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1

LLW Dumpster study: Task 009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over a span of several years, the public has reported visible leakage emanating from ten cubic yard Dumpsters used to transport Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) from LANL generation sites to the disposal site at TA-54, Area G. The purpose of this study was to: Investigate probable causes of leakages, Inspect existing Dumpsters in the fields Propose immediate short-range solutions to the problem, and Propose long-range solutions based on predicted future requirements. Field investigations indicated that LLW is handled carefully and professional at the individual generation sites and again during pick-up delivery, and disposal at TA-54. It was also apparent, however, that Dumpsters not designed for LLW service are used to store this radioactive material for extended time periods while being subjected to the full range of Northern New Mexico weather conditions. All Dumpsters inspected had 1/8 in to 2 in gaps in their closures (loading doors and discharge ramps) through which driving rain or melting snow could easily enter. Seven Dumpsters were located outside secure areas. No cases of actual contamination were discovered, only the appearance of contamination i.e. the dripping of collected rainwater or melting ice and snow from Dumpsters being transported over public roads.

Frye, J.A. [Thompson (T.K.), Inc., White Rock, NM (United States)

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

International Recycling of LLW Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melting of radioactive scrap metal has been successfully practiced for more than 15 years, with approximately 60,000 tons of steel being processed into beneficial reuse applications. This process has converted radioactive scrap metal at a licensed facility into useful products such as shield blocks, security barriers and shield containers. These products are used within the nuclear industry, such as nuclear power plants, waste disposal facilities and high-energy physics research facilities. Recycling provides the following benefits by comparison with direct disposal: - Preserving metal resources. - Conserving valuable Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site resources, thereby extending disposal site life. - Reducing the cost of metal products to end users by using materials less expensive than virgin metals. This paper outlines international metal recycling practices implemented at EnergySolutions' Bear Creek Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

Eshleman, T.; Jansen, J. [EnergySolutions (United States); Shinya, Sawada [KEK - High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: California DHS sues US Interior Department to compel land transfer; LLW Forum holds winter meeting; LLW Forum waste information working group meets; LLW Forum regulatory issues discussion group meets; Envirocare investigation transferred to feds; Host state TCC meets in Laughlin, Nevada; BLM to require new permit for California site testing; Federal agencies and committees; Pena sworn in as Energy Secretary, Grumbly departs DOE; U.S. Supreme Court tackles property rights issues; GAO to study DOI`s actions; Congress scrutinizes FY `98 budget requests; and Senate committee passes high-level waste bill: Clinton threatens to veto.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

`LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

LLW notes. Volume 11, No.8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

`LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

Norris, C. [ed.] [Afton Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

Norris, C. [ed.] [Afton Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

LLW Notes, vol. 9, no. 1. February/March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LLW Notes is published ten times each year and is distributed to Low- Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies.

NONE

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the...

11

WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

Kersten, J.K.

1998-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

LLW Forum meeting report, April 18--19, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. LLW Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently- operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This quarterly meeting was held on April 18-19, 1991.

NONE

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

LLW Forum meeting report, October 20--22, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in Annapolis, Maryland, on October 20--22, 1997. Twenty-six Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 22 compacts and states participated. A report on the meeting is given under the following subtitles: New developments in states and compacts; Discussion with NRC Commissioner McGaffigan; Regulatory issues session; Executive session; LLW forum business session; DOE low-level waste management program; Transportation of radioactive waste; Environmental equity: Title VI; Congressional studies on Ward Valley Site; Implementation of DOE`s strategy for waste management; Relicensing Envirocare; Draft agreement for uniform application of manifesting procedures; CRCPD report; Panel: Future of low-level radioactive waste management; Agenda planning: February 1998; Resolutions; and Attendance.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Development Of Strategy For The Management Of LLW In The United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a UK non-departmental public body with a remit to clean up the civil public sector nuclear legacy. Much work has been done to date on developing contractor competition for the management of NDA-owned sites, including the UK's principal disposal facility: the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) in Cumbria. The competition goals and principles are integrated with the framework for the development of a UK Low Level Waste (LLW) management plan, through which the NDA will deliver its commitments to UK Government and stakeholders. Nexia Solutions has undertaken work for the NDA in assessing strategic options and scenarios for the management and disposal of current UK LLW. The volumetric, radiological and strategic limitations of existing disposition routes have been assessed against the inventories and characteristics of LLW forecast to arise. A number of potential alternative scenarios and variants for future LLW management have been modelled and assessed. (authors)

Wareing, A.S. [Nexia Solutions Ltd, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire, WA (United Kingdom); Fisher, J. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Herdus House, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3HU (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, N.M. A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, N.M. On February 17, 2011, DOE issued the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and GTCC-Like Waste (Draft EIS, DOE/EIS-0375D) for public review and comment. DOE is inviting public comments on this Draft EIS during a 120-day public comment period, from the date of publication of the EIS's Notice of Availability in the Federal Register. During the comment

17

WDS.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste Data System Waste Data System The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is responsible for the safe disposal of the nation's defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. Keeping track of thousands of waste containers disposed at WIPP and in temporary storage at sites across the country can be a challenge. To meet this challenge, DOE has developed an information system for keeping all data related to

18

A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided.

Smith, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)] [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

A Comprehensive Solution for Managing TRU and LLW From Generation to Final Disposition - 13205  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A LANL multi-disciplinary team faced the challenge of building and delivering a waste information system capable of managing radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste from cradle to grave. The result is the Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) a flexible, adaptive system that has allowed LANL to consolidate its legacy applications into one system, and leverage the advantages of managing all waste types within a single scalable enterprise application. Key functionality required for robust waste operations, include: waste characterization, waste identification, transportation, inventory management, waste processing, and disposal. In order to maintain data quality, field operations such as waste identification, surveillance checklists, wall-to-wall inventory assessments, waste transfers, shipment pickup and receipt, and simple consolidation operations are captured by the operator or technician using mobile computers. Work flow is managed via end-user defined work paths, to ensure that unit operations are performed in the correct order. Regulatory compliance reports and algorithms are provided to support typical U.S. EPA, DOT, NRC, and DOE requirements, including the EPA hazardous waste manifest, NRC LLW manifest, DOE nuclear material at risk, RCRA TSDF inventory rules, and so forth. The WCATS application has allowed LANL to migrate and consolidate its disparate legacy applications. The design and implementation is generalized so that facility owners can customize the user interface, setup facilities and unit operations (i.e., treatment, storage, disposal, characterization, and administrative), define inventory compliance rules, and establish custom work flow requirements. (authors)

Tozer, Justin C.; Sanchez, Edwina G.; Dorries, Alison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Review of the EPA's radionuclide release analyses from LLW disposal trenches used in support of proposed dose limits in 40 CFR 193  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The April 1989 draft EPA standard for low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 40 CFR 193, would require disposal site performance to satisfy very stringent dose-limit criteria. The EPA suggests that these limits can be achieved by relying extensively on waste solidification before disposal. The EPA justifies the achievability of the proposed criteria based on performance assessment analyses in the general context of trench burial of the LLW. The core models implemented in those analyses are codified in the EPA's PRESTO family of codes. Because a key set of models for predicting potential releases are the leach-and-transport models from a disposal trench, these have been reviewed for completeness and applicability to trench disposal methods. The overall conclusion of this review is that the generic analyses performed by the EPA are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the proposed version of 40 CFR 193. More rigorous analyses may find the draft standard criteria to be unattainable.

Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Review of the EPA`s radionuclide release analyses from LLW disposal trenches used in support of proposed dose limits in 40 CFR 193  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The April 1989 draft EPA standard for low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 40 CFR 193, would require disposal site performance to satisfy very stringent dose-limit criteria. The EPA suggests that these limits can be achieved by relying extensively on waste solidification before disposal. The EPA justifies the achievability of the proposed criteria based on performance assessment analyses in the general context of trench burial of the LLW. The core models implemented in those analyses are codified in the EPA`s PRESTO family of codes. Because a key set of models for predicting potential releases are the leach-and-transport models from a disposal trench, these have been reviewed for completeness and applicability to trench disposal methods. The overall conclusion of this review is that the generic analyses performed by the EPA are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the proposed version of 40 CFR 193. More rigorous analyses may find the draft standard criteria to be unattainable.

Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

LLW Forum meeting report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the details of the Quarterly Meeting of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Forum held in San Diego, California during January 23-25, 1991. Topics discussed include: State and Compact Progress Reports; Legal Updates; Update on Technical Assistance; Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Surcharge Rebates; Update on TCC Activities; NRC Update; Disposal of Commercial Mixed Waste; Update on EPA Activities; ACNW Working Group on Mixed Waste; National Profile on Mixed Waste; Commercial Perspective on Mixed Waste; Update on DOT Activities; Source Terms; Materials and Waste; Storage: and Waste Acceptance Criteria and Packaging.

NONE

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Management of nuclear materials and non-HLW | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the consolidation and disposition of nuclear materials, including plutonium, uranium, and nuclear waste in accordance with applicable statutes, DOE Orders and international...

25

Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study`s objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care.

Schulz, R.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ridky, R.W. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Geology; O`Donnell, E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study`s objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care.

Schulz, R.K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ridky, R.W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; O`Donnell, E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: Chem-Nuclear documents new plan for Barnwell; Nebraska releases technical analysis of LLRW facility; Southeast Compact suspends funding for NC facility development; NC governor and Southeast Compact differ on proposed MOU; Midwest Compact to return export fees; State legislators` group revises radioactive waste policy; Internal documents discuss administration`s policy on Ward Valley; BLM issues EA for Ward Valley testing; California DHS, NRC criticize DOI`s testing protocols; Army removes training mines from Ward Valley site; The 1997 gubernatorial elections and a look ahead to 1998; Court throws out case challenging Pennsylvania`s siting law; DOE files notice of appeal in WCS suit; Central Compact moves to dismiss ``Veto`` authority suit; Congress exempts NAS from FACA; Judge sets schedule for Ward Valley case; Court won`t order DOE to accept spent fuel by deadline; NRC chairman expresses concern re CERCLA reauthorization; Senators question EPA`s guidance on remediation; EPA issues guidance, criticizes NRC decommissioning rule; Members of Congress clarify FUSRAP transfer; HLW legislation passes House by wide margin; Takings legislation passes House; Energy and water bill signed into law; and Senate confirms 5 of 6 DOE appointees.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: USGS report supports previous conclusions re tritium migration at Beatty; Ohio selects new contractor for screening; Maine Yankee`s future uncertain; Southeast Compact limits funds for North Carolina project; California, Energy, and Interior exchange correspondence on Ward Valley testing; TCC meets in Salt Lake City, Utah; Garner named executive director and forum participant for Northwest Compact; Seventh Circuit upholds Energy Secretary`s determination re distribution of surcharge rebates; US Ecology sues Nebraska re wetlands mitigation; US Supreme Court hears line-item veto challenge; Court rules NAS must provide public access; WCS sues Envirocare of Texas; DOE and Envirocare sign consent agreement; NRC issues performance assessment guidance; NRC to publish final decommissioning rule; House subcommittee passes Texas Consent Act; Environmental justice bill introduced in the House; and International nuclear safety body established.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: House votes 309 to 107 to approve Texas compact; Nebraska governor hosts LLRW meeting; Southeast Compact considers funding proposal; Chem-Nuclear explores options re SC revenue requirements; Legislation sets revenue requirements for Barnwell; TCC meets: Supports CA request for technical assistance; DOE approves part of California`s technical assistance request; State legislators discuss LLRW management for OH, IL, NC; Washington governor re Potential New Hanford Role; Federal court enjoins DOE from excluding WCS on new disposal; Appellate court in favor of DOE in surcharge rebates dispute; Hearing set for October in Ward Valley case; court rejects federal motion to dismiss Ward Valley suit; NE sues commission re veto over export authorizations; US Supreme Court dismisses line-item veto challenge; Department of Interior Inspector General investigation requested; USEC privatization plan approved; DOD finalizes LLRW disposal charter; Clinton nominates six DOE appointees; Congress moves FUSRAP to Army Corps of Engineers; Schaefer named interim director of USGS: Nichols leaves EPA: NRC Commissioner Rogers` term expires; NRC: CA ``Well-Quantified`` to license Ward Valley facility; EPA objects to state permit for Louisiana facility; Petitions submitted to EPA oppose Shintech permits; ECOS draft recommendations re Enviro programs; Legislation introduced to prohibit spent fuel shipments to the Goshutes; and HLW legislation ready for floor action.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

LLW Notes supplement, Volume 12, Number 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles related to environmental justice concerns and Title VI, entitled as follows: Civil Rights Act of 1964; Exec order on environmental justice; Applicability to states; Philosophical differences -- Environmental justice and Title VI; Ambiguities in existing Title VI guidance; Clarification of existing Title VI guidance; Federal financial assistance; Administrative complaints vs. lawsuits; Effect and disparate impact; Termination, suspension or refusal to grant federal financial assistance; DOJ guidance defines environmental justice; NEJAC meets, adopts far-reaching resolution re siting; Indigenous Peoples Resolution No. 23; and States meet, support environmental justice concept and express concerns about federal approach and composition of NEJAC.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: GAO concludes most Ward Valley SEIS issues previously addressed; Midwest compact halts facility development; Texas publishes proposal to issue WCS radioactive materials license; Central Compact issues export authorizations over NE`s objection; Nebraska governor to host LLRW summit; California regulators reassured re US ecology facility in WA; Southeast Compact augments funding for North Carolina; State and compact calendar of events; IAEA Director General to UN: reexamine nuclear power; DOI convenes meetings on Ward Valley Title VI complaint; California BLM: Tribes fully represented and consulted; MW, NE, and SW file amici curiae briefs in Ward Valley suit; Court denies state`s motion for protective order; WCS files suit against Envirocare and others; States attack DOE`s claim re lack of authority to store spent fuel; House committee passes Texas legislation; Ward Valley land transfer bill introduced in Senate; Senate committee holds hearing on Ward Valley legislation and related GAO report; NRDC threatens to sue DOE re Envirocare; NRC chair criticizes Deputy Interior Secretary`s use of Ward Valley fact sheet; Utility consortium submits license application for storage on Goshute land to NRC; Envirocare cited for SNM violation; EPA begins audit; and EPA rejects Title VI claim re Texas site.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 9  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: Senators criticize DOE use of Envirocare and Molten Metal; Officials express concern re implications of WCS ruling; DOE files notice of appeal in WCS suit; WCS responds to critics re implications of ruling; Background: Prior correspondence between the Senators and DOE re Envirocare; Waste control specialists authorized to conduct additional operations at Texas site; Molten Metal files for bankruptcy protection; Envirocare of Texas receives first approval for hazardous waste permit; Envirocare of Utah applies to NRC for SNM license; NRDC alleges death threats and financial intimidation by Envirocare; DOE and NRC sign off on external regulation pilot program; and NRDC requests Inspector General probe re Envirocare.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents include articles entitled: Texas Authority`s funding pending before conference committee: Auditor`s report favors authority; Revisions likely for Illinois siting law; Midwest Compact votes on Ohio fundings: Less approved than requested; Walter Sturgeon named executive director of North Carolina authority; New forum participant for Massachusetts; CRCPD holds fifth workshop for LLRW regulators; DOD generators hold annual meeting; State legislators` LLRW working group meets; NRC Chairman Jackson responds to proposal to amend the Policy Act; US Ecology uses to recover costs and lost profits and/or to compel Ward Valley land transfer; New suit against Envirocare and others alleges unlawful business practices; Federal court finds line-item veto unconstitutional; States/utilities seek to escrow nuclear waste payments; High-level waste bill passes Senate; NRC releases decommissioning rule; EPA Region VI re La Paz Agreement; EPA, NRC debate NRC`s decommissioning rule: No progress re approaches to risk harmonization; and Mousseau heads DOE`s national low-level waste management program.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

FCRD-USED-2010-000033, LLW Quantity and Inventory, FINAL R...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cycle Research and Development Cycle Research and Development Used Fuel Disposition Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Robert H. Jones, SRS June 2011 Revision 2 FCRD-USED-2010-000033 FCRD-USED-2010-000033 Fuel Cycle Research and Development June 2011 Used Fuel Disposition Revision 2 Low Level Waste - Quantity and Inventory Page ii of x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

35

Development of Composite Adsorbents for LLW Treatment and Their Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr - 13127  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the composite adsorbents (KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel), AMP-SG and so on) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. As for the distribution properties, the largest K{sub d,Cs} value of 3.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g was obtained for KCoFC-SG (Davi.) composite. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and T-KCFC also had relatively large K{sub d,Cs} values above 1.0 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g. The uptake rate of Cs{sup +} ions was examined by batch method. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and AMP-SG (Davi.) had relatively large uptake rate of Cs{sup +}, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 1 h. The maximum uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions was estimated to be above 0.5 mmol/g for KCoFC-NM and KCoFC-CP composites. KCoFC-X composite had a relatively large uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions (0.23 mmol/g > 0.17 mmol/g (T-KCFC)) and this composite also had a selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} ions; KCoFC-X is effective adsorbent for both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The largest value of K{sub d,Sr} was estimated to be 218 cm{sup 3}/g for titanic acid-PAN. Titanic acid-PAN had the largest uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} ions, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 8 h. Adsorbability of other nuclides was further examined by batch method. All adsorbents had adsorbability for Rb{sup +} and RuNO{sup 3+} ions. KCoFC-SG (NH), KCoFC-CP and T-KCFC had higher selectivity towards Cs{sup +} than other adsorbents; these adsorbents had adsorbability to Cs{sup +} ions even in the presence of Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions. The separation factor of K{sub d,Sr}/K{sub d,Ba} for titanic acid-PAN was about 1, indicating that the K{sub d,Sr} for titanic acid-PAN tends to decrease with Ba{sup 2+} concentration. As for the breakthrough properties, the largest 5 % breakpoint and 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} ions were estimated to be 47.1 cm{sup 3} and 0.07 mmol/g for the column of KCoFC-SG (NH), respectively. The order of 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} is as follows; KCoFC-SG (NH) > KCoFC-NM > KCoFC-SG (Q-10) > T-KCFC > KCoFC-X > KCoFC-CP. From the results of batch and column experiments, the composite adsorbent of KCoFC-SG (NH) was effective for the uptake of Cs{sup +} ions, and KCoFC-X composite was useful for the uptake of both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The estimation of irradiation stability and the uptake properties using the actual wastes are further essential for the practical operation. (authors)

Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)] [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirone, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)] [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirone, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

LLW (Low-Level Waste) Forum meeting report, February 10--13, 1998, San Diego, CA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in San Diego, California, on February 10--13, 1998. Twenty-four Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 19 compacts, host states, and unaffiliated states participated. Additional information was provided by 19 resource people from, variously, the States of California, Colorado, and Utah; the National Governors` Association; the Department of the Army; EPA; DOE and DOE`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program; NRC; the Electric Power Research Institute and the Nuclear Energy Institute; US Ecology, Chem-Nuclear Systems, Envirocare of Utah, and Waste Control Specialists (represented by Egan and Associates); and Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power. Also in attendance, as observers, were six other state and compact officials; a staff person from DOE`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program; one NRC headquarters staff person; and seven representatives of other interested parties, including a regional generators` organization, two generators, one California anti-nuclear group, and two private companies.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Civilian Nuclear...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

(HLW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Management of Nuclear Materials and Non-HLW Nuclear Fuel Cycle Energy Research and Development Non-Proliferation Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

38

Production-scale LLW and RMW solidification system operational testing at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) has begun production-scale testing of a low-level waste and radioactive mixed waste solidification system. This system will be used to treat low-level and mixed radioactive waste to meet land burial requirements. The system can use any of several types of solidification media, including a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic developed by ANL-E scientists. The final waste product will consist of a solidified mass in a standard 208-liter drum. The system uses commercial equipment and incorporates several unique process control features to ensure proper treatment. This paper will discuss the waste types requiring treatment, the system configuration, and operation results for these waste streams.

Wescott, J.; Wagh, A.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nelson, R. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); No, H. [H and P, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future. (authors)

Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

RH-LLW Disposal Facility Project CD-2/3 to Design/Build Proposal Reconciliation Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reconciliation plan was developed and implemented to address potential gaps and responses to gaps between the design/build vendor proposals and the Critical Decision-2/3 approval request package for the Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Project. The plan and results of the plan implementation included development of a reconciliation team comprised of subject matter experts from Battelle Energy Alliance and the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, identification of reconciliation questions, reconciliation by the team, identification of unresolved/remaining issues, and identification of follow-up actions and subsequent approvals of responses. The plan addressed the potential for gaps to exist in the following areas: Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requirements, including the performance assessment, composite analysis, monitoring plan, performance assessment/composite analysis maintenance plan, and closure plan Environmental assessment supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Nuclear safety Safeguards and security Emplacement operations Requirements for commissioning General project implementation. The reconciliation plan and results of the plan implementation are provided in a business-sensitive project file. This report provides the reconciliation plan and non-business sensitive summary responses to identified gaps.

Annette L. Schafer

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW (low level waste) disposal units: Annual report, October 1985-September 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the humid eastern part of the United States, trench covers have, in general, failed to prevent some of the incident precipitation from percolating downward to buried wastes. It is the purpose of the present work to investigate and demonstrate a procedure or technique that will control water infiltration to buried wastes regardless of above or below ground disposal. Results to date show the proposed procedure to be very promising and are applicable to shallow land burial as well as above ground disposal (e.g., Tumulus). In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named ''bioengineering management''. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies have been underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste disposal facility for the past three seasonal years. When the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. As a result of the encouraging initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters at Maxey Flats, a large-scale facility for demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been constructed at Beltsville, Maryland. This facility is now operational with the demonstration and data collection underway. 6 refs., 15 figs.

Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

EA-1793: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017. Historically, INL has disposed of this LLW onsite at a...

43

Microsoft Word - DMSA C-310-04, SWMU-233 Assessment Report 102909...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

waste (LLW) due to radiological contamination. The LLW formerly stored included electric air movers, piping, a pipe rack, a seal exhaust pump, a work platform, a transition piece,...

44

70 DA WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN LAMOST PILOT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a spectroscopically identified catalog of 70 DA white dwarfs (WDs) from the LAMOST pilot survey. Thirty-five are found to be new identifications after cross-correlation with the Eisenstein et al. and Villanova catalogs. The effective temperature and gravity of these WDs are estimated by Balmer lines fitting. Most of them are hot WDs. The cooling times and masses of these WDs are estimated by interpolation in theoretical evolution tracks. The peak of the mass distribution is found to be {approx}0.6 M {sub Sun }, which is consistent with prior work in the literature. The distances of these WDs are estimated using the method of synthetic spectral distances. All of these WDs are found to be in the Galactic disk from our analysis of space motions. Our sample supports the expectation that WDs with high mass are concentrated near the plane of the Galactic disk.

Zhao, J. K.; Luo, A. L.; Zhao, G. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Oswalt, T. D., E-mail: zjk@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: gzhao@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: lal@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu [Physics and Space Science Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Working Copy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste Inventory Monitoring Based on WDS 3.0 PRECLOSURE COMPLIANCE MONITORING This section describes the preclosure CMP, the resulting data the ten parameters and associated...

46

The late emission of thermonuclear supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The subject of late-time emission of Type Ia supernovae and its implications for the understanding of the explosions of C+O WDs is reviewed.

Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Slide 1  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

www.energy.govEM 4 USDOE LLW DISPOSAL Fernald Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Portsmouth Paducah Idaho National Laboratory Idaho CERCLA Disposal...

50

Portsmoulh/Paducah Project Office  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

material DMSA U.S. Department of Energy Material Storage Area Fiss fissile ID identification LLW low-level waste PACM presumed asbestos-containing material PCB ...

51

seismic margin  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

particulate air (filter) HFE human failure event HLW high-level radioactive waste HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ITS important to safety LLW low-level...

52

Microsoft Word - Other Template.docx  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Laney 2010 Laney, C., 2010, U.S. Ecology, personal communication (email) to G. Roles, Science Applications International Corporation, "RE: Waste disposal at the LLW site in...

53

Document  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Disposal Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (WIPP SEIS-II, DOEEIS-0026-S-2, September 1997). DOE is disposing of Hanford's LLW and MLLW onsite, consistent...

54

Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Amended Record of Decision for the Department of Energy's Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian Nuclear Energy Research and Development and Isotope Production Missions in the U.S. (DOE/EIS-0310) (08/13/04)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 0 Federal Register / Vol. 69, No. 156 / Friday, August 13, 2004 / Notices (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), Transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low activity waste to support clean up at Hanford and to assist other DOE sites in completing their cleanup programs. DOE decided in the ROD to (1) limit the volumes of LLW and MLLW received at Hanford from other sites for disposal; (2) dispose of LLW in lined disposal facilities, a practice already used for MLLW; (3) construct and operate a lined, combined-use disposal facility (previously referenced in this Notice of Intent as the ''Integrated Disposal Facility'') in Hanford's 200 East Area for disposal of LLW and MLLW, and further limit offsite waste receipts until the IDF is constructed; (4) treat LLW and MLLW

57

Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Jersey Jersey SITE: Princeton PROGRAM: SC WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Chicago Operations Office % of Stream Princeton - Low Level Waste - Compactable LLW WASTE STREAM CODE: 00492 STREAM NAME:Com pactable LLW MPC NAME:Solids TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : Future Volume Avg: Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 Compactable LLW Isotopes Cobalt-60 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent:5.0000E-003 Ci/m3 Upper Limit Concent:5.0000E-003 Ci/m3 Hydrogen-3 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent:5.0040E-003 Ci/m3 Upper Limit Concent:1.0000E+001 Ci/m3 % of Stream Princeton - Low Level Waste - Non-Compactable LLW WASTE STREAM CODE: 00493 STREAM NAME:Non-Compactable LLW MPC NAME:Solids TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : Future Volume Avg: Future Volume Lower Limit:

62

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

Solar abundance of manganese: a case for the existence of near Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernova progenitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: Manganese is predominantly synthesised in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions. Owing to the entropy dependence of the Mn yield in explosive thermonuclear burning, SNe Ia involving near Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs (WDs) are predicted to produce Mn to Fe ratios significantly exceeding those of SN Ia explosions involving sub-Chandrasekhar mass primary WDs. Of all current supernova explosion models, only SN Ia models involving near-Chandrasekhar mass WDs produce [Mn/Fe] > 0.0. Aims: Using the specific yields for competing SN Ia scenarios, we aim to constrain the relative fractions of exploding near-Chandrasekhar mass to sub-Chandrasekhar mass primary WDs in the Galaxy. Methods: We extract the Mn yields from three-dimensional thermonuclear supernova simulations referring to different initial setups and progenitor channels. We then compute the chemical evolution of Mn in the Solar neighborhood, assuming SNe Ia are made up of different relative fractions of the considered explosion models. Results: We ...

Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Roepke, Friedrich K; Ruiter, Ashley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Appendix MgO: Magnesium Oxide as an Engineered Barrier  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RH-TRU remote-handled transuranic s second(s) or solid SPC Salado Primary Constituents TIC total inorganic carbon TRU transuranic WDS Waste Data System WIPP Waste Isolation Pilot...

