­ France Abstract This paper addresses the problem of automatizing the production of test sequences for reactive systems. We

  14. Stability of planar reactive fronts in external fields Arkady B. Rovinsky,* Anatol M. Zhabotinsky,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    in reactive systems due to external fields such as electric fields or pressure gradients, may significantlyStability of planar reactive fronts in external fields Arkady B. Rovinsky,* Anatol M. Zhabotinsky arise naturally in systems sub- jected to external fields, such as electric fields or pressure gradients

  15. MEASURING REACTIVE MARKET POWER Fernando L. Alvarado Thomas Overbye Peter Sauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MEASURING REACTIVE MARKET POWER Fernando L. Alvarado Thomas Overbye Peter Sauer The University-Hirschman Index) can be used to measure reactive power market concentration. The proposed method is illustrated by means of a simple example. Keywords: Electric power transmission, monopoly, mar- ket concentration. 1

  16. Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen September 2006 Electrically controllable blueshift of the reflection band in a planar cholesteric reactive mesogen cell is observed. The responsible mechanism is electric-field-induced Helfrich deformation J. Chem

  17. PATHS: Analysis of PATH Duration Statistics and their Impact on Reactive MANET Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    PATHS: Analysis of PATH Duration Statistics and their Impact on Reactive MANET Routing Protocols Department of Electrical Engineering University of Southern California {narayans,fbai,bkrishna,helmy}@usc.edu ABSTRACT We develop a detailed approach to study how mobility im- pacts the performance of reactive MANET

  18. 39333939 ORNL/TM-2008/174 Local Dynamic Reactive Power for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    39333939 ORNL/TM-2008/174 Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems John D. Kueck* D. Tom Rizy Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of Tennessee

  19. Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland J. W. Munger AT SUMMIT, GREENLAND 2 Abstract. Concentrations and fluxes of NOy (total reactive nitrogen), ozone concentra at Summit, Greenland. Median NOy concentrations declined from 947 ppt in May to 444 ppt by July. NOy fluxes

  20. Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH Ojwang' J.G.O.*, Rutger van is the fall in potential energy surface during heating. Keywords: hydrogen storage, reactive force field governing hydrogen desorption in NaH. During the abstraction process of surface molecular hydrogen charge

  1. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzel, Eleanore

    , quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

  2. Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion Berthet Romuald, Chalamet Yvan, Taha Mohamed*, Zerroukhi Amar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    limitations. Reactive extrusion experiments were carried out in a twin-screw extruder and the effect optical fibbers, polymethacrylate. Introduction Twin screw extruders are playing an increasing role of reactive extrusion is explained by the different advantages offered by the use of the twin-screw extruders

  3. Reactive power management of distribution networks with wind generation for improving voltage stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    -loadability Reactive power margin Wind turbine a b s t r a c t This paper proposes static and dynamic VAR planningReactive power management of distribution networks with wind generation for improving voltage February 2013 Available online Keywords: Composite load Distributed generation D-STATCOM Q

  4. Reactive Power Operation Analysis of a Single-Phase EV/PHEV Bidirectional Battery Charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    --More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced, charger, electric vehicle, EV, PHEV, reactive power, V2G. I. INTRODUCTION According to the international of the electric grid by supplying ancillary services such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation

  5. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cceres (Spain)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cáceres (Spain) Modelación management. The Ratones uranium mine was abandoned and flooded in 1974. Due to its reducing underground water, uranium, reactive transport, granite hydrochemistry, Ratones mine. Resumen La inundación de minas

  6. General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

  7. Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems Part II: Special cases,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems ­ Part II solutions to multi-species reactive transport equations coupled through sorption and sequential first special-case transport scenarios involving zero initial condition, identical retardation factors and zero

  8. A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.R.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight {Delta}k/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.

  9. A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kun

    A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ÂŻows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu* Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong in revised form 22 July 1999; accepted 22 July 1999 Abstract In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible ÂŻow equations is extended to chemical reactive ÂŻow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas

  10. A Tariff for Reactive Power 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied, and adjustable-speed motor drives. Index Terms--Inverter, Power Factor, Reactive Power, Tariff, Voltage efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic

  11. Learning Reactive Neurocontrollers using Simulated Annealing for Mobile Philippe Lucidarme, Alain Ligeois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Reactive Neurocontrollers using Simulated Annealing for Mobile Robots Philippe Lucidarme a method based on simulated annealing to learn reactive behaviors. This work is related with multi is a neural network and we use a simulated annealing techniques to learn the synaptic weights. We'll first

  12. Computational mapping reveals dramatic effect of Hoogsteen breathing on duplex DNA reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    Computational mapping reveals dramatic effect of Hoogsteen breathing on duplex DNA reactivity Formaldehyde has long been recognized as a haz- ardous environmental agent highly reactive with DNA. Recently-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for observing weakly specific interactions of small organic

  13. Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials Paper # 715 Donna A and unpainted drywall as passive ozone control surfaces in a room-sized laboratory chamber. Mean deposition-50%, resulted in increased reactivity for activated carbon. In our model for a typical house, about 35

  14. X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

  15. Abstract--This paper proposes a two-level framework for the operation of a competitive market for reactive power ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    and the selected reactive power service providers. Index Terms- System operation, ancillary services, electricity reactive power provisions in the context of deregulated electricity markets, namely, reactive power for reactive power ancillary services. It is argued that the first-level, i.e. reactive power procurement

  16. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous extract data occur for dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} which is underpredicted by the model. There are uncertainties on the amount of gypsum available for dissolution and its dissolution mechanism (kinetics or local equilibrium).

