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1

HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem, the catalyst did not have sufficient activity in order to continue the planned test program. Arsenic poisoning was found to be the cause of premature catalyst deactivation.

Jerry B. Urbas

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool III, Lawrence E.

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

3

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from a dry process preheater kiln with calciner through the use of the urea-based SNCR process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. Such a reduction process has been successfully demonstrated in a week-long test at Ash Grove`s dry process cement kiln system located in Seattle. This system is equipped with planetary coolers, a 5-stage preheater and an air-through-the-kiln calciner. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 lb per hour lb/ton of clinker to less than 100 lb per hour. This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of greater than 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at a normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. This demonstration confirms expectations that dry process cement kilns with 4+ preheater stages are an ideal application for the selective noncatalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with urea. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

Steuch, H.E. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States); Hille, J.T. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Sun, W.H. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States); Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Computer simulation as a NOx reduction design tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nalco Mobotec engineers were charged with reducing emissions on a utility boiler converted from burning oil to eastern bituminous coal using the company's Rotamix selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) system which injects urea into the furnace. A CFD simulation of the existing boiler was first conducted and then the furnace was simulated with the SNCR system added and the design was optimised. Operating and capital costs were minimised by optimal placement of 50 injector ports. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Liu, G.; Higgins, B.S. [Nalco Mobotec (United States)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for increased pressure predict a wider temperature range at which significant nitric oxide can be removed and also in the case of RAPRENOx process the levels of N20 (a by-product in the case of the RAPRENOx process) are significantly lower. The accounting...

Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

8

Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The simulated exhaust gas contained varying amounts of N2, 02, H20, CO, and NO and the reactor conditions were varied with regard to temperature, residence time, and mixing. The results of these experiments show that the effect of oxygen concentration and NH3...

Narney, John Kenneth

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?CO, and H, O are initially present in exhaust stream [57]. .. . . . 42 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reaction path diagram for RAPRENOx process [63]. .. . Reduction of nitric oxide as a function of temperature, concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water... the influence of carbon monoxide [89]. . . . . . . . . 58 Fig. 28 Effect of residence time on the NOxOUT process as a function of temperature, NO(initial)=125ppm, 0-ratio of 4 [90]. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Fig. 29 Ammonia slip as a function...

Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 National Renewable EnergyReducingReduction

12

NOx, SO{sub 3} in the spotlight at NETL's 2006 Environmental Controls conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As emissions caps drop, technological solutions must become increasingly effective and efficient. Researchers, equipment vendors, and plant operators are exploring alternatives to SCR and SNCR, with a view to reducing the overall costs of NOx reduction. They have also achieved 95% to 99% removal of SO{sub 3}, with no visible plume opacity. These topics were discussed at ECC 2006. The first conference session focussed on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) control of nitrogen oxide emissions; the second session addressed the related issue of reducing stack emissions and flue gas concentrations of sulfur trioxide. The article summarises many papers presented. Summaries and/or full versions of all the papers mentioned, and others, are posted at www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/06/ecc/index.html. 2 figs.

Mann, A.N.; Makovsky, L.E.; Sarkus, T.A. [Technology and Management Services Inc. (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Emissions control: Despite market uncertainty, a few new approaches come forward  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative business practices that substantially reduce costs prevail over technological risk. Despite this, several new processes are now ready for commercial deployment as part of the nation`s emissions-control effort. This article describes these processes and their relative economic and technical merits. The DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is almost a decade old. Several important control technologies have emerged from that program that could challenge conventional wisdom on process selection and site management. Combined with several other technologies funded by EPRI and others, now ready for commercial deployment, process selection has become more than choosing between a fabric filter (FF) and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), a wet or dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system, or a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process.

Makansi, J.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Demand Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

17

Nitrate reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Plasma regenerated particulate trap and NO.sub.x reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-catalytic two-stage process for removal of NO.sub.x and particulates from engine exhaust comprises a first stage that plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, and a second stage, which preferably occurs simultaneously with the first stage, that converts NO.sub.2 and carbon soot particles to respective environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced while carbon soot from trapped particulates is simultaneously converted to CO.sub.2 when reacting with the NO.sub.2 (that converts to N.sub.2). For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a chamber where carbon-containing particulates are electrostatically trapped or filtered and a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. Volatile hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) from the trapped particulates are oxidized in the plasma and the remaining soot from the particulates reacts with the NO.sub.2 to convert NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, and the soot to CO.sub.2. The nitrogen exhaust components remain in the gas phase throughout the process, with no accompanying adsorption.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from cement kiln/calciner through the use of the NO{sub x}OUT process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. This process, a selective non-catalytic reduction process known as NO{sub x}OUT, has been successfully demonstrated in a cement kiln/calciner operated by Ash Grove Cement. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 pounds per hour (3.5--6.0 lb/ton of clinker) to less than 100 pounds per hour (1.0 lb/ton of clinker). This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of > 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. Based on this demonstration, cement kiln/calciners have been identified as an ideal application for the NO{sub x}OUT Process. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

Sun, W.H. [Nalco Fuel Tech., Naperville, IL (United States); Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States); Steuch, H.E. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States); Hille, J. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

Daniel P. Connell; James E. Locke

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Nuclear Waste Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Waste Reduction Pyroprocessing is a promising technology for recycling used nuclear fuel and improving the associated waste management options. The process...

24

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Economics of Grade Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Study of the General Principles of the Economics to Be Effected By the Reduction of Grades, the Elimination of Rise and Fall and Curvature, and the Bettering of the Other Physical Condition on the ST. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Lines....

Neff, Paul J.

1914-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Threat Reduction Initiative ­ Conversion Program: Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test the dual application of splitting the atom, U.S. policy towards civilian use of highly enriched uranium and test reactors fueled first with low enriched uranium (LEU) and then later with HEU. By the early 1970s

Kemner, Ken

29

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

30

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

Payne, J.R.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies: Which idling reduction system is most economical for truck owners? Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies: Which idling reduction system...

32

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

34

Large Wind Property Tax Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, North Dakota established property tax reductions for commercial wind turbines constructed before 2011. Originally, the law reduced the taxable value of centrally-assessed* wind turbines...

35

Nonlinear noise reduction for electrocardiograms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear noise reduction for electrocardiograms Thomas Schreiber Physics Department, University time series. The underlying physiological process, the electrochemical excitation of cardiac tissue

Kaplan, Daniel T.

36

SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCR Technology for NOx Reduction Outline Necessity of NOx Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Air-assisted Dosing Systems (HD applications) Field experience with DENOXTRONIC for MDHD...

37

Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

38

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

39

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

Hamid Farzan

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project Objectives The 1996 and 1997 Iowa General Assembly-share basis to livestock producers and operators selected to carry out various demonstration projects. Organization The Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project was administered by ISU Extension. Stewart

Lin, Zhiqun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

42

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

Peak, Derek

43

An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]................................................................................... 22 17 The removal of NOx as a function of reactor temperature for seven levels of oxygen for 100 ppm carbon monoxide and a heated residence time of 2.11 secs. [42] ............................................................................. 23 18... The removal of NOx as a function of oxygen concentration for three levels of carbon monoxide (100, 600 and 900 ppm) for a reactor temperature of 1150 K and a heated residence time of 2.11 secs. [42]... 24 19 Influence of CO/NO ratio in the feed...

Park, Yong Hun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As mandated by the Nevada statutes, the Nevada Energy Office prepared a state energy reduction plan which requires state agencies, departments, and other entities in the Executive Branch to reduce...

45

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

Sylva, D. M.

46

Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

48

Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

49

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

50

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

51

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

53

Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do and implement appropriate technologies to meet sustainable forest management objectives involving fuels Management 1. What should the size and distribution of the residual woody material be on-site from a fire

Bolding, M. Chad

54

Lead reduction in ambient air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming partially. In this paper, we introduce beta reduction constraints to describe beta reduction steps between partially known lambda terms. We show that beta reduction constraints can be expressed in an extension

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation JL Eftang DBP Huynh DJ Knezevic EM Rønquist a framework for adaptive reduction of the degrees of freedom associated with ports in static condensation (SC reduction for the interior of a component with model order reduction on the ports in order to rapidly

Rønquist, Einar M.

57

Dynamic reduction, Version 1. 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the theoretical background of the EPRI Dynamic Reduction DYNRED V 1.0. EPRI initiated research under project RP763 to develop the original reduction program DYNEQU. This program was the first to be based on the concept of aggregating of coherent groups of synchronous generators into a single equivalent generator model. While technically advanced, DYNEQU proved difficult to use. Since then, the stability problems encountered in power system planning and operations have changed. The emphasis on first swing transient stability has been replaced by emphasis on inter-area oscillations and voltage stability. The method of identification of coherent generators used in DYNEQU is based on the comparison of rotor angle swings, in a linearized system model, following a fault. It has been shown that this method of coherency identification is good for first swing stability. For inter-area oscillation studies, this method of generator aggregation is less accurate. Far better, are identification methods based on the structure of the power system. Because of these changes in the requirements for reduced order power system models, a new dynamic reduction program (DYNRED) has been developed under EPRI project RP2447-1. It is coherency based, as is DYNEQU, but it has structurally based coherency identification methods in addition to the method used in DYNEQU. This report describes the techniques used in DYNRED, that is: Coherency Identification; Network Reduction; Method of Aggregation, Generator Aggregation, Excitation Aggregation, Primemover/Governor Aggregation. An example of the application of DYNRED to the reduction of a large interconnected power system model is also presented. DYNRED uses the special modeling and network solution techniques developed to enable systems having up to 12,000 bus to be studied. Dynamic data is completely compatible between MASS, PEALS, and the EPRI Extended Transient Midterm Stability Program (ETMSP).

Rogers, G.J.; Wong, D.Y.; Ottevangers, J.; Wang, L. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Stable reduction product of misonidazole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The predominant stable product (greater than 80%) of the anaerobic radiation chemical reduction (pH 7, formate, N/sub 2/O) of misonidazole (MISO) has been identified as the cyclic guanidinium ion MISO-DDI, a 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolium ion. This cation was prepared as its sulfate salt by the reaction of glyoxal and the appropriate N-substituted guanidinium sulfate. Its formation during MISO reduction was established by NMR spectral comparison and by derivatization as glyoxal bis-oxime, which was formed in 86% yield in fully reduced systems. The toxicity of pure MISO-DDI X sulfate was examined in vivo (C/sub 3/H mice) and in vitro (CHO cells). This product is less toxic than the parent MISO and free glyoxal. A reactive, short-lived, intermediate is suggested as the agent responsible for the toxicity of MISO under hypoxic conditions.

Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

Standiford, Richard B.

62

Viscous drag reduction in boundary layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present volume discusses the development status of stability theory for laminar flow control design, applied aspects of laminar-flow technology, transition delays using compliant walls, the application of CFD to skin friction drag-reduction, active-wave control of boundary-layer transitions, and such passive turbulent-drag reduction methods as outer-layer manipulators and complex-curvature concepts. Also treated are such active turbulent drag-reduction technique applications as those pertinent to MHD flow drag reduction, as well as drag reduction in liquid boundary layers by gas injection, drag reduction by means of polymers and surfactants, drag reduction by particle addition, viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection, and interactive wall-turbulence control.

Bushnell, D.M.; Hefner, J.N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of...

64

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

65

Relative trajectory data reduction analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REDATIVE TRAJECTORY DATA RFDUCTION ANA1. YS1S A Thesis KENNE'Ill Vi. GRANT Subrnitl ed to the Gratluate College of 'J exas ASM University in pa) &ial full'illment of the reouir ament for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major... Trajectory Data Reduction Analysis. (August 1969) Kenneth W. Grant, B. A. , University of California at Riverside Directed by: Dr. Rudolph Freund Knowledge of missile/drone intercept parameters is extremely important in the analysis of ordnance system...