67

Supersoft Sources as SN Ia Progenitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the existence of supersoft X­ray sources. It is argued that SNe Ia are thermonuclear explosions of accreting C is that they represent thermonuclear disruptions of mass accreting white dwarfs (WDs). Thus, the basic ingredient

Greiner, Jochen

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline tungsten matrix Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to be easily resolved (P. Piccoli and B. Stuller). WDS map of tungsten in a titanite (CaTiSiO5) grain from... the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, Yosemite National Park. The...

69

Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INLs contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE and commercial disposal options exist for contact-handled LLW; however, offsite disposal options are either not currently available (i.e., commercial disposal facilities), practical, or cost-effective for all remote-handled LLW streams generated at INL. Offsite disposal of all INL and tenant-generated remote-handled waste is further complicated by issues associated with transporting highly radioactive waste in commerce; and infrastructure and processing changes at the generating facilities, specifically NRF, that would be required to support offsite disposal. The INL Remote-Handled LLW Disposal Project will develop a new remote handled LLW disposal facility to meet mission-critical, remote-handled LLW disposal needs. A formal DOE decision to proceed with the project has been made in accordance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Remote-handled LLW is generated from nuclear programs conducted at INL, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at NRF and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled LLW also will be generated by new INL programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex.

Danny Anderson

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Analysis of cool DO-type white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the identification of 22 new cool DO-type white dwarfs (WD) detected in Data Release 10 (DR10) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Among them, we found one more member of the so-called hot-wind DO WDs, which show ultrahigh excitation absorption lines. Our non-LTE model atmosphere analyses of these objects and two not previously analyzed hot-wind DO WDs, revealed effective temperatures and gravities in the ranges Teff=45-80kK and log g= 7.50-8.75. In eight of the spectra we found traces of C (0.001-0.01, by mass). Two of these are the coolest DO WDs ever discovered that still show a considerable amount of C in their atmospheres. This is in strong contradiction with diffusion calculations, and probably, similar to what is proposed for DB WDs, a weak mass-loss is present in DO WDs. One object is the most massive DO WD discovered so far with a mass of 1.07 M_sun if it is an ONe-WD or 1.09 M_sun if it is a CO-WD. We furthermore present the mass distribution of all known hot non-DA (pre-) WDs and d...

Reindl, N; Werner, K; Kepler, S O; Gnsicke, B T; Fusillo, N P Gentile

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Microsoft Outlook - Memo Style  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

This includes LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, haz waste, etc. But there are also other fish to fry, such as the West Valley job, and the definition of No Action seems to be still...

73

https://sweis.nv.doe.gov/References/RE%20WM%20activities%20at...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

This includes LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, haz waste, etc. But there are also other fish to fry, such as the West Valley job, and the definition of No Action seems to be still...

74

CLEARANCE ISSUES FOR ADVANCED FUSION POWER PLANTS L. El-Guebaly, D. Henderson, A. Abdou, P. Wilson, and the ARIES Team  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-surface disposal as Class A or Class C Low-Level Waste (LLW), recycling and reuse in nuclear facilities, relatively larger machines with greater radial builds are designed in Europe,3 emphasizing the recycling

California at San Diego, University of

75

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste category for "TRU" * The Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act had defined LLW as radioactive waste not classified as high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product...

76

EIS-0217: Amended Record of Decision | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Department of Energy (DOE) decisions concerning the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed hazardous and low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) at the...

77

Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Application of Molecular Techniques To Elucidate the Influence of Cellulosic Waste on the Bacterial Community Structure at a Simulated Low-Level-Radioactive-Waste Site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...environment to test the implementation of innovative waste characterization and retrieval...at these LLW sites and better design remediation processes that may be needed at these...Office of Science, Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP), contract...

Erin K. Field; Seth D'Imperio; Amber R. Miller; Michael R. VanEngelen; Robin Gerlach; Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

79

Breakout Session EM 3  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Level Radioactive Waste Level Radioactive Waste Disposition Activities Update Transportation External Coordination Working Group Douglas Tonkay Office of Disposal Operations February 7, 2008 Discussion Topics * DOE Low-Level/Mixed Low-Level Waste Corporate Board (LLW Corporate Board) * Greater-than-class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) Disposition * DOE radioactive waste and materials disposition data - Waste Information Management System (WIMS) DOE LLW Corporate Board * Uses a commercial business model to more effectively manage DOE LLW and MLLW activities - Based on Transuranic Waste Corporate Board - Promotes efficient and cost-effective treatment and disposal alternatives and use of DOE regional disposal facilities - Identifies and addresses complex-wide issues, coordinate operations

80

LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 5, June/July 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the June/July 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts; Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities; court rulings and calendars; waste disposal in the Marshall Islands; NRC nuclear power plant license renewal rule; NRC withdraws LLW disposal rule for reactor site; and NRC issues import license.

Jackson, S.A.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Fresh Look at Greater Confinement Boreholes for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Federal government has responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed limits established by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for Class C LLW. Since Greater-Than-Class-C (GTCC) LLW is from activities licensed by NRC or NRC Agreement States, a disposal facility by law must be licensed by NRC. The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to site, design, construct, operate, decommission, and provide long-term care for GTCC LLW disposal facilities. On May 11, 2005, DOE issued an advance notice of intent to begin preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for GTCC LLW disposal. Since the initiation of the EIS, analysis has focused on compiling the inventory of commercial GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like wastes, reviewing disposal technologies, and other preliminary studies. One of the promising disposal technologies being considered is intermediate depth greater confinement boreholes. Greater confinement boreholes have been used effectively to safely dispose of long-lived radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE took a fresh look at global experiences with the use of greater confinement borehole disposal, including current considerations being given for future applications in the U.S., and concluded that the U.S. is positioned to benefit from international collaboration on borehole disposal technology, and could ultimately become a pilot project, if the technology is selected. (authors)

Tonkay, D.W.; Joyce, J.L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Disposal Operations, Washington, DC (United States); Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we find that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.

Kilic, Mukremin [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kowalski, Piotr M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Von Hippel, Ted [Physics Department, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)], E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.edu

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years.

Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

Birk, S.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Contribution of White Dwarfs to Cluster Masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present a literature search through 31 July 1997 of white dwarfs (WDs) in open and globular clusters. There are 36 single WDs and 5 WDs in binaries known among 13 open clusters, and 340 single WDs and 11 WDs in binaries known among 11 globular clusters. From these data I have calculated WD mass fractions for four open clusters (the Pleiades, NGC 2168, NGC 3532, and the Hyades) and one globular cluster (NGC 6121). I develop a simple model of cluster evolution that incorporates stellar evolution but not dynamical evolution to interpret the WD mass fractions. I augment the results of my simple model with N-body simulations incorporating stellar evolution (Terlevich 1987; de la Feunte Marcos 1996; Vesperini & Heggie 1997). I find that even though these clusters undergo moderate to strong kinematical evolution the WD mass fraction is relatively insensitive to kinematical evolution. By comparing the cluster mass functions to that of the Galactic disk, and incorporating plausibility arguments for the mass function of the Galactic halo, I estimate the WD mass fraction in these two populations. I assume the Galactic disk is ~10 Gyrs old (Winget et al. 1987; Liebert, Dahn, & Monet 1988; Oswalt et al. 1996) and that the Galactic halo is ~12 Gyrs old (Reid 1997b; Gratton et al. 1997; Chaboyer et al. 1998), although the WD mass fraction is insensitive to age in this range. I find that the Galactic halo should contain 8 to 9% (alpha = -2.35) or perhaps as much as 15 to 17% (alpha = -2.0) of its stellar mass in the form of WDs. The Galactic disk WD mass fraction should be 6 to 7% (alpha = -2.35), consistent with the empirical estimates of 3 to 7% (Liebert, Dahn, & Monet 1988; Oswalt et al. 1996). (abridged)

Ted von Hippel

1998-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

87

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program is to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that will be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluating the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites are being employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results over the past year on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of the annual report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides has been developed during this study.

Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change.

Devgun, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Larson, G.S. [Midwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Waste Determination and Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act - HQ Perspective  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Level Waste Corporate Board Level Waste Corporate Board Section 3116 A H d t P ti A Headquarters Perspective Martin J. Letourneau Chair, Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group , p y p March 5, 2008 safety performance cleanup closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management Section 3116 vs. DOE Order 435.1 * From a technical perspective, the criteria are essentially identical y * Both paths provide a methodology to treat and manage waste incidental to reprocessing as non-HLW * Section 3116 can only be applied in the states of South Carolina and Idaho * For consistency all future WIR Evaluations will be * For consistency, all future WIR Evaluations will be modeled after the Section 3116 process * One key difference is the regulatory responsibility of One key difference is the regulatory responsibility of

90

Presentation Title  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LLW Processing Update LLW Processing Update Aaron Staub Senior Engineer Waste Solidification Engineering Denver Technical Exchange May 19, 2009 LWO-WSE-2009-00135 Saltstone LLW Processing Update 2 Saltstone Facility: Background Commissioned in 1990 for waste treatment of site evaporator bottoms effluents and decontaminated salt solution from In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) processing. Original design allowed for significant contact maintenance, waste expected to have minimal radioactive source term. During 1990s and early 2000s, delays in salt processing eliminated much of the feed planned for Saltstone. Intermittent operations only to support evaporator effluents. By mid-2000s, Tank Farm space requirements create need to dispose of small volume of waste with higher Cs-137 levels than originally forecast.

91

NNSS Waste Disposal Proves Vital Resource for DOE Complex | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NNSS Waste Disposal Proves Vital Resource for DOE Complex NNSS Waste Disposal Proves Vital Resource for DOE Complex NNSS Waste Disposal Proves Vital Resource for DOE Complex March 20, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Like most LLW, RTGs disposed of at the NNSS were handled without any special equipment or clothing because of the relatively low dose rate levels. Like most LLW, RTGs disposed of at the NNSS were handled without any special equipment or clothing because of the relatively low dose rate levels. An irradiator from Sandia National Laboratory was disposed of at the RWMS in September 2012. An irradiator from Sandia National Laboratory was disposed of at the RWMS in September 2012. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Like most LLW, RTGs disposed of at the NNSS were handled without any special equipment or clothing because of the relatively low dose rate levels.

92

Results of a Strategic Assessment of NRC's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NRC recently completed a strategic assessment of its low-level radioactive waste (LLW) regulatory program. In this paper, we provide the results of this assessment - a prioritized list of activities for our LLW program in the next several years - along with a description of the circumstances that required us to undertake this assessment and the process we used. We obtained ideas from a wide variety of stakeholders on activities we could undertake, and we evaluated them in light of our overall strategic objectives for ensuring safety and security, as well as a number of other factors. We ranked 7 of the 20 activities evaluated as high priority. Their completion in the next several years will help to ensure that LLW will continue to be managed and disposed of safely and securely. (authors)

Bradford, A.W.; Camper, L.W.; Flanders, S.C.; Kennedy, J.E.; Shaffner, J.A.; Tokar, M.; Whited, A.R. [NRC LLW Branch, Mail Stop T-8-F-5, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

Alternative generation and analysis for phase I privatization transfer system needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This decision document provides input for the Phase I Privatization waste staging plans for the High-Level Waste (HLW)and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs. This AGA report evaluates what infrastructure upgrades to existing 200 East waste transfer systems are necessary for delivery of HLW and LLW streams to the Phase I Privatization vendor. The AGA identifies the transfer routing alternatives for supernatant waste transfers from the 241-AN, 241-AW, and 241-AP Tank Farms to the 241-AP-102 tank and/or the 241-AP-104 tank. These two tanks have been targeted as the initial LLW feed staging tanks. In addition,this report addresses the transfer of slurry waste from the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farms to the Phase I Privatization vendor`s facilities for HLW immobilization.

Galbraith, J.D.

1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

95

Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Chemical species of migrating radionuclides at commercial shallow land burial sites. Quarterly progress report, May-July, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purposes of this project are to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial sites and to evaluate ecological field sampling procedures for monitoring the performance of these sites. This project will produce information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the development of criteria for LLW disposal site selection, management, permanent closure, and monitoring. It will also produce information needed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize, close, and monitor the Maxey Flats site. Significant current research results are reported for the following tasks: inorganic and organic radionuclide species chemical forms; subsurface migration and infiltration studies; specific radionuclide mapping at Maxey Flats and commercial shallow land burial sites; ecological monitoring at commercial shallow land burial sites; and technical program coordination for LLW research. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Kirby, L.J.; Rickard, W.H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Catalog of documents produced by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This catalog provides a ready reference for documents prepared by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) Management Program. The GTCC LLW Management Program is part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The NLLWMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is responsible for assisting the DOE in meeting its obligations under Public Law 99-240, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. This law assigns DOE the responsibility of ensuring the safe disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NLLWMP is managed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

Winberg, M.R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

DOE Railcar Fleet Asset Planning & Lessons Learned  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Railcar Railcar Fleet DOE Railcar Fleet Asset Planning & Lessons Learned Dave Lojek - US DOE Lessons Learned Dave Lojek US DOE Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) Support: Office of Packaging & Transportation (EM-45) Di i O i Discussion Overview *Completed Rail Campaigns - LLW -Fernald, Mound, Savannah River *In Progress - LLW -Savannah River, Brookhaven, Moab *ForeCast - LLW -Portsmouth, Paducah, D&D, DUF6 2 *Lessons Learned F ld Cl P j t Fernald Closure Project First Rail Shipment: April 26, 1999 First Rail Shipment: Final Rail Shipment: April 26, 1999 October 11, 2006 Unit Trains Shipped: 201 Railcars Shipped: 12,000 3 Tons Shipped: 1,200,000 F ld R il E i t Fernald Rail Equipment * 3 - Locomotives * 250 Total Railcars In Service 190 New Purchase Gov't Gondolas 60 Leased Gondola Railcars

99

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Mexico Mexico SITE: LosAlamos PROGRAM: DP WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Albuquerque Operations Office % of Stream LosAlamos - Low Level Waste - LLW-PCB WASTE STREAM CODE: 02015 STREAM NAME:LLW-PCB MPC NAME:Soil/Debris TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : Future Volume Avg: Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 LLW -PCB Isotopes Plutonium-239 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:1.0000E+002 nCi/g Americium-241 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:1.0000E+002 nCi/g Cesium-137 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:8.6400E+002 nCi/g Uranium-238 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:4.8900E+002 nCi/g Plutonium-238 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:1.0000E+002 nCi/g

100

P  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: s m r \o \o P s CA DISCLAIMER r r M c M LLW Drum Staging BuiMing Environmental Assessment August 3, 1994 DISCLAIMER Portions of t f G s document may be illegible in electronic image products. images are produced from the best avaiIable original document. LLW Drum Staging Building Environmental Assessment EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The proposed action is to place a 3 meter (m) by 4.5 m (10 ft x 15 ft) prefabricated storage building (uansportainer) adjacent to the existing Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (PlrETF) at Technical Area (TA-) 16, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and to use the building as a staging site for sealed 55-gallon drums of noncompactible waste contaminated with low levels of z3ium (LLW). Up to eight drums of waste would be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

An Update On Waste Control Specialists' 2004 License Application For Safe Disposal Of Class A, B, and C Low-Level Radioactive Waste In Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 10, 2007, Waste Control Specialists LLC (WCS) received notification that the Executive Director of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) had prepared an interim draft license and made a preliminary decision that it met all statutory and regulatory requirements for safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the WCS' site in Texas. Pursuant to this interim draft license, WCS will be authorized to dispose Class A, B, and C LLW in two enhanced near-surface landfills at WCS' 5.4-square-kilometer (1,338-acre) treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site in Andrews County, Texas (Fig. 1). One landfill will be dedicated to LLW generated within the member/party states of the Texas Compact (Texas and Vermont), while the other will be dedicated to LLW generated by the federal government. The calculated annual peak dose to the maximally exposed member of the general public, i.e., an adjacent resident, from any of the proposed LLW-disposal landfills occurs approximately 36,400 years after closure and is 0.034 milli-sievert (mSv) (3.4 milli-rem (mrem)), which is less than 14 percent of the applicable regulatory limit of 25 mSv (25 mrem). The draft license will be published in February 2008, which will be followed by 12 months of public hearings, and three months for preparation of the final license. Based on this schedule, the final license is due in May 2009. When opened, the WCS site will achieve a national milestone; it will be the first new Compact LLW-disposal site in the USA to open under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, as amended in 1985. (authors)

Baltzer, R.; Eriksson, L. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Three Lincoln Centre, Dallas, Texas (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The Initial-Final Mass Relationship: Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs in NGC 2099 (M37)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of very faint white dwarfs (WDs) in the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 (M37). Following deep, wide field imaging of the cluster using CFHT, we have now obtained spectroscopic observations of candidate WDs using both GMOS on Gemini and LRIS on Keck. Of our 24 WD candidates (all fainter than V = 22.4), 21 are spectroscopically confirmed to be bona fide WDs, 4-5 of which are most likely field objects. Fitting 18 of the 21 WD spectra with model atmospheres, we find that most WDs in this cluster are quite massive (0.7-0.9 Msun), as expected given the cluster's young age (650 Myr) and, hence, high turnoff mass (~2.4 Msun). We determine a new initial-final mass relationship and almost double the number of existing data points from previous studies. The results indicate that stars with initial masses between 2.8 and 3.4 Msun lose 70-75% of their mass through stellar evolution. For the first time, we find some evidence of a metallicity dependence on the initial-final mass relationship.

Jasonjot Singh Kalirai; Harvey B. Richer; David Reitzel; Brad M. S. Hansen; R. Michael Rich; Gregory G. Fahlman; Brad K. Gibson; Ted von Hippel

2004-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

104

Quality Modeling of Water Distribution Systems using Sensitivity Equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quality Modeling of Water Distribution Systems using Sensitivity Equations P. Fabrie1 ; G. Gancel2 and the associated sensitivity equa- tions are solved for Water Distribution Systems (WDS). A new solution algorithm presented in this study permits global sensitivity analysis of the system to be performed and its efficiency

Boyer, Edmond

105

A Massive Pulsar in a Compact Relativistic Binary  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the systemic radial velocity with respect to the SSB...spectra shifted to zero velocity, are shown in Fig...8). The {chi} 2 map shown in Fig. 2A is...we scanned the grid of velocities 0 ? vr sini ? 2000 km s...Modeling of the White Dwarf Mass Low-mass WDs are thought...

John Antoniadis; Paulo C. C. Freire; Norbert Wex; Thomas M. Tauris; Ryan S. Lynch; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Michael Kramer; Cees Bassa; Vik S. Dhillon; Thomas Driebe; Jason W. T. Hessels; Victoria M. Kaspi; Vladislav I. Kondratiev; Norbert Langer; Thomas R. Marsh; Maura A. McLaughlin; Timothy T. Pennucci; Scott M. Ransom; Ingrid H. Stairs; Joeri van Leeuwen; Joris P. W. Verbiest; David G. Whelan

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

VISITORS FROM THE HALO: 11 Gyr OLD WHITE DWARFS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg{sup 2} proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0.''4-0.''5 yr{sup -1}. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T {sub eff} {approx} 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances of 70-80 pc, and tangential velocities of 140-200 km s{sup -1}. Based on the UVW space velocities, we conclude that they most likely belong to the halo. Furthermore, the combined main-sequence and WD cooling ages are 10-11 Gyr. Along with SDSS J1102+4113, they are the oldest field WDs currently known. These three stars represent only a small fraction of the halo WD candidates in our proper motion survey, and they demonstrate that deep imaging surveys like the Pan-STARRS and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find many old thick disk and halo WDs that can be used to constrain the age of the Galactic thick disk and halo.

Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; McLeod, B. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C. [US Naval Observatory, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002 (United States); Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGennaro, Steven [Department of Astronomy, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kowalski, P. M. [Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Von Hippel, Ted [Physics Department, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Jeffery, Elizabeth J., E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Steiner ratio typeset December 5, 1994 Smith & Smith Warren D. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steiner ratio typeset December 5, 1994 Smith & Smith Warren D. Smith 3 wds@research.nj.nec.com J. MacGregor Smith y jmsmith@umaecs.edu December 5, 1994 Abstract --- The ``Steiner minimal tree'' (SMT. This is a companion paper to D­Z. Du and W.D.Smith: Three disproofs of the Gilbert­Pollak Steiner ratio conjecture

Smith, J. MacGregor

108

Hydrogen delivery onto white dwarfs from remnant exo-Oort cloud comets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......21, 2014 research-article Article Hydrogen delivery onto white dwarfs from remnant...Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK The origin of trace hydrogen in white dwarfs (WDs) with He-dominated...the primary motivation for this study. Hydrogen, being the lightest element, never......

Dimitri Veras; Andrew Shannon; Boris T. Gnsicke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

THE WIRED SURVEY. IV. NEW DUST DISKS FROM THE McCOOK and SION WHITE DWARF CATALOG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook and Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Leisawitz, David T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cohen, Martin, E-mail: hoard@mpia.de [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leak and backflow detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak/backflow detection in WDSs focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located strategically. In contrast to these, ... Keywords: water distribution systems, mobile sensors, leak and backflow detection, optimization, algorithms, simulations

M. Agumbe Suresh, L. Smith, A. Rasekh, R. Stoleru, M. K. Banks, B. Shihada

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

1996-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

112

RECOUNTING HISTORY THROUGH RADIOASSAY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a proposed method for using historical documentation to identify unknown wastes resulting from retrieving suspect transuranic (TRU) waste. Identification is accomplished by a historical review of radionuclides identified by radioassay, along with the project controls used to ensure an accurate segregation of TRU from low-level waste (LLW). This paper presents an historical perspective on the identification of radionuclides at the Hanford Site from various waste generators of suspect TRU waste with an emphasis on the Data Quality Objectives (DQO's) and project controls used to ensure the waste is properly classified as TRU or LLW.

JASEN, W.G.

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) from various activities: research and development, sampling and storage of TRU wastes, decommissioning and decontamination of facilities, and from LANL`s major role in stockpile stewardship. The Laboratory has its own active LLW disposal facility located at Technical Area 54, Area G. This paper will identify the current operations of the facility and the issues pertaining to operating a disposal facility in today`s compliance and cost-effective environment.

Stanford, A.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay.

Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Integrated Data Base: Status and waste projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) is the official US Department of Energy (DOE) data base for spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections. DOE low-level waste (LLW) is just one of the many waste types that are documented with the IDB. Summary-level tables and figures are presented illustrating historical and projected volume changes of DOE LLW. This information is readily available through the annual IDB publication. Other presentation formats are also available to the DOE community through a request to the IDB Program. 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Klein, J.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

HELIUM-IGNITED VIOLENT MERGERS AS A UNIFIED MODEL FOR NORMAL AND RAPIDLY DECLINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still unknown, despite significant progress during the past several years in theory and observations. Violent mergers of two carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) are a candidate scenario suggested to be responsible for at least a significant fraction of normal SNe Ia. Here, we simulate the merger of two CO WDs using a moving-mesh code that allows for the inclusion of thin helium (He) shells (0.01 M{sub Sun }) on top of the WDs at an unprecedented numerical resolution. The accretion of He onto the primary WD leads to the formation of a detonation in its He shell. This detonation propagates around the CO WD and sends a converging shock wave into its core, known to robustly trigger a second detonation, as in the well-known double-detonation scenario for He-accreting CO WDs. However, in contrast to that scenario where a massive He shell is required to form a detonation through thermal instability, here the He detonation is ignited dynamically. Accordingly the required He-shell mass is significantly smaller, and hence its burning products are unlikely to affect the optical display of the explosion. We show that this scenario, which works for CO primary WDs with CO- as well as He-WD companions, has the potential to explain the different brightness distributions, delay times, and relative rates of normal and fast declining SNe Ia. Finally, we discuss extensions to our unified merger model needed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the full observed diversity of SNe Ia.

Pakmor, R.; Springel, V. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Kromer, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Taubenberger, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Engineering report of plasma vitrification of Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides an analysis of vendor-derived testing and technology applicability to full scale glass production from Hanford tank wastes using plasma vitrification. The subject vendor testing and concept was applied in support of the Hanford LLW Vitrification Program, Tank Waste Remediation System.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

Peggy Hinman

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site Year 2002: Current Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance attributes of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other LLW disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified material, and high-specific activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

Becker, Bruce, D.; Gertz, Carl, P.; Clayton, Wendy, A.; Carilli, Jhon, T.; Crowe, Bruce M.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

120

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively.

Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

DOE Issues Draft RFP for Waste Treatment Services  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (DRFP) for Low-Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed-Low Level Waste (MLLW) treatment services that may result in the issuance of one or more Basic Ordering Agreements (BOAs).

122

Cracking in a cementitious backfill and its implications for flow and chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coefficient for backfill 4 1010 m2 s1 Porosity of backfill 0.44 fbc (for plane sheet) 0.533 Portlandite content of backfill...ILW/LLW . Serco Report SERCO/003011/003. Benbow, S. , Watson, C. and Savage, D. (2005) Investigating Conceptual Models...

B. T. Swift; P. B. Bamforth; G. M. N. Baston

123

Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

James Harvey; Michael Gula

1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

WasteStreamForecast2010.xls  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reporting Reporting Site Disposition Facility Field Stream ID Actual Dispos 2009 Starting Inventory 2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 to 2019 2020 to 2024 2025 to 2029 2030 to 2034 2035 to 2039 2040-50 1 Ames Energy Solutions-Clive (formerly Envirocare) 8020-01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 0.00 60.00 2 Argonne Area 5 LLW Disposal Unit (NTS) AEL105DOEa 55.12 50.45 72.36 29.22 29.22 29.22 29.22 29.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3 Argonne Area 5 LLW Disposal Unit (NTS) AEL106DOEa 0.38 0.07 0.09 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 Argonne Area 5 LLW Disposal Unit (NTS) AE-L104DOE 0.19 10.85 11.19 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5 Argonne Area 5 LLW Disposal Unit (NTS) AEL103DOE 74.13 87.37 110.16 30.39 30.39 30.39 30.39 30.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6 Argonne Area 5 LLW Disposal Unit (NTS)

127

White Dwarf Luminosity and Mass Functions from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first phase in our ongoing work to use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data to create separate white dwarf (WD) luminosity functions for two or more different mass ranges. In this paper, we determine the completeness of the SDSS spectroscopic white dwarf sample by comparing a proper-motion selected sample of WDs from SDSS imaging data with a large catalog of spectroscopically determined WDs. We derive a selection probability as a function of a single color (g-i) and apparent magnitude (g) that covers the range -1.0 white dwarfs with Teff white dwarfs with Teff white dwarf luminosity function with nearly an order of magnitude (3,358) more spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs than any previous work.