  17. PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics and Generator Efficiency): a computer program for the calculation of partial chemical equilibrium/partial chemical rate controlled composition of multiphased mixtures under one dimensional steady flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.H.; Haimes, R.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NASA CEC Code was the starting point for PACKAGE, whose function is to evaluate the composition of a multiphase combustion product mixture under the following chemical conditions: (1) total equilibrium with pure condensed species; (2) total equilibrium with ideal liquid solution; (3) partial equilibrium/partial finite rate chemistry; and (4) fully finite rate chemistry. The last three conditions were developed to treat the evolution of complex mixtures such as coal combustion products. The thermodynamic variable pairs considered are either pressure (P) and enthalpy, P and entropy, at P and temperature. Minimization of Gibbs free energy is used. This report gives detailed discussions of formulation and input/output information used in the code. Sample problems are given. The code development, description, and current programming constraints are discussed. (DLC)

  18. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Old Rifle UMTRA sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  19. Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as local voltage collapse. Local voltage collapse is occurring in part because modern air conditioner compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than 3 cycles (.05s) when a fault, such as on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage to sag to 70 to 60%. The reasons for this susceptibility are discussed in the report. During the local voltage collapse, voltages are depressed for a period of perhaps one or two minutes. There is a concern that these local events are interacting together over larger areas and may present a challenge to system reliability. An effective method of preventing local voltage collapse is the use of voltage regulation from Distributed Energy Resources (DER) that can supply or absorb reactive power. DER, when properly controlled, can provide a rapid correction to voltage dips and prevent motor stall. This report discusses the phenomenon and causes of local voltage collapse as well as the control methodology we have developed to counter voltage sag. The problem is growing because of the use of low inertia, high efficiency air conditioner (A/C) compressor motors and because the use of electric A/C is growing in use and becoming a larger percentage of system load. A method for local dynamic voltage regulation is discussed which uses reactive power injection or absorption from local DER. This method is independent, rapid, and will not interfere with conventional utility system voltage control. The results of simulations of this method are provided. The method has also been tested at the ORNL s Distributed Energy Communications and Control (DECC) Laboratory using our research inverter and synchronous condenser. These systems at the DECC Lab are interconnected to an actual distribution system, the ORNL distribution system, which is fed from TVA s 161kV sub-transmission backbone. The test results are also provided and discussed. The simulations and testing show that local voltage control from DER can prevent local voltage collapse. The results also show that the control can be provided so quickly, within 0.5 seconds, that is does not interfere with conventional utility methods.

  20. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  1. ESTIMATING THE UNCERTAINTY IN REACTIVITY ACCIDENT NEUTRONIC CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; YANG,C.Y.; ARONSON,A.L.

    1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the uncertainty in calculations of the rod ejection accident in a pressurized water reactor is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper is a progress report on that study. Results are presented for the sensitivity of core energy deposition to the key parameters: ejected rod worth, delayed neutron fraction, Doppler reactivity coefficient, and fuel specific heat. These results can be used in the future to estimate the uncertainty in local fuel enthalpy given some assumptions about the uncertainty in the key parameters. This study is also concerned with the effect of the intra-assembly representation in calculations. The issue is the error that might be present if assembly-average power is calculated, and pin peaking factors from a static calculation are then used to determine local fuel enthalpy. This is being studied with the help of a collaborative effort with Russian and French analysts who are using codes with different intra-assembly representations. The US code being used is PARCS which calculates power on an assembly-average basis. The Russian code being used is BARS which calculates power for individual fuel pins using a heterogeneous representation based on a Green's Function method.

  2. Estimating the uncertainty in reactivity accident neutronic calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Yang, C.Y.; Aronson, A.L.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the uncertainty in calculations of the rod ejection accident in a pressurized water reactor is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper is a progress report on that study. Results are presented for the sensitivity of core energy deposition to the key parameters: ejected rod worth, delayed neutron fraction, Doppler reactivity coefficient, and fuel specific heat. These results can be used in the future to estimate the uncertainty in local fuel enthalpy given some assumptions about the uncertainty in the key parameters. This study is also concerned with the effect of the intra-assembly representation in calculations. The issue is the error that might be present if assembly-average power is calculated, and pin peaking factors from a static calculation are then used to determine local fuel enthalpy. This is being studied with the help of a collaborative effort with Russian and French analysts who are using codes with different intra-assembly representations. The US code being used is PARCS which calculates power on an assembly-average basis. The Russian code being used is BARS which calculates power for individual fuel pins using a heterogeneous representation based on a Green`s Function method.