Grant, Kenneth William

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Compressed Air Reduction Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A COMPRESSED AIR REDUCTION PROGRAM K. Dwight Hawks General Motors Corporation - Ruick-Oldsmobi1e-Cadillac Group Warren, Michigan ABSTRACT The reascn for implementing this program was to assist the plant in Quantifying some of its leaks... in the equipme~t throuqhout the plant and to provide direction as to which leaks are yenerat~ng high uti 1ity costs. The direction is very beneficial in lIlaking maintenance aware of prolill,Pls within equipment .IS \\Iell as notifying them as to whf're thei...

Hawks, K. D.

67

Understanding ammonia selective catalytic reduction kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Catalytic properties are examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation,...

68

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory 2004deermarshall.pdf More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic...

69

Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

G. 't Hooft

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

Anderson, Diana

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Water Use Reduction and Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Use Reduction and Efficiency Water Use Reduction and Efficiency Water Use Reduction and Efficiency The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with...

75

Water Use Reduction and Efficiency Case Studies | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Program Areas Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction and Efficiency Case Studies Water Use Reduction and Efficiency Case Studies These case studies feature examples of water...

76

REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

Sung, Nak Won

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

NOx reduction methods and apparatuses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

79

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCHEMATIC Catalyst for NOx Reduction Plasma Region Exhaust Flow Solid State Pulser Power Modulator Motor Generator ENGINE Air Diesel Fuel Converter NO X + HC(Diesel) NO 2 +...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

provides a valuable opportunity for Federal agency NEPA309 reviewers to incorporate pollution prevention and environmental impact reduction into actions (or projects). This...

82

Enantioselective copper-catalysed reductive Michael cyclisations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrometalation of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds provides access to reactive metal enolates, which can then be trapped by a suitable electrophile. The coppercatalysed reductive aldol reaction involves hydrometalation ...

Oswald, Claire Louise

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Puget Sound Clean Cities Petroleum Reduction Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 universities, 9 private businesses Overview Puget Sound Clean Cities Coalition Petroleum Reduction Project - DE-EE0002020 Project Objectives: * Reduce petroleum use in the...

84

Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

Pawlowski, Wojtek

85

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

H.Y. Sohn

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Highway noise reduction by barrier walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's Variables 3. Noise Reduction and Noise Reduction Factor 4. Relationship Between Noise Attenuation and d 5. Rettinger's Variables 6. Relationship of Sound-Level Reduction and v 7. Basic Principles in Sound-Transmission Loss 8. The Mass Law Relationship... that the barrier wall is acoustically opaque (i. e. , impermeable to sound waves). Purcell (8) found that the noise transmission loss of a wall was a measure of the ratio of the acoustical energy transmitted through the wall to the acoustical energy incident...

Young, Murray F

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Non-Catalytic Production of Hydrogen via Reforming of Diesel, Hexadecane and Bio-Diesel for Nitrogen Oxides Remediation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? After-treatment technologies are required for diesel engines to meet the current and future stringent emissions regulations. Lean NOx traps and SCR catalysts represent the (more)

Hernandez-Gonzalez, Sergio Manuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Reaction rate kinetics for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of Texas lignite with tetralin and hydrogen gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to 717 K, a time range of 3, 2 to 270 minutes, and a sol- vent-lignite ratio (weight basis) range of 0. 32/1 to 3. 68/1 were studied. The experimental results showed that Texas lignite on an as-received basis has the potential of being a very good... Observations, Definitions, and Discussion 32 39 41 45 V. KINETIC MODELLING VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47 79 LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D 82 84 87 104 113 VITA 123 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1...

Shumbera, David Allen

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Timelike reduction and T-duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the light of recent developments in Superstring Theory, it has become of interest to study Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction of supergravities not only on spatial manifolds, but also on the time direction. We study a particularly relevant class...

Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in lean adsorption rich reduction cycles NO x Sorption (NO x Traps) Disadvantages Typical Usage Method Pioneering Science and Technology Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy...

95

Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

News. To receive NIRNN by e-mail monthly, please e-mail Patricia Weikersheimer. Search Past Newsletters The National Idling Reduction Network News is currently sent as an HTML...

96

Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

97

Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

98

Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource...

99

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EnergyEfficiencyPotentialStudy. TechnicalReportEnergyEfficiency PotentialStudy. TechnicalReportEnergyEfficiency RenewableEnergyTechnologies Transportation AssessmentofHouseholdCarbonFootprintReductionPotentialsisthefinalreport

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Physical chemistry of carbothermic reduction of alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of aluminium, by means of carbothermic reduction of alumina, is discussed. By employing a solvent metal bath to absorb the alumina metal, carbothermic reduction of alumina was accomplished at temperatures 300/degree/C lower than the temperatures reported in the literature. Reduction occurred without the formation of intermediate compounds and without the high volatilization of aluminum bearing species. Reduction of alumina immersed in a solvent bath appeared to be rate limited by chemical reaction control. The rates seemed to be a function of the activity of aluminum in the solvent metal bath. Reduction of alumina particles, above the surface of the bath, seemed to occur via vapor transport with carbon in the particles or in the crucible walls. Mass transport in the gas phase appeared to be rate limiting. The rates seemed to be a function of the distance separating the alumina and carbon sources. With both submerged alumina and alumina particles, increasing the surface area of the alumina increased the rate of reduction. 58 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

Frank, Robert A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Metal melting for volume reduction and recycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the experiences with melting contaminated steel materials for volume reduction and melting uranium-contaminated copper and aluminum for possible recycle. In the past there has not been an economic incentive to reduce the volume of low-level beta-gamma contaminated metallic scrap materials in the United States. With the rising cost of transportation and burial facility fees new interest in volume reduction is being generated. This new interest has been primarily focused at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) where the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was established to demonstrate both metal melting and incineration of combustible material for volume reduction. Other demonstration programs involving melting for volume reduction and recycle of aluminum and copper, as well as ferrous scrap, were related to the Cascade Improvement and Cascade Upgrade Programs (CIP/CUP) at the Paducah, Kentucky facility. While the melting demonstrations for the CIP/CUP material were not primarily based on economic incentives, several observations recorded during the programs are of interest with regard to melting of copper and aluminum. (4 refs., 8 tabs.)

Miller, R.L.

1987-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

104

Drag reduction in coal log pipelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Capsule Pipeline Research Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

106

Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

107

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

108

Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

109

2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

110

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

111

Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System EPA Mobile Source Rule Update...

113

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

114

Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and...

115

CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

116

Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007...

117

Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

118

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

119

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy...

120

Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

122

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

123

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th...

124

Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron....

125

Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

126

Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

127

DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Petroleum Reduction in the Transportation Sector Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

128

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

129

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio...

130

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

131

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor...

132

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

133

Dose reduction at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty@csam.ucl.ac.be, Gevers@csam.ucl.ac.be 2 Electricite de France, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 6 Quai Watier, F-78041 of a controller for the secondary circuit of a nu- clear Pressurized Water Reactor, leading to the conclu- sions

Gevers, Michel

135

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Energy Authority and Danish Ministry of Finance. The consultancy reportDanish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4

136

2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

137

Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by Anaeromyxobacter Species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent findings suggest that Anaeromyxobacter populations play relevant roles in metal and radionuclide reduction and immobilization at contaminated DOE sites. This research effort will characterize Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C as well as other Anaeromyxobacter isolates in hand, and assess their contribution towards metal detoxification and plume stabilization under environmentally relevant conditions.

Qingzhong Wu; Cornell Gayle; Frank Lffler; Sanford, Robert

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

138

Equimultiplicity, reduction, and blowing up.pdf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction of .1 if lJn = Jm1 for some integer n; or, eguivalently, if J is contained in the ...... 5/955; so if q is a minimal prime divisor of mR, and Rq is flat over S, then.

139

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van. Most ecosystems will change in the future. 2. Loss of species and biodiversity will continue to happen Energy Demand Urbanisation Climate Change Water Availability Infectious Diseases Biodiversity Loss #12

140

Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Genome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in the generation of electricity. G. sulfurreducens, a member of the - Proteobacteria and of the family GeobacterGenome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction in Subsurface Environments B. A. Methe´,1 * K. Utterback,1 S. E. Van Aken,1 D. R. Lovley,2 C. M. Fraser1 The complete genome sequence of Geobacter

Lovley, Derek

142

Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

Harrison, E.Z.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Australia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to get more information Disaster Risk Reduction Team Disaster Prevention and Risk Reduction Section GrantAustralia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy A Commitment: · Disaster risk reduction is integrated into the Australian aid program · Capacity of partner governments

Botea, Adi

144

An Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Mutation Rates at Multiple Loci  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Mutation Rates at Multiple Loci Lee Altenberg altenber of the reduction principle is found: reduction results at individual loci combine topologically to produce to the reduction principle, and under fine tuning of mutation rates would be expected to have higher mutation rates

Altenberg, Lee

145

THE ECONOMIC PAYOFF FOR GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency technology, such as residential electric heat pump water heaters, can cause carbon reduction to

Dr. Sam; V. Shelton; Laura A. Schaefer

146

Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

149

10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utiliza

Delaware, University of

150

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork Thomas R. Theising Energy/Waste Management and Procurement Manager BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas ABSTRACT Energy Teams were established at seven locations in Tennessee, Texas... to the business. The completion of an energy audit will leave a laundry list of ideas to be considered. The energy management process, at the Site level, begins at this point. At BASF, we have found the most successful method of evaluating...

Tutterow, V.; Walters, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... mature technology. Steam turbines and engines have been used by industry to cogen erate power since before there were electric utilities. While the technology for turbines, generators and controls has continued to develop there is very little about...

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

153

Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

C. Chandre

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Reduction potentials of vesicle-bound viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic reduction potentials have been determined by using spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric methods for a homologous series of amphiphilic ciologens (N-methyl-N{prime}-alkyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium ions, C{sub n}MV{sup 2+}) in a variety of media, including dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP), dioctadecylimethylammonium, and phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles. In general, potentials for both one-electron steps, i.e., C{sub n}MV{sup 2+} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup +} and C{sub n}MV{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup 0}, were insensitive to the alkyl chain length, which was varied over the range n = 6{minus}20. The single exception was a large decrease ({approximately}100 mV) in the first reduction potential for DHP-bound viologens when the chain length was increased from n = 10 to n = 12; this effect was attributed to a change in binding topography. The magnitudes of the reduction potentials were highly dependent upon the vesicle charge; the pattern observed indicated that interfacial electrostatic interactions between the surfactant headgroups and bipyridinium rings were the dominant factors determining the potentials. As discussed in the text, the data allow resolution of several heretofore puzzling observations concerning viologen reactivities in microphase suspensions.

Yabin Lei; Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

1991-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and $\\tan \\beta \\sim 10$ with multi-TeV sparticles.

S. S. AbdusSalam; C. P. Burgess; F. Quevedo

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

Brown, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

arteries dose reduction: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

artery Price, Paul A. 8 a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose, provides strong evidence for PRL being the mediator Geosciences Websites Summary: a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose,...

159

Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

160

Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas Scientists and Engineers Reduction Campaign at the University of Texas Energy Reduced by Enlisting Volunteers and Promoting .................................................................................................................................................10 Appendix A ­ Lab Energy Audit Checklist

Hofmann, Hans A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY Gustavo K, contrary to common intuition, the most likely nuclear shape configuration is not symmetric. Index Terms-- Nuclear shape analysis, nonlinear, dimension reduction, image registration. 1. INTRODUCTION Under

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

162

Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

163

Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

164

Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process simulation of aluminum reduction cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program was developed to model the dynamic behavior of an aluminum reduction cell. The program simulates the physical process by solving the heat and mass balance equations that characterize the behavior of eleven chemical species in the system. It also models operational events (such as metal tapping, anode change, etc.) and the process control logic including various alumina feeding policies and anode effect quenching. The program is a PC based Windows{reg_sign} application that takes full advantage of the Windows user interface. This paper describes the implementation of the process model and the control logic. Various results using the simulation are compared to measured data.