Steven DeGennaro; Ted von Hippel; D. E. Winget; S. O. Kepler; Atsuko Nitta; Detlev Koester; Leandro Althaus

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs IV. The complex field structure of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The magnetic fields of the accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) determine the accretion geometries, the emission properties, and the secular evolution of these objects. We determine the structure of the surface magnetic fields of the WDs primaries in magnetic CVs using Zeeman tomography. Our study is based on orbital-phase resolved optical flux and circular polarization spectra of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc obtained with FORS1 at the ESO VLT. An evolutionary algorithm is used to synthesize best fits to these spectra from an extensive database of pre-computed Zeeman spectra. The general approach has been described in previous papers of this series. The results achieved with simple geometries as centered or offset dipoles are not satisfactory. Significantly improved fits are obtained for multipole expansions that are truncated at degree l(max)=3 or 5 and include all tesseral and sectoral components with 0CP Tuc and the ranges of field strength covered are similar for the dipole and multipole models, but only the latter provide access to accreting matter at the right locations on the WD. The results suggest that the field geometries of the WDs in short-period mCVs are quite complex with strong contributions from multipoles higher than the dipole in spite of a typical age of the WDs in CVs in excess of 1 Gyr. It is feasible to derive the surface field structure of an accreting WD from phase-resolved low-state circular spectropolarimetry of sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. The fact that independent information is available on the strength and direction of the field in the accretion spot from high-state observations helps in unraveling the global field structure.

K. Beuermann; F. Euchner; K. Reinsch; S. Jordan; B. T. Gaensicke

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

129

WIYN Open Cluster Study 1: Deep Photometry of NGC 188  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have employed precise V and I photometry of NGC 188 at WIYN to explore the cluster luminosity function (LF) and study the cluster white dwarfs (WDs). Our photometry is offset by V = 0.052 (fainter) from Sandage (1962) and Eggen & Sandage (1969). All published photometry for the past three decades have been based on these two calibrations, which are in error by 0.05 +- 0.01. We employ the Pinsonneault etal (1998) fiducial main sequence to derive a cluster distance modulus of 11.43 +- 0.08. We report observations that are >= 50% complete to V = 24.6 and find that the cluster central-field LF peaks at M_I ~ 3 to 4. This is unlike the solar neighborhood LF and unlike the LFs of dynamically unevolved portions of open and globular clusters, which rise continuously until M_I ~ 9.5. Although we find that >= 50% of the unresolved cluster objects are multiple systems, their presence cannot account for the shape of the NGC 188 LF. For theoretical reasons (Terlevich 1987; Vesperini & Heggie 1997) having to do with the survivability of NGC 188 we believe the cluster is highly dynamically evolved and that the missing low luminosity stars are either in the cluster outskirts or have left the cluster altogether. We identify nine candidate WDs, of which we expect three to six are bona fide cluster WDs. The luminosities of the faintest likely WD indicates an age (Bergeron, Wesemael, & Beauchamp 1995) of 1.14 +- 0.09 Gyrs. This is a lower limit to the cluster age and observations probing to V = 27 or 28 will be necessary to find the faintest cluster WDs and independently determine the cluster age. While our age limit is not surprising for this ~6 Gyr old cluster, our result demonstrates the value of the WD age technique with its very low internal errors. (abridged)

Ted von Hippel; Ata Sarajedini

1998-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

130

ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS IN THE COLLAPSED-CORE CLUSTER M15  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed deep photometry of the central region of the Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our data set consists of images in far-UV (FUV{sub 140}; F140LP), near-UV (NUV{sub 220}; F220W), and blue (B{sub 435}; F435W) filters. The addition of an optical filter complements previous UV work on M15 by providing an additional constraint on the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we identified several populations that arise from non-canonical evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars, blue hook (BHk) stars, cataclysmic variables (CVs), and helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs). Due to preliminary identification of several He WD and BHk candidates, we add M15 as a cluster containing an He WD sequence and suggest it be included among clusters with a BHk population. We also investigated a subset of CV candidates that appear in the gap between the main sequence (MS) and WDs in FUV{sub 140}-NUV{sub 220} but lie securely on the MS in NUV{sub 220}-B{sub 435}. These stars may represent a magnetic CV or detached WD-MS binary population. Additionally, we analyze our candidate He WDs using model cooling sequences to estimate their masses and ages and investigate the plausibility of thin versus thick hydrogen envelopes. Finally, we identify a class of UV-bright stars that lie between the HB and WD cooling sequences, a location not usually populated on cluster CMDs. We conclude these stars may be young, low-mass He WDs.

Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Lubell, Gabriel M. G.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M. [Indiana University Department of Astronomy, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cool, Adrienne M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Serenelli, Aldo M., E-mail: nhauber@astro.indiana.ed, E-mail: glubell@astro.indiana.ed, E-mail: cohn@astro.indiana.ed, E-mail: lugger@astro.indiana.ed, E-mail: jayander@stsci.ed, E-mail: cool@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: aldos@MPA-Garching.MPG.D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, 85471 (Germany)

2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

131

A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs (WDs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool WD candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool WDs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope data sets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km s{sup -1}. Our near-infrared observations reveal eight new stars with significant absorption. We use the optical and near-infrared photometry to perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. More than 80% of the stars in our sample are consistent with either pure hydrogen or pure helium atmospheres. However, the eight stars with significant infrared absorption and the majority of the previously known ultracool WD candidates are best explained with mixed hydrogen and helium atmosphere models. The age distribution of our sample is consistent with a Galactic disk age of 8 Gyr. A few ultracool WDs may be as old as 12-13 Gyr, but our models have problems matching the spectral energy distributions of these objects. There are only two halo WD candidates in our sample. However, trigonometric parallax observations are required for accurate mass and age determinations and to confirm their membership in the halo.

Kilic, Mukremin [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Von Hippel, Ted [Physics Department, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Harris, Hugh C.; Munn, Jeffrey A. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Astronomy, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gates, Evalyn [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Farihi, J., E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Energy audit of irrigation networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between water and energy in water distribution systems (WDS) has been a growing concern among energy and water experts. Among the different strategies to improve waterenergy efficiency in water distribution networks, energy audits are of paramount importance as they quantify water flow requirements, the amount of energy consumed to meet demand and leakage and friction losses. Previous work has presented the energy audit process for urban WDS and this energy audit is extended to irrigation networks here. This work analyses the most common types of irrigation emitters (sprinklers and pressure compensating and non-pressure compensating drippers), hydrant specifications, irrigation management systems (on-demand or rigid scheduled), and energy losses due to friction in pipes, control valves and irrigation hydrants. The energy audit does not assess whether management of the network is optimal, but analyses the energy consumption. Some of the performance indicators have already been defined for agricultural water networks, some are identical to those of urban WDS, but in addition, a new one is presented that disaggregates the energy dissipated into three terms, energy losses in pipelines, in hydraulic valves and in irrigation hydrants. These indicators show information necessary to better understand the performance of the irrigation network under study, to carry out a deep analysis of energy consumption and to allow for comparison with similar systems. The paper presents the analysis of a real case study conducted on the irrigation network of the garden of the Universidad Politcnica de Valencia.

Miguel A. Pardo; Juan Manzano; Enrique Cabrera; Jorge Garca-Serra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3{sup +2.7} {sub -1.2}% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M {sub Sun} stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for {approx}10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

Barber, Sara D.; Patterson, Adam J.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Dufour, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L., E-mail: barber@nhn.ou.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Application of spectral summing to suspect low level debris drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral summing technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC) is a unique modeling technique that is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique is being used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confirmed TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radionuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization limbo that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced gamma spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra become quantifiable in the summed spectrum. The group of waste items can then be properly classified as LLW based on the summed spectrum and valid assay values can be assigned for disposal. This technique is being successfully used to dispose of LLW debris drums from LANL.

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veilleux, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucero, Randy P [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION; Seamans, Jr, James V [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION; Clapham, Martin J [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The accretion of solar material onto white dwarfs: No mixing with core material implies that the mass of the white dwarf is increasing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) are close binary star systems with one component a white dwarf (WD) and the other a larger cooler star that fills its Roche Lobe. The cooler star is losing mass through the inner Lagrangian point of the binary and some unknown fraction of this material is accreted by the WD. One consequence of the WDs accreting material, is the possibility that they are growing in mass and will eventually reach the Chandrasekhar Limit. This evolution could result in a Supernova Ia (SN Ia) explosion and is designated the Single Degenerate Progenitor (SD) scenario. This paper is concerned with the SD scenario for SN Ia progenitors. One problem with the single degenerate scenario is that it is generally assumed that the accreting material mixes with WD core material at some time during the accretion phase of evolution and, since the typical WD has a carbon-oxygen CO core, the mixing results in large amounts of carbon and oxygen being brought up into the accreted layers. The presence of enriched carbon causes enhanced nuclear fusion and a Classical Nova explosion. Both observations and theoretical studies of these explosions imply that more mass is ejected than is accreted. Thus, the WD in a Classical Nova system is losing mass and cannot be a SN Ia progenitor. However, the composition in the nuclear burning region is important and, in new calculations reported here, the consequences to the WD of no mixing of accreted material with core material have been investigated so that the material involved in the explosion has only a Solar composition. WDs with a large range in initial masses and mass accretion rates have been evolved. I find that once sufficient material has been accreted, nuclear burning occurs in all evolutionary sequences and continues until a thermonuclear runaway (TNR) occurs and the WD either ejects a small amount of material or its radius grows to about 10{sup 12} cm and the evolution is ended. In all cases where mass ejection occurs, the mass of the ejecta is far less than the mass of the accreted material. Therefore, all the WDs are growing in mass. It is also found that the accretion time to explosion can be sufficiently short for a 1.0M{sub ?} WD that recurrent novae can occur on a low mass WD. This mass is lower than typically assumed for the WDs in recurrent nova systems. Finally, the predicted surface temperatures when the WD is near the peak of the explosion imply that only the most massive WDs will be significant X-ray emitters at this time.

Starrfield, Sumner, E-mail: starrfield@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P. O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)] [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P. O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal July 20, 2007 - 2:55pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that it will evaluate disposal options for Greater Than Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, medical activities and nuclear research. DOE delivered to the Federal Register this week a Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will evaluate how and where to safely dispose of GTCC LLW that is currently stored at commercial nuclear power plants and other generator sites across the country. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires DOE to report to Congress on its evaluation of

137

EIS-0243: Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of 3: Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada EIS-0243: Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the management of low-level waste (LLW) at all sites and continue, to the extent practicable, disposal of on- site LLW at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download November 3, 2003 EIS-0243-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada to Address

138

DOE Selects Two Contractors for Multiple-Award Waste Disposal Contract |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Two Contractors for Multiple-Award Waste Disposal Two Contractors for Multiple-Award Waste Disposal Contract DOE Selects Two Contractors for Multiple-Award Waste Disposal Contract April 12, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded two fixed price unit rate Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (ID/IQ) multiple-award contracts for the permanent disposal of Low-Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed-Low Level Waste (MLLW) today to EnergySolutions, LLC and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. The goal of these contracts is to establish a vehicle that allows DOE sites to place timely, competitive and cost-effective task orders for the permanent disposal of: Class A, B, and C LLW and MLLW 11e(2) byproduct material Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material

139

Record of Decision for the Department of Energy's Waste Management Program: Treatment and Disposal of Low-Level Waste and Mixed Low-Level Waste; Amendment of the Record of Decision for the Nevada Test Site (DOE/EIS-0200) (DOE/EIS-0243) (2/25/00)_  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

061 061 Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 38 / Friday, February 25, 2000 / Notices 1 After the Final WM PEIS was issued in May 1997, DOE issued ''Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure.'' In that document, DOE provided estimates of waste volumes that would result from the planned operations and accelerated cleanup processes at DOE sites. Because some of the estimates differed from those provided in the WM PEIS, DOE examined the LLW and MLLW volumes to determine if the updated volume estimates constitute significant new information relevant to environmental concerns that would warrant preparation of a supplemental EIS or a new PEIS. This examination extended only to LLW and MLLW volumes, because the transuranic, hazardous and high-level waste volume estimates did not change

140

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory This study has been prepared by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate of the volume of low level waste resulting from a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. This study provides an estimate of Class A/B/C low level waste (LLW), greater than Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed LLW and mixed GTCC waste generated from the following initial set of fuel cycles and recycling processes: 1. Operations at a geologic repository based upon a once through light

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141

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory This study has been prepared by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate of the volume of low level waste resulting from a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. This study provides an estimate of Class A/B/C low level waste (LLW), greater than Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed LLW and mixed GTCC waste generated from the following initial set of fuel cycles and recycling processes: 1. Operations at a geologic repository based upon a once through light

142

Microsoft PowerPoint - News Flash_Idaho AMWTP_110509  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Date Date U.S. Department of Energy For more information on EM Recovery Act, visit: www.em.doe.gov/emrecovery Environmental Management Recovery Act Keeping You in the Know November 5, 2009 Idaho's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Completes Recovery Act Goals U.S. Department of Energy For more information on EM Recovery Act, visit: www.em.doe.gov/emrecovery With funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Site is shipping radioactive waste years ahead of schedule. The site committed to shipping 1,300 cubic meters of low level waste (LLW) and mixed low level waste (MLLW) out of Idaho and retrieving 1,200 cubic meters of stored transuranic (TRU) waste. Ship a total of 1,303 cubic meters of LLW and MLLW off site.

143

Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Generated at the Department of Energys Idaho Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Assessment Environmental Assessment for the Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site August 2011 DOE/EA-1793 Draft Environmental Assessment for the Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site August 2011 v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide replacement capability for disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017. Historically, INL has disposed of this LLW onsite. However, the existing disposal area located within the INL Radioactive Waste Management Complex will undergo

144

EIS-0200: Record of Decision | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

00: Record of Decision 00: Record of Decision EIS-0200: Record of Decision Treatment and Disposal of Low-Level Waste and Mixed Low-Level Waste; Amendment of the Record of Decision for the Nevada Test Site For the management of low- level waste (LLW) analyzed in the Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), the Department of Energy (DOE) has decided to perform minimum treatment at all sites and continue, to the extent practicable, disposal of on- site LLW at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. In addition, the Department has decided to make the Hanford Site

145

EIS-0337-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7-SA-01: Supplement Analysis 7-SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0337-SA-01: Supplement Analysis West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management The Department of Energy's (DOE) West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) prepared a final waste management environmental impact statement (WVDP WM ElS) that examined the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed shipment of radioactive wastes that were either in storage or would be generated over a 10-year period (DOE 2003). Since the EIS was issued, new information has become available regarding the volume and type of low level radioactive waste (LLW), and DOE now proposes to use additional disposal locations for LLW waste for which the transportation impacts were not analyzed in the WVDP WM EIS. West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact

146

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

51 - 560 of 29,416 results. 51 - 560 of 29,416 results. Download EA-1900: Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/ea-1900-notice-availability-final-environmental-assessment-and-finding-no-significant Page EIS-0243: Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the management of low-level waste (LLW) at all sites and continue, to the extent practicable, disposal of on- site LLW at the Idaho... http://energy.gov/nepa/eis-0243-nevada-test-site-and-site-locations-state-nevada Page EA-1061: The Off-site Volume Reduction of Low-level Radioactive Waste

147

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-10-021.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

21 21 SECTION A. Project Title: Geotechnical Investigation for INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal SECTION B. Project Description: The proposed action would conduct geotechnical investigations at two 4-6 acre candidate sites for a Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH LLW) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). One site is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)-Complex and the other site is located west of and across Lincoln Blvd. from the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF). The RH LLW Facility is one alternative being analyzed to address an anticipated shortfall of disposal capability following cessation of RHLLW disposal operations at the

148

Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N. [ed.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

149

Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Recommendations for management of greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report sets forth the Department's findings and recommendations for ensuring the safe management and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed the limits established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for Class C LLW. Chapters are devoted to: Identification of Greater-Than Class-C Low-Level Waste; Regulatory Needs and Legislative Authorities; Proposed Actions to Ensure the Safe Management of Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste; System Considerations for Waste Disposal; Funding Options; Requirements for Implementation; and Schedule and Cost. Three Appendices are included: Public Law 99-240, Section 3(b); Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Types and Quantities; and Descriptions of Systems Considerations for Waste Disposal. (LM)

Not Available

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy adsorb neutrons generating higher actinides in the bulk material. During fuel irradiation, {sup 92}Zr is also converted to radioactive {sup 93}Zr by neutron adsorption. Methods for decontaminating and conditioning irradiated Zircaloy cladding hulls have been investigated in Europe, Japan, and the US during the last 35 years; however, a method to decontaminate the hulls to an activity level which meets US acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW was not deployed on a commercial scale. The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls was investigated as part of the GNEP Separations Campaign. Small-scale experiments were used to demonstrate the removal of the ZrO{sub 2} layer from Zircaloy coupons using dilute solutions ({le}1.0 M) of HF. The most effective conditions resulted in dissolution rates which were less than approximately 2 mg/cm{sup 2}-min. With dissolution rates in this range, uniform removal of the oxide layer was obtained and a minimal amount of Zircaloy metal was dissolved. To test the HF decontamination process, experiments were subsequently performed using actual spent fuel cladding hulls. Decontamination experiments were performed to measure the fission product and actinide concentrations as a function of the depth of the surface removed from the cladding hull. The experimental methods used to perform these experiments and a discussion of the results and observations are presented in the following sections.

Rudisill, T.

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Monitoring program for radionuclides in marketplace seafoods. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a monitoring program, conducted in 1981 and 1982, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to measure concentrations of man-made radionuclides in seafoods to determine effects from previous U.S. ocean disposals of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Commercially-marketed seafood samples were collected from Boston, Massachusetts, Atlantic City, New Jersey and San Francisco, California. Each of these cities is near a previously-used U.S. ocean disposal site for LLW. The data obtained during this monitoring program shows that the concentrations of man-made radioactivity in seafoods sampled are below levels of public health concern. The data are considered to be of normal background level, attributable to global fallout over the oceans.

Curtis, W.R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance.

Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Geochemical studies of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of source term characterization studies for the commercially operated low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites located in the eastern United States are used to provide an understanding of the importance of hydrological and geochemical factors in controlling the mechanics of leachate formation, evolution of leachate compositions, microbial degradation of organic waste and development of anoxia in the trenches, and the nature and extent of leaching of waste materials. The varying degrees of the intensity of these processes, as determined by the different site characteristics, are clearly reflected in the contrasting leachate geochemistries of Maxey Flats and West Valley trenches, as compared to those of Barnwell and Sheffield trenches. These are important geochemical considerations which not only define LLW source terms but also shed light on the nature and extent of geochemical changes that are likely to occur along a redox gradient outside of the trench environment.

Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.H.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Idaho Idaho SITE: Argonne-W PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Chicago Operations Office % of Stream Argonne-W - Low Level Waste - Phyto-Remediation Residuals WASTE STREAM CODE: 01181 STREAM NAME:Phyto-Remediation Residuals MPC NAME:Debris W aste TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 1.800 Future Volume Avg: 0.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: % of Stream Argonne-W - Low Level Waste - LLW Contaminated Rubble/Debris WASTE STREAM CODE: 04081 STREAM NAME:LLW Contaminated Rubble/Debris MPC NAME:Debris W aste TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 0.000 Future Volume Avg: 40.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: STATE: Idaho SITE: Argonne-W PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Mixed Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Chicago Operations Office

159

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Illinois Illinois SITE: Argonne-E PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Chicago Operations Office % of Stream Argonne-E - Low Level Waste - LLW-Contaminated Rubble/Debris WASTE STREAM CODE: 01133 STREAM NAME:LLW-Contaminated Rubble/Debris MPC NAME:Asphalt Debris TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 400.000 Future Volume Avg: 50.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: STATE: Illinois SITE: Argonne-E PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Mixed Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Chicago Operations Office % of Stream Argonne-E - Mixed Low Level Waste - MLLW-Contaminated D&D Rubble/Debris (Metals) WASTE STREAM CODE: 01134 STREAM NAME:MLLW-Contaminated D&D Rubble/Debris (Metals) MPC NAME:Elemental Hazardous Metals TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 49.110 Future Volume Avg: 64.900

160

Seagate Crystal Reports - Cm102  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Contaminated Media Contaminated Media Contaminated Media: In-Situ Contaminated Media (CM-10) STATE: Alaska SITE: Amchitka PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: LLW OPERATIONS OFFICE: Nevada Operations Office Amchitka - LLW - RAD/Ground Water Stream Code: 01015 Generating Program: EM MPC Name: Ground/Surface Waters Total Curies: Approved Volume: 0 Cubic meters Future Volume Avg: 0 Cubic meters Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: Source Site: AINP Destination Site: AINP Activity: Primary TSD System: Estimated Volume Avg: 0 Cubic meters Lower Limit Volume: Upper Limit Volume: Activity: Comb of Acc/Inst Con TSD System: STATE: Colorado SITE: GrJuncOff PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: 11e2 OPERATIONS OFFICE: Idaho Operations Office Page 1 of 65 Tuesday, June 3, 2008 Data Set ID: EM Corporate - FY 2001 Update

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

EA-1793: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Draft Environmental Assessment 3: Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1793: Draft Environmental Assessment Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide replacement capability for disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017. Historically, INL has disposed of this LLW onsite. However, the existing disposal area located within the INL Radioactive Waste Management Complex will undergo closure as part of ongoing cleanup of INL and will not be available after 2017. The proposed project to establish replacement capability is not a DOE Environmental Management Idaho Cleanup Project

162

EA-0843: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

43: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed 43: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing, Idaho Falls, Idaho EA-0843: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing, Idaho Falls, Idaho SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to (1) reduce the volume of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); and (2) use commercial offsite facilities for supplemental LLW volume reduction (incineration). PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD June 3, 1994 EA-0843: Finding of No Significant Impact Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing

163

Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a new Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed lowlevel, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TA-54 Area G. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to ten sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. Three passes of the analysis were required to assess different site scenarios: 1) a fully consolidated CWC with both transfer/storage and LL W disposal in one location (45 acre minimum), 2) CWC transfer/storage only (12 acre minimum), and 3) LLW disposal only (33 acre minimum). The top site choice for all three options is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. TA-54 East, Zone 4 also deserves consideration as a LLW disposal site.

Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

164

LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the April 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts, Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities, and court rulings and calendars. State and compact items featured include Texas licensing procedures, renewal of Envirocare`s license, and Ward Valley. Massachusetts Board suspension of some siting tasks and Massachusetts Court rules for US DOE regarding rebates are also reported.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the May 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts; Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities; court rulings and calendars; US DOE testing at Ward Valley; US BLM contract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Mixed Waste Pilot Project Schedule; extension of US EPA`s mixed waste enforcement moratorium; EPA Advisory Committee on research program operation; and decommissioning.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Piepkho, M.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Operating Experience and Lessons Learned in the Use of Soft-Sided Packaging for Transportation and Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the operating experience and lessons learned at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a result of an evaluation of potential trailer contamination and soft-sided packaging integrity issues related to the disposal of low-level and mixed low-level (LLW/MLLW) radioactive waste shipments. Nearly 4.3 million cubic meters of LLW/MLLW will have been generated and disposed of during fiscal year (FY) 2010 to FY 2015either at commercial disposal sites or disposal sites owned by DOE. The LLW/MLLW is packaged in several different types of regulatory compliant packaging and transported via highway or rail to disposal sites safely and efficiently in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and DOE orders. In 1999, DOE supported the development of LLW containers that are more volumetrically efficient, more cost effective, and easier to use as compared to metal or wooden containers that existed at that time. The DOE Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), working in conjunction with the plastic industry, tested several types of soft-sided waste packaging systems that meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for transport of low specific activity and surface contaminated objects. Since then, soft-sided packaging of various capacities have been used successfully by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects to package, transport, and dispose D&D wastes throughout the DOE complex. The joint team of experts assembled by the Energy Facility Contractors Group from DOE waste generating sites, DOE and commercial waste disposal facilities, and soft-sided packaging suppliers conducted the review of soft-sided packaging operations and transportation of these packages to the disposal sites. As a result of this evaluation, the team developed several recommendations and best practices to prevent or minimize the recurrences of equipment contamination issues and proper use of soft-sided packaging for transport and disposal of waste.

Kapoor, A. [DOE; Gordon, S. [NSTec; Goldston, W. [Energy Solutions

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

168

Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

Holtzscheiter, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Harbour, J.R.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

COZZI, ALEX

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site Fiscal Year 2001 Current Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance objectives of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified radioactive material, and high-specific-activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1 968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

B. D. Becker; W. A. Clayton; B. M. Crowe

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Distribution coefficient values describing iodine, neptunium, selenium, technetium, and uranium sorption to Hanford sediments. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U, were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.

Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Kentucky Kentucky SITE: Paducah PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Oak Ridge Operations Office % of Stream Paducah - Low Level Waste - LLW Rubble/Debris WASTE STREAM CODE: 00438 STREAM NAME:LLW Rubble/Debris MPC NAME:Debris W aste TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : Future Volume Avg: Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 LLW Debris Isotopes Neptunium-237 Avg Concentration: 1.0000E+000 pCi/g Low Limit Concent:0.0000E+000 pCi/g Upper Limit Concent:2.4000E+001 pCi/g Technetium-99 Avg Concentration: 5.0000E+001 pCi/g Low Limit Concent:0.0000E+000 pCi/g Upper Limit Concent:1.4210E+003 pCi/g Uranium-238 Avg Concentration: 5.0000E+001 pCi/g Low Limit Concent:0.0000E+000 pCi/g Upper Limit Concent:9.7800E+002 pCi/g Uranium-235 Avg Concentration: 7.0000E-001 wt%

180

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

California California SITE: EnergyTech PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Oakland Operations Office % of Stream EnergyTech - Low Level Waste - LLW-Defense D&D Waste (from ER) WASTE STREAM CODE: 01669 STREAM NAME:LLW-Defense D&D Waste (from ER) MPC NAME:Solids TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 0.000 Future Volume Avg: 221.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 LLW -Defense D&D W aste (from ER) Isotopes Americium-241 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:8.1000E-002 nCi/m l Europium-152 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:2.7000E-002 nCi/m l Plutonium-239 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:2.7000E-001 nCi/m l Cobalt-60 Avg Concentration: Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:5.4000E+002 nCi/m

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181

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Nevada Nevada SITE: Nevada PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Nevada Operations Office % of Stream Nevada - Low Level Waste - LLW Contaminated Soil (Industrial Sites Project) WASTE STREAM CODE: 01025 STREAM NAME:LLW Contaminated Soil (Industrial Sites Project) MPC NAME:Soil TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : Future Volume Avg: 243.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 SAFER & Houskpng LLW Soil Isotopes Cesium-137 Avg Concentration: 1.0700E+006 Bq/m3 Low Limit Concent:2.4200E+004 Bq/m3 Upper Limit Concent:2.3400E+007 Bq/m3 Plutonium-238 Avg Concentration: 9.5000E+001 Bq/m3 Low Limit Concent:4.4400E-001 Bq/m3 Upper Limit Concent:1.2700E+003 Bq/m3 Cobalt-60 Avg Concentration: 5.2300E+004 Bq/m3 Low Limit Concent:2.7400E+003 Bq/m3

182

Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC), utilizing spectral summing of spectra from groups of drums of similar waste type, is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique has been used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confinned TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radio nuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization indetenninate status that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced ganuna spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra can become quantifiable in the summed spectrum and the MDA for group sum is reduced. The group of waste items can then be properly classified as LLW based on the summed spectrum and valid assay values can be assigned for disposal. This technique has been successfully applied to a set of 52 debris drums - with individual MDA > 100 nCi/g - with a resulting group total TRU alpha activity concentration below 40nCi/g. Further application of the technique at LANL to other waste drums that are measured on a WIPP certified HENC system is planned and good candidate drum sets are being evaluated as indeterminate situations develop.