  3. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  4. Spectroscopy, Thermochemistry, and Reactivity of Lanthanide and Actinide Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Michael D.; Armentrout, Peter B.

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research undertaken under this grant is described in this document. The document describes progress in the construction of an instrument for recording photodissociation action spectra of mass-selected cryo-cooled cations. The instrument is not yet functional, but we anticipate trapping ions and conducting photodissociation experiments before the end of the year. It also describes resonant two-photon ionization spectra that have been recorded for uranium mononitride (UN) in the visible portion of the spectrum. These experiments are still underway at the present time. Although the spectra are a bit difficult to properly fit, due to upper state perturbations, it appears that the molecule has a ground state with {Omega} = 3.5 and a bond length of approximately 1.76 {angstrom}. Finally, results on the thermochemistry and reactivity of Th{sup +} are presented. In these studies the bond energies of the following bonds have been determined: D{sub 0}(Th{sup +}-2O) = 10.2 {+-} 0.2 eV; D0(Th{sup +}-N) = 6.69 {+-} 0.35 eV; D0(Th{sup +}-O) = 8.40 {+-} 0.28 eV; D{sub 0}(OTh{sup +}-O) = 1.8 {+-} 0.4 eV.

  5. Reactive gases evolved during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Gregg, H.R.; Oh, M.S.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer modeling of oil shale pyrolysis is an important part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oil Shale Program. Models containing detailed chemistry have been derived from an investigation of Colorado oil shale. We are currently attempting to use models to treat more completely reactions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the retort to better understand emissions. Batch retorting work on Devonian oil shale is proving particularly useful for this study of nitrogen/sulfur chemistry. Improved analytical methods have been developed to quantitatively determine reactive volatiles at the parts-per-million level. For example, the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is used in the chemical ionization (CI) mode to provide real-time analytical data on ammonia evolution as the shale is pyrolyzed. A heated transfer line and inlet ensure rapid and complete introduction of ammonia to the instrument by preventing water condensation. Ammonia and water release data suitable for calculating kinetic parameters have been obtained from a New Albany Shale sample. An MS/MS technique with the TQMS in the electron ionization (EI) mode allows hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and certain trace organic sulfur compounds to be monitored during oil shale pyrolysis. Sensitivity and selectivity for these compounds have been increased by applying artificial intelligence techniques to tuning of the spectrometer. Gas evolution profiles (100 to 900/sup 0/C) are reported for hydrogen sulfide, water, ammonia, and trace sulfur species formed during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale. Implications for retorting chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  7. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  8. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoonen, Martin A. [Stony Brook University] (ORCID:0000000271331160)

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 2177 Review of Reactive Power Planning: Objectives,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 2177 Review of Reactive Power Member, IEEE, and Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The key of reactive power planning (RPP), or Var planning, is the optimal allocation of reactive power sources con- sidering location and size

  10. Tin-Based Reactive Solders for Ceramic/Metal Joints RAKESH R. KAPOOR and THOMAS W . EAGAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( { ) Tin-Based Reactive Solders for Ceramic/Metal Joints RAKESH R. KAPOOR and THOMAS W . EAGAR engine com- ponents), wear parts, tool materials, electrical feed- throughs, and metal contacts on ceramics. To overcome this problem, reactive metals are added to the filler metai.11- 181These reactive

  11. 718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2001 Reactive Power and Unbalance Compensation Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2001 Reactive Power as reactive power and unbalance compensators, e.g., Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The approach practice. Index Terms--Active filters, adaptive control, dissipative sys- tems, nonlinear systems, reactive

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 283 Unbundled Reactive Support Service: Key

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    in the acquisition and pricing of the reactive support service. Index Terms--Ancillary services, electricity marketsIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 283 Unbundled Reactive Support Service exposition of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary service under open access

  13. PAPER ACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Nov. 2008 1 Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    PAPER ACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Nov. 2008 1 Reactive Power and Voltage) problem associated with reactive power and voltage control in distribution systems to minimize daily--Distribution systems, reactive power control, voltage control, optimal switching operations, mixed integer nonlinear

  14. Abstract--This paper discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    --Ancillary services, electricity markets, deregulation, reactive power management, system operation. I. INTRODUCTION, and recommended strengthening the reactive power and voltage control practices in all North American Electric, provision by the utilities of reactive power was embedded within the electricity supply to customers

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 2905 Eliminate Reactive Power and Increase System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 2905 Eliminate Reactive Power of "reactive power" is de- fined, and the corresponding equations are derived for isolated bidirectional dc­dc converters. It is shown that the reactive power in traditional phase-shift control is inherent

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power the reactive power support requirements pro- vided by the generators in multitransaction networks. The allocat- able reactive support requirements are defined with respect to the support required for the network

  17. Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the provision of reactive power and voltage support was bundled with other services in supplying electricity electricity. Under open access, however, reactive support and voltage control from generation sources becomes1 Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support