Tabsh, I. [CompuSIM Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dupuis, M. [GeniSim, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Gomes, A. [Alcan Aluminio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Differential geometry, Palatini gravity and reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present article deals with a formulation of the so called (vacuum) Palatini gravity as a general variational principle. In order to accomplish this goal, some geometrical tools related to the geometry of the bundle of connections of the frame bundle LM are used. A generalization of Lagrange-Poincar reduction scheme to these types of variational problems allows us to relate it with the Einstein-Hilbert variational problem. Relations with some other variational problems for gravity found in the literature are discussed.

Capriotti, S., E-mail: santiago.capriotti@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Matemtica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Baha Blanca (Argentina)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Geodesic Reduction via Frame Bundle Geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A manifold with an arbitrary affine connection is considered and the geodesic spray associated with the connection is studied in the presence of a Lie group action. In particular, results are obtained that provide insight into the structure of the reduced dynamics associated with the given invariant affine connection. The geometry of the frame bundle of the given manifold is used to provide an intrinsic description of the geodesic spray. A fundamental relationship between the geodesic spray, the tangent lift and the vertical lift of the symmetric product is obtained, which provides a key to understanding reduction in this formulation.

Ajit Bhand

2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

169

Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameter Baseline System (130 psig) (klb/h) % of Steam Produced Reduced Pressure (80 psig) (klb/h) % of Steam Produced Savings (klb/h) Steam generation 40.8 40.3 0.5 High pressure steam consumption 12.5 30.64 12.2 30.27 0.3 Low... the operating pressure is reached (3). The amount of fuel consumed is reduced while still meeting the required need for thermal energy. This fuel reduction can be estimated using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool...

Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Diesel Idling Reduction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 No revision has Type Term TitleSilver PeakIdling Reduction

172

Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the public's awareness increased, industry began looking for new strategies to curb NOx emissions. The strategies for reducing NOx are discussed next. Table 1 shows a summary of common NOx control technologies [1]. Table 1 NOx reduction technologies... for NOx Control, in Industrial Combustion Technologies, ed. by M.A. Lukasiewicz, American Society of Metals, Warren, PA, pp. 345-350, 1986. 7. A. Garg, Trimming NOx, Chem Eng., Vol. 99, No. 11, pp. 122-124, 1992. 8. C.E. Baukal, Industrial Combustion...

Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum...

174

Termination and Reduction Checking for HigherOrder Logic Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher­Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax­directed termination and reduction checker for higher­order logic programs and output of well­moded predicates. These reduction con­ straints are exploited during termination checking

Pientka, Brigitte

175

Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking

Pientka, Brigitte

176

Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter University of Basel Abstract. We segmented from CT scans. The result of this virtual fracture reduction is intended to be used an operation plan. We propose to achieve automatic fracture reduction by fitting the bone fragments

Vetter, Thomas

177

Implementation of Carbon Reduction in Capital Projects Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

means capping its total greenhouse gas emissions at 16,000 t/CO2 p.a. (see the College Carbon Management deliver a carbon emission p.a. reduction of at least 50% at design stage (with the aim of achieving operational reductions of at least 40%). This reduction should be below that of the average emission

Chittka, Lars

178

Extragalactic database. VII Reduction of astrophysical parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic database (LEDA) gives a free access to the main astrophysical parameters for more than 100,000 galaxies. The most common names are compiled allowing users to recover quickly any galaxy. All these measured astrophysical parameters are first reduced to a common system according to well defined reduction formulae leading to mean homogeneized parameters. Further, these parameters are also transformed into corrected parameters from widely accepted models. For instance, raw 21-cm line widths are transformed into mean standard widths after correction for instrumental effect and then into maximum velocity rotation properly corrected for inclination and non-circular velocity. This paper presents the reduction formulae for each parameter: coordinates, morphological type and luminosity class, diameter and axis ratio, apparent magnitude (UBV, IR, HI) and colors, maximum velocity rotation and central velocity dispersion, radial velocity, mean surface brightness, distance modulus and absolute magnitude, and group membership. For each of these parameters intermediate quantities are given: galactic extinction, inclination, K-correction etc.. All these parameters are available from direct connexion to LEDA (telnet lmc.univ-lyon1.fr, login: leda, no passwd OR http://www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr/leda ) and distributed on a standard CD-ROM (PGC-ROM 1996) by the Observatoire de Lyon via the CNRS (mail to petit@obs.univ-lyon1.fr).

G. Paturel; H. Andernach; L. Bottinelli; H. Di Nella; N. Durand; R. Garnier; L. Gouguenheim; P. Lanoix; M. C. Marthinet; C. Petit; J. Rousseau; G. Theureau; I. Vauglin

1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

Blocksome, Michael A.; Faraj, Daniel A.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

183

Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

Blocksome, Michael A; Faraj, Daniel A

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

184

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Methods for reduction of charging emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

The ACS LCID Project: data reduction strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During Cycle 14 a total of 113 HST orbits were secured to observe five isolated dwarf galaxies, namely Tucana, LGS3, LeoA, IC1613, and Cetus. The aim of the project is a full characterization of the stellar content of these galaxies, in term of their SFH, radial distributions, halo populations and variable stars. Deep (V~29) F475W, F814W data allowed us to fully sample all the evolutionary phases from the tip of the Red Giant Branch (RGB) to well below the old Main Sequence Turnoff (MSTO). Here we describe the observational design, and the reduction and calibration strategy adopted. A comparison of the results obtained using two different packages, ALLFRAME and Dolphot, is presented.

M. Monelli

2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

Dose reduction for snubber inspection and testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Health physics staff members at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station have implemented several dose reduction methods for snubber inspection, testing and changeout. These methods include construction maps to permit easy location of snubbers in the drywell, painting azimuth numbers on the inside drywell wall and biological shield wall to coincide with the maps, requiring pre-job briefings for quality inspectors and craft support personnel, using job history files for work planning, using experienced inspectors and craft personnel whenever possible, designating certain craft personnel solely for snubber work, and cutting out stuck snubber pins rather than attempting intact removal. The total dose for snubber-related tasks has been significantly reduced using these methods.

Morrison, G.M.; Cotton, S.R. (Entergy Operations, Inc. (US))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harper, J.; Warren, J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Core-melt source reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results. 4 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

Cost reduction potential in LMFBR design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LWR capital costs have escalated continuously over the years to the point where today its economics represent a bar to further LWR deployment in the U.S. High initial costs and the promise of a similar pattern of cost escalation in succeeding years for the LMFBR would effectively stop LMFBR deployment in this country before it could even begin. LWR cost escalation in the main can be traced to large increases in both amounts and unit costs of construction materials and to greatly lengthened construction times. Innovative approaches to LMFBR design are now being pursued that show promise for substantial cost reductions particularly in those areas that have contributed most to LWR cost increases.

Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

Kalns, Ilmars (Plymouth, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Core-melt source reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Press Releases Video Gallery Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More ......

200

Palladium-Cobalt Particles As Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Palladium-Cobalt Particles As Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

202

Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

203

Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 th , 2009. Dearborn, MI Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Phillip Bush, Eminox Svetlana Iretskaya, Catalytic Solutions, Inc. Ted...

204

Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

205

Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment. Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment. Abstract: The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a...

206

Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions:...

207

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

208

Corporate Property Tax Reduction for New/Expanded Generating Facilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Montana generating plants producing one megawatt (MW) or more with an alternative renewable energy source are eligible for the new or expanded industry property tax reduction. This incentive...

209

Independent set problems and odd-hole-preserving graph reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide a polynomial-time reduction in the size of the input required to decide the perfection or imperfection of a graph....

Warren, Jeffrey Scott

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

211

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

212

Comment on 'New Insights in the Electrocatalytic Proton Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reduction using a model nickel complex for nickel-based electrocatalysts with cyclic phosphorous ligands incorporating pendant amines. These catalysts are attracting considerable...

213

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma- Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction February 20, 2003 CRADA Protected Document and Data 2 Introduction * Engine dynamometer evaluation of...

214

Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Todd Jacobs, Sougato Chatterjee, Ray Conway, and Andy Walker Johnson Matthey Johnson Matthey Terry Oftedal and...

215

Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Compression ratio control Enablers: Advanced controls Variable Valve Timing Two-stage turbo-charging CoolingEGR Two stage combustion Fuel CN reduction Vaporization too slow...

216

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oak Ridge National Laboratory VW Scholar at the University of Tennessee Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster P-09 2010 DEER Directions...

217

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life...

218

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Principal Investigator: Y.-X. Tao Florida International...

219

Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Overview 3 Relevance FY09101112 Project: Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Project Objective: To promote economic growth and...

220

Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

information. DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Robin Erickson, Executive Director Utah Clean Cities...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

222

Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

223

Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

Proc, H.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Microbial Reductive Transformation of Phyllosilicate Fe(III)...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lee JH, JK Fredrickson, RK Kukkadapu, MI Boyanov, KM Kemner, X Lin, DW Kennedy, BN Bjornstad, A Konopka, DA Moore, CT Resch, and JL Phillips.2012."Microbial Reductive...

225

Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

killian.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Truck Friction & Wear Reduction Technologies Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Low-Friction Engineered...

227

assessing emission reduction: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reduction by means Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: and Plasma Research Department, Ris), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Ris), Per G....

228

Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and valve trains using durable, advanced material technologies, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC)...

229

H2 -optimal model reduction of MIMO systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keyword Multivariable systems, model reduction, optimal H2 approximation, tangential interpolation. 1 Introduction. In this paper we will consider the problem of...

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

Federal Agency Progress Toward Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel spreadsheet shows overall government and federal agency reductions in scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in indirect scope 3 GHG emissions categories.

231

assessing risk reduction: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State Ferries risk assessments, the studies van Dorp, Johan Ren 22 ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS University of California eScholarship...

232

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

233

Northern California CO2 Reduction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

Hymes, Edward

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

234

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension ? not fully fleshed out yet ? that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called ?3+2? vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

236

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE and TCE Concentrations Seungho Yu for anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were developed. The models were compared with results from batch kinetic tests conducted over a wide range of PCE and TCE

Semprini, Lewis

237

Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264 Dramatic Increase in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction solvation) is used to predict how the energies and barriers for the mechanistic steps of the oxygen. In these electro- chemical devices, H2 (generated e.g. from solar energy conversion) reacts with O2 to produce

Goddard III, William A.

238

Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive). Remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlori- nated ethylenes, including vinyl chloride, has been chal

Deng, Baolin

239

Plant physiology Heat of combustion, degree of reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plant physiology Heat of combustion, degree of reduction and carbon content: 3 interrelated methods coefficient between heat of combustion and degree of reduction may vary according to the chemical composition parameters in consequence. construction cost / growth yield / heat of combustion / elemental analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Reduction and Unfolding for Quantum Systems: the Hydrogen Atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we propose a ``quantum reduction procedure'' based on the reduction of algebras of differential operators on a manifold. We use these techniques to show, in a systematic way, how to relate the hydrogen atom to a family of quantum harmonic oscillators, by the means of the Kustaahneimo-Stiefel fibration.