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veilleux, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucero, Randy P [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORAPTION; Seamans, Jr., James V [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION; Clapham, Martin J [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

183

ESMAP-Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Development Options Study Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Partner United Kingdom Department for International Development Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Forestry Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://www-wds.worldbank.org/e Country Indonesia South-Eastern Asia References World Bank, ESMAP - Low Carbon Growth Country Studies - Getting Started[1] Overview "The Indonesia's study aimed to evaluate and develop strategic options to mitigate climate change without compromising the country's development

184

Head-on collisions of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We simulate head-on collisions from rest at large separation of binary white dwarf-neutron stars (WDNSs) in full general relativity. Our study serves as a prelude to our analysis of the circular binary WDNS problem. We focus on compact binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass that a cold-degenerate star can support, and our goal is to determine the fate of such systems. A fully general relativistic hydrodynamic computation of a realistic WDNS head-on collision is prohibitive due to the large range of dynamical time scales and length scales involved. For this reason, we construct an equation of state (EOS) which captures the main physical features of neutron stars (NSs) while, at the same time, scales down the size of white dwarfs (WDs). We call these scaled-down WD models 'pseudo-WDs (pWDs)'. Using pWDs, we can study these systems via a sequence of simulations where the size of the pWD gradually increases toward the realistic case. We perform two sets of simulations; One set studies the effects of the NS mass on the final outcome, when the pWD is kept fixed. The other set studies the effect of the pWD compaction on the final outcome, when the pWD mass and the NS are kept fixed. All simulations show that after the collision, 14%-18% of the initial total rest mass escapes to infinity. All remnant masses still exceed the maximum rest mass that our cold EOS can support (1.92M{sub {center_dot}}), but no case leads to prompt collapse to a black hole. This outcome arises because the final configurations are hot. All cases settle into spherical, quasiequilibrium configurations consisting of a cold NS core surrounded by a hot mantle, resembling Thorne-Zytkow objects. Extrapolating our results to realistic WD compactions, we predict that the likely outcome of a head-on collision of a realistic, massive WDNS system will be the formation of a quasiequilibrium Thorne-Zytkow-like object.

Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah; Liu, Yuk Tung [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shapiro, Stuart L. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Astronomy and NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Environmental Management at the Nevada Test Site Year 2001 Current Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance objectives of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified material, and high-specific-activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations. Additionally, the Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Division is responsible for identifying the nature and extent of contamination; determining its potential risk to the public and the environment; and performing the necessary corrective actions in compliance with guidelines and requirements. This paper summarizes just a few of the successes of the Nevada Operations Office projects.

Becker, B. D.; Gertz, C. P.; Clayton, W. A.; Carilli, J. T.; DiSanza, E. F.; Wycoff, R. C.; Crowe, B. M.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

186

Time of Compliance for Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Time of Compliance for Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Roger Seitz*, Savannah River National Laboratory ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 25 years of experience conducting and overseeing performance assessments (PAs) for low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration activities. DOE considers performance assessments (PAs) as one contributor to defense-in-depth arguments for safe disposal of LLW. In a risk-informed, performance-based approach to PA, it is necessary to address the time frames over which PA results are sufficiently meaningful to be used for a strict determination of compliance (i.e., a time of compliance). DOE has taken the position that, for near-surface disposal, 1,000 years is an appropriate time of compliance, but the potential for peak impacts after that time need to also be addressed. From an implementation perspective, 1,000 years is considered as a transition in the interpretation of results from use as a quantitative, decision-maker (yes or no compliance) to an increasingly qualitative role informing decisions in conjunction with all of the other contributors to the safety basis. This position is based on a number of technical and policy considerations with a major factor being the decreasing quantitative meaningfulness of PA results in the context of the increasing speculation and uncertainties as time frames on the order of hundreds and thousands of years are considered. The technical and policy considerations for the DOE position and considerations for implementation will be discussed.

187

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Type Ia Supernovae with Bi-Modal Explosions Are Common -- Possible Smoking Gun for Direct Collisions of White-Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discover clear doubly-peaked line profiles in 3 out of ~20 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with high-quality nebular-phase spectra. The profiles are consistently present in three well-separated Co/Fe emission features. The two peaks are respectively blue-shifted and red-shifted relative to the host galaxies and are separated by ~5000 km/s. The doubly-peaked profiles directly reflect a bi-modal velocity distribution of the radioactive Ni56 in the ejecta that powers the emission of these SNe. Due to their random orientations, only a fraction of SNe with intrinsically bi-modal velocity distributions will appear as doubly-peaked spectra. Therefore SNe with intrinsic bi-modality are likely common, especially among the SNe in the low-luminosity (~40% of all SNe Ia) part on the Philips relation \\Delta m15(B) >~ 1.3. Bi-modality is naturally expected from direct collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) due to the detonation of both WDs and is demonstrated in a 3D 0.64 M_Sun-0.64 M_Sun WD collision simulation.

Dong, Subo; Kushnir, Doron; Prieto, Jose L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

INVERTING COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS TO ACCESS PRECISE STAR CLUSTER PARAMETERS: A NEW WHITE DWARF AGE FOR THE HYADES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have extended our Bayesian modeling of stellar clusters-which uses main-sequence stellar evolution models, a mapping between initial masses and white dwarf (WD) masses, WD cooling models, and WD atmospheres-to include binary stars, field stars, and two additional main-sequence stellar evolution models. As a critical test of our Bayesian modeling technique, we apply it to Hyades UBV photometry, with membership priors based on proper motions and radial velocities, where available. Under the assumption of a particular set of WD cooling models and atmosphere models, we estimate the age of the Hyades based on cooling WDs to be 648 {+-} 45 Myr, consistent with the best prior analysis of the cluster main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) age by Perryman et al. Since the faintest WDs have most likely evaporated from the Hyades, prior work provided only a lower limit to the cluster's WD age. Our result demonstrates the power of the bright WD technique for deriving ages and further demonstrates complete age consistency between WD cooling and MSTO ages for seven out of seven clusters analyzed to date, ranging from 150 Myr to 4 Gyr.

DeGennaro, Steven; Von Hippel, Ted; Jefferys, William H.; Stein, Nathan; Jeffery, Elizabeth [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Van Dyk, David [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine (United States)], E-mail: deg@astro.as.utexas.edu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Close Binary White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes: Formation, Evolution, and Related Phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact binary stars are expected to be the most important sources for the forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binary stars with NS and/or black components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically important thermonuclear SN~Ia. We also consider AM~CVn-stars which are thought to be the bes...

Postnov, Konstantin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact binary stars are expected to be the most important sources for the forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binary stars with NS and/or black components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

Konstantin Postnov; Lev Yungelson

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

Environmental Management FY 2006 Budget Request DRAFT  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Christine Gelles Christine Gelles Director of Disposal Operations Office of Environmental Management US Dept. of Energy, Environmental Management Program Waste Disposition Highlights Presentation for the Transportation External Coordination Working Group 24 July 2007 * EM leads DOE's complex-wide efforts to improve disposition planning and optimize waste disposition projects * DOE's waste management policy remains unchanged and DOE's Programmatic Waste Management Environmental Statement and Records of Decision are still valid * "National Disposition Strategies" refer to updated plans, tools and management actions needed to strengthen disposition projects and provide greater transparency to DOE sites, communities, stakeholders and regulators Introduction * LLW/MLLW - If practical, disposal on the site where generated

194

Microsoft PowerPoint - Marcinowski April 2010 (Rev3).ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste and Materials Disposition Update Waste and Materials Disposition Update EM Site Specific Advisory Board Chairs Meeting Oak Ridge, Tennessee April 28, 2010 Frank Marcinowski Acting Chief Technical Officer and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technical and Regulatory Support Office of Environmental Management Office of Environmental Management Outline for Discussion * EM radioactive waste management priorities, budget, and policy overview * Programmatic updates and challenges - LLW/MLLW disposition - TRU waste acceleration and progress - High level waste and used fuel management GTCC EIS - GTCC EIS - Mercury management EIS DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities * Continue to manage waste inventories in a safe and compliant manner Add hi h i k t

195

EMSSAB CHAIRS  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

May 11, 2006 May 11, 2006 3:00 - 4:00 p.m. Participants Chairs/Representatives: Fernald Jim Bierer Hanford Todd Martin, Shelly Cimon, Susan Leckband, Eric Olds, Lynn Lefkoff Idaho Shannon Brennan, Lisa Aldrich, William Flanery Nevada Carla Sanda NNM J. D. Campbell, Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge Norm Mulvenon, Pete Osborne Paducah Jeannie Brandstetter Rocky Flats Gerald DePoorter, Ken Korkia Savannah River Gerri Flemming DOE representatives: EM-13 Melissa Nielson, Doug Frost, Patricia Atkinson-Brown EM-12 Christine Gelles OPENING REMARKS Melissa Nielson welcomed everyone. NEW BUSINESS Update on LLW and MLLW Strategy Christine Gelles, Director, Office of Commercial Disposition Options, provided the following information:

196

Maintenance Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 4 G Approved: XX-XX-XX IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for use with DOE M 435.1-1 Maintenance Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE G 435.1-4 i (and ii) DRAFT XX-XX-XX LLW Maintenance Guide Revision 0, XX-XX-XX Maintenance Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

Activities and Accomplishments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Activities and Accomplishments Denver * May 11, 2011 Working Groups * Financial Guidance * PSR Improvements * Notification * Communications Webinars * RFID Demonstration and TRANSCOM Enhancements - November 17, 2010 - ARG-US RFID/TRANSCOM Real-time Tracking System - TRANSCOM Enhancements * Communications for Waste Movements - February 24, 2011 - Mixed/LLW Forecast: Baseline Disposition Data and Waste Information Management System (WIMS) - Prospective Shipment Report Improvements Wiki Site * Resource for NTSF members - Information on NTSF meetings and webinars - Ad hoc working group call summaries and documents for review - Information on DOE and other federal agency activities (e.g., NRC rulemaking) * Private site that requires participants to "join" in

198

TEC Meeting Summaries - February 2008 Presentations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

February 2008 Presentations February 2008 Presentations TEC Meeting Summaries - February 2008 Presentations San Antonio, Texas Presentations (Feb. 6 - 7, 2008) Documents Available for Download Welcome & Introduction - Opening Remarks DOE Program Updates - OCREM Update DOE Program Updates - EM Update Plenary II - Evaluation of Short Line Railroads - Track Safety Standards Plenary II - Evaluation of Short Line Railroads - FRA Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Plenary III - Addressing Risk Perception - Discussion of OCRWM Issues Breakout Session - OCRWM Issues - SNF Transfers Breakout Session - OCRWM Issues - WIPP Update Breakout Session - OCRWM Issues - LLW Disposition and WIMS Update Breakout Session - TEC Direction and Priorities - TEC Directions Path Forward and Summaries - Path Forward Introduction

199

Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2 2 G Approved: XX-XX-XX IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for use with DOE M 435.1-1 Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE G 435.1-2 i DRAFT XX-XX-XX LLW PA and CA Format and Content Guide Revision 0, XX-XX-XX Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses CONTENTS List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Acronyms and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v PART A: INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

200

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preparations Preparations within the Tank Farm D. Bumgardner Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company 12 May 2009 2 Agenda Liquid Waste System Overview Sludge Characteristics Sludge Batch Planning Sludge Batch Preparation Sequence - Aluminum Dissolution - Sludge Washing - Sludge Batch Qualification/Acceptance Questions 3 Liquid Waste Processing at SRS ARP - Actinide Removal Process AFP - Actinide Finishing Process ASP - Actinide Strike Process CSS - Clarified Salt Solution CSSX - Caustic-side Solvent Extraction DDA - Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment DSS - Decontaminated Salt Solution DWPF - Defense Waste Processing Facility ETP - Effluent Treatment Project GWSB - Glass Waste Storage Building HLW - High-Level Waste LLW - Low-Level Waste MCU - Modular CSSX Unit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

3-25-10_Final_Testimony_(Triay).pdf  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Activities to maintain safe, secure, and compliant operations within the EM complex Radioactive tank waste stabilization, treatment, and disposal SNF storage, receipt, and disposition SNM consolidation, processing, and disposition High priority groundwater remediation TRU waste and MLLW/LLW disposition Soil and groundwater remediation Excess facilities decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) EM's FY 2011 budget request funds radioactive liquid tank waste activities that are a large part of the cleanup challenge EM faces at its Hanford, Savannah River and Idaho sites allowing the program to progress on its tank waste retrieval commitments and fund construction on tank waste treatment facilities. The request also targets $60 million in

202

Waste Disposition Update by Christine Gelles  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Disposition Update Waste Disposition Update Christine Gelles Associate Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management (EM-30) EM SSAB Chairs Meeting Washington, DC 2 October 2012 www.em.doe.gov 2 o Waste Stream Highlights o DOE Transportation Update o Greater Than Class C (GTCC) Low Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement o Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future o Nuclear Regulatory Commission's LLW Regulatory Initiatives Discussion Topics www.em.doe.gov 3 Waste Stream Highlights www.em.doe.gov 4 o Within current budget outlook, it is especially critical that EM ensures safe, reliable and cost effective disposition paths exist. o The program's refocused organization and the detailed

203

Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

204

Full accuracy differential GPS C/A code pseudorange error correction concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(X?ABC) = e(Xw+Rw/e) P = R +e*X w w (A. 3) I=rom Fig. 14 the coordinates of a satellite at B is obtained from "?= Rw*CosV = a(CosE-e) Yw Rw*SinV By the property of an ellipse and its circumscribing circle, we have BH:()H = b:a, where b and a... with the line formed by the projection of the focal point on the directrix) Yw = coordinates of satellite (B) with respect to the center of the earth llw = satellite variable radius T = time of the perifocal passage of the satellite or the time when...

Desai, Rajendra Laxman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral summing technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC) is a unique modeling technique that is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposition (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique has been used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no disposal path unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confirmed TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radionuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have TRU MDAs > 100nCi/g enter a radioactive waste characterization indeterminate state that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced gamma spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discemable in the individual spectra become quantifiable in the summed spectrum and the MDA for the group sum is reduced. The group of waste items can then be properly classified as LLW waste on the summed spectrum and valid assay values can be assigned for disposal. This technique has been successfully applied to a set of 52 debris drums - with individual MDA > 100nCi/g - with a resulting group total TRU alpha activity concentration below 40nCi/g. Further application of the technique at LANL to other debris drums and sludge drums that were measured on a WIPP certified HENe is planned and good candidate drum sets are being evaluated.

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veilleux, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucero, Randy P [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION; Seamans, Jr, J. V. [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPATION; Clapham, M. J. [PAJARITO SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

David Duncan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study`s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management.

Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O`Donnell, E.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Low-level waste management program and interim waste operations technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy currently supports an integrated technology development and transfer program aimed at ensuring that the technology necessary for the safe management and disposal of LLW by the commercial and defense sectors is available. The program focuses on five technical areas: (1) corrective measures technology, (2) improved shallow land burial technology, (3) greater confinement disposal technology, (4) model development and validation, and (5) treatment methods for problem wastes. The results of activities in these areas are reported in the open literature and the Proceedings of the LLWMP Annual Participants Information Meeting.

Mezga, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

Kruger, A.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Low-Level Waste Regulation: Putting Principles Into Practice - 13297 - The Richard S. Hodes, M.D., Honor Lecture Award  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In carrying out its mission to ensure the safe use of radioactive materials for beneficial civilian purposes while protecting people and the environment, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) adheres to its Principles of Good Regulation. The Principles-Independence, Openness, Efficiency, Clarity, and Reliability-apply to the agency as a whole in its decision-making and to the individual conduct of NRC employees. This paper describes the application of the Principles in a real-life staff activity, a guidance document used in the NRC's low-level radioactive waste (LLW) program, the Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation Branch Technical Position (CA BTP). The staff's process to revise the document, as well as the final content of the document, were influenced by following the Principles. For example, consistent with the Openness Principle, the staff conducted a number of outreach activities and received many comments on three drafts of the document. Stakeholder comments affected the final staff positions in some cases. The revised CA BTP, once implemented, is expected to improve management and disposal of LLW in the United States. Its positions have an improved nexus to health and safety; are more performance-based than previously, thus providing licensees with options for how they achieve the required outcome of protecting an inadvertent human intruder into a disposal facility; and provide for disposal of more sealed radioactive sources, which are a potential threat to national security. (author)

Kennedy, James E. [Low-Level Waste Branch Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States)] [Low-Level Waste Branch Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste treatment technology evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was developed to provide the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program with criteria and a methodology to select candidate treatment technologies for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) destined for dedicated storage and ultimately disposal. The technology selection criteria are provided in a Lotus spreadsheet format to allow the methodology to evolve as the GTCC LLW Program evolves. It is recognized that the final disposal facility is not yet defined; thus, the waste acceptance criteria and other facility-specific features are subject to change. The spreadsheet format will allow for these changes a they occur. As additional treatment information becomes available, it can be factored into the analysis. The technology selection criteria were established from program goals, draft waste acceptance criteria for dedicated storage (including applicable regulations), and accepted remedial investigation methods utilized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Kepner-Tregoe decisionmaking techniques are used to compare and rank technologies against the criteria.

Garrison, T W; Fischer, D K

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C. [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revision 2 of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) Preliminary Software Design Description (PSDD) provides a high-level design description of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD is used as the primary medium for communication software design information. This release provides design descriptions for the following process modules produced under Phase 1 of the development effort: Receiving Drum or Box Containers Process Routing and Picklists; Waste Inventory by Location and/or Container Relationships; LLW Process Glovebox Facility Radiologic Material Inventory Check (partial); Shipping (partial production); Drum or Box NDE Operations; and Drum or Box NDA Operations Data Review (partial production). In addition, design descriptions are included for the following process modules scheduled for development under Phases 2 and 3: Activity Comment; LLW RWM Glovebox Sample Management; TRU Process Glovebox; TRU RWM Glovebox; and TRUPACT Processing. Detailed design descriptions for Reports and Facility Metrics have also been provided for in Revision 2 of this document.

Weidert, J.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

218

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Linda Suttora*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted an integrated protection system for the safety of radioactive waste disposal similar to the concept of a safety case that is used internationally. This approach has evolved and been continuously improved as a result of many years of experience managing low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration activities at 29 sites around the United States. The integrated protection system is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments, maintenance of those assessments based on the most recent information to ascertain continued compliance, site-specific waste acceptance criteria based on the risk assessment and a commitment to continuous improvement. There is also a strong component of stakeholder involvement. The integrated protection system approach will be discussed to demonstrate the commitment to safety for US DOE disposal.

219

Oxidation-induced geochemical changes in trench leachates from the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A knowledge of extra-trench processes related to oxidation-induced geochemical changes that are likely to occur when iron-rich, anoxic trench waters encounter an oxidizing environment along a redox gradient is essential for modeling radionuclide transport at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. The results of laboratory oxidation experiments on several trench leachates from the Maxey Flats site show that, upon oxidation, a series of geochemical changes were initiated that resulted in a drastically different solute geochemistry, involving oxidation of ferrous iron and subsequent precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxide, changes in alkalinity and acidity, a drastic increase in redox potential (Eh), and generally relatively little change in the concentrations of /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 85/Sr in solution. The observations made in this study have important geochemical implications for the modeling of LLW sites in that the source term as an input parameter cannot be assumed to be constant, both spatially and temporally. The acid-generating potential and buffering capacity of an anoxic source term are important geochemical controls that maintain a balance between acidity and alkalinity and largely determine the nature and extent of oxidation-induced geochemical changes likely to occur along a redox gradient. The presence of organic chelating agents can alter the source term geochemistry to such an extent that authigenic ferric oxyhydroxide, which represents a geochemical discontinuity at the redox interface along leachate migration paths, proves to be a relatively ineffective sink for radionuclides.

Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.H.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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221

Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evaluation of Phase II glass formulations for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vendor glass formulation study was carried out at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), supporting the Phase I and Phase II melter vendor testing activities for Westinghouse Hanford Company. This study is built upon the LLW glass optimization effort that will be described in a separate report. For Phase I vendor melter testing, six glass formulations were developed at PNL and additional were developed by Phase I vendors. All the doses were characterized in terms of viscosity and chemical durability by the 7-day Product Consistency Test. Twelve Phase II glass formulations (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) were developed to accommodate 2.5 wt% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 1.0 wt% S0{sub 3} without significant processing problems. These levels of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SO{sub 3} are expected to be the highest possible concentrations from Hanford Site LLW streams at 25 wt% waste loading in glass. The Phase H compositions formulated were 6 to 23 times more durable than the environmental assessment (EA) glass. They melt within the temperature range of 1160{degrees} to 1410{degrees}C to suit different melting technologies. The composition types include boron-free for volatilization sensitive melters; boron-containing glasses for coId-cap melters; Zr-containing, glasses for enhanced Iong-term durability; and Fe-containing glasses for reducing melting temperature and melt volatility while maintaining chemical durability.

Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J. [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

Boyd D. Christensen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

W-026 integrated engineering cold run operational test report for balance of plant (BOP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Cold Run test is designed to demonstrate the functionality of systems necessary to move waste drums throughout the plant using approved procedures, and the compatibility of these systems to function as an integrated process. This test excludes all internal functions of the gloveboxes. In the interest of efficiency and support of the facility schedule, the initial revision of the test (rev 0) was limited to the following: Receipt and storage of eight overpacked drums, four LLW and four TRU; Receipt, routing, and staging of eleven empty drums to the process area where they will be used later in this test; Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 9); Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 1). The above listed operations were tested using the rev 0 test document, through Section 5.4.25. The document was later revised to include movement of all staged drums to and from the LLW and TRU process and RWM gloveboxes. This testing was performed using Sections 5.5 though 5.11 of the rev 1 test document. The primary focus of this test is to prove the functionality of automatic operations for all mechanical and control processes listed. When necessary, the test demonstrates manual mode operations as well. Though the gloveboxes are listed, only waste and empty drum movement to, from, and between the gloveboxes was tested.

Kersten, J.K.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

225

Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Seagate Crystal Reports - Rad94  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD-9) Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD-9) RECEIVING SITE: Hanford WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste STATE: California Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from LEHR Non-Annualized 2016-20(P) 2008(P) 2009(P) 2010(P) 2061-65(P) 2066-70(P) 2056-60(P) 2007 (P) 2041-45(P) 2004 (P) 2005 (P) 2021-25(P) 2026-30(P) 2031-35(P) 2036-40(P) 2006 (P) 2011-15(P) 2003 (P) Shipped (m 3 ) Year 1998 (A) 1999 (A) 2000 (A) 2001 (P) 2002 (P) 2051-55(P) Year Shipped (m 3 ) Year 2046-50(P) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Year Year EnerHlthLb 0.640 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from ETEC Non-Annualized 2016-20(P) 2008(P) 2009(P) 2010(P) 2061-65(P) 2066-70(P)

227

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD/CM-9) Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD/CM-9) Data Category: Combined Radioactive Waste and Ex-Situ Contaminated Media RECEIVING SITE: Hanford WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste STATE: California Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from LEHR 2051-55(P) Year Shipped (m 3 ) Year 2046-50(P) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Year Year Shipped (m 3 ) Year 1998 (A) 1999 (A) 2000 (A) 2001 (P) 2002 (P) 2041-45(P) 2004 (P) 2005 (P) 2021-25(P) 2026-30(P) 2031-35(P) 2036-40(P) 2006 (P) 2011-15(P) 2003 (P) Non-Annualized 2016-20(P) 2008(P) 2009(P) 2010(P) 2061-65(P) 2066-70(P) 2056-60(P) 2007 (P) EnerHlthLb 0.640 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from ETEC

228

WIPP WAC Equivalence Support Measurements for Low-Level Sludge Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12242  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) as an off-site disposal facility for low-level waste (LLW), including sludge waste. NNSS has issued a position paper that indicates that systems that are not certified by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste must demonstrate equivalent practices to the CBFO certified systems in order to assign activity concentration values to assayed items without adding in the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) when certifying waste for NNSS disposal. Efforts have been made to meet NNSS requirements to accept sludge waste for disposal at their facility. The LANL LLW Characterization Team uses portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of both debris and sludge LLW. A number of performance studies have been conducted historically by LANL to support the efficacy and quality of assay results generated by the LANL HPGe systems, and, while these detector systems are supported by these performance studies and used with LANL approved procedures and processes, they are not certified by CBFO for TRU waste disposal. Beginning in 2009, the LANL LLW Characterization Team undertook additional NDA measurements of both debris and sludge simulated waste containers to supplement existing studies and procedures to demonstrate full compliance with the NNSS position paper. Where possible, Performance Demonstration Project (PDP) drums were used for the waste matrix and PDP sources were used for the radioactive sources. Sludge drums are an example of a matrix with a uniform distribution of contaminants. When attempting to perform a gamma assay of a sludge drum, it is very important to adequately simulate this uniform distribution of radionuclides in order to accurately model the assay results. This was accomplished by using a spiral radial source tube placement in a sludge drum rather than the standard three source tubes seen in debris PDP drums. Available line sources (Eu-152) were placed in the spiral tubes to further accomplish the desired uniform distribution of radionuclides. The standard PDP drum (PDP matrix drum 005) and PDP sources were used to determine the lower limits of detection (LLD) and TMU. Analysis results for the sludge drum matrix case for two HPGe detectors were tabulated and evaluated. NNSS has accepted the methodology and results of the measurements towards demonstrating equivalence to CBFO certified systems. In conclusion, the WES-WGS and CMR-OPS gamma spectroscopy teams at LANL have defined and performed measurements that serve to establish and demonstrate equivalency with the processes used by CBFO certified NDA systems. The supplemental measurements address four key areas in Appendix A of DOE/WIPP-02-3122: Annual Calibration Confirmation and Performance Check measurements; LLD determination; and TMU definition. For these measurements the containers, matrices and activity loadings are selected to represent items being assayed in real LLW cases. The LLD and the TMU bounding measurements are to be performed one time and will not be required to be repeated in future campaigns. The annual calibration and performance check measurements were performed initially and planned to repeat in annual campaigns in order to maintain NNSS certification. PDP sources and a PDP sludge drum as well as Eu-152 line sources and a spiral sludge drum were used for the measurements. In all cases, the results for accuracy and precision (%R and %RSD, respectively) were within allowable ranges as defined by the WIPP PDP program. LLD (or MDC) results were established for all the ten WIPP reportable radionuclides and U-235, and the MDC for Pu-239 was established in all cases to be well under 100 nCi/g. Useful results for reducing estimated uncertainties were established and an interesting unexpected case of high bias was observed and will be applied toward this end. (authors)

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL HELIUM DETONATIONS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several models for Type Ia-like supernova events rely on the production of a self-sustained detonation powered by nuclear reactions. In the absence of hydrogen, the fuel that powers these detonations typically consists of either pure helium (He) or a mixture of carbon and oxygen (C/O). Studies that systematically determine the conditions required to initiate detonations in C/O material exist, but until now no analogous investigation of He matter has been conducted. We perform one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamical simulations at a variety of initial density and temperature combinations and find critical length scales for the initiation of He detonations that range between 1 and 10{sup 10} cm. A simple estimate of the length scales over which the total consumption of fuel will occur for steady-state detonations is provided by the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) formalism. Our initiation lengths are consistently smaller than the corresponding CJ length scales by a factor of {approx}100, providing opportunities for thermonuclear explosions in a wider range of low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) than previously thought possible. We find that virialized WDs with as little mass as 0.24 M{sub Sun} can be detonated, and that even less massive WDs can be detonated if a sizable fraction of their mass is raised to a higher adiabat. That the initiation length is exceeded by the CJ length implies that certain systems may not reach nuclear statistical equilibrium within the time it takes a detonation to traverse the object. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that incomplete burning will occur in the majority of He WD detonations and that {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, or {sup 48}Cr, rather than {sup 56}Ni, is the predominant burning product for many of these events. We anticipate that a measure of the quantity of the intermediate-mass elements and {sup 56}Ni produced in a helium-rich thermonuclear explosion can potentially be used to constrain the nature of the progenitor system.