  18. Abstract--This paper proposes a reactive power dispatch model that takes into account both the technical and economical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    the reactive power and voltage control practices in all North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC and transformers taps deviations [12]. In the context of deregulated electricity markets, reactive power dispatch1 Abstract--This paper proposes a reactive power dispatch model that takes into account both

  19. INHIBITION OF CASPASE-LIKE ACTIVITIES PREVENTS THE APPEARANCE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND DARK-INDUCED APOPTOSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berges, John A.

    cells revealed by SYTOX-green staining, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we usedINHIBITION OF CASPASE-LIKE ACTIVITIES PREVENTS THE APPEARANCE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND DARK viability; Dunaliella tertiolecta; phosphatidylserine; phytoplankton; reactive oxygen species; unicellular

  20. RESUS-D-12-00285 Mild hypothermia reduces per-ischemic reactive oxygen species production4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    this dysfunction through per-ischemic3 inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.4 Methods: First, ROS ischemic injuries through complex events2 involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation 1, 2RESUS-D-12-00285 1 2 3 Mild hypothermia reduces per-ischemic reactive oxygen species production4

  1. Reactivity of low-valent nickel-1,3-BIS (o-Diphenylphosphinophenylthio) propane (arom-PSSP) with small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jeehee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivity of NiO(arom-PSSP) with small molecules was studied in comparison to the reactivity of NIO(PSSP) which was studied by previous members of our group. The low-valent nickel atom in this arom-PSSP ligand exhibited reactivity toward small...

  2. Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding of the asymmetric anticline at Sheep Mountain, Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding June 2008 Accepted 5 June 2008 Available online 13 June 2008 Keywords: Fold Fracture reactivation Bed methods to investigate the reactivation of fractures (opening and shearing) and the development of bedding

  3. Estimation of reactive fluxes in gradient stochastic systems using an analogy with electric circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.K., E-mail: cameron@math.umd.edu

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The MaxFlux functional should be called the resistivity functional. •A Hamilton–Jacobi approach for computing transition paths in collective variables. •Conversion of the network of reactive channels into an electric circuit. •Test on the Alanine-Dipeptide. Perfect agreement. •Application to the problem of CO escape from Myoglobin. -- Abstract: We propose an approach for finding dominant reactive channels and calculating percentages of reactive flux through each channel in chemical systems driven by a deterministic potential force and a small thermal noise. We assume that the temperature is low enough so that the reactive flux focuses around a finite number of paths connecting the reactant and the product states. These paths can be found in a systematic way by solving a Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the so called MaxFlux functional. We argue that the name “MaxFlux” is misleading: it should be called the resistivity functional instead. Once the network of transition paths is found, one can define an equivalent electric circuit and find the currents through each of its wires. These currents give estimates of the reactive flux along the corresponding transition paths. We test our approach on the problem of finding transition paths in the Alanine-Dipeptide with two dihedral angles where the reactive current can be computed exactly. The percentages of the reactive flux through each reactive channel given by our approach turn out to be in remarkable agreement with the exact ones. We apply this approach to the problem of finding escape paths of a CO molecule from a Myoglobin protein. We find a collection of exit locations and establish percentages of the reactive flux through each of them.

  4. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  5. Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Orians, K.J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Cowen, J.P. (Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical concentration profiles of the dissolved and suspended particulate phases were determined for a suite of reactive trace metals, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd, during summertime at a station in the center of the North Pacific gyre. During summer the euphotic zone becomes stratified, forming a shallow (0-25 m), oligotrophic, mixed layer overlying a subsurface (25-140 m), strongly-stratified region. The physical, biological, and chemical structure within the euphotic zone during this period enhanced the effect of atmospheric inputs of Al, Fe, and Mn on mixed layer concentrations. For example, the concentration of dissolved Fe in the surface mixed layer was eighteen times that observed at a depth of 100 m. The observed aeolian signature of these metals matched that predicted from estimates of atmospheric input during the period between the onset of stratification and sampling. The distributions of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn all exhibited minima in the euphotic zone and increased with depth into the main thermocline. Particulate Al and Fe were then uniform with depth below 1000 m before increasing in the near bottom nepheloid layer. Average particulate phase concentrations in intermediate and deep waters of the central North Pacific were 1.0, 0.31, and 0.055 nmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] for Al, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The distribution of particulate Cd exhibited a maximum within the subsurface euphotic zone. Particulate zinc also exhibited a surface maximum, albeit a smaller one. Concentrations of particulate Zn and Cd in intermediate and deep waters were 17 and 0.2 pmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. Substantial interbasin differences in particulate trace metals occur. Concentrations of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn were three to four times lower in the central North Pacific than recently reported for the central North Atlantic gyre, consistent with differences in atmospheric input to these two regions.

  6. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  7. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid...