A. D'Avanzo; G. Marmo; A. Valentino

2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment Brian Subirana subirana@mit.edu MIT Center for Coordination Science WP #222 July 2003 #12;IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel maintaining existing service levels. "We want you to reduce automation costs by 50% while maintaining equal

242

Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico Frederico Finan, Elisabeth debate on the role of land as an instrument for poverty reduction, we analyze the conditions under which access to land reduces poverty in Mexican rural communities. Semi-parametric regression results show

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

243

UPDATE AND ENHANCEMENT OF ODOT'S CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Printed on recycled paper #12;ii SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SIUPDATE AND ENHANCEMENT OF ODOT'S CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS Final Report SPR 612 by Christopher M and Enhancement of ODOT's Crash Reduction Factors 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) Christopher M

Bertini, Robert L.

244

Reduction in Work Force Unclassified Staff Office of Human Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction in Work Force Unclassified Staff 9.15 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Regular by the Health System. Health System employees should contact their human resource department for further information. The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Policy 9.15 Reduction in Work

Howat, Ian M.

245

UK Energy Research Centre Demand Reduction Theme, University of Oxford  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UK Energy Research Centre Demand Reduction Theme, University of Oxford The Experience of Carbon Energy Research Centre ­ Demand Reduction Theme Environmental Change Institute Oxford University Centre for the Environment South Parks Road Oxford OX1 3QY www.eci.ox.ac.uk www.ukerc.ac.uk #12;UK Energy Research Centre 2 1

246

Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag products by producing calcium-based products-free calcium-based ma- terial, such as steelmaking slags, significant re- ductions in CO2 emissions may of the CO2 emissions reduction achieved. However, the pu- rity and crystal structure of the PCC produced

Zevenhoven, Ron

247

ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES PLASTICS, METALS & GLASS pleaseemptyandflatten COMPOSTABLES kitchenandyardwasteonly LANDFILL ONLY ifallelsefails All Plastic Containers Metal Material All Food Paper Plates & Napkins *including pizza & donut boxes Compostable & Biodegradable

Gerdes, J. Christian

248

Synthetic and mechanistic study of catalytic dintrogen reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dinitrogen reduction capability of a series of new triamidoamine based molybdenum compounds has been studied. The synthesis of a number of different triamidoamine ligands, and their resulting molybdenum compounds, is ...

Weare, Walter Warren

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Painleve Analysis and Similarity Reductions for the Magma Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we examine a generalized magma equation for rational values of two parameters, $m$ and $n$. Firstly, the similarity reductions are found using the Lie group method of infinitesimal transformations. The Painlev\\'e ODE test is then applied to the travelling wave reduction, and the pairs of $m$ and $n$ which pass the test are identified. These particular pairs are further subjected to the ODE test on their other symmetry reductions. Only two cases remain which pass the ODE test for all such symmetry reductions and these are completely integrable. The case when $m=0$, $n=-1$ is related to the Hirota-Satsuma equation and for $m=\\tfrac12$, $n=-\\tfrac12$, it is a real, generalized, pumped Maxwell-Bloch equation.

Shirley E. Harris; Peter A. Clarkson

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

250

Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron...

251

Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rapid WolffKishner reductions in a silicon carbide microreactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WolffKishner reductions are performed in a novel silicon carbide microreactor. Greatly reduced reaction times and safer operation are achieved, giving high yields without requiring a large excess of hydrazine. The corrosion ...

Newman, Stephen G.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Turbulent drag reduction by constant near-wall forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injection of high molecular weight polymer solutions or gas in the near-wall region of a liquid boundary layer can result in turbulent drag reduction of more than...

JIN XU, SUCHUAN DONG, MARTIN R. MAXEY and GEORGE E. KARNIADAKIS

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

255

Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction in the Metal Fabrication Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reductions of energy use and waste generation can help manufacturers to be more profitable and more environmentally acceptable. Industrial Assessment Centers located at universities throughout the United States, funded by the U.S. Department...

Kirk, M. C. Jr.; Looby, G. P.

256

Reduction of Quantum Phase Fluctuations in Intermediate States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently we have shown that the reduction of the Carruthers-Nieto symmetric quantum phase fluctuation parameter (U) with respect to its coherent state value corresponds to an antibunched state, but the converse is not true. Consequently reduction of U is a stronger criterion of nonclassicality than the lowest order antibunching. Here we have studied the possibilities of reduction of $U$ in intermediate states by using the Barnett Pegg formalism. We have shown that the reduction of phase fluctuation parameter U can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, generalized binomial state, hypergeometric state, negative binomial state, and photon added coherent state. It is also shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be controlled by various parameters related to intermediate states. Further, we have provided specific examples of antibunched states, for which $U$ is greater than its poissonian state value.

Amit Verma; Anirban Pathak

2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

1985-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

258

City of Philadelphia- Streamlined Solar Permitting and Fee Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Photovoltaic systems of 10 kW or less installed on 1- or 2-family residential units are eligible for streamlined permitting and a fee reduction. PV projects can use a [http://www.phila.gov/green...

259

An optimization approach to kinetic model reduction for combustion chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model reduction methods are relevant when the computation time of a full convection-diffusion-reaction simulation based on detailed chemical reaction mechanisms is too large. In this article, we review a model reduction approach based on optimization of trajectories and show its applicability to realistic combustion models. As most model reduction methods, it identifies points on a slow invariant manifold based on time scale separation in the dynamics of the reaction system. The numerical approximation of points on the manifold is achieved by solving a semi-infinite optimization problem, where the dynamics enter the problem as constraints. The proof of existence of a solution for an arbitrarily chosen dimension of the reduced model (slow manifold) is extended to the case of realistic combustion models including thermochemistry by considering the properties of proper maps. The model reduction approach is finally applied to three models based on realistic reaction mechanisms: 1. ozone decomposition as a small t...

Lebiedz, Dirk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ris-R-1545(EN) Emission reduction by means  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Plasma Research Department, Risø), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Risø), Per G. Kristensen reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A reduction theorem for capacity of positive maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove a reduction theorem for capacity of positive maps of finite dimensional C*-algebras, thus reducing the computation of capacity to the case when the image of a nonscalar projection is never a projection.

Erling Stormer

2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

3D Module Placement for Congestion and Power Noise Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D Module Placement for Congestion and Power Noise Reduction Jacob R. Minz School of ECE Georgia that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice

Lim, Sung Kyu

265

Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric iron reduction increased with both the flow rate of gas as well as the liquid flow rate (up to ~0.1 g/L/min). Pure carbon monoxide also reduced the ferric ion, but at a rate about one tenth that of pure hydrogen at similar conditions. The syngas mixture of equimolar hydrogen and carbon monoxide reacted at a rate intermediate between each gas as a pure stream (up to ~ 0.06 g/L/min). This gas mixture shows that some form of unpurified reformer gas could be used to reduce the ferric ion in the electrolyte solution. Nitrogen was inert causing very little to no reduction of ferric ion.

Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

Hicks, Duane Dee

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Chromium isotopes as indicators of hexavalent chromium reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for a university research project which advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwater systems. Reduction renders mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium immobile and less toxic. The new method uses stable isotope ratio measurements, which are made using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

Johnson, Thomas M.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

Advanced configurations for leakage reduction in a labyrinth seal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADVANCED CONFIGURATIONS FOR LEAKAGE REDUCTION IN A LABYRINTH SEAL A Thesis by SHARATH B. VELDANDA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ADVANCED CONFIGURATION FOR LEAKAGE REDUCTION IN A LABYRINTH SEAL A Thesis by SHARATH B. VELDANDA Approved as to style and content by: David L. Rhode y~~ (Member) K. D. Korkan (Member...

Veldanda, Sharath B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Towards the reduction of sex-based stereotypes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOWARDS THE REDUCTION OF SEX-BASED STEREOTYPES A Senior Honors Thesis by BRIAN ANTHONY THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS APRIL 2001 Group: Psychology I TOWARDS THE REDUCTION OF SEX-BASED STEREOTYPES A Senior Honors Thesis by BRIAN ANTHONY THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas ASM...

Thomas, Brian Anthony

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

271

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IGCC, w/o or w/ CCS) Carbon Intensity of Electricity (gCO2-reductions to fuel carbon intensity in Efficient Biofuelsreductions to fuel carbon intensity in Electric- drive

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism, Polymer Degradation Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene Pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism. N

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Hydrazine-reduction of graphite-and graphene oxide Sungjin Park a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) particles, which were not exfoliated, and completely exfoliated individual graphene oxide platelets hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide platelets pro- duced agglomerates of exfoliated platelets, the reduction of GO particles produced particles that were not exfoliated. The degree of chemical reduction

274

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of Chinas CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of Chinas Cementenergy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MICROBIAL TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial Tc(VII) reduction is an attractive alternative strategy for bioremediation of technetium-contaminated subsurface environments. Traditional ex situ remediation processes (e.g., adsorption or ion exchange) are often limited by poor extraction efficiency, inhibition by competing ions and production of large volumes of produced waste. Microbial Tc(VII) reduction provides an attractive alternative in situ remediation strategy since the reduced end-product Tc(IV) precipitates as TcO2, a highly insoluble hydrous oxide. Despite its potential benefits, the molecular mechanism of microbial Tc(VII) reduction remains poorly understood. The main goal of the proposed DOENABIR research project is to determine the molecular mechanism of microbial Tc(VII) reduction. Random mutagenesis studies in our lab have resulted in generation of a set of six Tc(VII) reduction-deficient mutants of Shewanella oneidensis. The anaerobic respiratory deficiencies of each Tc(VII) reduction-deficient mutant was determined by anaerobic growth on various combinations of three electron donors and 14 terminal electron acceptors. Results indicated that the electron transport pathways to Tc(VII), NO3 -, Mn(III) and U(VI) share common structural or regulatory components. In addition, we have recently found that wild-type Shewanella are also able to reduce Tc(IV) as electron acceptor, producing Tc(III) as an end-product. The recent genome sequencing of a variety of technetium-reducing bacteria and the anticipated release of several additional genome sequences in the coming year, provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to determine the mechanism of microbial technetium reduction across species and genus lines.

DiChristina, Thomas J. [Georgia Tech

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

276

Reduction of titania by methane-hydrogen-argon gas mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of titania using methane-containing gas was investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range 1,373 to 1,773 K. The reduction production product is titanium oxycarbide, which is a solid solution of TiC and TiO. At 1,373 K, the formation rate of TiC is very slow. The rate and extent of reaction increase with increasing temperature to 1,723 K. A further increase in temperature to 1,773 K does not affect the reaction rate and extent. An increase in methane concentration to 8 vol pct favors the reduction process. A further increase in methane concentration above 8 vol pct causes excessive carbon deposition, which has a negative effect on the reaction rate. Hydrogen partial pressure should be maintained above 35 vol pct to depress the cracking of methane. Addition of water vapor to the reducing gas strongly retards the reduction reaction, even at low concentrations of 1 to 2 vol pct. Carbon monoxide also depresses the reduction process, but its effect is significant only at higher concentrations, above 10 vol pct.

Zhang, G.; Ostrovski, O.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Kron Reduction of Graphs with Applications to Electrical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consider a weighted and undirected graph, possibly with self-loops, and its corresponding Laplacian matrix, possibly augmented with additional diagonal elements corresponding to the self-loops. The Kron reduction of this graph is again a graph whose Laplacian matrix is obtained by the Schur complement of the original Laplacian matrix with respect to a subset of nodes. The Kron reduction process is ubiquitous in classic circuit theory and in related disciplines such as electrical impedance tomography, smart grid monitoring, transient stability assessment in power networks, or analysis and simulation of induction motors and power electronics. More general applications of Kron reduction occur in sparse matrix algorithms, multi-grid solvers, finite--element analysis, and Markov chains. The Schur complement of a Laplacian matrix and related concepts have also been studied under different names and as purely theoretic problems in the literature on linear algebra. In this paper we propose a general graph-theoretic framework for Kron reduction that leads to novel and deep insights both on the mathematical and the physical side. We show the applicability of our framework to various practical problem setups arising in engineering applications and computation. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive and detailed graph-theoretic analysis of the Kron reduction process encompassing topological, algebraic, spectral, resistive, and sensitivity analyses. Throughout our theoretic elaborations we especially emphasize the practical applicability of our results.