Holcomb, Cole; Guillochon, James; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [TASC, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Little Green Data Book | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Little Green Data Book The Little Green Data Book Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Little Green Data Book Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Resource Type: Dataset Website: www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/0 References: The Little Green Data Book[1] Overview "The Little Green Data Book 2010 is a knowledge resource that aids policymakers in using environmental data more effectively to support priority-setting and improved development outcomes. It is a collaboration between the Development Data Group of the Development Economics Vice Presidency and the Environment Department of the Sustainable Development Vice Presidency of the World Bank. As we have every year for 10 years, we welcome your suggestions on how to improve future editions and make them

231

Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture Agency/Company /Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Co-benefits assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www-wds.worldbank.org/e Country Mexico UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture[1] Summary "Mexico is the only developing country to have submitted three national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change across sectors. Agriculture contributes little, in relative

232

Analytical Expressions For Light-Curves Of Ordinary And Superluminous Supernovae Type Ia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ordinary supernovae of type Ia (SNeIa) may be produced by the thermonuclear explosion of white dwarfs (WDs), which after their nascence in proto-planetary nebulae accrete fall-back matter and approach the Chandrasekhar mass limit. If the detonation continues into the fall-back layer and/or if the SNIa debris collide with it, they may produce a super Chandrasekhar SNIa. A few underlying physical assumptions of such model yield a very simple master formula that reproduces quite well the bolometric light-curves of both ordinary and supeluminous SNeIa. Other main properties of SNeIa, including the empirical 'brighter-slower' Philipps' relation that was used to standardize ordinary SNeIa as distance indicators and led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe are also reproduced.

Shlomo Dado; Arnon Dar

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

233

Research on Optimal Operation Method of Large Scale Urban Water Distribution System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In consideration of using fewer decision variables in building least cost pumping operation optimal, the two-phase optimal method is used as the frame. By abstracting pump stations into high level reservoirs, the water distribution system hydraulic model can be modified into a modality, which can be used in first optimal phase of two-phase optimal method. And by building on feasible pump combination database, a new optimal method in the second optimal phase will be proposed. And the proposed new method in the second optimal phase will be embedded into the first optimal phase, so that the problem of results discordant in different phases of two-phase optimal method will be solved. By introducing new concept and improving present optimal method, a more practical optimal operation method of water distribution system (WDS) will be established. By applying to a large scale water distribution system, the practicability of proposed method has been evaluated.

X. Jin; W. Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

ZERO IMPACT PARAMETER WHITE DWARF COLLISIONS IN FLASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We systematically explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) with the Eulerian adaptive grid code FLASH for 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} and 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} mass pairings. Our models span a range of effective linear spatial resolutions from 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm. However, even the highest resolution models do not quite achieve strict numerical convergence, due to the challenge of properly resolving small-scale burning and energy transport. The lack of strict numerical convergence from these idealized configurations suggests that quantitative predictions of the ejected elemental abundances that are generated by binary WD collision and merger simulations should be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, the convergence trends do allow some patterns to be discerned. We find that the 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} head-on collision model produces 0.32 M {sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni and 0.38 M {sub Sun} of {sup 28}Si, while the 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} head-on collision model produces 0.39 M {sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni and 0.55 M {sub Sun} of {sup 28}Si at the highest spatial resolutions. Both mass pairings produce {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun} of unburned {sup 12}C+{sup 16}O. We also find the 0.64 + 0.64 M {sub Sun} head-on collision begins carbon burning in the central region of the stalled shock between the two WDs, while the more energetic 0.81 + 0.81 M {sub Sun} head-on collision raises the initial post-shock temperature enough to burn the entire stalled shock region to nuclear statistical equilibrium.

Hawley, W. P.; Athanassiadou, T.; Timmes, F. X., E-mail: Wendy.Hawley@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

Valero, O.J.

1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

236

Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate elements important to both processability and long-term performance properties. This process involves characterization of both emplaced product samples from the disposal facility and laboratory-simulated samples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lab simulation. With that basis confirmed, a comprehensive variability study using non-radioactive simulants will define the acceptable PAR, or 'operating window' for Saltstone production and disposal. This same process will be used in the future to evaluate new waste streams for disposal or changes to the existing process flowsheet. (authors)

Staub, Aaron V. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Reigel, Marissa M. [Savannah River National Lab, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Lab, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Lessons Learned in the Design and Use of IP1 / IP2 Flexible Packaging - 13621  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For many years in the USA, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), contaminated soils and construction debris, have been transported, interim stored, and disposed of, using IP1 / IP2 metal containers. The performance of these containers has been more than adequate, with few safety occurrences. The containers are used under the regulatory oversight of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In the late 90's the introduction of flexible packaging for the transport, storage, and disposal of low level contaminated soils and construction debris was introduced. The development of flexible packaging came out of a need for a more cost effective package, for the large volumes of waste generated by the decommissioning of many of the US Department of Energy (DOE) legacy sites across the US. Flexible packaging had to be designed to handle a wide array of waste streams, including soil, gravel, construction debris, and fine particulate dust migration. The design also had to meet all of the IP1 requirements under 49CFR 173.410, and be robust enough to pass the IP2 testing 49 CFR 173.465 required for many LLW shipments. Tens of thousands of flexible packages have been safely deployed and used across the US nuclear industry as well as for hazardous non-radioactive applications, with no recorded release of radioactive materials. To ensure that flexible packages are designed properly, the manufacturer must use lessons learned over the years, and the tests performed to provide evidence that these packages are suitable for transporting low level radioactive wastes. The design and testing of flexible packaging for LLW, VLLW and other hazardous waste streams must be as strict and stringent as the design and testing of metal containers. The design should take into consideration the materials being loaded into the package, and should incorporate the right materials, and manufacturing methods, to provide a quality, safe product. Flexible packaging can be shown to meet the criteria for safe and fit for purpose packaging, by meeting the US DOT regulations, and the IAEA Standards for IP-1 and IP-2 including leak tightness. (authors)

Sanchez, Mike [VP Global Sales, PacTec, Inc. (United States)] [VP Global Sales, PacTec, Inc. (United States); Reeves, Wendall [National Sales Manager, PacTec, Inc. (United States)] [National Sales Manager, PacTec, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [Nuclear Sales Director, PacTec, Inc. (United States)] [Nuclear Sales Director, PacTec, Inc. (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

61 - 23770 of 31,917 results. 61 - 23770 of 31,917 results. Page EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the... http://energy.gov/nepa/ea-0821-operation-glass-melter-thermal-treatment-unit-us-department-energys-mound-plant Page EA-0843: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing, Idaho Falls, Idaho This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to (1) reduce the volume of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) generated low-level waste (LLW)...

239

Slide 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

site history, site history, cleanup status, and role of the West Valley Citizen Task Force Raymond C. Vaughan, Ph.D. West Valley Citizen Task Force DOE National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Buffalo, May 16, 2013 WEST VALLEY SITE * Only U.S. commercial reprocessing plant (1966-1972) * Owned by NY State; operated by Nuclear Fuel Services * Reprocessed both defense and commercial spent fuel * High worker exposures, poor control of contaminants during period of operation prior to 1980 * Sited on erosion-prone land (glacial fill) in the Great Lakes watershed, about 50 km (30 mi) south of Buffalo * Two onsite burial grounds operated 1963-1975; hold wastes exceeding 10 CFR 61 limits * Onsite source term includes HLW, TRU, LLW, mixed waste (roughly 16 million curies current total)

240

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

01 - 11110 of 26,764 results. 01 - 11110 of 26,764 results. Download EIS-0285-SA-38: Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/eis-0285-sa-38-supplement-analysis Download LFRG Charter The Low - Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Cliarter identifies the purpose, objectives, and membership requirements of the group. http://energy.gov/em/downloads/lfrg-charter Download SPR Pro Forma Contract An exchange agreement for SPR oil involves return of the principal amount of similar quality crude oil to the SPR, plus payment of an in-kind premium determined according to the period negotiated... http://energy.gov/fe/downloads/spr-pro-forma-contract Download FY_09_DM_RM_AM_Reporting_Memo_and_attachment_072009.pdf

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241

Microsoft PowerPoint - Benson LP PA CoP Summer 2011.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CRESP DOE LANDFILL PARTNERSHIP CRESP DOE LANDFILL PARTNERSHIP Craig H. Benson, PhD, PE, DGE Wisconsin Distinguished Professor Geological Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison www.cresp.org 26 May 2011 1 Print Close Hanford's ERDF Print Close W A S T E A C C E S S R O A D On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF): aka LLW or MW Landfill Final Cover System Liner System MONITORING WELLS Figure courtesy M. Othman, Geosyntec Consultants Print Close Purpose of Landfill Partnership 4 * Conduct independent applied research to address landfill technology issues that cross- cut the DOE complex. * Provide forum to discuss regulatory conflicts and shortcomings, and to recommend technological solutions. * Participate in independent technical reviews related to DOE technologies or sites.

242

Performance Assessment Community of Practice  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

L L l W t C t B d High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Community of Practice Community of Practice John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director Associate Laboratory Director 5 March 2009 DOE EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Phoenix, Arizona DOE-EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Performance Assessment Process Community of Practice Background EM Senior Management would like to have g improved consistency in the execution of the Performance Assessment* process; Originally formed a sub-committee to draft a guidance document for practitioners; Th b itt b li C it f The sub-committee now believes a Community of Practice having broader scope should replace it; Draft Charter in review and presented for Draft Charter in review and presented for discussion. * Performance Assessment (PA) is used broadly to encompass assessments for LLW

243

Introduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

-- -- September 2005 1 What's Happening in EM? Ella McNeil Office of Transportation, EM-11 TEC -- September 2005 2 Cleanup and waste disposition continue. . . * Continuing progress toward site closures * Disposition of "orphan" or special waste streams are some of the remaining obstacles to closure * Working with sites to develop comprehensive lists of these streams and to identify needed treatment and disposal options * Identification of disposal facility - commercial or Federal * Ability to continue to accelerate cleanup is directly dependent on the ability to ship and dispose of waste safely TEC -- September 2005 3 Current DOE/EM Waste Management Policy * LLW and MLLW: * If practical, disposal at generation site * If on-site disposal not available, then disposal at another

244

DRAFT EM SSAB Chairs Meeting Waste Disposition Strategies Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EM HQ Updates Waste Disposition Overview Christine Gelles Associate Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management Office of Environmental Management EM SSAB Chairs Meeting 5 November 2013 www.energy.gov/EM 2 * Waste Management Accomplishments and Priorities * National TRU Program Update * LLW/MLLW Disposal Update * Other Programmatic Updates * Disposition Maps - Current Tools Discussion Outline www.energy.gov/EM 3 FY13 Waste Management Accomplishments * WIPP: Emplaced 5,065 cubic meters of TRU with 89 percent of shipments departed from TRU waste sites as planned * Los Alamos: Met Framework Agreement goal for FY 13 ahead of schedule, disposing of over 1,800 cubic meters of legacy managed TRU waste * Oak Ridge: Partnered with regulators to develop strategy for

245

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

51 - 18560 of 31,917 results. 51 - 18560 of 31,917 results. Article DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that it will evaluate disposal options for Greater Than Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from the... http://energy.gov/articles/doe-weigh-alternatives-greater-class-c-low-level-waste-disposal Download EMAB Reports and Recommendations- September 2009 Environmental Management Advisory board letters, reports, and recommendations. http://energy.gov/em/downloads/emab-reports-and-recommendations-september-2009 Download Memorandum Memorializing Ex Parte Communication, DOE impending determination of coverage for commercial and industrial fans, blowers, and

246

DOE-STD-5507-2013 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7-2013 7-2013 DOE-STD-5507-2013 April 04, 2013 Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects Although other types of radioactive material and waste may be candidate LSA material or SCO, this standard focuses solely on low-level waste (LLW)3. The DOE ships various types of radioactive waste stemming from current and historical operations. Generally, candidate LSA material and SCO within the DOE complex are wastes generated from the clean-up and deactivation of World War II and Cold War era nuclear processing and weapons support operations. These waste matrices can be complex. The level of effort required to characterize waste varies based on the type and origin of waste

247

DOE - Safety of Radioactive Material Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How are they moved? What's their construction? Who uses them? Who makes rules? What are the requirements? Safety Record Packagings are used to safely transport radioactive materials across the United States in over 1.6 million shipments per year. [Weiner et. al., 1991, Risk Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 663] Most shipments are destined for hospitals and medical facilities. Other destinations include industrial, research and manufacturing plants, nuclear power plants and national defense facilities. The last comprehensive survey showed that less than 1 percent of these shipments involve high-level radioactive material. [Javitz et. al., 1985, SAND84-7174, Tables 4 and 8] The types of materials transported include: Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials, Low-Level Waste (LLW),

248

EIS-0286: Record of Decision | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Record of Decision Record of Decision EIS-0286: Record of Decision Solid Waste Program, Hanford Site, Richland, WA: Storage and Treatment of Low-Level Waste and Mixed Low-Level Waste; Disposal of Low-Level Waste and Mixed Low-Level Waste, and Storage, Processing, and Certification of Transuranic Waste for Shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making decisions regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), which contains both radioactive and chemically hazardous components, and transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed TRU waste) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Record of Decision for the Solid Waste Program, Hanford Site, Richland, WA: Storage and Treatment of Low-Level Waste and Mixed Low-Level Waste;

249

Microsoft PowerPoint - 1-06 Subramanian Sams11-12.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WP Technical Exchange WP Technical Exchange Hanford/SRS Tank Waste Path Forward Karthik Subramanian, SRR Terry Sams, WRPS 11/16/2010 SRR-MS-2010-00249 Print Close 2 Overview * Technology Deployment Vision * Tank Waste Strategy and Life-Cycle Benefits - Transformational Technology Scenarios * Hanford - Vitrification Technologies - Salt Processing: LAW Pretreatment and Immobilization * Rotary Microfiltration/Small Column Ion Exchange (RMF/SCIX) * Alternate LLW: Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) - Accelerated SST Retrieval * SRS - Vitrification Technologies - Salt Processing * Rotary Microfiltration/Small Column Ion Exchange (RMF/SCIX) * Next Generation Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Print Close 3 Technology Deployment * Goal-oriented technology deployment process to integrate and manage resources through collaboration

250

I  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

II II DOE PROJECT RISKS April 30, 2005 Revision 0 Publication Records Revision Number Approval Date 0 April 30, 2005 TABLE OF CONTENT I INTRODCUTION 1 II RISK DESCRIPTION AND ASSESSMENT 2 A. Delays and Cost Impacts Associated with Site Reuse 2 B. Discovery of TRU Waste Past Expiration of OHOX Rail Car 4 C. Landscaping or Removal of PRS-8 Landfill 5 D. Government Furnished Services/Items (GFS/I) 9 E. Final Site-wide Record of Decision (ROD) Definition and Canal ROD 10 F. Groundwater Contamination and Mitigation 11 G. Legacy Medical and Pension Costs 12 H Estimated Low Level Waste (LLW) Soil Volumes 13 I. MMCIC Acceptance of T Building as is e.g., HVAC System 13 J. Added Scope Items 14

251

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Offsite Transportation of Certain Low-Level and Mixed Radioactive Waste from Savannah River Site for Treatment and Disposal at Commercial and Government Facilities, DOE/EA-1308 (02/15/01)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Finding of No Significant Impact Finding of No Significant Impact for the Offsite Transportation of Certain Low-level and Mixed Radioactive Waste from the Savannah River Site for Treatment and Disposal at Commercial and Government Facilities Agency: U. S. Department of Energy Action: Finding of No Significant Impact Summary: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1308) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed offsite transportation of certain low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed (i.e., hazardous and radioactive) low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) from the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting

252

Summary - Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) at Idaho National Laboratory  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

INL, Idaho INL, Idaho EM Project: Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility ETR Report Date: December 2007 ETR-10 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) At Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) is a land disposal facility that is used to dispose of LLW and MLW generated from remedial activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Components of the ICDF include a landfill that is used for disposal of solid waste, an evaporation pond that is used to manage leachate from the landfill and other aqueous wastes (8.3 million L capacity), and a staging and treatment facility. The ICDF is located near the southwest

253

TYNtìÐ!ÈK N,/jlonat Nudeü Secww Admlnlsttailon  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

tl^^r^YêÈÁr tl^^r^YêÈÁr TYNtìÐ!ÈK N,/jlonat Nudeü Secww Admlnlsttailon Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Los Alamos Site Office DOE/ErS-0380-SA-01 Supplement Analysis Site-Wide Environmental lmpact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory Proposed Transport of Low Level Radioactive Waste by Truck and Rail from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for Disposal at EnergySolutions at Clive, Utah October 2009 DOE/ErS-0380-SA-01 Introduction This analysis is prepared to determine if the Final Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (2008 SWEIS) for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, (DOE/EIS 0380) adequately bounds ofÊsite transpofiation of Low Specific Activity (LSA) and Low Level V/aste (LLW) by a combination of truck

254

CX-004455: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

455: Categorical Exclusion Determination 455: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004455: Categorical Exclusion Determination Geotechnical Investigation for Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 11/12/2010 Location(s): Idaho Falls, Idaho Office(s): Nuclear Energy, Idaho Operations Office The proposed action would conduct geotechnical investigations at two 4-6 acre candidate sites for a Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH LLW) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). One site is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)-Complex and the other site is located west of and across Lincoln Boulevard from the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF). DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

255

West Valley Seeks Comment on Draft Waste Evaluation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Seeks Comment on Draft Waste Evaluation Seeks Comment on Draft Waste Evaluation West Valley Seeks Comment on Draft Waste Evaluation June 29, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Bryan Bower 716-942-4368 Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 West Valley, NY - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the public and the states of Nevada and Texas, and the Seneca Nation of Indians for review and comment, a Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold tank (the vessels) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Draft Evaluation, which may enable the Department to dispose of the vessels as low-level radioactive waste (LLW), is a necessary step in the Department's cleanup efforts at

256

Microsoft PowerPoint - EM SSAB Chairs Webinar - Marcinowski Waste Strategies.042413  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chair's Meeting Chair's Meeting Waste Disposition Strategies Update www.energy.gov/EM 1 Waste Disposition Strategies Update Frank Marcinowski Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management Office of Environmental Management April 25, 2013 * Recent Program Accomplishments * FY13 Waste Management Priorities * FY14 Waste Management Priorities * Los Alamos Update * LLW/MLLW Disposition Options Discussion Outline www.energy.gov/EM 2 * Hanford TRU Tank Disposition Initiative * GTCC EIS * Mercury Supplemental EIS * Excess Material and Metal Recycling * DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management * Blue Ribbon Commission Related Activities Recent Program Accomplishments * Continued progress towards removal of Los Alamos TRU waste, in accord with Framework Agreement * Submitted WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility permit modification for

257

PowerPoint Presentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1613 NTSF 1613 NTSF National Transportation Stakeholder Forum West Valley Demonstration Project A Short History and Status May 7, 2013 www.wv.doe.gov Bryan C. Bower, Director bryan.bower@wv.doe.gov 1 051613 NTSF West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Mission 2 The WVDP mission was defined by an act of Congress in 1980 - Public Law 98-368 1. Solidify the high-level radioactive waste at the Center * 99.7% of the curies in the tanks were vitrified and the glass is contained in 275 stainless steel canisters 2. Develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the waste 3. Transport the solidified waste to a federal repository for permanent disposal 4. Dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste 5. Decontaminate and decommission the underground

258

DOEIEA-1061 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE OFF-SITE VOLUME REDUCTION OF  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

61 61 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE OFF-SITE VOLUME REDUCTION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE FROM THE SAVANNAH IUVER SITE JULY 1995 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE A . RECEIVED Finding of No Significant Impact for the JAN 3 1 19% Off-Site Volume Reduction of Low-Level Radioactive Waste - from the Savannah River Site O S T I Agency: Action: U . S. Department of Energy Finding of No Significant Impact Summary: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOEM-1061) for the proposed off-site volume duction of low-bel radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken,South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed

259

DOE-STD-5507-2013 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5507-2013 5507-2013 DOE-STD-5507-2013 April 04, 2013 Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects Although other types of radioactive material and waste may be candidate LSA material or SCO, this standard focuses solely on low-level waste (LLW)3. The DOE ships various types of radioactive waste stemming from current and historical operations. Generally, candidate LSA material and SCO within the DOE complex are wastes generated from the clean-up and deactivation of World War II and Cold War era nuclear processing and weapons support operations. These waste matrices can be complex. The level of effort required to characterize waste varies based on the type and origin of waste

260

12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » 12/2000 Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 The purpose of this Report is to assess whether U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) disposal facilities have sufficient volumetric and radiological capacity to accommodate the low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MLLW) that the Department expects to dispose at these facilities. 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 More Documents & Publications EIS-0243: Record of Decision EIS-0200: Record of Decision EIS-0286: Record of Decision Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Microsoft PowerPoint - SSAB Chairs Presentation_Marcinowski (corrected version) [Compatibility Mode]  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Frank Marcinowski Frank Marcinowski Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technical and Regulatory Support Office of Environmental Management EM Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs Meeting Santa Fe, New Mexico September 15, 2010 Outline * EM radioactive waste management system, policy and priorities * DOE Order 435.1 * Programmatic updates and challenges - LLW/MLLW disposition - TRU waste acceleration and progress - TRU waste acceleration and progress - High level waste and used fuel management - GTCC EIS - Mercury management EIS Brief history of DOE's current waste management system - EM established in 1989 to address the legacy contamination from DOE defense and research missions - Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) enacted in 1992 - DNFSB issued recommendation 94-2, calling for safety

262

Federal Register Notice | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Federal Register Notice Federal Register Notice Federal Register Notice The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in coordination with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), plans to conduct a workshop to discuss possible approaches to revising the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this workshop is to gather information from a broad spectrum of stakeholders concerning the NRC's proposed options for a comprehensive revision to NRC's and DOE's waste regulations and to discuss possible options. Federal Register Notice More Documents & Publications Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Integrated Strategy for Spent Fuel

263

West Valley Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment West Valley Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment March 11, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor (513) 246-0539 william.taylor@emcbc.doe.gov West Valley, New York - The U.S. Department of Energy today released a Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) Evaluation of a vitrification melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for review and comment by the public, states and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This draft evaluation shows that the melter meets the criteria for "waste incidental to reprocessing" and may be managed and disposed of as low-level radioactive waste (LLW). It is an important step in DOE's efforts to clean up the WVDP and meet its obligations under the WVDP Act of

264

EIS-0286: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0286: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program, Richland, Washington DOE needs to provide capabilities to continue, or modify, the way it treats, stores, and/or disposes of existing and anticipated quantities of solid LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW at the Hanford Site in order to protect human health and the environment; facilitate cleanup at Hanford and other DOE facilities; take actions consistent with decisions reached by DOE under the WM PEIS; comply with local, State, and federal laws and regulations; and meet other obligations such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) (Ecology et al. 1989).