  8. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  9. Photochemical Transformation of Carboxylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    in consumer and industrial products (e.g., electronics, composite materials, and sporting equipment) mayPhotochemical Transformation of Carboxylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Reactive Oxygen investigated the photochemical transformation of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (COOH

  10. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB) – a web-accessible resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Koen, Yakov M.; Theertham, Bhargav; Dong, Yinghua; Fang, Jianwen

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Background The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic ...

  11. S-nitrosothiols and reactive oxygen species in plant disease resistance and development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brzezek, Kerstin

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in defence signalling in plants. After successful recognition of an invading pathogen, an increase in ROS occurs, the ’oxidative burst’; ...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic reactive power Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection Summary: , reactive power control and automatic voltage...

  13. On the Evolution of Reactive Components A Process-Algebraic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MĂĽller-Olm, Markus

    On the Evolution of Reactive Components ­ A Process-Algebraic Approach ­ Markus M¨uller-Olm1 1999 #12;162 Markus M¨uller-Olm, Bernhard Steffen, and Rance Cleaveland in out in out overflow in out

  14. Leaching of Metals from Fly ash-Amended Permeable Reactive Barriers Doina L. Morar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    (Petzrick 2001). Unfortunately, this HCC fly ash cannot be beneficially reused in the construction industry organic and inorganic pollutants. Specific reactive materials such as wood chips, limestone, manure (USEPA

  15. Reactive Point Processes: A New Approach to Predicting Power Failures in Underground Electrical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ertekin, Seyda

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive point processes (RPP’s) are a new statistical model designed for predicting discrete events, incorporating self-exciting, self-regulating, and saturating components. The self-excitement occurs as a result of a ...

  16. Reactive species and DNA damage in chronic inflammation: Reconciling chemical mechanisms and biological fates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonkar, Pallavi

    Chronic inflammation has long been recognized as a risk factor for many human cancers. One mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer involves the generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and other reactive oxygen and ...

  17. Reactive ion etching: Optimized diamond membrane fabrication for transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Luozhou

    Commonly used preparation method for thin diamond membranes by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques results in surface damage. Here, the authors introduce an alternative method based on reactive ion etching (RIE). To compare ...

  18. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  19. Combining thorium with burnable poison for reactivity control of a very long cycle BWR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inoue, Yuichiro, 1969-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of utilizing thorium together with gadolinium, erbium, or boron burnable absorber in BWR fuel assemblies for very long cycle is investigated. Nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and power distributions ...

  20. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  1. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    Cuprous oxide (Cu[subscript 2]O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu[subscript 2]O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron ...

  2. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hend Mohammed El Sayed Saad; Hesham Mohammed Mohammed Mansour; Moustafa Aziz Abd El Wahab

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and satisfactory agreement is found.

  3. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  4. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saad, Hend Mohammed El Sayed; Wahab, Moustafa Aziz Abd El

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and...

  5. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  6. Calculation of the reactivity feedback due to core-assembly bowing in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonuniformity of the temperature distribution in an LMFBR leads to differential thermal expansion of the walls of an assembly hexcan. These thermal expansion differentials cause the hexcan to distort or bow. Consequentially, the assembly experiences a spatial displacement, which results in a change in reactivity for the core. A computational model to calculate the reactivity feedback due to material displacements induced by assembly bowing effects has been developed.

  7. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  8. Conditioned changes in pain reactivity: conditioned stimuli elicit hypoalgesia under a wide range of test conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illich, Paul Anthony

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioned hypoalgesia, two recent reports suggest that a conditioned stimulus (CS) which has been paired with an aversive event may sometimes produce an increase in pain reactivity, or "hyperalgesia" rather than hypoalgesia (Davis & Henderson, 1985...-Evans hooded rats) (Davis & Henderson, 1985; Lysle & Fowler, 1988). Currently, it is not clear what determines whether a stimulus which has been paired with an aversive event will elicit either an increase or decrease in pain reactivity. In the present...

  9. Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass with Reactive and Non-Reactive Gases: Summary Report for Period July 1983 through September 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program is to study the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feedstocks by a flash or rapid pyrolysis technique. During this period of study pine wood was flash pyrolyzed in atmospheres of methane and helium at a pressure of 50 psi and at temperatures up to 1050 C. The 1-inch I.D. entrained downflow tubular reactor was used in these experiments. Product yields of methane, ethane, ethylene, BTX, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined as a function of temperature and gas to wood ratio. Of particular interest were the ethylene and BTX yields. These represented as much as 29.6% and 24.6% of the carbon contained in the feed wood respectively when flash pyrolyzing in methane (flash methanolysls) and 14.7% and 9.7% when pyrolyzing in helium. In the case of flash methanolysis of wood the yields of ethylene and benzene increased with increasing methane to wood feed ratios. In the case of flash pyrolysis in helium the yields of ethylene and BTX decreased with increasing helium gas to wood feed ratios. These results indicate a mechanism by which a free radical reactive species originating from the wood interacts with the methane pyrolyzing gas to produce an enhanced yield of ethylene and benzene. The flash methanolysis of lignin extract from wood produced lower yields of ethylene, indicating the yields mainly originate from the cellulosic fractions of the wood. Some work was also performed on substituting wood ash for sillca flour (Cab-O-Sil) to allow free flow of wood particles through the entrained flow reactor. Preliminary process design and analysis indicates an economically competitive process for the flash methanolysis of wood for the production of methanol, benzene and ethylene. Future plans include completing the studies on obtaining the process chemistry of the flash methanolysis of woods, to obtain a better understanding of the enhanced ethylene and benzene yield and to investigate other biomass forms.