Florian Dorfler; Francesco Bullo

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs. The multi-pollutant control system is being installed and tested on the AES Greenidge Unit 4 (Boiler 6) by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. All funding for the project is being provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and by AES Greenidge. AES Greenidge Unit 4 is a 107 MW{sub e} (net), 1950s vintage, tangentially-fired, reheat unit that is representative of many of the 440 smaller coal-fired units identified above. Following design and construction, the multi-pollutant control system will be demonstrated over an approximately 20-month period while the unit fires 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fires up to 10% biomass. This Preliminary Public Design Report is the first in a series of two reports describing the design of the multi-pollutant control facility that is being demonstrated at AES Greenidge. Its purpose is to consolidate for public use all available nonproprietary design information on the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project. As such, the report includes a discussion of the process concept, design objectives, design considerations, and uncertainties associated with the multi-pollutant control system and also summarizes the design of major process components and balance of plant considerations for the AES Greenidge Unit 4 installation. The Final Public Design Report, the second report in the series, will update this Preliminary Public Design Report to reflect the final, as-built design of the facility and to incorporate data on capital costs and projected operating costs.

Daniel P. Connell

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

279

Reduction in downstream test utilization following introduction of coronary computed tomography in a cardiology practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PAPER Reduction in downstream test utilization followingtesting, reduction of downstream SPECT MPI and TME as wellechocardiography Downstream utilization Cardiology

Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Thomson, Louise E.; Friedman, John D.; Berman, Daniel S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Assessment of Tire Technologies and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use ReductionsPractices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions Maythe study involving research on waste and energy saving tire

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Regnier, Justin; Burke, Andy; Melaina, Marc W; Bremson, Joel; Keteltas, Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

Ross Jr., Philip N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - arms reduction treaty Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on fissile material security , the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty , cooperative threat reduction, and others... Threat Reduction Agency , Fort Belvoir, Virginia Outline: 1....

283

Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters under Ion Irradiation. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters...

284

Signal Processing Techniques for Data Reduction and Event Recognition in Cough Counting.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents novel techniques for the reduction of audio recordings and signal processing techniques as part of cough recognition. Evidence collected shows the reduction (more)

Barton, Antony James

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forpilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads

Bode, Josh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission- reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies The

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. About 44% of the funding for the project was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the remaining 56% was provided by AES Greenidge. Project goals included reducing high-load NO{sub x} emissions to {le} 0.10 lb/mmBtu; reducing SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF emissions by at least 95%; and reducing Hg emissions by at least 90% while the unit fired 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fired up to 10% biomass. This report details the final results from the project. The multi-pollutant control system was constructed in 2006, with a total plant cost of $349/kW and a footprint of 0.4 acre - both substantially less than would have been required to retrofit AES Greenidge Unit 4 with a conventional SCR and wet scrubber. Start-up of the multi-pollutant control system was completed in March 2007, and the performance of the system was then evaluated over an approximately 18-month period of commercial operation. Guarantee tests conducted in March-June 2007 demonstrated attainment of all of the emission reduction goals listed above. Additional tests completed throughout the performance evaluation period showed 96% SO{sub 2} removal, 98% mercury removal (with no activated carbon injection), 95% SO{sub 3} removal, and 97% HCl removal during longer-term operation. Greater than 95% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was observed even when the unit fired high-sulfur coals containing up to 4.8 lb SO{sub 2}/mmBtu. Particulate matter emissions were reduced by more than 98% relative to the emission rate observed prior to installation of the technology. The performance of the hybrid SNCR/SCR system was affected by problems with large particle ash, ammonia slip, and nonideal combustion characteristics, and high-load NO{sub x} emissions averaged 0.14 lb/mmBtu during long-term operation. Nevertheless, the system has reduced the unit's overall NO{sub x} emiss

Daniel Connell

2008-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

288

Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

Jung, Hanyung [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ve Cheah, Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Namjo [Energy Materials and Convergence Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: jleenano@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

289

Kron Reduction of Graphs with Applications to Electrical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consider a weighted and undirected graph, possibly with self-loops, and its corresponding Laplacian matrix, possibly augmented with additional diagonal elements corresponding to the self-loops. The Kron reduction of this graph is again a graph whose Laplacian matrix is obtained by the Schur complement of the original Laplacian matrix with respect to a subset of nodes. The Kron reduction process is ubiquitous in classic circuit theory and in related disciplines such as electrical impedance tomography, smart grid monitoring, transient stability assessment in power networks, or analysis and simulation of induction motors and power electronics. More general applications of Kron reduction occur in sparse matrix algorithms, multi-grid solvers, finite--element analysis, and Markov chains. The Schur complement of a Laplacian matrix and related concepts have also been studied under different names and as purely theoretic problems in the literature on linear algebra. In this paper we propose a general graph-theoretic f...

Dorfler, Florian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is a reduction of energy consumption resulting from a reduction of feeder voltage. While there have been numerous CVR systems deployed in North America there has been little substantive analytic analysis of the effect; the majority of the published results are based on empirical field measurements. Since these results are based on empirical measurements it is difficult to extrapolate how this technology will behave on the various types of distribution feeders found throughout the nation. This report has utilized the Taxonomy of Prototypical feeder developed under the Modern Grid Initiative (MGI), now the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS), in order to estimate the benefits of CVR on multiple distribution feeder types. This information will then be used to determine an estimate of the national benefits of a wide scale deployment of CVR.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

291

Physical Examples of the Heun-to-Hypergeometric Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Heun's equation having four regular singularities emerge in many applications in physics. Therefore relating this equation with the well-known hypergeometric equation may provide a complete understanding of the mathematics of the Heun's equation as well as the behavior of the physical system. We studied the Heun-to-hypergeometric reductions for three physical problems: The Schrodinger's equation which was written in terms of the Heun's general equation for the Coulomb problem on a 3-sphere, the s-wave bound state equation in the problem of the attractive inverse square potential and the equation for the limit density function for the discrete-time quantum walk. We applied the limiting cases and tried to figure out if a reduction is possible. While some problems permit these reductions, some others does not because of the restrictions on the physical parameters. A Sage code is given in the appendix for the calculation of some Heun identities.

Tolga Birkandan

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Permeability Reduction Due to Precipitation of Quartz under Nonisothermal Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many problems concerning the origin and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs demonstrate the need for models of reactive-solute transport. Of particular interest to us is the coupling between dissolution/precipitation reactions and transient-flow behavior. In an effort to account for observed flow-rate reductions during experiments on samples of granite held in a temperature gradient (summarized at this meeting in 1981 by Moore and others), we examine the effect of quartz precipitation on fluid flow. Our results confirm earlier inerences that reactions responsible for porosity reduction were affected by kinetic factors. Although our results show substantial flow-rate reductions, we are unable to reproduce measured silica concentrations of the outlet fluid by considering the behavior of silica phases without regard for that of the feldspars and micas.

Keith, Laura A.; Delaney, Paul T.; Moore, Diane E.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Progress on Footprint Reduction at the Hanford Site - 12406  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to reduce the footprint of legacy sites throughout the EM complex. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess contaminated facilities, soil and groundwater remediation, and solid waste disposition. All of these initiatives are being accomplished with established technologies in proven regulatory frameworks. Ultimately, completion of these environmental cleanup activities will reduce the monitoring and maintenance costs associated with managing large federal facilities, allowing EM to place more focus on other high priority cleanup efforts and facilitate a successful transition to land-term stewardship of these sites. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) investment, the Department's cleanup footprint has been reduced by 45 percent to date, from 2411 km{sup 2} (931 mi{sup 2}) to 1336 km{sup 2} (516 mi{sup 2}s). With this significant progress on footprint reduction, the Department is on track towards their goal to reduce its overall footprint by approximately 90 percent by 2015. In addition, some areas cleaned up may become available for alternate uses (i.e. recreation, conservation, preservation, industrialization or development). Much of the work to reduce the complex's footprint occurred at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington, but cleanup continues across the complex. Footprint reduction is progressing well at the Hanford Site, supported predominantly through ARRA investment. To date, 994 km{sup 2} (384 mi{sup 2}) (65%) of footprint reduction have been achieved at Hanford, with a goal to achieve a 90% reduction by Fiscal Year 2015. The DOE EM and DOE Richland Operations Office, continue to make great progress to reduce the legacy footprint of the Hanford Site. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess facilities, both contaminated and uncontaminated, waste site cleanup activities, and debris pile removal. All of these activities can be accomplished with proven technologies and within established regulatory frameworks. Footprint reduction goals for Fiscal Year 2011 were exceeded, largely with the help of ARRA funding. As cleanup projects are completed and the total area requiring cleanup shrinks, overall costs for surveillance and maintenance operations and infrastructure services decrease. This work completion and decrease in funding requirements to maintain waste sites and antiquated facilities allows more focus on high priority site missions (i.e. groundwater remediation, tank waste disposition, etc.) and moves Site areas closer to transition from EM to the Legacy Management program. The progress in the Hanford footprint reduction effort will help achieve success in these other important mission areas. (authors)

McKenney, Dale E. [CH2M HILL, Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul [Cenibark International, Inc., Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Farabee, Al [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Proton reduction by molecular catalysts in water under demanding atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1, ESI), allowing the effect of other inhibiting gases to be established during proton reduction. Fig. 1a and b display CVs of NiP and CoP under inert and aerobic atmospheres. Irreversible O2 reduction occurs at Ep = #2;0.5 V vs. normal hydrogen... Ministry of Science, Research and Economy and National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development), and the OMV Group is gratefully acknowledged. Notes and references 1 N. S. Lewis and D. G. Nocera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, 103, 15729...

Wakerley, David W.; Gross, Manuela A.; Reisner, Erwin

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

297

Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

Hurst, F.J. Jr.

1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

298

U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

Johnson, C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Dimensional Reduction in 6D Standing Waves Braneworld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We found cosmological solution of the 6D standing wave braneworld model generated by gravity coupled to a massless scalar phantom-like field. By obtaining a full exact solution of the model we found a novel dynamical mechanism in which the anisotropic nature of the primordial metric gives rise to expansion of three spatial brane dimensions and affectively reduction of other spatial directions. This dynamical mechanism can be relevant for dimensional reduction in string and other higher dimensional theories in the attempt of getting a 4D isotropic expanding space-time.

Otari Sakhelashvili

2014-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

300

Aggressive Test Power Reduction Through Test Stimuli Transformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Based on this analysis, we develop algorithms for transforming a set of test vectors into power- optimal that are capable of identifying the transformation that is optimal in terms of power and implementing it at minimalAggressive Test Power Reduction Through Test Stimuli Transformation £ Ozgur Sinanoglu and Alex

Orailoglu, Alex

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Synonymous Address Compaction for Energy Reduction in Data TLB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synonymous Address Compaction for Energy Reduction in Data TLB Chinnakrishnan S. Ballapuram chinnak and Computer Engineering College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 ABSTRACT-cycle compaction of address translation requests in order to save energy in the data TLB. Our results show

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

303

Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efforts have shown how variable rate pricing can incentivize consumers to use energy storage to cut periods. Unfortunately, vari- able rate pricing provides only a weak incentive for dis- tributed energyScaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

304

Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with and approved by the necessary resource agencies. The long-term environmental and cultural consequences of planTopeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located

US Army Corps of Engineers

305

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire objectives Fifteen years Yorkshire town are being replaced by a cleaner, green alternative: biomass. Barnsley's Communal Biomass on to residents. · To increase energy efficiency. · To develop biomass usage in new and refurbished public

306

CU(II): catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferric nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for producing ferrous nitrate solutions by the cupric ion-catalyzed reduction of ferric nitrate with hydrazine. The reaction is complete in about 1.5 hours at 40/sup 0/C. Hydrazoic acid is also produced in substantial quantities as a reaction byproduct.