265

Slide 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

site history, site history, cleanup status, and role of the West Valley Citizen Task Force Raymond C. Vaughan, Ph.D. West Valley Citizen Task Force DOE National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Buffalo, May 16, 2013 WEST VALLEY SITE * Only U.S. commercial reprocessing plant (1966-1972) * Owned by NY State; operated by Nuclear Fuel Services * Reprocessed both defense and commercial spent fuel * High worker exposures, poor control of contaminants during period of operation prior to 1980 * Sited on erosion-prone land (glacial fill) in the Great Lakes watershed, about 50 km (30 mi) south of Buffalo * Two onsite burial grounds operated 1963-1975; hold wastes exceeding 10 CFR 61 limits * Onsite source term includes HLW, TRU, LLW, mixed waste (roughly 16 million curies current total)

266

Microsoft PowerPoint - Freeze.NE PA Overview_052511.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Summary of DOE-NE PA Modeling for Storage and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW), and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Geoff Freeze Sandia National Laboratories PA Community of Practice Technical Exchange May 25-26, 2011 Print Close Used Fuel Disposition 2 DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE) - PA Modeling Activities NE Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (Waste IPSC) Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Generic Performance Assessment Model (GPAM) *** Initial modeling focus in both campaigns in on UNF/HLW disposal Print Close Used Fuel Disposition 3  UFD GPAM  Short time horizon (2-3 yrs) - Simplified generic system models (i.e., PA-fidelity using GoldSim) - Current computing capabilities

267

EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: Supplement Analysis 2: Supplement Analysis EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Surplus Plutonium Dispostion Program: Waste Solidification Building The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to construct and operate a standalone Waste Solidification Building 1 (WSR) in F-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Certain liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and liquid transuranic (TRU) waste expected to be generated in the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) and Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) as part of the U.S. Surplus Plutonium Disposition Program would be treated and solidified in WSB. DOE/EIS-0283, National Nuclear Security Administration, Supplement Analysis

268

Microsoft Word - SSABchairs.conferencecall.december15.012506rev31.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

December 15, 2005 December 15, 2005 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. Participants Chairs/Representatives: Fernald Sue Walpole Hanford Todd Martin Idaho David Kipping, Shannon Brennan, Lisa Aldrich Nevada Kathleen Peterson NNM J.D. Campbell, Grace Perez Oak Ridge Norm Mulvenon, Rhonda Bogard, Pete Osborne, Spencer Gross Paducah Jeannie Brandstetter Rocky Flats Gerald DePoorter, Ken Korkia Savannah River Jean Sulc, Gerri Fleming DOE representatives: EM-30.1 Melissa Nielson, Doug Frost, Patricia Atkinson-Brown OPENING REMARKS Melissa Nielson welcomed everyone. NEW BUSINESS Update on LLW and MLLW Strategy Christine Gelles, Director, Office of Commercial Disposition Options, passed along the thanks of Frank Marcinowski, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Logistics and Waste Disposition Enhancements, to the Nevada Board for its support in getting the permit

269

EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3-SA-02: Supplement Analysis 3-SA-02: Supplement Analysis EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Surplus Plutonium Dispostion Program: Waste Solidification Building The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to construct and operate a standalone Waste Solidification Building 1 (WSR) in F-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Certain liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and liquid transuranic (TRU) waste expected to be generated in the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) and Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) as part of the U.S. Surplus Plutonium Disposition Program would be treated and solidified in WSB. DOE/EIS-0283, National Nuclear Security Administration, Supplement Analysis

270

EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition In October 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) issued the Final Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287 (Final EIS)). The Final EIS contains an evaluation of reasonable alternatives for the management of mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW),1 mixed HLW calcine, and associated low-level waste (LLW), as well as disposition alternatives for HLW facilities when their missions are completed. DOE/EIS-0287, Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology, Office of Environmental Management, Idaho, 70 FR 44598 (August

271

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

21 - 11230 of 29,416 results. 21 - 11230 of 29,416 results. Download CX-008178: Categorical Exclusion Determination Clinch River Environmental Studies Organization (CRESO) Partners Wetland Project CX(s) Applied: B3.3, B3.8 Date: 03/30/2012 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): Oak Ridge Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008178-categorical-exclusion-determination Page LFRG DOE Order 435.1 Chapter 4 of the DOE Manual on Order 435.1, Low-level Waste Requirements, addresses the procedures whereby Department of Energy LLW Disposal Facilities will operated and maintained. Section P and... http://energy.gov/em/lfrg-doe-order-4351 Page Impact Assessments PIA Template with Guidance (MS Word) http://energy.gov/cio/office-chief-information-officer/services/guidance/privacy/impact-assessments

272

West Valley  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Facility Nuclear Facility Coalition on West Valley Nuclear Wastes PO Box 603 Springville NY 14141 WV-DigItUp@roadrunner.com Joanne Hameister CFMT (Concentrator Feed Make-up Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x19' 177.5 tons MFHT (Melter Feed Hold Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x16' 152.5 tons WIR Shipments pending to LLW facility MELTER 10'x10'x10' Packaged: 14'x13'x13' 159 tons 4,570 Curies Waste Categories High-Level Waste Based on source * Nuclear Fuel * Reprocessing * TRU Low-Level Waste Not Low Risk Complex classification based on * Nuclide inventory * Half-life(s) * Quantity * Decay products Background Radiation 1978 - average was 100 mRem per person 2011 - BRC* estimate 620 mRem per person Naturally occurring radioactive elements Additions accumulate - from fall-out,

273

National Transportation Stakeholders Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

TRANSPORTATION STAKEHOLDERS TRANSPORTATION STAKEHOLDERS FORUM Activities and Accomplishments May 16, 2013 Buffalo, New York NTSF RESOURCES  Wiki Site  Private domain / Registration required  Repository of information  Users are allowed editing capabilities  Webinars  Cover a variety of topics (NRC Rulemaking, Section 180(c), BRC Recommendations, Strategy for Management and Disposal of UNF and HLRW, etc.)  Recording are available on the wiki site  Input is needed for future content NTSF Working Groups COMMUNICATIONS WORKING GROUP  Webinars  Development Guide  LLW Fact Sheet  Table of Waste Types  New Fact Sheets  Newsletter  NFSTPP Communications Products TEPP WORKING GROUP  Formed a TEPP Working Group after the 2012 NTSF to

274

Final Environmental Assessment for Waste Disposition Activities at the Paducah Site Paducah, Kentucky  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0-347(doc)/093002 0-347(doc)/093002 1 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT WASTE DISPOSITION ACTIVITIES AT THE PADUCAH SITE PADUCAH, KENTUCKY AGENCY: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ACTION: FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1339), which is incorporated herein by reference, for proposed disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low- level radioactive waste (MLLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site (Paducah Site) in Paducah, Kentucky. All of the wastes would be transported for disposal at various locations in the United States. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is

275

EA-1793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled Low-level  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled 793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled Low-level Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site EA-1793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled Low-level Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of replacement capability for disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017. Public Comment Opportunities Submit Comments to: Mr. Chuck Ljungberg 1955 Fremont Avenue, Mailstop 1216 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Electronic mail: rhllwea@id.doe.gov Documents Available for Download December 21, 2011 EA-1793: Finding of No Significant Impact Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive

276

Format and Content Guide for DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 3 G Approved: XX-XX-XX IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for use with DOE M 435.1-1 Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE G 435.1-3 i DRAFT XX-XX-XX LLW Closure Plan Format and Content Guide Revision 0, XX-XX-XX Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans CONTENTS PART A: INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. ORGANIZATION OF DOCUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.1 Closure Objectives and Relationship to Other Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.2

277

Slide 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Update for the Transportation Update for the Transportation External Coordination Working Group Ella McNeil Office of Transportation, EM-63 2 * www.casacappellino.com * djashw@yahoo.com 3 EM Shipments Continue. . . * LLW & MLLW shipments continue from WVDP, OR, and Mound * MOX shipments from Hanford to ID 4 Uranium Oxide Transportation Logistics * Each uranium oxide cylinder will weigh ~14-18 tons. * 11 railcars are planned to be shipped each week. - Group of 5 or 6 railcars will be shipped from each site - Each gondola railcar will contain up to 6 cylinders 5 Update of DOE Manual 460.2-1 * Formal review ended April 2007 * Comment resolution is complete * Manual is in formal concurrence process - All program offices - Nonconcurrence from GC * Working to address issues

278

Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 3, May-June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue includes the following articles: Vermont ratifies Texas compact; Pennsylvania study on rates of decay for classes of low-level radioactive waste; South Carolina legislature adjourns without extending access to Barnwell for out-of-region generators; Southeast Compact Commission authorizes payments for facility development, also votes on petitions, access contracts; storage of low-level radioactive waste at Rancho Seco removed from consideration; plutonium estimates for Ward Valley, California; judgment issued in Ward Valley lawsuits; Central Midwest Commission questions court`s jurisdiction over surcharge rebates litigation; Supreme Court decides commerce clause case involving solid waste; parties voluntarily dismiss Envirocare case; appellate court affirms dismissal of suit against Central Commission; LLW Forum mixed waste working group meets; US EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air rulemakings; EPA issues draft radiation site cleanup regulation; EPA extends mixed waste enforcement moratorium; and NRC denies petition to amend low-level radioactive waste classification regulations.

NONE

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

Colburn, R.P.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

280

Annual Report - FY 2001, Radioactive Waste Shipments To and From the Nevada Test Site, February 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada'' (DOE/EIS 0243). NNSA/NV committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at Area 3 and Area 5. This document satisfies requirements with regard to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year (FY 2001).

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Adsorption properties of Cs{sup +} for composite adsorbents and their irradiation stabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel composite adsorbents using impregnation-precipitation methods have been developed; these fine crystals are loaded in the macro-pores of porous silica gels and zeolites. The 2 following composite adsorbents: KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite, 0.4-1.0 mm), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel, NH and Q-10)) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. This article presents the results of tests about their characterization, their selective adsorption ability of Cs{sup 137} and their irradiation stability. It is shown that the KCoFC-SG and KCoFC-NM composites are thus efficient for the selective separation of Cs{sup 137} in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containing highly concentrated sodium nitrate.

Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Muramatsu 4-33, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

283

DOE-STD-5507-2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects Although other types of radioactive material and waste may be candidate LSA material or SCO, this standard focuses solely on low-level waste (LLW)3. The DOE ships various types of radioactive waste stemming from current and historical operations. Generally, candidate LSA material and SCO within the DOE complex are wastes generated from the clean-up and deactivation of World War II and Cold War era nuclear processing and weapons support operations. These waste matrices can be complex. The level of effort required to characterize waste varies based on the type and origin of waste being generated.

284

A DAW lockout scheme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In it`s document TR-105834, Project 24414 dated November 1995 and titled {open_quotes}Zero Plastics and the Radiologically Protected Area Low Level Waste Lockout Program{close_quotes}, EPRI describes DAW lockout as a {open_quotes}very advanced{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}perhaps the most powerful of all approaches to LLW minimization.{close_quotes} The report discusses implementation of a lockout program at Kewaunee, LaSalle and Zion stations but states that {open_quotes}no quantifiable results{close_quotes} were available at time of report printing. Waterford 3 Nuclear Station began implementing a limited lockout scheme in 1993. This paper presents Waterford`s experience and results achieved through the lockout approach.

Landeche, D.A. [Entergy Operations, Inc., Killona, LA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 1, Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plans for remediation of the Hanford underground storage tanks are currently undergoing reevaluation. As part of this process, many options are being considered for the Tank Waste Remediation System (MRS). The ``clean option`` described here proposes an aggressive waste processing strategy to achieve the three ma or objectives: Greatly reduce the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to lessen demands on geologic repository space; decrease by several orders of magnitude the amount of radioactivity and toxicity now in the waste tanks that will be left permanently onsite as low-level solid waste (LLW); and accomplish the first two objectives without significantly increasing the total amount of waste for disposal. The study discussed here focuses on process chemistry, as it provides the foundation for achieving the clean option objectives. Because demonstrated separation steps have been identified and connected in a way that meets these objectives, the study concludes that the process chemistry rests on a firm technical basis.

Straalsund, J.L.; Swanson, J.L.; Baker, E.G.; Jones, E.O.; Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holmes, J.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plans for remediation of the Hanford underground storage tanks are currently undergoing reevaluation. As part of this process, many options are being considered for the Tank Waste Remediation System (MRS). The clean option'' described here proposes an aggressive waste processing strategy to achieve the three ma or objectives: Greatly reduce the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to lessen demands on geologic repository space; decrease by several orders of magnitude the amount of radioactivity and toxicity now in the waste tanks that will be left permanently onsite as low-level solid waste (LLW); and accomplish the first two objectives without significantly increasing the total amount of waste for disposal. The study discussed here focuses on process chemistry, as it provides the foundation for achieving the clean option objectives. Because demonstrated separation steps have been identified and connected in a way that meets these objectives, the study concludes that the process chemistry rests on a firm technical basis.

Straalsund, J.L.; Swanson, J.L.; Baker, E.G.; Jones, E.O.; Kuhn, W.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Holmes, J.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Chemical Species of Migrating Radionuclides at Commercial Shallow Land Burial Sites Quarterly Progress Report October-December, 1983 Quarterly Progress Report October-December, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW} burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chanical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory C011mission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the developnent of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Canmonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize. close and monitor the Maxey Flats site.

Kirby,, L. J.; RIckard,, W. H.; Toste,, A. P.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Plan for decommissioning the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project is in the planning phase of developing a decommissioning project. A Preliminary Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Plan has been developed which provides a framework for the baseline approach, and the cost and schedule estimates. TFTR will become activated and contaminated with tritium after completion of the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments. Hence some of the D D operations will require remote handling. It is expected that all of the waste generated will be low level radioactive waste (LLW). The objective of the D D Project is to make TFTR Test Cell available for use by a new fusion experiment. This paper discusses the D D objectives, the facility to be decommissioned, estimates of activation, the technical (baseline) approach, and the assumptions used to develop cost and schedule estimates.

Spampinato, P.T.; Walton, G.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Commander, J.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Plan for decommissioning the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project is in the planning phase of developing a decommissioning project. A Preliminary Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Plan has been developed which provides a framework for the baseline approach, and the cost and schedule estimates. TFTR will become activated and contaminated with tritium after completion of the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments. Hence some of the D&D operations will require remote handling. It is expected that all of the waste generated will be low level radioactive waste (LLW). The objective of the D&D Project is to make TFTR Test Cell available for use by a new fusion experiment. This paper discusses the D&D objectives, the facility to be decommissioned, estimates of activation, the technical (baseline) approach, and the assumptions used to develop cost and schedule estimates.

Spampinato, P.T.; Walton, G.R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Commander, J.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

How utilities respond to radwaste needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Slow progress is being made toward regionalization of waste disposal, some states working toward regional compacts while others choose to go it alone. More promising is the reduction of radwaste volumes discharged from nuclear stations. More and more utilities are contracting with private companies for LLW processing. While such services are provided predominantly by mobile units at plant sites, one fixed installation already offers processing of dry waste and two others await final regulatory approval. Both developments are detailed. This article also includes an analysis of the design, performances comparison between slagging combustors (SC) and the FBC boiler. Comparisons are also made for SC technology to FBC for 250-MW unit and of utility-unit conversion costs.

Strauss, S.D.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository.

Sowa, K.B.

1994-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

LFRG DOE Order 435.1 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LFRG DOE Order 435.1 LFRG DOE Order 435.1 LFRG DOE Order 435.1 Chapter 4 of the DOE Manual on Order 435.1, Low-level Waste Requirements, addresses the procedures whereby Department of Energy LLW Disposal Facilities will operated and maintained. Section P and Section Q describe the Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis documents that each DOE disposal facility will submit to the LFRG. To view the entire DOE Order, Manual, and Implementation Guidance documents, choose the link below to get to the main DOE Directives portal and follow the search requirements. DOE Directives, Regulations, and Standards Portal Note - For DOE O 435.1 Chg 1 (08-28-01), please use the above link and follow the search option to locate this document. P. Disposal. Low-level waste disposal facilities shall meet the following

295

West Valley  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Facility Nuclear Facility Coalition on West Valley Nuclear Wastes PO Box 603 Springville NY 14141 WV-DigItUp@roadrunner.com Joanne Hameister CFMT (Concentrator Feed Make-up Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x19' 177.5 tons MFHT (Melter Feed Hold Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x16' 152.5 tons WIR Shipments pending to LLW facility MELTER 10'x10'x10' Packaged: 14'x13'x13' 159 tons 4,570 Curies Waste Categories High-Level Waste Based on source * Nuclear Fuel * Reprocessing * TRU Low-Level Waste Not Low Risk Complex classification based on * Nuclide inventory * Half-life(s) * Quantity * Decay products Background Radiation 1978 - average was 100 mRem per person 2011 - BRC* estimate 620 mRem per person Naturally occurring radioactive elements Additions accumulate - from fall-out,

296

Innovative vitrification for soil remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development and Implementation of a Scaled Saltstone Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory - 13346  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) since its conception. However, bench scaled tests have not always provided process or performance data related to the mixing, transfer, and other operations utilized in the SPF. A need was identified to better understand the SPF processes and to have the capabilities at SRNL to simulate the SPF unit operations to support an active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) processing facility. At the SPF, the dry premix is weighed, mixed and transferred to the Readco '10-inch' continuous mixer where it is mixed with the LLW salt solution from the Salt Feed Tank (SFT) to produce fresh Saltstone slurry. The slurry is discharged from the mixer into a hopper. The hopper feeds the grout pump that transfers the slurry through at least 457.2 meters of piping and discharges it into the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU) for permanent disposal. In conjunction with testing individual SPF processes over several years, SRNL has designed and fabricated a scaled Saltstone Facility. Scaling of the system is primarily based on the volume capacity of the mixer and maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. At present, SRNL is utilizing the modular capabilities of the scaled Saltstone Facility to investigate the erosion issues related to the augers and paddles inside the SPF mixer. Full implementation of the scaled Saltstone Facility is still ongoing, but it is proving to be a valuable resource for testing alternate Saltstone formulations, cleaning sequences, the effect of pumping Saltstone to farther SDU's, optimization of the SPF mixer, and other operational variables before they are implemented in the SPF. (authors)

Reigel, Marissa M.; Fowley, Mark D.; Hansen, Erich K.; Hera, Kevin R.; Marzolf, Athneal D.; Cozzi, Alex D. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

PUBLIC AND REGULATORY ACCEPTANCE OF BLENDING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE VS DILUTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On April 21, 2009, the Energy Facilities Contractors Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) provided a recommendation to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program (DOE-EM) concerning supplemental guidance on blending methodologies to use to classify waste forms to determine if the waste form meets the definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste or can be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW). The guidance provides specific examples and methods to allow DOE and its Contractors to properly classify waste forms while reducing the generation of TRU wastes. TRU wastes are much more expensive to characterize at the generator's facilities, ship, and then dispose at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) than Low-Level Radioactive Waste's disposal. Also the reduction of handling and packaging of LLW is inherently less hazardous to the nuclear workforce. Therefore, it is important to perform the characterization properly, but in a manner that minimizes the generation of TRU wastes if at all possible. In fact, the generation of additional volumes of radioactive wastes under the ARRA programs, this recommendation should improve the cost effective implementation of DOE requirements while properly protecting human health and the environment. This paper will describe how the message of appropriate, less expensive, less hazardous blending of radioactive waste is the 'right' thing to do in many cases, but can be confused with inappropriate 'dilution' that is frowned upon by regulators and stakeholders in the public. A proposal will be made in this paper on how to communicate this very complex and confusing technical issue to regulatory bodies and interested stakeholders to gain understanding and approval of the concept. The results of application of the proposed communication method and attempt to change the regulatory requirements in this area will be discussed including efforts by DOE and the NRC on this very complex subject.

Goldston, W.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

An Experimental Study of Diffusivity of Technetium-99 in Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered at the Hanford site in Washington for safely disposing of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is to encase the waste in concrete and entomb the packages in the Hanford vadose zone sediments. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages with concrete. Any failure of the concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface sediments. It is therefore necessary to conduct an assessment of the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the surrounding soils ability to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, the radionuclides, 99Tc and 129I were identified as long-term dose contributors in LLW. The leachability and/or diffusion of these radionuclide species must be measured in order to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone porewater or groundwater. To measure the diffusivity, a set of experiments were conducted using 99Tc-spiked concrete (with 0 and 4% metallic iron additions) in contact with unsaturated soil half-cells that reflected the typical moisture contents of Hanford vadose zone sediments. The 99Tc diffusion profiles in the soil half cells were measured after a time lapse of ~1.9 yr. Using the concentration profiles, the 99Tc diffusivity coefficients were calculated based on Ficks Second Law.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120{degree}C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS FOR SELECTING ET #3 SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineered trenches (ETs) are considered to be a cost-effective method for disposing Low Level Waste (LLW). Based on waste forecasts from waste generators, the last engineered trench in operation (ET No.2) is anticipated to close in FY14, requiring development of a new ET. Solid Waste requested that SRNL develop an assessment report that reviews four disposal options for this new ET (ET No.3) and determine which option would provide the 'best' Performance Assessment (PA) disposal limits for LLW (Appendix A). Those four options (see option footprint locations in Figure 1-1) are: (1) Disposal at grade on TRU Pads 7-13 where soil would be mounded over waste packages; (2) Excavation at a slightly modified SLIT No.13 location - near the Used Equipment Storage Area; (3) Excavation at a modified SLIT No.12 location - near the 643-26E Naval Reactor Component Disposal Area; and (4) Excavation east of TRU Pad No.26 that replaces northeast portions of four slit trench (ST) disposal units in the eastern set of STs. The assessment consisted of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analysis captured key aspects that were readily quantifiable and had predictable impacts on limits and doses. A simplified modeling strategy stemming from current Special Analysis (SA) practices was employed. Both inventory capacity for a specific nuclide (a quasi-inventory limit) and overall performance for specified inventory mixtures (doses resulting from historical inventories) were considered. The qualitative analysis evaluated other key aspects based on engineering judgment in the form of pros and cons.

Collard, L.; Hamm, L.

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

303

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

Bernardi, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Enhancing RESRAD-OFFSITE for Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Abstract: The RESRAD-OFFSITE code was developed to evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The primary contamination, which is the source of all releases modeled by the code, is assumed to be a layer of soil. The code considers the release of contamination from the source to the atmosphere, to surface runoff, and to groundwater. The radionuclide leaching was modeled as a first order (without transport) release using radionuclide distribution coefficient and infiltration rate calculated from water balance (precipitation, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, etc.). Recently, a new source term model was added the RESRAD-OFFSITE code so that it can be applied to the evaluation of Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment. This new improved source term model include (1) first order with transport, (2) equilibrium desorption (rinse) release, and (3) uniform release (constant dissolution). With these new source release options, it is possible to simulate both uncontainerized (soil) contamination and containerized (waste drums) contamination. A delay time in the source release was also added to the code. This allows modeling the LLW container degradation as a function of time. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code also allows linking to other codes using improved flux and concentration input options. Additional source release model such as diffusion release may be added later. In addition, radionuclide database with 1252 radionuclides (ICRP 107) and the corresponding dose coefficients (DCFPAK 3.02) and the Department of Energys new gender- and age-averaged Reference Person dose coefficients (DOE-STD-1196-2011) which is based on the US census data will be added to the next version of RESRAD-OFFSITE code

305

Enhancing RESRAD-OFFSITE for Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Enhancing RESRAD-OFFSITE for Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Charley Yu*, Argonne National Laboratory ; Emmanuel Gnanapragasam, Argonne National Laboratory; Carlos Corredor, U.S. Department of Energy; W. Alexander Williams, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The RESRAD-OFFSITE code was developed to evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The primary contamination, which is the source of all releases modeled by the code, is assumed to be a layer of soil. The code considers the release of contamination from the source to the atmosphere, to surface runoff, and to groundwater. The radionuclide leaching was modeled as a first order (without transport) release using radionuclide distribution coefficient and infiltration rate calculated from water balance (precipitation, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, etc.). Recently, a new source term model was added the RESRAD-OFFSITE code so that it can be applied to the evaluation of Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment. This new improved source term model include (1) first order with transport, (2) equilibrium desorption (rinse) release, and (3) uniform release (constant dissolution). With these new source release options, it is possible to simulate both uncontainerized (soil) contamination and containerized (waste drums) contamination. A delay time in the source release was also added to the code. This allows modeling the LLW container degradation as a function of time. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code also allows linking to other codes using improved flux and concentration input options. Additional source release model such as diffusion release may be added later. In addition, radionuclide database with 1252 radionuclides (ICRP 107) and the corresponding dose coefficients (DCFPAK 3.02) and the Department of Energys new gender- and age-averaged Reference Person dose coefficients (DOE-STD-1196-2011) which is based on the US census data will be added to the next version of RESRAD-OFFSITE code.

306

Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Nondestructive radioassay for waste management: an assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nondestructive Assay (NDA) for Transuranic Waste Management is used to mean determining the amount of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in crates, drums, boxes, cans, or other containers without having to open the container. It also means determining the amount of TRU in soil, bore holes, and other environmental testing areas without having to go through extensive laboratory wet chemistry analyses. it refers to radioassay techniques used to check for contamination on objects after decontamination and to determine amounts of TRU in waste processing streams without taking samples to a laboratory. Gednerally, NDA instrumentation in this context refers to all use of radioassay which does not involve taking samples and using wet chemistry techniques. NDA instruments have been used for waste assay at some sites for over 10 years and other sites are just beginning to consider assay of wastes. The instrumentation used at several sites is discussed in this report. Almost all these instruments in use today were developed for special nuclear materials safeguards purposes and assay TRU waste down to the 500 nCi/g range. The need for instruments to assay alpha particle emitters at 10 nCi/g or less has risen from the wish to distinguish between Low Level Waste (LLW) and TRU Waste at the defined interface of 10 nCi/g. Wastes have historically been handled as TRU wastes if they were just suspected to be transuranically contaminated but their exact status was unknown. Economic and political considerations make this practice undesirable since it is easier and less costly to handle LLW. This prompted waste generators to want better instrumentation and led the Transuranic Waste Management Program to develop and test instrumentation capable of assaying many types of waste at the 10 nCi/g level. These instruments are discussed.

Lehmkuhl, G.D.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination process by obstructing the removal of contamination. The thermal decomposition of this material is also undesirable if the cladding hulls are melted for volume reduction or to produce waste forms. Handling and disposal of the corrosive off-gas stream and ZrO{sub 2}-containing dross must be addressed. The stability of Zr{sup 4+} in the NHF{sub 4}/NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution is also a concern. Precipitation of ammonium zirconium fluorides upon cooling of the dissolving solution was observed in the feasibility experiments. Precipitation of the solids was attributed to the high fluoride to Zr ratios used in the experiments. The solubility of Zr{sup 4+} in NH{sub 4}F solutions decreases as the free fluoride concentration increases. The removal of the ZrO{sub 2} layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons with HF showed a strong dependence on both the concentration and temperature. Very rapid dissolution of the oxide layer and significant amounts of metal was observed in experiments using HF concentrations {ge} 2.5 M. Treatment of the coupons using HF concentrations {le} 1.0 M was very effective in removing the oxide layer. The most effective conditions resulted in dissolution rates which were less than approximately 2 mg/cm{sup 2}-min. With dissolution rates in this range, uniform removal of the oxide layer was obtained and a minimal amount of Zircaloy metal was dissolved. Future HF dissolution studies should focus on the decontamination of actual spent fuel cladding hulls to determine if the treated hulls meet criteria for disposal as a LLW.

Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

309

Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial ground. A mobile assay system will be used to determine if the drum is LLW (Le., contains <100 nCi/g). LLW will remain disposed of in the 218-W-4C Burial Ground. TRU waste will be retrieved and staged in the burial ground until it can be shipped to the CWC. The TRU drums will be stored at the CWC until they can be moved to WRAP. The WRAP facility will prepare the waste for shipment to WIPP for final disposal. For planning purposes, approximately 50% of the 10,000 drums have been estimated to contain LLW.

MCDONALD, K.M.

2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern the disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of the disposal system. Final performance assessment analyses will be used in the regulatory process of licensing a site. The SNL/INER team has developed a performance assessment methodology that is used to simulate processes associated with the potential release of radionuclides to evaluate these sites. The following software codes are utilized in the performance assessment methodology: GoldSim (to implement a probabilistic analysis that will explicitly address uncertainties); the NRC's Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS) code (to simulate waste-container degradation, waste-form leaching, and transport through the host rock); the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) (to simulate groundwater flow and estimate flow velocities); the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill performance Model (HELP) code (to evaluate infiltration through the disposal cover); the AMBER code (to evaluate human health exposures); and the NRC's Disposal Unit Source Term -- Multiple Species (DUST-MS) code (to screen applicable radionuclides). Preliminary results of the evaluations of the two disposal concept sites are presented.