  10. Development of an Enhanced GenVARR™ (Generator Volt Ampere Reactive Reserve) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission system operators require near real time knowledge of reactive power capability to reliably operate large electric power transmission systems. Reactive power produced by, or capable of being produced by, a power generator is often estimated based on a series of mega volt amperes (MVA) capability curves for the generator. These curves indicate the ability of the generator to produce real and reactive power under a variety of conditions. In transmission planning and operating studies, it is often assumed, based on estimates for these capability curves, that the generator can provide its rated MVA capability output when needed for system stability However, generators may not always operate at levels depicted by the maximum MVA capability curve due to present constraints. Transmission system operators utilizing the generators’ capability curves for operation decisions regarding transmission system stability or for planning horizons may overestimate the capability of the generators to supply reactive power when required. Southern Company has enhanced GenVARR(TM), the system of plant data query, retrieval, and analysis and calculates the actual – not estimated -- remaining reactive power output capability. The remaining reactive output is considered spinning reserve and is displayed graphically to transmission control center and generating plant operators to identify real time VAR limits. GenVARR is capable of aggregating generators from a defined region, or other user selectable combinations, to represent the available reserves that the operators are specifically interested in. GenVARR(TM) has been put into live production operation and is expected to significantly improve the overall visibility of the reactive reserve capability of the system. This new version of GenVARR(TM) significantly enhances the products structure and performance, and enables links to other key transmission system operation tools.

  11. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

  13. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  14. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  15. Abstract--This paper proposes a distributed generator (DG) placement methodology based on newly defined term reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . Index Terms--Distributed generator (DG), reactive power loadability, solar, voltage regulation, wind generator. I. INTRODUCTION istributed generation based on renewable energy sources offers a promising

  16. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials: Preliminary Results and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials air quality. #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removing ozone from indoor

  17. Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

    2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

  18. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  19. Validation of ATR SINDA using SPERT-3 reactivity-initiated transient test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, C.H.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Wadkins, R.P. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic analyses of Special Power Excursion Reactor Test-3 (SPERT-3) reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) test data are presented to validate ATR SINDA, a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic computer code used to conduct transient analysis of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plates. Because SPERT-3-C core test results are the only existing data of reactivity insertions for plate-type reactors, validating ATR SINDA is important for safety analysis of postulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) for the plate-type ATR operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The SPERT-3 facility was designed to study the kinetic behavior and safety of pressurized, light water-moderated reactors.

  20. WSi2/Si Multilayer Sectioning by Reactive Ion Etching for Multilayer Laue Lens Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, N.; Conley, R.; Biancarosaa, J.; Divanc, R.; Macrander, A. T.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPIE Conference paper/talk presentation: Introduction: Reactive ion etching (RIE) has been employed in a wide range of fields such as semiconductor fabrication, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and refractive x-ray optics with a large investment put towards the development of deep RIE. Due to the intrinsic differing chemistries related to reactivity, ion bombardment, and passivation of materials, the development of recipes for new materials or material systems can require intense effort and resources. For silicon in particular, methods have been developed to provide reliable anisotropic profiles with good dimensional control and high aspect ratios1,2,3, high etch rates, and excellent material to mask etch selectivity...

  1. Preprint version Workshop on Robot Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 2012 IEEE/RSJ IROS, Vilamoura, Portugal A Synergetic High-level/Reactive Planning Framework with Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preprint version Workshop on Robot Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 2012 IEEE/RSJ IROS, Vilamoura, Portugal A Synergetic High-level/Reactive Planning Framework with Application to Human parametrization of the trajectory and assumes a basic environ- ment representation. As an application, the online

  2. Abstract Reactive Power Compensation in Electric Systems is usually studied as a constrained Single-objective Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Abstract Reactive Power Compensation in Electric Systems is usually studied as a constrained of calculation, better defined Pareto Front and a larger number of Pareto solutions. Index Terms Reactive Power.mail: {bbaran, jvallejo, rramos}@cnc.una.py). U. Fernández is with the National Electricity Administration

  3. Aluminum composition dependence of reactive ion etching of AIGaAs with CCI2F2:02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Aluminum composition dependence of reactive ion etching of AIGaAs with CCI2F2:02 s. J. Pearton, W; accepted for publication 12 May 1989) The etch rate and surface chemistry of Al"Ga, _ xAs after reactive. Annealing at 500 °C for 30 s almost restores the initial electrical properties of the material

  4. Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 1, 2007 Physical Interpretation of the Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    &% Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 1, 2007 Physical Interpretation of the Reactive Power in Terms of the CPC Power Theory LeszekS.CZARNECKI,FellowIEEE,MIEE Louisiana State. Just the opposite, the interpretation of the reactive power Q as an effect of energy