Karraker, D.G.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Structure constants of diagonal reduction algebras of gl type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe, in terms of generators and relations, the reduction algebra, related to the diagonal embedding of the Lie algebra $\\gl_n$ into $\\gl_n\\oplus\\gl_n$. Its representation theory is related to the theory of decompositions of tensor products of $\\gl_n$-modules.

S. Khoroshkin; O. Ogievetsky

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

308

Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

Cohen, Z

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Remarkable Reduction of Thermal Conductivity in Silicon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

localization, thermoelectric material T hermoelectric (TE) materials can provide electricity when subjected materials can be characterized by the dimen- sionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ) S2 T/, where S to be responsible for the reduction of thermal conductivity. Our study suggests SiNT is a promising thermoelectric

Li, Baowen

310

Usage Analysis with Natural Reduction Types David A. Wright  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Usage Analysis with Natural Reduction Types David A. Wright Department of Computer Science be required several times. If a usage analysis can determine how many times it will be required, certain­time garbage collection and in­place update. This paper presents a method for deducing usage information

Baker-Finch, Clem

311

Model Reduction for Power Electronics Systems with Multiple Heat Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Reduction for Power Electronics Systems with Multiple Heat Sources A. Augustin, T. Hauck, B demonstrates the model order re- duction procedures applied to semiconductor devices with multiple heat sources. The approach is demonstrated for a device with nine heat sources where some of them are perma- nently active

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

ELEMENT C: Management Measures Necessary to Achieve Your Load Reductions,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, public education, ordinances, pet waste programs, erosion control plans. Regulatory Tools as Management · Identify new management opportunities · Identify critical areas in watershed where additional measures1 ELEMENT C: Management Measures Necessary to Achieve Your Load Reductions, Along with the Critical

313

RENOIR -A Benchmark Dataset for Real Noise Reduction Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 RENOIR - A Benchmark Dataset for Real Noise Reduction Evaluation Josue Anaya, Adrian Barbu Abstract--In this paper we introduce a dataset of uncom- pressed color images taken with three digital and in intensity. The dataset contains over 100 scenes and more than 400 images, including both RAW formatted

Barbu, Adrian

314

A genus six cyclic tetragonal reduction of the Benney equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A reduction of Benney's equations is constructed corresponding to Schwartz-Christoffel maps associated with a family of genus six cyclic tetragonal curves. The mapping function, a second kind Abelian integral on the associated Riemann surface, is constructed explicitly as a rational expression in derivatives of the Kleinian sigma-function of the curve.

Matthew England; John Gibbons

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

Furlough or Reduction in Force in the Senior Executive Service  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish requirements and assign responsibilities for furlough and reduction in force (RIF) of the Senior Executive Service (SES) in the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Cancels O DOE 3350.1 Chg 1 and DOE 3351.2 Chg 1.

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Issues and methods for CMB anisotropy data reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Major issues and existing methods for the reduction of CMB anisotropy data are reviewed. An emphasis is put on the proper modelling of the data. It is suggested that the robustness of methods could be improved by taking into account the uncertainty of the model for finding optimal solutions.

J. Delabrouille

2000-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

317

Kron Reduction of Graphs with Applications to Electrical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kron Reduction of Graphs with Applications to Electrical Networks Florian D¨orfler Francesco work supported by NSF grants IIS- 0904501 and CPS-1135819. Florian D¨orfler and Francesco Bullo Barbara, CA 93106, {dorfler, bullo}@engineering.ucsb.edu we consider the circuit naturally associated

Bullo, Francesco

318

Synchronization of Power Networks: Network Reduction and Effective Resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synchronization of Power Networks: Network Reduction and Effective Resistance Florian D¨orfler Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA (e-mail: {dorfler,bullo}@engineering.ucsb.edu). Abstract in a network-reduced power system. Among other things, D¨orfler and Bullo (2010b) provided a solution

Bullo, Francesco

319

Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

320

Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping John Homer1 Laboratory, USA Abstract. Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often

Ou, Xinming "Simon"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

Pennycook, Steve

322

Error Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of technical devices that rely on multiscale processes, such as fuel cells or batteries. As the solutionError Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic Homogenization Problems optimization of elliptic multiscale problems with macroscopic optimization functionals and microscopic material

323

The Geometry of Stochastic Reduction of an Entangled System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the method of stochastic reduction of linear superpositions can be applied to the process of disentanglement for the spin-0 state of two spin-1/2 particles. We describe the geometry of this process in the framework of the complex projective space

Ari Belenkiy; Steve Shnider; Lawrence Horwitz

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Queuing Models of Airport Departure Processes for Emissions Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is validated through a comparison of its predictions with observed data at Boston's Logan International AirportQueuing Models of Airport Departure Processes for Emissions Reduction Ioannis Simaiakis burn and emissions at airports. This paper investigates the possibility of reducing fuel burn

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

325

A supersymmetric reduction on the three-sphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the embedding of three-dimensional SO(4)$\\ltimes\\mathbb{R}^6$ gauged $N=4$ supergravity with quaternionic target space SO(4,4)$/$(SO(4)$\\times$SO(4)) into $D=6$, $N=(1,0)$ supergravity coupled to a single chiral tensor multiplet through a consistent reduction on AdS$_3\\times S^3$.

Nihat Sadik Deger; Henning Samtleben; Ozgur Sarioglu; Dieter Van den Bleeken

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

326

The Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Linear Variation in Genetic Transmission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Linear Variation in Genetic Transmission Lee Altenberg of modifier gene models, in which a neutral gene is posited to control the transmission of other genes under principle": in a population near equilibrium, a new modifier allele that scales equally all transition

Altenberg, Lee

327

Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, it is clear that the energy usage will be subject to corresponding policies. Many have pointed of greenhouse gases (GHG) through net emissions reduction is needed to mitigate climate change. Energy estimated to account for 7.2 percent of all US GHG emissions, while total net sequestration from land

McCarl, Bruce A.

328

Green Scheduling: Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Power Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approach to fine-grained coordination of energy demand by scheduling energy consuming control systems of the system variables only, control system execution (i.e. when energy is supplied to the system-Scheduling; Energy Systems; Peak Power Reduction; Load Balancing; I. INTRODUCTION During a major sporting event

Pappas, George J.

329

Opportunities for Achieving Significant Energy Reduction in Existing University Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Opportunities for Achieving Significant Energy Reduction in Existing University Buildings of Findings from GE 520/MN 500: "Energy Audit/Conservation Analysis of BU's Charles River Campus" 2010 #12 Footprint: Boston University Charles River Campus. Presentation to the BU Energy Club. Results of 2007

Hutyra, Lucy R.

330

ORIGINAL PAPER Electrochemical reduction of oxygen with iron phthalocyanine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bio- fuel cells) has been increasing [1­6]. The common point for all the biological systems is need Recent interest in electricity production using microbial fuel cells makes it important to better applications in neutral media. Keywords Microbial fuel cells Á Oxygen reduction Á Iron phthalocyanine Á Redox

331

Additional reductions in the k-constrained modified KP hierarchy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Additional reductions in the modified k-constrained KP hierarchy are proposed. As a result we obtain generalizations of Kaup-Broer system, Korteweg-de Vries equation and a modification of Korteweg-de Vries equation that belongs to modified k-constrained KP hierarchy. We also propose solution generating technique based on binary Darboux transformations for the obtained equations.

Oleksandr Chvartatskyi; Yuriy Sydorenko

2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction Operation in Southwest Oregon1. This paper reports results of soil disturbance generated from an integrated forest harvesting/mechanical, mechanical harvesting, soil strength Introduction Currently, there is a lack of information concerning

Bolding, M. Chad

333

EL Program: Earthquake Risk Reduction in Buildings and Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EL Program: Earthquake Risk Reduction in Buildings and Infrastructure Program Manager: John R. Hayes, Jr., 301 975 5640 Strategic Goal: Disaster-Resilient Buildings, Infrastructure, and Communities to earthquake engineering, including performance-based tools, guidelines, and standards for designing buildings

Magee, Joseph W.

334

Kinetics of Silicothermic Reduction of Calcined Dolomite in Flowing Argon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Experimental Rig De oxi dat ion Fu rn ac e TC TC Copper Turning Reduction Furnace Argon Gas Condenser Gas wash. Disadvantages: high impurity, high condenser area #12;© Swinburne University of Technology Aim of the project the fundamental physical chemistry Thermodynamic modelling Kinetic analysis High temperature experiments

Liley, David

335

Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

336

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on Campus from Universities to Big Business #12;Contact Information Tracy Artley Recycling Coordinator University of Michigan Tel: 734-763-5539 Email: recycle@umich.edu #12;Agenda Waste Impacts of Large Institutions Unique Challenges Overcoming

Awtar, Shorya

337

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction Instructor J. Reibenspies, Ph. D. Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Ph.D. Version 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 2 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 3 #12;X-ray is good. The y direction is shifting the most, but the shift is ok #12;X-ray Practicals Series 5 Other

Meagher, Mary

338

Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for autonomous demand side management within one house. The DRS devices are able to sense and control the peak energy consumption or demand. We assume that several appliances within one building access to oneSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang

Li, Xiang-Yang

339

Uranium Reduction in Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Transport of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.TheseresultsalsosuggestthatlowUconcentrations in groundwater samples from OC-treated sediments are not necessarily indicative of pervasive U reduction because. Introduction Uranium (U) is an important subsurface contaminant at sites associated with its mining). In addition, modeling studies indicate that pulsed nutrient injection can result in more effective remediation

Hazen, Terry

340

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Final Scientific/Technical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism of Uranium Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final Scientific/Technical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism of Uranium Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis"

DiChristina, Thomas J. [Georgia Tech

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hybrid Geometric Reduction of Hybrid Systems Aaron D. Ames and Shankar Sastry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Geometric Reduction of Hybrid Systems Aaron D. Ames and Shankar Sastry Abstract-- This paper presents a unifying framework in which to carry out the hybrid geometric reduction of hybrid systems, generalizing classical reduction to a hybrid setting. I. INTRODUCTION The reduction of mechanical systems

Sastry, S. Shankar

343

Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood and softwood with pulverized coal, or using the biofuels as potential reburning fuels. The use of these wood waste is attractive because: wood contains little nitrogen and virtually no sulfur; wood is a regenerable biofuel; and wood utilization results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. The wood reburning results indicate a reduction of 50-60% NO with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The NO reduction was strongly dependent upon initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature and wood moisture content. Cofiring of wood with pulverized coal; however, did not lead to significant NO reductions with the current NO{sub x} burner configuration. The stoker program investigated barriers for the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties. Parameters evaluated included blending firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrate that NO emissions can be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel cofiring, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs; and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Reductive Dissolution of Goethite and Hematite by Reduced Flavins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abiotic reductive dissolution of goethite and hematite by the reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and riboflavin (RBFH2), electron transfer mediators (ETM) secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella, was investigated under stringent anaerobic conditions. In contrast to the rapid redox reaction rate observed for ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite (Shi et al., 2012), the reductive dissolution of crystalline goethite and hematite was slower, with the extent of reaction limited by the thermodynamic driving force at circumneutral pH. Both the initial reaction rate and reaction extent increased with decreasing pH. On a unit surface area basis, goethite was less reactive than hematite between pH 4.0 and 7.0. AH2DS, the reduced form of the well-studied synthetic ETM anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), yielded higher rates than FMNH2 under most reaction conditions, despite the fact that FMNH2 was a more effective reductant than AH2DS for ferryhydrite and lepidocrocite. Two additional model compounds, methyl viologen and benzyl viologen, were investigated under similar reaction conditions to explore the relationship between reaction rate and thermodynamic properties. Relevant kinetic data from the literature were also included in the analysis to span a broad range of half-cell potentials. Other conditions being equal, the surface area normalized initial reaction rate (ra) increased as the redox potential of the reductant became more negative. A non-linear, parabolic relationship was observed between log ra and the redox potential for eight reducants at pH 7.0, as predicted by Marcus theory for electron transfer. When pH and reductant concentration were fixed, log ra was positively correlated to the redox potential of four Fe(III) oxides over a wide pH range, following a non-linear parabolic relationship as well.

Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

345

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Enzymes responsible for chlorate reduction by Pseudomonas sp. are different from those used for perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ability to respire using chlorate under aerobic conditions. The chlorate reductase produced by PDA)chlo- rate] reduction produced by Azospira sp. KJ based on subunit composition and other enzyme properties; Remediation; Respiration 1. Introduction The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates

347

Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold promises as a replacement for AHA. FHA undergoes hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. Unfortunately, FHA powder was not stable in the experiments we ran in our laboratory. In addition, AHA and FHA also decompose to hydroxylamine which may undergo an autocatalytic reaction. Other reductants are available and could be extremely useful for actinides separation. The review presents the current plutonium reductants used in used nuclear fuel reprocessing and will introduce innovative and novel reductants that could become reducers for future research on UNF separation.

Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.

Fan, Y J; Kamath, C

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mean and peak wind load reduction on heliostats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated both mean and peak forces, and moments. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved. In addition, a preliminary review of wind loads on parabolic dish collectors was conducted, resulting in a recommended research program for these type collectors. 42 refs., 38 figs., 1 tab.

Peterka, J.A.; Tan, L.; Bienkiewcz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

352

Reduction of Quantum Phase Fluctuations Implies Antibunching of Photon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A clear physical meaning of the Carruthers-Nieto symmetric quantum phase fluctuation parameter (U) has been provided in Susskind Glogower and Barnett Pegg formalism of quantum phase and it is shown that the reduction of phase fluctuation parameter U with respect to its coherent state value corresponds to an antibunched state. Thus nonclassicality of a state may be manifested through the phase fluctuation parameters. As examples, quantum phase fluctuations in different optical processes, such as four wave mixing, six wave mixing and second harmonic generation have been studied by using Carruthers-Nieto quantum phase fluctuation parameters. The operators required for the calculation of quantum phase fluctuations are expressed in closed analytical forms (up to second order in coupling constant). It is also found that the reduction of phase fluctuations compared to their initial values are possible in all three cases which means nonclassical (antibunched) state exists in all these cases.

Prakash Gupta; Anirban Pathak

2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Analysis and Reduction of Complex Networks Under Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a collaborative proposal that aims at developing new methods for the analysis and reduction of complex multiscale networks under uncertainty. The approach is based on combining methods of computational singular perturbation (CSP) and probabilistic uncertainty quantification. In deterministic settings, CSP yields asymptotic approximations of reduced-dimensionality slow manifolds on which a multiscale dynamical system evolves. Introducing uncertainty raises fundamentally new issues, particularly concerning its impact on the topology of slow manifolds, and means to represent and quantify associated variability. To address these challenges, this project uses polynomial chaos (PC) methods to reformulate uncertain network models, and to analyze them using CSP in probabilistic terms. Specific objectives include (1) developing effective algorithms that can be used to illuminate fundamental and unexplored connections among model reduction, multiscale behavior, and uncertainty, and (2) demonstrating the performance of these algorithms through applications to model problems.

Knio, Omar M

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

354

Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

On the relationship of gravitational constants in KK reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this short note, we try to clarify a seemly trivial but often confusing question in relating a higher-dimensional physical gravitational constant to its lower-dimensional correspondence in Kaluza-Klein reduction. In particular, we re-derive the low-energy M-theory gravitational constant in terms of type IIA string coupling $g_s$ and constant $\\alpha'$ through the metric relation between the two theories.

Lu, J X

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana David Hokanson ExxonMobil Research and Engineering May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy... Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 3Baytown Chemical / Refining Complex ExxonMobil Baytown Refining & Chemical Complex One of worlds largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes, in operation since 1919...

Hokanson, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement S A J A L S . P O K H A R E L , G A R Y emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become

Denver, University of

359

Chern-Simons Reduction and non-Abelian Fluid Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a non-Abelian generalization of the Clebsch parameterization for a vector in three dimensions. The construction is based on a group-theoretical reduction of the Chern-Simons form on a symmetric space. The formalism is then used to give a canonical (symplectic) discussion of non-Abelian fluid mechanics, analogous to the way the Abelian Clebsch parameterization allows a canonical description of conventional fluid mechanics.

R. Jackiw; V. P. Nair; So-Young Pi

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

360

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Impacts on Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reductions are surplus as long as they are not otherwise relied on to meet air quality attainment requirements in air quality programs related to your SIP. Enforceability: Measures that reduce emissions from electricity generation may be: (1) Enforceable...-family construction oESL Multi-family construction oESL Commercial construction 2. Green Power Production: Wind and other renewables 3. PUC SB7: Energy efficiency programs implemented by electric utilities under the Public Utility Regulatory Act 39.905 4. SECO...

Haberl,J; Bahman,Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Dynamical Reduction Models: present status and future developments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the major achievements of the dynamical reduction program, showing why and how it provides a unified, consistent description of physical phenomena, from the microscopic quantum domain to the macroscopic classical one. We discuss the difficulties in generalizing the existing models in order to comprise also relativistic quantum field theories. We point out possible future lines of research, ranging from mathematical physics to phenomenology.

A. Bassi

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

362

Absorption of chromium and reduction of chromate by subterranean clover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and serpentine soils can be found in various places around the world, especially in South Africa and Russia (Bartlett and James, 1996). In the last few decades, chroiniuin has become needed industrially, resulting in the mining and redistribution of Cr all... OF SCIENCE August 1999 Major Subject: Soil Science ABSORPTION OF CHROMIUM AND REDUCTION OF CHROMATE BY SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER A Thesis by JULIE ANN HOWE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Howe, Julie Ann

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Energy Cost Reduction Measures Identified for Texas State Agencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conservation opportunities and capital intensive energy cost reduction measures. Though more square feet was audited in 1984, more utility cost savings per square foot were identified in 1986. Changes in the screening process, the audit report format... square foot for the audited facilities by building type. Maintenance and operation savings are included in this table. A sufficient number of academic buildings, medical research facilities, libraries, hospitals, and office buildings were audited...

Grigg, T. J.; Verdict, M. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

366

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

367

D-Area Sulfate Reduction Studty Comprehensive Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. A Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP) (WSRC 2001) was implemented to evaluate the potential for the sulfate reduction remediation of the DCPRB acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume. The following studies, implemented as part of the TSWP, are documented herein: Bacteria Population and Organic Selection Laboratory Testing; DTT-1 Trench Evaluation; DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 1; and DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. Evaluation of sulfate reduction applicability actually began with a literature search and feasibility report in mid 2001, which fed into the TSWP. Physical completion of TSWP work occurred in late 2004 with the completion of the DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. The following are the primary conclusions drawn based upon this 3-year effort: (1) Pure soybean oil provides a long-term, indirect, SRB carbon source that floats on top of the water table (by indirect it means that the soybean oil must be degraded by other microbes prior to utilization by SRB) for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Soybean oil produces no known SRB inhibitory response and therefore large quantities can be injected. (2) Sodium lactate provides a short-term, immediately available, direct, SRB carbon source that is miscible with the groundwater and therefore flows with the groundwater until it has been completely utilized for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Lactate at elevated concentrations (greater than 6 g/L) does produce a SRB inhibitory response and therefore small quantities must be injected frequently. (3) The use of limestone to buffer the contaminated groundwater facilitates sulfate reduction remediation through the injection of organic substrate. Additionally conclusions and recommendations are made in Sections 8 and 9 regarding continuation of this study, the potential for an interim action, and the final remediation once discharge to the DCPRB has been discontinued.

Phifer, M

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

368

Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evaluation of kinetic controls on sulfate reduction in a contaminated wetland-aquifer system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems is identifying key kinetic controls on important redox reactions such as sulfate reduction. Anaerobic microbial activities like sulfate reduction are of particular interest because of the important role they play in the degradation of contaminants...

Kneeshaw, Tara Ann

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

CO2 Reduction on Supported Ru/Al2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO2 Reduction on Supported RuAl2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence of Product Selectivity. CO2 Reduction on Supported RuAl2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence of Product...

371

E-Print Network 3.0 - advisor model risk-reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advisor model risk-reduction Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Comparing Risk Reductions: On the...

372

Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R reduction. Neither requires that the simulator be modi ed to accept the reduced trace. This research

Smaragdakis, Yannis

373

A Reduction for Automated Veri cation of Authentication Scott D. Stoller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Reduction for Automated Veri cation of Authentication Protocols Scott D. Stoller Computer Science of those case studies were not rigorously justi ed. Reduction theorems are needed, which show

Stoller, Scott

374

Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide yet versatile method to simultaneously achieve the exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide of crumpled, few-layer thick and electronically conductive graphitic sheets. Using the microwave exfoliated

375

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Wall-pressure and PIV analysis for microbubble drag reduction investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

friction reductions were observed when the microbubbles were injected. Several measurements of wall-pressure were taken at various Reynolds numbers that ranged from 300 up to 6154. No significant drag reduction was observed for flows in the laminar range...

Dominguez Ontiveros, Elvis Efren

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

378

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

379

Optical absorption and band gap reduction in (Fe1-xCrx)2O3 solid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical absorption and band gap reduction in (Fe1-xCrx)2O3 solid solutions: A first-principles study. Optical absorption and band gap reduction in (Fe1-xCrx)2O3 solid solutions: A...

380

Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea SCR...

382

Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

383

Theoretical and practical aspects of linear and nonlinear model order reduction techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model order reduction methods have proved to be an important technique for accelerating time-domain simulation in a variety of computer-aided design tools. In this study we present several new techniques for model reduction ...

Vasilyev, Dmitry Missiuro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report. Science Press,Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of Chinas CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of Chinas Cement

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information for establishing a conceptual approach to a five-year technical program plan for research and development of nuclear arms reductions verification and transparency technologies and procedures.

Doyle, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

PHOTOCHEMICAL CO2 REDUCTION BY RHENUIM AND RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to fuels or useful chemicals using renewable solar energy is an attractive solution to both the world's need for fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Rhenium(I) and ruthenium(II) diimine complexes have been shown to act as photocatalysts and/or electrocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction to CO. We have studied these photochemical systems focusing on the identification of intermediates and the bond formation/cleavage reactions between the metal center and CO{sub 2}. For example, we have produced the one-electron-reduced monomer (i.e. Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S where dmb = 4,4'-dimethy-2,2'-bipyridine and S = solvent) either by reductive quenching of the excited states of fac-[Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)]PF{sub 6} or by photo-induced homolysis of [Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2}. We previously found that: (1) the remarkably slow dimerization of Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S is due to the absence of a vacant coordination site for Re-Re bond formation, and the extra electron is located on the dmb ligand; (2) the reaction of Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S with CO{sub 2} forms a CO{sub 2}-bridged binuclear species (CO){sub 3}(dmb)Re-CO(O)-Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3} as an intermediate in CO formation; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of reactions are consistent with the interaction of the CO{sub 2}-bridged binuclear species with CO{sub 2} to form CO and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}.