Arnold, Bill Walter; Chang, Fu-lin (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Mattie, Patrick D.; Knowlton, Robert G.; Chuang, W-S (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Chi, L-M (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Jow, Hong-Nian; Tien, Norman C. (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) Decommissioning Project A Close Out Report for WAGR Decommissioning Campaigns 1 to 10 - 12474  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactor core of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) has been dismantled as part of an ongoing decommissioning project. The WAGR operated until 1981 as a development reactor for the British Commercial Advanced Gas cooled Reactor (CAGR) power programme. Decommissioning began in 1982 with the removal of fuel from the reactor core which was completed in 1983. Subsequently, a significant amount of engineering work was carried out, including removal of equipment external to the reactor and initial manual dismantling operations at the top of the reactor, in preparation for the removal of the reactor core itself. Modification of the facility structure and construction of the waste packaging plant served to provide a waste route for the reactor components. The reactor core was dismantled on a 'top-down' basis in a series of 'campaigns' related to discrete reactor components. This report describes the facility, the modifications undertaken to facilitate its decommissioning and the strategies employed to recognise the successful decommissioning of the reactor. Early decommissioning tasks at the top of the reactor were undertaken manually but the main of the decommissioning tasks were carried remotely, with deployment systems comprising of little more than crane like devices, intelligently interfaced into the existing structure. The tooling deployed from the 3 tonne capacity (3te) hoist consisted either purely mechanical devices or those being electrically controlled from a 'push-button' panel positioned at the operator control stations, there was no degree of autonomy in the 3te hoist or any of the tools deployed from it. Whilst the ATC was able to provide some tele-robotic capabilities these were very limited and required a good degree of driver input which due to the operating philosophy at WAGR was not utilised. The WAGR box proved a successful waste package, adaptable through the use of waste box furniture specific to the waste-forms generated throughout the various decommissioning campaigns. The use of low force compaction for insulation and soft wastes provided a simple, robust and cost effective solution as did the direct encapsulation of LLW steel components in the later stages of reactor decommissioning. Progress through early campaigns was good, often bettering the baseline schedule, especially when undertaking the repetitive tasks seen during Neutron Shield and Graphite Core decommissioning, once the operators had become experienced with the equipment, though delays became more pronounced, mainly as a result of increased failures due to the age and maintainability of the RDM and associated equipment. Extensive delays came about as a result of the unsupported insulation falling away from the pressure vessel during removal and the inability of the ventilation system to manage the sub micron particulate generated during IPOPI cutting operations, though the in house development of revised and new methodologies ultimately led to the successful completion of PV and I removal. In a programme spanning over 12 years, the decommissioning of the reactor pressure vessel and core led to the production 110 ILW and 75 LLW WAGR boxes, with 20 LLW ISO freight containers of primary reactor wastes, resulting in an overall packaged volume of approximately 2500 cubic metres containing the estimated 460 cubic metres of the reactor structure. (authors)

Halliwell, Chris [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment of the DWTF (LLNL 2004). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment of the DWTF is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment of the DWTF (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment of the DWTF are shown in the B695 Segment of the DWTF DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment of the DWTF include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained LLW. A permit modification for B696S was submitted to DTSC in January 2004 to store and treat hazardous and mixed waste. Upon approval of the permit modification, B696S rooms 1007, 1008, and 1009 will be able to store hazardous and mixed waste for up to 1 year. Furthermore, an additional drum crusher and a Waste Packaging Unit will be permitted to treat hazardous and mixed waste. RHWM generally processes LLW with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (i.e., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 3}H. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for this facility. The DSA is applicable to the handling of radioactive waste stored and treated in the B695 Segment of the DWTF. Section 5 of the TSR, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. A basis explanation follows each of the requirements described in Section 5.5, Specific Administrative Controls. The basis explanation does not constitute an additional requirement, but is intended as an expansion of the logic and reasoning behind development of the requirement. Programmatic Administrative Controls are addressed in Section 5.6.

Larson, H L

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Origin of Subdwarf B Star (I): the Formation Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subdwarf B (sdB) stars (and related sdO/sdOB stars) are believed to be helium core-burning objects with very thin hydrogen-rich envelopes. In recent years it has become increasingly clear from observational surveys that a large fraction of these objects are members of binary systems. To better understand their formation, we here present the results of a detailed investigation of the three main binary evolution channels that can lead to the formation of sdB stars: the common envelope (CE) ejection channel, the stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) channel and the double helium white dwarfs (WDs) merger channel. We obtained the conditions for the formation of sdB stars from each of these channels using detailed stellar and binary evolution calculations where we modelled the detailed evolution of sdB stars and carried out simplified binary population synthesis simulations. The observed period distribution of sdB stars in compact binaries strongly constrains the CE ejection parameters. We also present the distribution of sdB stars in the $T_{\\rm eff}$ - $\\log g$ diagram, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the distribution of mass functions.

Zhanwen Han; Philipp Podsiadlowski; Pierre L. F. Maxted; Tom R. Marsh; Natasha Ivanova

2002-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Accretion of Solar Material onto White Dwarfs: No Mixing with Core Material Implies that the Mass of the White Dwarf is Increasing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) are close binary star systems with one component an accreting white dwarf (WD) and the other a larger cooler star that fills its Roche Lobe. One consequence of the WDs accreting material, is the possibility that they are growing in mass and will eventually reach the Chandrasekhar Limit. This evolution could result in a Supernova Ia (SN Ia) explosion and is designated the Single Degenerate Progenitor (SD) scenario. One problem with the single degenerate scenario is that it is generally assumed that the accreting material mixes with WD core material at some time during the accretion phase of evolution and, since the typical WD has a carbon-oxygen (CO) core, the mixing results in large amounts of carbon and oxygen being brought up into the accreted layers. The presence of enriched carbon causes enhanced nuclear fusion and a Classical Nova (CN)explosion. Thus, the WD in a Classical Nova system is decreasing in mass and cannot be a SN Ia progenitor. In new calculations reported here, th...

Starrfield, Sumner

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Wind mass transfer in S-type symbiotic binaries I. Focusing by the wind compression model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: Luminosities of hot components in symbiotic binaries require accretion rates that are higher than those that can be achieved via a standard Bondi-Hoyle accretion. This implies that the wind mass transfer in symbiotic binaries has to be more efficient. Aims: We suggest that the accretion rate onto the white dwarfs (WDs) in S-type symbiotic binaries can be enhanced sufficiently by focusing the wind from their slowly rotating normal giants towards the binary orbital plane. Methods: We applied the wind compression model to the stellar wind of slowly rotating red giants in S-type symbiotic binaries. Results: Our analysis reveals that for typical terminal velocities of the giant wind, 20 to 50 km/s, and measured rotational velocities between 6 and 10 km/s, the densities of the compressed wind at a typical distance of the accretor from its donor correspond to the mass-loss rate, which can be a factor of $\\sim$10 higher than for the spherically symmetric wind. This allows the WD to accrete at rates of $10^{-...

Skopal, Augustin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of windDiesel power system for non-interconnected areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid WindDiesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this studys strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

Tammam Basbous; Rafic Younes; Adrian Ilinca; Jean Perron

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Kepler-field cluster NGC 6819. I. The bottom of the white dwarf cooling sequence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reach the end of the white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence (CS) in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 6819. Our photometry and completeness tests show a sharp drop in the number of WDs along the CS at magnitudes fainter than mF606W = 26.050+/- 0.075. This implies an age of 2.25+/-0.20 Gyr, consistent with the age of 2.25+/-0.30 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The use of different WD cooling models and initial-final-mass relations have a minor impact the WD age estimate, at the level of ~0.1 Gyr. As an important by-product of this investigation we also release, in electronic format, both the catalogue of all the detected sources and the atlases of the region (in two filters). Indeed, this patch of sky studied by HST (of size ~70 arcmin sq.) is entirely within the main Kepler-mission field, so the high-resolution images and deep catalogues will be particularly useful.

Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Cassisi, S; Milone, A P; Piotto, G; King, I R; Bergeron, P; .,

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Behavior of solid polymer membrane electrolyzers in use with highly tritiated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These days more and more modern electrolysis cells are operated with new solid polymer membranes. These membranes prevailing DuPont's Nafion{sup R} are not only used for electrolysis but as well for the wide spectrum of fuel cells due to their good mechanical and chemical stability and the high proton conductivity. For that reason it is intended to use these solid polymer membranes for the electrolyzer units in the ITER Water Detritiation System (WDS). The influence of Tritium during water electrolysis to the membrane material is still not sufficiently investigated. Therefore long-term experiments of solid polymer membranes were performed at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The chemical degradation and durability behavior of the used Nafion{sup R} 117 membrane are investigated in details under tritiated water conditions. For comparison a second cell was operated with demineralized water for the same period. In addition to the experimental rigs with single Nafion{sup R} membranes, two industrial electrolyzer units equipped with Nafion{sup R} membranes were operated during different tritium experiments at TLK. Before operation they had been modified to be compatible for tritium operation. After long operation period no degradation in the performance of the electrolyzers is observable. (authors)

Michling, R.; Cristescu, I.; Doerr, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, T. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Welte, S.; Wurster, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport.

Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Wu, Y.Q. [Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-2090 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Goran, D. [Brucker Nano Gmbh, Berlin, 12489 (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Formation of planetary debris discs around white dwarfs I: Tidal disruption of an extremely eccentric asteroid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

25%-50% of all white dwarfs (WDs) host observable and dynamically active remnant planetary systems based on the presence of close-in circumstellar dust and gas and photospheric metal pollution. Currently-accepted theoretical explanations for the origin of this matter include asteroids that survive the star's giant branch evolution at au-scale distances and are subsequently perturbed onto WD-grazing orbits following stellar mass loss. In this work we investigate the tidal disruption of these highly-eccentric (e > 0.98) asteroids as they approach and tidally disrupt around the WD. We analytically compute the disruption timescale and compare the result with fully self-consistent numerical simulations of rubble piles by using the N-body code PKDGRAV. We find that this timescale is highly dependent on the orbit's pericentre and largely independent of its semimajor axis. We establish that spherical asteroids readily break up and form highly eccentric collisionless rings, which do not accrete onto the WD without add...

Veras, Dimitri; Bonsor, Amy; Gaensicke, Boris T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Supernovae from direct collisions of white dwarfs and the role of helium shell ignition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models for supernovae (SNe) arising from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WDs) have been extensively studied over the last few decades, mostly focusing on the single degenerate (accretion of material of a WD) and double degenerate (WD-WD merger) scenarios. In recent years it was suggested that WD-WD direct collisions provide an additional channel for such explosions. Here we extend the studies of such explosions, and explore the role of Helium-shells in affecting the thermonuclear explosions. We study both the impact of low-mass helium ($\\sim0.01$ M$_{\\odot})$ shells, as well as high mass shells ($\\ge0.1$ M$_{\\odot}$). We find that detonation of the massive helium layers precede the detonation of the WD Carbon-Oxygen (CO) bulk during the collision and can change the explosive evolution and outcomes for the cases of high mass He-shells. In particular, the He-shell detonation propagates on the WD surface and inefficiently burns material prior to the CO detonation that later follows in the central parts...

Papish, Oded

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Late-Time IR Line Profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the imprint of magnetic fields B on late-time IR line profiles and light curves of Type Ia Supernovae. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass M_{Ch White Dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 1E9G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 mu can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. Subsequently, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. By day 500, the profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B and directional dependent for dipole fields. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. After about 200 days, persistent broad-line, flat-topped or stumpy profiles require high density burning which is the signature of a WD close to M_Ch. Narrow peaked profiles are a signature of chemical mixing or sub-...

Penney, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Death by Dynamics: Planetoid-Induced Explosions on White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At intervals as short as ten thousand years, each white dwarf (WD) passes within a solar radius of a planetoid, i.e., a comet, asteroid, or planet. Gravitational tidal forces tear the planetoid apart; its metal-rich debris falls onto the WD, enriching the atmosphere. A third of WDs exhibit atmospheric "pollution". For roughly every hundred planetoid disruptions, a planetoid collides with a WD. We simulate a small number of collisions, in which "death-by-dynamics" refers to the fate of the planetoid. We also compute the energies and likely durations of a broad sample of collision events, and identify detection strategies at optical and X-ray wavelengths. Collisions with the most massive planetoids can be detected in external galaxies. Some may trigger nuclear burning. If one in $\\sim 10^7-10^8$ of WD-planetoid collisions creates the conditions needed for a Type Ia supernova (SN~Ia), "death-by-dynamics" would also refer to the fate of the WD, and could provide a novel channel for the production of SN~Ia. We con...

Di Stefano, Rosanne; Guillochon, James; Steiner, James F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Los Alamos: MST-MTM: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 MST-6 Home Home In the MSL FEI Tecnai F30 Analytical TEM/STEM JEOL 6300FXV High Resolution SEM JEOL 3000F High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Philips XL30 F Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System Phillips CM30 Transmission Electron Microscope In the Sigma Building JEOL 840 EPMA with Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy FEI Strata DB235 FIB/SEM FEI XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System CONTACTS Bob Field 665.3938 Pat Dickerson 665.3036 Rob Dickerson 667.6337 Rod McCabe 606.1649 The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory (EML) is part of MST-6, the Materials Technology - Metallurgy Group within the Materials Science and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is a facility dedicated to the characterization of materials primarily through imaging, chemical, and crystallographic analyses of material microstructures with several electron and ion beam instruments. Accessory characterization techniques and equipment include energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS), wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis (WDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

325

Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Sites T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

326

Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by exchange of people, equipment and designs between the two locations. The study can be divided into three (3) components: (1) source design, operation and physics, (2) effluent characterization and analysis, (3) surface reactions and decontamination. Some of the key accomplishments in each area are noted.'

Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hicks, R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (US)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient implementation of the graded and iterative approach. Rather than attempt to exactly predict the migration of radionuclides in a disposal unit, the best PAs have evolved into tools that provide a range of results to guide decision-makers in planning the most efficient, cost effective, and safe disposal of radionuclides. (authors)

Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, 19901 Germantown Rd, Germantown, MD 20874-1290 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, 19901 Germantown Rd, Germantown, MD 20874-1290 (United States); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Bldg 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Bldg 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was implemented. (6) At CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie, a UR was implemented. (7) At CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station, no work was performed.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Repackaging Rocky Flats Legacy Transuranic Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repackaging legacy Transuranic (TRU), Transuranic Mixed (TRM), Low Level Waste (LLW), and Low Level Mixed (LLM) waste requires good characterization skills and the ability to adapt to less than ideal conditions. Repackaging legacy waste in a facility that is not undergoing Decontamination and Decommission (D and D) is optimum. However, repackaging any waste in a D and D facility, under cold and dark conditions, can be difficult. Cold and dark conditions are when the heating and air conditioning are no longer in service and the lighting consists of strands of lights hung throughout each of the rooms. Working under these conditions adds an additional level of stress and danger that must be addressed. The use of glovebags was very useful at Rocky Flats during the D and D of many buildings. Glovebags can be adapted for many different types of wastes and unusual conditions. Repackaging of legacy TRU waste, in a D and D facility, can be accomplished safely and cost effectively with the use of glovebags. In conclusion: the use of glovebags to repackage legacy TRU, TRM, LLW, or LLM waste was done safely and cost effectively at Rocky Flats. The cost of using glovebags was minimal. Glovebags are easily adaptable to whatever the waste configuration is. The use of glovebags, for repackaging of Legacy waste, allows D and D efforts to stay on schedule and on task. Without the use of glovebags, additional gloveboxes would have been required at Rocky Flats. Larger items, such as the HEPA filters, would have required the construction of a new large item repackaging glovebox. Repackaging in glovebags allows the freedom to either locate the glovebag by the waste or locate the glovebag in a place that least impacts D and D efforts. The use of glovebags allowed numerous configurations of waste to be repackaged without the use of gloveboxes. During the D and D of the Rocky Flats facility, which was in a cold and dark stage, D and D work was not impacted by the repackaging activity. Glovebags work well in facilities that are in the process of D and D or still in full operations because glovebags are very safe and cost effective.

McTaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory, 115 N. Main St., Carlsbad, New Mexico, 88220 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

DOE/EIS-0283-SA-2: Supplement Analysis for Waste Solidification Building - Surplus Plutonium Program EIS (11/08)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

I I ~ ~ I Y I ~ L ' I I I i f l 7 c r [ y S r ~ for (lon~lr~rclion (711d Operal~on of n IVa~tr Solrd~fi~trtron Burlding at the S(rvannn/z I ? I I . ~ I Srte DOEIEIS-0283-SA-2 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D PURPOSE The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to construct and operate a standalone Waste Solidification E3uilding1 (WSR) in F-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Certain liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and liquid transuranic (TRU) waste expected to be generated in the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) and Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) as part of the U.S. Surplus Plutonium Disposition Program woi~ld be treated and

331

West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis (DOE/EIS-0337-SA-01) (06/07/06)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 3 7-SA-O1 West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis Revised Final U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project West Valley, New York June 7, 2006 WVDP Waste Management US - Supplement Analysis Table of Contents 1.0 PURPOSE AND NEED FOR AGENCY ACTION 1 2.0 PROPOSED ACTIONS 1 3.0 WASTE TYPE DEFINITIONS 2 4.0 EXISTING NEPA ANALYSIS 3 5.0 NEW INFORMATION 3 6.0 IS A SUPPLEMENTAL EIS NEEDED~ 5 6.1 Glass Melter, CFMT, and MFHT 5 6.2 Increased LLW Volumes 11 7.0 CONCLUSION 17 8.0 DETERMINATION 177 9.0 REFERENCES 17 List of Tables Table 1. Radiation Doses for Involved and Noninvolved Workers Under Alternative A, Including the Glass Melter, CFMT, and MFHT 8 Table 2. Radiological Consequences of Accidents Using 50-Percent Atmospheric Conditions ...9 Table 3. Radiological Consequences of Accidents Using 95-Percent

332

Sk---  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. .* . .* . *' 1, c. l ( JJmKS.,"T +2 - Sk--- LCi = ~CU---.-T?~~ - ' _ I -Got& &ysp f= ,$QTg-J%ej & *j, at r-s* p? the c;t S=iw ' e -4 -7 T&a* J %h~k smey to &?'LcrsL!! +,'-H a&xlt CE c~-siz4-"' (WL'&W b--"-R; d-x43 - "MS , cc- 22 lLW JP .-. 2-Q L.2, l=AF, !y515) SkQQ c3 t& e$QT'3r,y* +' -'a-- 'ZS cw..tn;i. .-- Z!o cezU2?siataa kjc~s AA3 ks*~sti lffti S *Ab *T*,& tmld kv ;ia-eGd aa t;v ryrs d t:* -ticIs;: e c3 eaizw2-L &4?ia, x,qZ-' y s +.!-w~ * & & A& b L*z&=- b l A m iE3 &an z U/L& ,c,- 223 *Pb ' Sd YfZ' , w%b!.R LiZhE O+ZIBr -wi' Qe e* if,= ca' ,c, me *e83ia ~hl3 GK m*GLFs. s&s-?qyi* w =.,m -y s:* & km, -k tei;2&+ 3, J. ' Ybc!zb, -a i. 2. iY,kq& ' . \ cus s. '

333

Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Retrofit of an Engineered Glove-port to a Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility Glovebox  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are routinely handled such that the spread of radiological contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox coupled with adequate negativity providing primary confinement). The current technique for changing glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. 1300 pairs of gloves are replaced each year at TA-55, generating approximately 500 m{sup 3}/yr of transuranic (TRU) waste and Low Level Waste (LLW) waste that represents an annual disposal cost of about 4 million dollars. By retrofitting the LANL 8'' glove-port ring, a modern 'Push-Through' technology is utilized. This 'Push-Through' technology allows relatively fast glove changes to be done by operators with much less training and experience and without breaching containment. A dramatic reduction in waste is realized; exposure of the worker to residual contamination reduced, and the number of breaches due to installation issues is eliminated. In the following presentation, the evolution of the 'Push- Through' technology, the features of the glove-port retrofit, and waste savings are discussed. (author)

Rael, P.E.D.; Cournoyer, M.E.Ph.D.; Chunglo, S.D.; Vigil, T.J.; Schreiber, P.E.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Treatment requirements for decontamination of ORNL low-level liquid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental studies have been made to provide data for the development of improved processes for decontaminating low-level liquid wastes (LLLWs) that exist and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The concept underlying this work is that there is a net benefit if the major radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and actinides) can be separated into small volumes, thereby reducing the activity of the bulk of the waste so that it can be disposed of or managed at a lower total cost. Data-base calculations on the LLLW supernate and sludges contained in the active Melton Valley Storage Tanks and evaporator storage and service tanks are essential in order to define and determine the extent of the problem. These calculations indicate to what extent alpha- and beta-gamma-emitting radionuclides must be removed and/or treated before final disposition of the waste can be made. They also show that many of the inorganic constitutents (e.g., regulated metals and nitrate) and minor radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and actinides (in terms of quantity present) must be removed before the LLLW can be disposed of as either liquid to the environment or solidified and disposed of as solid NUS Class L-1 or L-2 LLW. 25 refs., 31 tabs.

Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

337

Predictive calculations to assess the long-term effect of cementitious materials on the pH and solubility of uranium(VI) in a shallow land disposal environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One proposed method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal is to mix the radioactive waste streams with cement, place the mixture in steel barrels, and dispose of the barrels in near-surface unsaturated sediments. Cement or concrete is frequently used in burial grounds, because cement porewaters are buffered at high pH values and lanthanides and actinides; are very insoluble in highly alkaline environments. Therefore, leaching of these contaminants from the combined cement/low-level radioactive waste streams will at least initially be retarded. The calculations performed in this study demonstrate that the pH of cement porewaters will be maintained at a value greater than 10 for 10,000 years under Hanford specific hydrogeochemical conditions. Ten thousand years is the period generally studied in longterm performance assessments per regulatory guidance. The concentrations of dissolved hexavalent uranium [U(VI)], the valence form of dissolved U usually present in oxidizing surface and groundwaters, are also constrained by the high pH and predicted solution compositions over the 10,000-year period, which is favorable from a long-term performance perspective.

Criscenti, L.J.; Serne, R.J.; Krupka, K.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, M.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Glovebox Radioactive Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) provides programmatic support to the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility in the form of target assembly. The target assembly activities are performed in a glovebox at DAF and include Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Currently, only activities with transuranic SNM are anticipated. Preliminary discussions with facility personnel indicate that primarily two distributions of SNM will be used: Weapons Grade Plutonium (WG-Pu), and Pu-238 enhanced WG-Pu. Nominal radionuclide distributions for the two material types are included in attachment 1. Wastes generated inside glove boxes is expected to be Transuranic (TRU) Waste which will eventually be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Wastes generated in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA), outside of the glove box is presumed to be low level waste (LLW) which is destined for disposal at the NTS. The process knowledge quantification methods identified herein may be applied to waste generated anywhere within or around the DAF and possibly JASPER as long as the fundamental waste stream boundaries are adhered to as outlined below. The method is suitable for quantification of waste which can be directly surveyed with the Blue Alpha meter or swiped. An additional quantification methodology which requires the use of a high resolution gamma spectroscopy unit is also included and relies on the predetermined radionuclide distribution and utilizes scaling to measured nuclides for quantification.

Dominick, J L

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

339

INTEC High-Level Waste Studies Universal Solvent Extraction Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a feasibility study that has been conducted on the Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process for treatment and disposal of 4.3 million liters of INEEL sodium-bearing waste located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This feasibility study covers two scenarios of treatment. The first, the UNEX Process, partitions the Cs/Sr from the SBW and creates remote-handled LLW and contact-handled TRU waste forms. Phase one of this study, covered in the 30% review documents, dealt with defining the processes and defining the major unit operations. The second phase of the project, contained in the 60% review, expanded on the application of the UNEX processes and included facility requirements and definitions. Two facility options were investigated for the UNEX process, resulting in a 2 x 2 matrix of process/facility scenarios as follows: Option A, UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option B, Modified UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option C, UNEX at NWCF, th is document, covers life-cycle costs for all options presented along with results and conclusions determined from the study.

J. Banaee; C. M. Barnes; T. Battisti (ANL-W) [ANL-W; S. Herrmann (ANL-W) [ANL-W; S. J. Losinski; S. McBride (ANL-W) [ANL-W

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the NTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual M 435.1-1 requires that performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities be maintained by the field offices. This plan describes the activities performed to maintain the PA and the CA for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan supersedes the Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (DOE/NV/11718--491-REV 1, dated September 2002). The plan is based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a), DOE Manual M 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999b), the DOE M 435.1-1 Implementation Guide DOE G 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999c), and the Maintenance Guide for PAs and CAs (DOE, 1999d). The plan includes a current update on PA/CA documentation, a revised schedule, and a section on Quality Assurance.

Vefa Yucel

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

NSTec Environmental Management

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

344

Identification of permit and waste acceptance criteria provisions requiring modification for acceptance of commercial mixed waste. National Low-Level Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 1990, representatives of States and compact regions requested that the US Department of Energy (DOE) explore an agreement with host States and compact regions under which DOE would accept commercial mixed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at DOE`s own treatment and disposal facilities. A program for DOE management of commercial mixed waste is made potentially more attractive in light of the low commercial mixed waste volumes, high regulatory burdens, public opposition to new disposal sites, and relatively high cost of constructing commercial disposal facilities. Several studies were identified as essential in determining the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste for disposal. The purpose of this report is to identify any current or proposed waste acceptance criteria (WAC) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) provisions that would have to be modified for commercial mixed waste acceptance at specified DOE facilities. Following the introduction, Section 2 of this report (a) provides a background summary of existing and proposed mixed waste disposal facilities at each DOE site, and (b) summarizes the status of any RCRA Part B permit and WAC provisions relating to the disposal of mixed waste, including provisions relating to acceptance of offsite waste. Section 3 provides overall conclusions regarding the current status and permit modifications that must be implemented in order to grant DOE sites authority under their permits to accept commercial mixed waste for disposal. Section 4 contains a list of references.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

Not Available

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

Mohamed, Yasser T. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Contractor report to the Department of Energy on opportunities for integration of environmental management activities across the complex (predecisional draft). Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program faces significant technical and financial challenges in cleaning up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production and research and development, while facing an uncertain future in obtaining the needed funding to perform this work. Many of these requirements, including State and Federal regulations and negotiated agreements, continue to be a significant contributor to EM program costs and schedules. Historically, the sites have managed their programs focusing on their individual site`s needs. While this approach maximized successes at individual sites, it has resulted in a more costly program than if more integration across the DOE system occurred. In July 1996, the DOE Assistant Secretary for EM, Al Alm, chartered a contractor led effort to perform complex-wide integration in support of the ten-year plan process to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives to meet the EM mission. This report documents opportunities for waste and nuclear materials management integration activities in six areas: transuranic (TRU) waste, mixed low-level waste (MLLW), low-level waste (LLW), environmental restoration (ER), high-level waste (HLW), and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The opportunities represent technically defensible solutions which reduce cost, accelerate schedules, and result in no significant increase in risk.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

V. Yucel

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design.

Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr. [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

NSTec Environmental Management

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Proceedings of the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fifth of a series of waste minimization (WMIN)/reduction workshops (Waste Reduction Workshop V) was held at the Little Tree Inn in Idaho Falls, Idaho, on July 24--26, 1990. The workshops are held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for sharing site activities in WMIN/reduction planning. Topics covered were management commitment, organizational structure, goal setting, reporting requirements, data bases and tracking systems, pollution prevention, awareness and incentives, information exchange, process waste assessment (PWA) implementation, and recycling internal and external. The workshops assist DOE waste-generating sites in implementing WMIN/reduction programs, plans, and activities, thus providing for optimal waste reduction within the DOE complex. All wastes are considered within this discipline: liquid, solid, and airborne, within the categories of high-level waste (HLW), transuranic waste (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste.

Not Available

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

359

Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Study of the Detonation Phase in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) through the detonation phase and into homologous expansion. In the GCD model, a detonation is triggered by the surface flow due to single-point, off-center flame ignition in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs). The simulations are unique in terms of the degree to which nonidealized physics is used to treat the reactive flow, including weak reaction rates and a time-dependent treatment of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). Careful attention is paid to accurately calculating the final composition of material which is burned to NSE and frozen out in the rapid expansion following the passage of a detonation wave over the high-density core of the WD; and an efficient method for nucleosynthesis postprocessing is developed which obviates the need for costly network calculations along tracer particle thermodynamic trajectories. Observational diagnostics are presented for the explosion models, including abundance stratifications and integrated yields. We find that for all of the ignition conditions studied here a self-regulating process comprised of neutronization and stellar expansion results in final 56Ni masses of ~1.1M ?. But, more energetic models result in larger total NSE and stable Fe-peak yields. The total yield of intermediate mass elements is ~0.1M ? and the explosion energies are all around 1.5 ? 1051 erg. The explosion models are briefly compared to the inferred properties of recent SN Ia observations. The potential for surface detonation models to produce lower-luminosity (lower 56Ni mass) SNe is discussed.