  5. Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and chemical mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Received 2 June's size and location, and reactive ion etching was used to form an SiO2 template. Nickel electroplating

  6. Abstract--This paper proposes an optimization based method of planning reactive power control for electric transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Abstract--This paper proposes an optimization based method of planning reactive power control for electric transmission systems to endow them with the capability of being reconfigured to a secure planning, reactive power control, reconfiguration, voltage stability. I. INTRODUCTION PPROPRIATE long

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF A NICKEL(II)-TRIPEPTIDE MIMIC OF NICKEL SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Amanda M.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . However, prior to this work, the structure and chemical reactivity of the nickel-peptide complex were undefined. The work presented herein involves structural and reactivity investigations of the MAP-tag bound with NiII in the dianionic complex [Ni-NCC]2...

  8. Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel Abstract Sea urchin fertilization is marked by a massive conversion of molecular oxygen to hydrogen of these defective embryos. We also report an unequal distribution of reactive oxygen species between sister

  9. A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2 electric power system that meets system requirements and reacts dynamically to changes in internal system to more-electric aircraft architectures possible. Conventional architectures utilize a combination

  10. SPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    SPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID 7.6 Kevin F the price of electricity in the PJM power grid. In this paper we examine one of the mechanisms by which space weather impacts the electricity market in the PJM power grid. The starting point of this paper

  11. Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu, Ufuk Topcu, and Richard M. Murray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu, Ufuk Topcu, and Richard M. Murray Abstract-- The increasing complexity of electric power sys- tems leads to integration and verification challenges. We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft electric

  12. Synthesis and reactivity of molybdenum organometallic complexes supported by amide ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hock, Adam S. (Adam Scott)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Reactivity of Molybdenum Alkyl Complexes Supported by a Diamidoamine Ligand. The synthesis of a new diamidoamine ligand, CH3N[CH2CH2NH(3-(CF3)C6H4)]2 (H2L) is reported. Molybdenum complexes of the ...

  13. Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova and Noam Agmon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agmon, Noam

    Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 184103 (2012) Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume can occur within a finite reaction sphere. We obtain the Green's function solution for the Laplace

  14. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  15. New Strontium-based Bioactive Glasses: Physicochemical Reactivity and Delivering Capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 New Strontium-based Bioactive Glasses: Physicochemical Reactivity and Delivering Capability, strontium- doped bioactive glasses are of major interest; their key property relies on the increased that closely resembles to the biological apatite present in bones. Compared to strontium-free materials

  16. Wind Farm Reactive Support and Voltage Control Daniel F. Opila Abdi M. Zeynu Ian A. Hiskens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Wind Farm Reactive Support and Voltage Control Daniel F. Opila Abdi M. Zeynu Ian A. Hiskens Abstract--Wind farms typically contain a variety of voltage control equipment including tap or wind farm; it is desirable to treat all the equipment as an integrated system rather than independent

  17. Self-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Enrique

    investigated on the epitaxy and self- organization of laterally nanostructured transition metal TM silicideSelf-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy L to be a flexible and a convenient method for the preparation of dense arrays of Co silicide quantum dots

  18. Extracting the Acoustic pressure field from Large Eddy Simulation of confined reactive flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    and non-premixed open flames3,4 as well as in more complex cases such as gas turbine combustors must be large enough to include the sources of noise as well as part of the acoustic near field.6 VeryExtracting the Acoustic pressure field from Large Eddy Simulation of confined reactive flows Camilo

  19. Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stored in poorly designed facilities or where it has been leached from U mill tailings [USDOE, 1996Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions alluvial aquifer beneath a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was simulated using a surface

  20. Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    is widely used in the wind power system for its advantages over other two types [5]. The characteristicsReactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming Yufei Tang Wind farm Power system Adaptive control a b s t r a c t Optimal control of large-scale wind farm has

  1. Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    the fermentation conversion. In this case, fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product... separation) must be compatible with the ammonium carboxylate salts formed in the fermentation. This research focuses on converting fermentation broth carboxylate salts into their corresponding acids via “acid springing.” Reactive extraction and thermal...

  2. On the Evolution of Reactive Components --A ProcessAlgebraic Approach --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MĂĽller-Olm, Markus

    On the Evolution of Reactive Components -- A Process­Algebraic Approach -- Markus MË?uller­Olm 1­Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999 #12; 162 Markus MË?uller­Olm, Bernhard Ste#en, and Rance Cleaveland in out in out

  3. Examination of a PHEV Bidirectional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    . Keywords - PHEV; charger; V2G; reactive power; battery I. INTRODUCTION Today, hybrid electric vehicles to power the vehicle for a daily commute. PHEVs provide electricity- only drive option up to a specified which is valuable to the electric power grid. The possibility of using battery-powered vehicles

  4. PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    . Keywords--Distributed generation, wind power integration, plug-in electric vehicles, reactive power]. In [6], Li et al. used stochastic programming to obtain the optimal plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) power be compensated locally, we consider a scenario where a wind DG unit is co-located with a plug-in electric vehicle

  5. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch in Real-Time S. Salamat Sharif1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    ) an improvement in the volt- age profile and voltage stability, and 2) a savings in ac- tive power loss of view. A reduction in active power loss gained from ORPD can save a significant amount of money reactive power dispatch, power loss minimization, optimization methods 1 Introduction Optimal power

  6. Modular Formalization of Reactive Modules in Ming-Hsien Tsai1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bow-Yaw

    Modular Formalization of Reactive Modules in COQ Ming-Hsien Tsai1,2 and Bow-Yaw Wang1 1 Institute systems in proof assistants consists of several tedious tasks. Firstly, system behavior has, interleaving versus concur- rent semantics need be resolved in behavioral specification. Secondly, system

  7. Specificationbased Testing of Reactive Software: A Case Study in Technology Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Adam

    Specification­based Testing of Reactive Software: A Case Study in Technology Transfer Lalita be effective in practice. The case study illustrates that technology transfer efforts can benefit from that limit formal methods technology transfer. We also found that there is often a tension between the scope

  8. Reaction localization and softening of texturally hardened mylonites in a reactivated fault zone, central Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    , central Argentina S. J. WHITMEYER1 * AND R. P. WINTSCH2 1 Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University, central Argentina, experienced multiple ductile deformation and faulting events that involved a variety of replacement reactions in a partially open system. Key words: Argentina; reaction localization; reactivation

  9. Reactivity and stability of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvo, Sergio Rafael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the reactivity of Pt and Pt-M (M: Pd, Co, Ni, V, and Rh) alloy catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a function of the alloy overall composition and surface atomic distribution...

  10. A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete Michael Chapwanya residing in the porous concrete matrix. The main hypothesis in this model is that the reaction product hydration; Porous media; Reaction-diffusion equations; Vari- able porosity. 1. Introduction Concrete

  11. ADVANCING REACTIVE TRACER METHODS FOR MONITORING THERMAL DRAWDOWN IN GEOTHERMAL ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; George D. Redden; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive tracers have long been considered a possible means of measuring thermal drawdown in a geothermal system, before significant cooling occurs at the extraction well. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the proposed method to evaluate reservoir cooling and demonstrate that while the sensitivity of the method as generally proposed is low, it may be practical under certain conditions.

  12. Reactive Diffusion in Cu-Nb-Sn Internal Tin Superconducting Wires for the ITER Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    project, which investigates the production of electricity by means of nuclear fusion, have been studied and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray Micro-Tomography (XMT density of the superconductor. Further understanding of the reactive diffusion to optimise the heat

  13. Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    , we are currently investigating the coordina- tion chemistry of uranium metal centers with classicalUranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium, and Karsten Meyer* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UniVersity of California

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (ACCEPTED NOVEMBER 8, 2014) 1 Stochastic Reactive Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    response, and electric vehicles. Advances in photovoltaic (PV) inverters offer new opportunitiesIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (ACCEPTED NOVEMBER 8, 2014) 1 Stochastic Reactive Power are being challenged by reverse power flows and voltage fluctuations due to renewable generation, demand

  15. Development and Validation of ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Hydrocarbon Chemistry Catalyzed by Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    and theoretical studies show that steps not only provide a low energy barrier for the chemisorption of methane of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State UniVersity, UniVersity Park, PennsylVania 16801 Recei reactions catalyzed by nickel surfaces and particles using reactive molecular dynamics on thousands of atoms

  16. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  17. Adaptive Accelerated ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics with Validation from Simulating Hydrogen Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Adaptive Accelerated ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics with Validation from Simulating Hydrogen Combustion concept (BB), which we validate here for describing hydrogen combustion. The bond order, undercoordination determined the detailed sequence of reactions for hydrogen combustion with and without the BB. We validate

  18. Crystallization and layering induced by heating a reactive porous Mark A. Hallworth and Herbert E. Huppert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    is heated, convective processes cause solidification in a remote region. These concepts suggest novel postCrystallization and layering induced by heating a reactive porous medium Mark A. Hallworth; accepted 8 June 2004; published 2 July 2004. [1] Normally heating causes melting and not solidification

  19. Improving Reactivity Against Target Organothiophosphates via Active-Site Directed Mutagenisis of a Bacterial Phosphotriesterase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Githens, Tyler 1986-

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the initial screen and were targets for steady state kinetic characterization of active site mutants. Site directed mutagenesis of binding sites was conducted and the most reactive point mutants, F132G, F132V and S308G, were used as backgrounds for subsequent...

  20. A Numerical Model for Miscible Displacement of Multi-Component Reactive Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Azarouala a Water Department/Groundwater and Geochemistry Modeling, BRGM (French Geological Survey) 3 of our approach. Therefore, the model may prove useful for many practical applications. 1. INTRODUCTION Demands to undertake modeling analysis of coupled groundwater ow, solute transport, and reactive water