Casey A. Meakin; Ivo Seitenzahl; Dean Townsley; George C. Jordan IV; James Truran; Don Lamb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Failed-detonation Supernovae: Subluminous Low-velocity Ia Supernovae and their Kicked Remnant White Dwarfs with Iron-rich Cores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M ? of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s1. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

George C. Jordan, IV; Hagai B. Perets; Robert T. Fisher; Daniel R. van Rossum

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

FAILED-DETONATION SUPERNOVAE: SUBLUMINOUS LOW-VELOCITY Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR KICKED REMNANT WHITE DWARFS WITH IRON-RICH CORES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M{sub Sun} of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s{sup -1}. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

Jordan, George C. IV; Van Rossum, Daniel R. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Fisher, Robert T. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

363

A SHAPIRO DELAY DETECTION IN THE BINARY SYSTEM HOSTING THE MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J1910-5959A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PSR J1910-5959A is a binary pulsar with a helium white dwarf (HeWD) companion located about 6 arcmin from the center of the globular cluster NGC 6752. Based on 12 years of observations at the Parkes radio telescope, the relativistic Shapiro delay has been detected in this system. We obtain a companion mass M{sub C} = 0.180 {+-} 0.018 M {sub Sun} (1{sigma}) implying that the pulsar mass lies in the range 1.1 M {sub Sun} {<=} M{sub P} {<=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }. We compare our results with previous optical determinations of the companion mass and examine prospects for using this new measurement for calibrating the mass-radius relation for HeWDs and for investigating their evolution in a pulsar binary system. Finally, we examine the set of binary systems hosting a millisecond pulsar and a low-mass HeWD for which the mass of both stars has been measured. We confirm that the correlation between the companion mass and the orbital period predicted by Tauris and Savonije reproduces the observed values but find that the predicted M{sub P} -P{sub B} correlation overestimates the neutron star mass by about 0.5 M {sub Sun} in the orbital period range covered by the observations. Moreover, a few systems do not obey the observed M{sub P} -P{sub B} correlation. We discuss these results in the framework of the mechanisms that inhibit the accretion of matter by a neutron star during its evolution in a low-mass X-ray binary.

Corongiu, A.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; D'Amico, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, Strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West, 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Kramer, M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Manchester, R. N.; Johnston, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Sarkissian, J. M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Parkes Observatory, P.O. Box 276, Parkes, NSW 2870 (Australia); Bailes, M.; Van Straten, W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

On the Thermonuclear Runaway in Type Ia Supernovae: How to Run Away?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thought to be thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs (WDs). We present the first study of multidimensional effects during the final hours prior to the thermonuclear runaway that leads to the explosion. The calculations utilize an implicit, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code. Mixing and the ignition process are studied in detail. We find that the initial chemical structure of the WD is changed, but the material is not fully homogenized. In particular, the exploding WD sustains a central region with a low C/O ratio. This implies that the explosive nuclear burning will begin in a partially carbon-depleted environment. The thermonuclear runaway happens in a well-defined region close to the center. It is induced by compressional heat when matter is brought inward by convective flows. We find no evidence for multiple spot or strong off-center ignition. Convective velocities in the WD are on the order of 100 km s-1, which is well above the effective burning speeds in SNe Ia previously expected right after the runaway. In our calculations, the ignition occurs near the center. Then, for ? 0.5-1 s, the speed of the burning front will neither be determined by the laminar speed nor the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities but by convective flows produced prior to the runaway. The consequences are discussed for our understanding of the detailed physics of the flame propagation, the deflagration to detonation transition, and the nucleosynthesis in the central layers. Our results strongly suggest the preconditioning of the progenitor as a key factor for our understanding of the diversity in SNe Ia.

P. Hflich; J. Stein

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV - V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

Lepo, Kelly; Van Kerkwijk, Marten, E-mail: lepo@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXV. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -47{sup 0} AND 00{sup 0}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and declination between -47{sup 0} and 00{sup 0}. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems-SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc-are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and R{sub 59F} {<=} 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

Boyd, Mark R. [Department of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Finch, Charlie T. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Subasavage, John P. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Hambly, Nigel C., E-mail: boyd@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: winters@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: jsubasavage@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: nch@roe.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

An ideal sealed source life-cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600 times that of the sample cured at room temperature. The hydration reactions initiated during the mixing of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period in the vaults to produce the hardened waste form product. The heat generated from exothermic hydration reactions results in a temperature increase in the vaults that depends on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned, the grout formulation (mix design) and the pour frequency and volume. This heat generation is a contributing factor to the temperature increase in the vaults that leads to an increased cure temperature for the grout. This report will further investigate the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance properties (hydraulic conductivity, Young's modulus, porosity, etc.) over a range of aluminate concentration, water to premix (w/p) ratio and weight percent fly ash in the premix processed at the SPF. The three curing temperatures selected for this study were chosen to provide data at fixed cure temperatures that represent measured temperatures in the SDF vaults. This does not represent the conditions in the vault where the temperature of the saltstone is continually changing with time. For example, it may take several days for the saltstone to reach 60 C at a given elevation. Previous results demonstrated that the rates at which a selected curing temperature is reached affect the performance properties. The approach taken in this task, a rapid increase to the curing temperature, may be conservative with respect to decreased performance. Nevertheless, the data will provide a basis from which to determine the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance as a function of key variables. A statistical evaluation of the results for these mixes will be performed to provide the range, and associated uncertainties, of hydraulic conductivity and other properties over this factor space.

Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligands matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting of buildings, tents, other structures, and open areas as described in Chapter 2 of the DSA. Section 2.4 of the DSA provides an overview of the buildings, structures, and areas in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, including construction details such as basic floor plans, equipment layout, construction materials, controlling dimensions, and dimensions significant to the hazard and accident analysis. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of the TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. This TSR document is applicable to the handling, storage, and treatment of hazardous waste, TRU WASTE, LLW, mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste received or generated in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Section 5, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Programmatic Administrative Controls are in Section 5.6.

Laycak, D T

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

372

Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Transition from Consultation to Monitoring-NRC's Increasingly Focused Review of Factors Important to F-Area Tank Farm Facility Performance - 13153  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In consultation with the NRC, DOE issued a waste determination for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) facility in March 2012. The FTF consists of 22 underground tanks, each 2.8 to 4.9 million liters in capacity, used to store liquid high-level waste generated as a result of spent fuel reprocessing. The waste determination concluded stabilized waste residuals and associated tanks and auxiliary components at the time of closure are not high-level and can be disposed of as LLW. Prior to issuance of the final waste determination, during the consultation phase, NRC staff reviewed and provided comments on DOE's revision 0 and revision 1 FTF PAs that supported the waste determination and produced a technical evaluation report documenting the results of its multi-year review in October 2011. Following issuance of the waste determination, NRC began to monitor DOE disposal actions to assess compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. To facilitate its monitoring responsibilities, NRC developed a plan to monitor DOE disposal actions. NRC staff was challenged in developing a focused monitoring plan to ensure limited resources are spent in the most cost-effective manner practical. To address this challenge, NRC prioritized monitoring areas and factors in terms of risk significance and timing. This prioritization was informed by NRC staff's review of DOE's PA documentation, independent probabilistic modeling conducted by NRC staff, and NRC-sponsored research conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses in San Antonio, TX. (authors)

Barr, Cynthia; Grossman, Christopher; Alexander, George; Parks, Leah; Fuhrmann, Mark; Shaffner, James; McKenney, Christepher [U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States)] [U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States); Pabalan, Roberto; Pickett, David [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dinwiddie, Cynthia [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Nuclear carrier business volume projections, 1980-2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The expected number of shipments of commodities in the nuclear fuel cycle are projected for the years 1980 thru 2000. Projections are made for: yellowcake (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/); natural, enriched and reprocessed uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/); uranium dioxide powder (UO/sub 2/); plutonium dioxide powder (PuO/sub 2/); fresh UO/sub 2/ and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel; spent UO/sub 2/ fuel; low-level waste (LLW); transuranic (TRU) waste; high-activity TRU waste; high-level waste (HLW), and cladding hulls. Projections are also made for non-fuel cycle commodities such as defense TRU wastes and institutional wastes, since they also are shipped by the commercial transportation industry. Projections of waste shipments from LWRs are based on the continuation of current volume reduction and solidification techniques now used by the utility industry. Projections are also made based on a 5% per year reduction in LWR waste volume shipped which is assumed to occur as a result of increased implementation of currently available volume reduction systems. This assumption results in a net 64% decrease in the total waste shipped by the year 2000. LWR waste shipment projections, and essentially all other projections for fuel cycle commodities covered in this report, are normalized to BWR and PWR generating capacity projections set forth by the Department of Energy (DOE) in their low-growth projection of April, 1979. Therefore these commodity shipment projections may be altered to comply with future changes in generating capacity projections. Projected shipments of waste from the reprocessing of spent UO/sub 2/ fuel are based on waste generation rates proposed by Nuclear Fuels Services, Allied-General Nuclear Services, Exxon Nuclear, and the DOE. Reprocessing is assumed to begin again in 1990, with mixed oxide fresh fuel available for shipment by 1991.

Lebo, R.G.; McKeown, M.S.; Rhyne, W.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCALOY 2 CLAD UO2 COMMERCIAL REACTOR FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the chop-leach process, with nitric acid solvent, to produce a nominally 300 g/L [U] and 1 M [H{sup +}] product solution. The results of this study show that this processing technique is appropriate for applications in which a low free acid and moderately high U content are desired. The 7.75 L of product solution, which was over 450 g/L in U, was successfully diluted to produce about 13 L of solvent extraction feed that was 302 g/L in U with a [H{sup +}] in the range 0.8-1.2 M. A secondary goal was to test the effectiveness of this treatment for the removal of actinides from Zircaloy cladding to produce a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) cladding product. Analysis of the cladding shows that actinides are present in the cladding at a concentration of about 5000 {eta}Ci/g, which is about 50 times greater than the acceptable transuranium element limit in low level radioactive waste. It appears that the concentration of nitric acid used for this dissolution study (initial concentration 4 M, with 10 M added as the dissolution proceeded) was inadequate to completely digest the UO{sub 2} present in the spent fuel. The mass of insoluble material collected from the initial treatments with nitric acid, 340 g, was much higher than expected, and analysis of this insoluble residue showed that it contained at least 200 g U.

Kessinger, G.; Thompson, M.

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

376

Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (one site is in Area 3 and the other is in Area 5) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV). The current DOE Order governing management of radioactive waste is 435.1. Associated with DOE Order 435.1 is a Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) and Guidance (DOE G 435.1-1). The Manual and Guidance specify that preliminary closure and monitoring plans for a low-level waste (LLW) management facility be developed and initially submitted with the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for that facility. The Manual and Guidance, and the Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued for the Area 3 RWMS further specify that the preliminary closure and monitoring plans be updated within one year following issuance of a DAS. This Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) fulfills both requirements. Additional updates will be conducted every third year hereafter. This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring both RWMSs, and is based on guidance issued in 1999 by the DOE for developing closure plans. The plan does not follow the format suggested by the DOE guidance in order to better accommodate differences between the two RWMSs, especially in terms of operations and site characteristics. The modification reduces redundancy and provides a smoother progression of the discussion. The closure and monitoring plans were integrated because much of the information that would be included in individual plans is the same, and integration provides efficient presentation and program management. The ICMP identifies the regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment where they are located, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the sites.

S. E. Rawlinson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

MCDONALD, K.M.

1999-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

Effect of Curing Environment on the Performance Properties of Saltstone - 13335  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), the low level radioactive waste (LLW) salt solution is immobilized as a cementitious waste form known as Saltstone. Depending on the Saltstone formulation, disposal unit size, environmental conditions and pour schedule, the waste form temperature, due to exothermic hydration reactions, can gradually increase by 30 deg. C to 50 deg. C above the starting temperature. Previous studies at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have shown that curing temperature has a negative impact on the hydraulic conductivity and other performance properties of Saltstone; specifically, these studies have shown that curing at elevated temperatures results in faster hydraulic conductivities than what is modeled in the Saltstone Performance Assessment (PA). SRNL is currently testing the performance of laboratory prepared Saltstone cured under controlled conditions (i.e. controlling relative humidity). The PA assumes that the Saltstone remains saturated; therefore, some samples are being kept completely saturated while others have a surface exposed to a high humidity environment. The formulation of these samples has been varied to continue studying the impact of processing parameters on the performance properties of Saltstone. The final water to premix (w/p) ratio of the Saltstone formulation does affect the density, porosity, and compressive strength of the cured Saltstone. The Saltstone formulations with 0.59 w/p ratios and lower had higher densities, lower porosities, and higher compressive strength than samples formulated at a higher w/p ratio. There is a general trend that the samples formulated at high w/p ratios (0.67 and higher) have the lowest density, highest porosity and lowest strength. However, for hydraulic conductivity, the curing environment had a greater effect on the results than the formulation. Therefore, the impact of elevated temperature is not as detrimental to the performance of the waste form as originally concluded, provided the curing environment is controlled and the waste form is not dried out. (authors)

Reigel, Marissa M.; Pickenheim, Bradley R.; Daniel, William E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable characterization method for quantification of tritium contaminated trash and debris. The characterization technique is applicable to surface and subsurface tritium contaminated materials with surfaces amenable to swiping. Some limitations of this characterization technique are identified.

Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-hlw wds llw" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

BLT-EC (Breach, Leach Transport, and Equilibrium Chemistry), a finite-element model for assessing the release of radionuclides from low-level waste disposal units: Background, theory, and model description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance assessment models typically account for the processes of sorption and dissolution-precipitation by using an empirical distribution coefficient, commonly referred to as K{sub d} that combines the effects of all chemical reactions between solid and aqueous phases. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing awareness that performance assessments based solely on empirically based K{sub d} models may be incomplete, particularly for applications involving radionuclides having sorption and solubility properties that are sensitive to variations in the in-situ chemical environment. To accommodate variations in the in-situ chemical environment, and to assess its impact on radionuclide mobility, it is necessary to model radionuclide release, transport, and chemical processes in a coupled fashion. This modeling has been done and incorporated into the two-dimensional, finite-element, computer code BLT-EC (Breach, Leach, Transport, Equilibrium Chemistry). BLT-EC is capable of predicting container degradation, waste-form leaching, and advective-dispersive, multispecies, solute transport. BLT-EC accounts for retardation directly by modeling the chemical processes of complexation, sorption, dissolution-precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions. In this report we: (1) present a detailed description of the various physical and chemical processes that control the release and migration of radionuclides from shallow land LLW disposal facilities; (2) formulate the mathematical models that represent these processes; (3) outline how these models are incorporated and implemented in BLT-EC; and (4) demonstrate the application of BLT-EC on a set of example problems.

MacKinnon, R.J.; Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Suen, C.J. [California State Univ., Fresno, CA (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Seagate Crystal Reports - sum6.  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Shipping and Shipping and Receiving Activity (Sum-6) Current Year: 2000 Receiving Site: Hanford Shipping Site HLW HL W -V i trified TRU M L L W LLW OTHER* SNF** Quantity (m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity ( m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity ( m 3) Quantity (M THM ) Ames Lab 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.460 0.000 0.0000 Argonne-E 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1,049.800 0.000 0.0000 Bettis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 11.680 0.000 0.0000 Brookhaven 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 55.070 0.000 0.0000 Columbus 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 156.070 0.000 0.0000 EnergyTech 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 41.780 0.000 0.0000 Fermi 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 42.840 0.000 0.0000 GenAtomics 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 164.030 0.000 0.0000 Lawr-Berk 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 12.220 0.000 0.0000 NavRctrFac 0.000 0.000 0.000 16.000 0.000 0.000 0.0000

388

Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and interface of SiC particle reinforced 2124 Al matrix composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructure and interface between metal matrix and ceramic reinforcement of a composite play an important role in improving its properties. In the present investigation, the interface and intermetallic compound present in the samples were characterized to understand structural stability at an elevated temperature. Aluminum based 2124 alloy with 10 wt.% silicon carbide (SiC) particle reinforced composite was prepared through vortex method and the solid ingot was deformed by hot rolling for better particle distribution. Heat treatment of the composite was carried out at 575 C with varying holding time from 1 to 48 h followed by water quenching. In this study, the microstructure and interface of the SiC particle reinforced Al based composites have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) associated with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the precipitate and intermetallic phases that are formed during heat treatment. The SiC particles are uniformly distributed in the aluminum matrix. The microstructure analyses of AlSiC composite after heat treatment reveal that a wide range of dispersed phases are formed at grain boundary and surrounding the SiC particles. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirm that finely dispersed phases are CuAl{sub 2} and CuMgAl{sub 2} intermetallic and large spherical phases are Fe{sub 2}SiAl{sub 8} or Al{sub 15}(Fe,Mn){sub 3}Si. It is also observed that a continuous layer enriched with Cu and Mg of thickness 5080 nm is formed at the interface in between Al and SiC particles. EDS analysis also confirms that Cu and Mg are segregated at the interface of the composite while no carbide is identified at the interface. - Highlights: The composite was successfully heat treated at 575C for 1-48 hrs. A layer of 50-75 nm is formed at interface after heat treatment. No Carbide formation and SiC dissolution is observed at this temperature. MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CuMgAl{sub 2} phases are segregated at interface of Al-SiC composite. Mg and Cu are also segregated at near to the grain boundary.

Mandal, Durbadal, E-mail: durbadal73@yahoo.co.in [MEF Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Viswanathan, Srinath [Dept of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Generalized charge-screening in relativistic ThomasFermi model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating facility. Solid concentrate produced is sent for long controlled storage. Complex of the procedures carried out makes it possible to solve problems on treatment of LRW generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing in Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Mayak and cease its discharge into open water reservoirs. (authors)

Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)] [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)] [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

Templeton, K.J.

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

392

Design and Testing of a Novel Wide Range - Segmented Gamma Scanner Incorporating Tomographic Gamma Scanning for Measuring Both Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Drums - 13470  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and testing of a novel automated Wide Range Segmented Gamma ray Scanning (WR-SGS) assay instrument that also incorporates Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS). The instrument is designed for the measurement of both Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW) in 200 litre drums and other waste containers covering a wide range of density. Like earlier ANTECH WR-SGS instruments, the system employs a single shielded and collimated high purity germanium (HPGe) detector to quantify the radionuclide content of the waste and like conventional SGS instruments it is suitable for the measurement of relatively homogeneous waste matrices. Also, like earlier WR-SGS systems the instrument incorporates an automated variable aperture collimator, which allows the vertical segment height to be adjusted in order to measure both high dose-rate and very low activity drums. The instrument employs both conventional discrete SGS vertical segment measurements as well as vertical segment measurement by continuous helical-scanning of the drum as it rotates. This latter method reduces measurement times for SGS measurements. In order to determine the density corrections for both low and high-density drums, a high activity Eu-152 transmission source is employed. When not in use, and in place of a conventional shutter mechanism, the shielded transmission source is moved to a shielded storage position to eliminate background radiation from the source. Due to its novel features, the WR-SGS is applicable to the measurement of both very low and very high activity waste drums as well as waste drums with a wide range of density. If located in a low background position and with the effective shielding of the strong transmission source, the instrument can be used to measure very low level or exempt waste. In order to extend the range of applicability to the measurement of heterogeneous drums, TGS measurement capability has been included in the basic WR-SGS design. This is achieved by adding horizontal motion to the waste drum rotation platform and incorporating TGS collimation into the variable aperture collimator, as well as a filter to reduce the detector signal when straight-through measurements are made using the strong transmission source. Test measurements are presented of the system operating in both SGS and TGS modes using different drum densities and source strengths. The test measurement results are compared with benchmarked MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. The Wide Range SGS - TGS instrument extends the range of both activity and density that can be measured in 200 and 340 litre drums. (authors)

Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Odell, Lawrence V.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom)] [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Hong, Dae-Seok; Jang, Won-Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedoek-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedoek-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Seung-Min [Young In Scientific Co. Ltd, 22, Apgujeong-ro 28 gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Young In Scientific Co. Ltd, 22, Apgujeong-ro 28 gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Piotrowski, Matt [ANTECH Corporation, 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)] [ANTECH Corporation, 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires that contaminated components either be: (1) decontaminated to restricted or unrestricted release levels or (2) packaged and shipped to an authorized disposal site. This study considers unrestricted release only. The new decommissioning criteria of July 1997 are too recent for this study to include a cost analysis of the restricted release option, which is now allowed under these new criteria. The costs of decommissioning facility components are generally estimated to be in the range of $140 to $27,000, depending on the type of component, the type and amount of radioactive contamination, the remediation options chosen, and the quantity of radioactive waste generated from decommissioning operations. Estimated costs for decommissioning the example laboratories range from $130,000 to $205,000, assuming aggressive low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction. If only minimal LLW volume reduction is employed, decommissioning costs range from $150,000 to $270,000 for these laboratories. On the basis of estimated decommissioning costs for facility components, the costs of decommissioning typical non-fuel-cycle laboratory facilities are estimated to range from about $25,000 for the decommissioning of a small room containing one or two fume hoods to more than $1 million for the decommissioning of an industrial plant containing several laboratories in which radiochemicals and sealed radioactive sources are prepared. For the reference sites of this study, the basic decommissioning alternatives are: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care and (2) removal of the waste or contaminated soil to an authorized disposal site. Cost estimates made for decommissioning three reference sites range from about $130,000 for the removal of a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank to more than $23 million for the removal of a tailings pile that contains radioactive residue from ore-processing operations in which tin slag is processed for the recovery of rare metals. Total occupational radiation doses generally range from 0.00007 person-rem to 13 person-rem for

MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10{sup -4} (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10{sup -6} level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10{sup -3} fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10{sup -3} fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and demolish all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The SSFL RCRA corrective program (including the ongoing groundwater treatment) would continue. Alternative 1 is DOE's preferred alternative. Under Alternative 2, DOE would clean up the ETEC site using a 0.05-millirem standard. A 0.05 mrem exposure would result in an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 1 x 10{sup -6} to the maximally exposed individual over 40 years. Additional environmental impacts of this alternative include 1.4 traffic fatalities and increased release of particulates. As under Alternative 1, DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facilities and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. Ongoing groundwater treatment (interim measures) and the SSFL site-wide RCRA corrective action would continue. The only difference between Alternative 1 and Alternative 2 is the volume of soil that would need to be excavated in order to meet the annual dose rate. As under the preferred alternative, DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and demolish all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The SSFL RCRA corrective program, (including the ongoing groundwater treatment) would continue. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would conduct no further cleanup of radiological facilities, soil, or the remaining sodium and other support facilities for which it is responsible. Rather, Rocketdyne, as the owner of the site, would prohibit or control access to contaminated facilities, soil, groundwater, or surface water and would continue groundwater treatment. This alternative is described fully in Section 3.4. DOE initially considered other alternatives that were screened out because they were not considered to be reasonable. These include (1) cleanup of the entire SSFL, (2) the disposal of all radiological facilities as radioactive waste regardless of contamination levels, (3) cleanup of the site to industrial levels, and (4) cleanup of the site to background

N /A

2003-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

395

Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

396

Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment (LLNL 2007). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment are shown in the B695 Segment DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained waste. Furthermore, a Waste Packaging Unit will be permitted to treat hazardous and mixed waste. RHWM generally processes LLW with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (i.e., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 3}H. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for this facility. The DSA is applicable to the handling of radioactive waste stored and treated in the B695 Segment. Section 5 of the TSR, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the B695 Segment. A basis explanation for each of the requirements described in Section 5.5, Specific Administrative Controls is provided in Appendix B. The basis explanation does not constitute an additional requirement, but is intended as an expansion of the logic and reasoning behind development of the requirement. Programmatic Administrative Controls are addressed in Section 5.6. This introduction to the B695 Segment TSRs is not part of the TSR limits or conditions and contains no requirements related to B695 Segment operations or to the safety analyses in the DSA.

Laycak, D

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

397

Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary and Their Implications for Managing River Flows and Restoring Estuarine Habitat, Physical Sciences Component, Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-term changes and fluctuations in river flow, water properties, tides, and sediment transport in the Columbia River and its estuary have had a profound effect on Columbia River salmonids and their habitat. Understanding the river-flow, temperature, tidal, and sediment-supply regimes of the Lower Columbia River (LCR) and how they interact with habitat is, therefore, critical to development of system management and restoration strategies. It is also useful to separate management and climate impacts on hydrologic properties and habitat. This contract, part of a larger project led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), consists of three work elements, one with five tasks. The first work element relates to reconstruction of historic conditions in a broad sense. The second and third elements consist, respectively, of participation in project-wide integration efforts, and reporting. This report focuses on the five tasks within the historic reconstruction work element. It in part satisfies the reporting requirement, and it forms the basis for our participation in the project integration effort. The first task consists of several topics related to historic changes in river stage and tide. Within this task, the chart datum levels of 14 historic bathymetric surveys completed before definition of Columbia River Datum (CRD) were related to CRD, to enable analysis of these surveys by other project scientists. We have also modeled tidal datums and properties (lower low water or LLW, higher high water or HHW, mean water level or MWL, and greater diurnal tidal range or GDTR) as a function of river flow and tidal range at Astoria. These calculations have been carried for 10 year intervals (1940-date) for 21 stations, though most stations have data for only a few time intervals. Longer-term analyses involve the records at Astoria (1925-date) and Vancouver (1902-date). Water levels for any given river flow have decreased substantially (0.3-1.8 m, depending on river flow and tidal range), and tidal ranges have increased considerably (by a factor of 1.5 to 4 for most river-flow levels) since the 1900-1940 period at most stations, with the largest percentage changes occurring at upriver stations. These changes have been caused by a combination of changes in channel roughness, shape and alignment, changes in coastal tides, and (possibly) bed degradation. Tides are growing throughout the Northeast Pacific, and Astoria (Tongue Pt) has one of the most rapid rates of increase in tidal range in the entire Eastern Pacific, about 0.3m per century. More than half of this change appears to result from changes within the system, the rest from larger scale changes in coastal tides. Regression models of HHW have been used to estimate daily shallow water habitat (SWHA) available in a {approx}25 mile long reach of the system from Eagle Cliff to Kalama for 1925-2004 under four different scenarios (the four possible combinations of diked/undiked and observed flow/ virgin flow). More than 70% of the habitat in this reach has been lost (modern conditions vs. virgin flow with not dikes). In contrast, however, to the reach between Skamokawa and Beaver, selective dike removal (instead of a combination of dike removal and flow restoration) would suffice to increase spring SWHA. The second task consists of reconstruction of the hydrologic cycle before 1878, based on historic documents and inversion of tidal data collected before the onset of the historic flow record in 1878. We have a complete list of freshet times and peak flows for 1858-1877, and scattered freshet information for 1841-1857. Based on tidal data, we have reconstructed the annual flow cycles for 1870 and 1871; other time periods between 1854 and 1867 are under analysis. The three remaining tasks relate to post-1878 hydrologic conditions (flows, sediment supply and water temperature), and separation of the human and climate influences thereon. Estimated ob-served (sometimes routed), adjusted (corrected for reservoir manipulation) and virgin (corrected also for irrigation div

Jay, David A. [Portland State University

2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z