FUJITA,E.; MUCKERMAN, J.T.; TANAKA, K.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

Texas Air Quality Status and the Texas Emission Reduction Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Through Energy Efficiency Conference ? Galveston, Texas ? October 10, 2012 0.0 1.3 2.7 4.0 5.3 6.7 8.0 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011...Texas Air Quality Status and the Texas Emission Reduction Plan Susana M. Hildebrand, P.E., Chief Engineer Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference ? Galveston, Texas ? October 10, 2012...

Hildebrand, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, was developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs.

Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Mundorf, William R.

2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

391

Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

393

Energy Reduction Projects to Help Nissan Reach BBBP Goals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Reduction Projects to Help Nissan Reach BBBP Goals Brett Rasmussen, PE, CEM Senior Energy Engineer Nissan North America May 23, 2013 ESL-IE-13-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans..., LA. May 21-24, 2013 ? ? ? Smyrna, TN Decherd, TN Canton, MS NISSAN?S U.S. PLANTS 2 ESL-IE-13-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Bill Kruger Signs the Save Energy Now...

Rasmussen, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Ultrafast reduction of the total magnetization in iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surprisingly, if a ferromagnet is exposed to an ultrafast laser pulse, its apparent magnetization is reduced within less than a picosecond. Up to now, the total magnetization, i.e., the average spin polarization of the whole valence band, was not detectable on a sub-picosecond time scale. Here, we present experimental data, confirming the ultrafast reduction of the total magnetization. Soft x-ray pulses from the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) extract polarized cascade photoelectrons from an iron layer excited by a femtosecond laser pulse. The spin polarization of the emitted electrons is detected by a Mott spin polarimeter.

Fognini, A., E-mail: afognini@phys.ethz.ch; Michlmayr, T. U.; Salvatella, G.; Vaterlaus, A.; Acremann, Y., E-mail: acremann@solid.phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, Otto-Stern-Weg 1, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wetli, C. [Multifunktionale Ferroische Mat., Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ramsperger, U.; Bhler, T.; Pescia, D. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sorgenfrei, F.; Beye, M.; Eschenlohr, A.; Pontius, N.; Fhlisch, A. [Institut fr Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Stamm, C. [Institut fr Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Hnggerbergring 64, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hieke, F.; Dell'Angela, M.; Wurth, W. [Institut fr Experimentalphysik and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Universitt Hamburg, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jong, S. de; Drr, H. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); and others

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Volume reduction and vitrification of nuclear waste with thermal plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for efficient and safe destruction of organics and vitrification of low/medium level radioactive waste is presented. A transferred arc plasma torch is employed as the heat source. The process handles several types of feed: combustibles, inorganic materials and metals. A non-leaching glassy solid which can be stored without further treatment is obtained as the final product. High volume-reduction factors can be achieved with this process. A wet gas cleaning system leads to extremely clean off-gas.

Hoffelner, W. [Moser-Glaser and Co., Muttenz (Switzerland); Chrubasik, A. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Eschenbach, R.C. [RETECH Inc., Ukiah, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

Hampikian, Janet M (Decatur, GA); Hunt, Eden M (Atlanta, GA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

Jacobson, D.; High, C.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

John F. Stolz

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

National Idling Reduction Network News - July 2009 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugust 2012NEVADAEnergy Early09 National Idling Reduction

400

National Idling Reduction Network News - July 2010 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugust 2012NEVADAEnergy Early09 National Idling Reduction0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

FACT SHEET: Draft Advanced Fossil Energy Solicitation to Support Reductions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof EnergyHouse11forPre-Application (IIP)atReduction;'FACT|in

402

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reductive dechlorination Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assess the reductive dechlorination kinetics ... Source: Lffler, Frank E. - School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Collection:...

403

Catalysis of Reduction and Oxidation Reactions for Application in Gas Particle Filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study is a first part of an investigation addressing the simultaneous occurrence of oxidation and reduction reactions in catalytic filters. It has the objectives (a) to assess the state of knowledge regarding suitable (types of) catalysts for reduction and oxidation, (b) to collect and analyze published information about reaction rates of both NOx reduction and VOC oxidation, and (c) to adjust a lab-scale screening method to the requirements of an activity test with various oxidation/reduction catalysts.

Udron, L.; Turek, T.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas

405

Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

406

Feedback reduction techniques and fairness in multi-user MIMO broadcast channels with random beamforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.72.5 MMSE Receivers and Feedback . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.1 Feedback Reduction Techniques Exploiting Spa- tial

Pugh, Matthew Owen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive

Dumas, Laurent

408

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts reduction and densification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock play a crucial role in the preprocessing and supply of biomass. Size reduction is an operation where the size distribution of biomass particles

409

Kinematic Reduction and Planning using Symmetry for a Variable Inertia Mechanical System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction [11][7] using the system's symmetry for a simple mechanical system called the Yaw model (see FigKinematic Reduction and Planning using Symmetry for a Variable Inertia Mechanical System Ravi present controllability results and kinematic reduction for a variable inertia mechanical system. We show

410

ASSESSING THE LIQUEFACTION RISK REDUCTION OF REINFORCED SOILS: A HOMOGENIZATION APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquefaction risk reduction factor. Then section 4 develops the same evaluation for a cross trench reinforcedASSESSING THE LIQUEFACTION RISK REDUCTION OF REINFORCED SOILS: A HOMOGENIZATION APPROACH Maxime for the reduction of the liquefaction risk, which can be expected from reinforcing the soil by a periodic array

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

In: Speech Communication 26(4), pp. 259282 (December 1998). Dimensionality Reduction of Electropalatographic Data Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: electropalatography (EPG), articulatory modelling, data reduction methods, dimen­ sionality we approach the problem of finding such a dimensionality reduction mapping, not from a physical pointIn: Speech Communication 26(4), pp. 259­282 (December 1998). Dimensionality Reduction

Edinburgh, University of

412

A Bayesian approach for polarimetric data reduction: the Mueller imaging case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in physics. References and links 1. J. Zallat, and Ch. Heinrich, "Polarimetric data reduction: a BayesianA Bayesian approach for polarimetric data reduction: the Mueller imaging case Jihad Zallat a formerly introduced Bayesian approach dealing with polarimetric data reduction and robust clustering

Genaud, Stéphane

413

Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators Cornelis F. de Hoop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators by Cornelis F. de Hoop Amith Hanumappa to seriously investigate and execute the methods required to carry out a successful fuel reduction project operations wherein fuel reduction is a primary management objective. Literature on this wave of activity

Wu, Qinglin

414

FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM THESIS ABSTRACT FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of harvesting

Bolding, M. Chad

415

Poverty Reduction during the Rural-Urban Transformation -The Role of the Missing Middle *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Poverty Reduction during the Rural-Urban Transformation - The Role of the Missing Middle * Luc (rural diversification versus agglomeration in mega-cities) affects the rate of poverty reduction towns ) is strongly associated with poverty reduction, while expansion of mega-cities is not. Migration

Krivobokova, Tatyana

416

Analyzing the effectiveness of alternative fuel reductions of a forested landscape in Northeastern China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analyzing the effectiveness of alternative fuel reductions of a forested landscape in Northeastern reduction, and fiscal input. We used the LANDIS model to study the effects of alternative fuel reduction to the effective fire suppression started in the early 1950s. Consequently, high fuel accumulation coupled

He, Hong S.

417

The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker Charles University in Prague Banff workshop November 2014 #12;Outline and notation Outline Basic CSP reductions ­ 3 views Questions Basic CSP reductions revisited Notation A . . . finite set of relations on A A . . . the clone

Barto, Libor

418

FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

McCord, Samuel Adam

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Biogeochemical Processes Controlling Microbial Reductive Precipitation of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on elucidating the principal biogeochemical reactions that govern the concentrations, chemical speciation, and distribution of the redox sensitive contaminants uranium (U) and technetium (Tc) between the aqueous and solid phases. The research is designed to provide new insights into the under-explored areas of competing geochemical and microbiological oxidation-reduction reactions that govern the fate and transport of redox sensitive contaminants and to generate fundamental scientific understanding of the identity and stoichiometry of competing microbial reduction and geochemical oxidation reactions. These goals and objectives are met through a series of hypothesis-driven tasks that focus on (1) the use of well-characterized microorganisms and synthetic and natural mineral oxidants, (2) advanced spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to monitor redox transformations of U and Tc, and (3) the use of flow-through experiments to more closely approximate groundwater environments. The results are providing an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that govern the redox dynamics of radionuclides in subsurface environments. For purposes of this poster, the results are divided into three sections: (1) influence of Ca on U(VI) bioreduction; (2) localization of biogenic UO{sub 2} and TcO{sub 2}; and (3) reactivity of Mn(III/IV) oxides.

Fredrickson, James K.; Brooks, Scott C.

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energys (DOEs) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

426

Mechanisms of vectorial transmembrane reduction of viologens across phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zero-order kinetics were observed for one-electron transmembrane oxidation-reduction in vectorially organized phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing entrapped viologens and chemical reductants in the external aqueous phase. Oxygenation-reduction cycling established that the viologen was retained within the vesicle during this reaction. The rate were independent of the identities of the reactants and concentration of reductant as well as a wide variety of medium conditions. At high salt concentration, however, reduction of N,N[prime]-diheptyl-4,4[prime]-bipyridinium ion [(C[sub 7])[sub 2]V[sup 2+

Kuhn, E.R.; Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

1993-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Sloane, Thompson M. (Oxford, MI); Hilden, David L. (Shelby Township, MI); Mulawa, Patricia A. (Clinton Township, MI); Lee, Jong H. (Rochester Hills, MI); Cheng, Shi-Wai S. (Troy, MI)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of theTWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction would be 35% lowerwould result in a CO2 emissions reduction of over 9.1

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theUS $/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) CCF RankUS$/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) * The

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

KAPLAN, DANIEL

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

431

Iterative methods for dose reduction and image enhancement in tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for creating a three dimensional cross sectional image of an object by the reconstruction of its projections that have been iteratively refined through modification in object space and Fourier space is disclosed. The invention provides systems and methods for use with any tomographic imaging system that reconstructs an object from its projections. In one embodiment, the invention presents a method to eliminate interpolations present in conventional tomography. The method has been experimentally shown to provide higher resolution and improved image quality parameters over existing approaches. A primary benefit of the method is radiation dose reduction since the invention can produce an image of a desired quality with a fewer number projections than seen with conventional methods.

Miao, Jianwei; Fahimian, Benjamin Pooya

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

NONE

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

435

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.410{sup 6}2.710{sup 10} VLPs cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

Coates, John D.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

Kent Carlson

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

439

Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Duemmer, C.L. [Hull, Duemmer and Garland (United States)

1997-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

440

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

David Rencher

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the technical issues, associated with implementing this process improvement are addressed, the results discussed, effectiveness of Lessons Learned evaluated, and waste savings presented.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitricformicglycolic and nitricformicsugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitricformicglycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitricglycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitricformic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitricglycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

443

Need for guidance and controls on royalty rate reductions for federal coal leases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Secretary of the Interior has used his authority to reduce royalty rates on eight Federal coal leases - amounting to $12 million in reduced Federal revenues. Requests for royalty rate reductions were precipitated by recent legislative enactments and a 2-year departmental experiment that raised royalty rates on coal leases to significantly higher levels. Because the Secretary is authorized to readjust the royalty rates on 438 leases by 1990 more requests for royalty reductions are likely in the future. The Interior Department has not clearly defined its policy and procedures on royalty rate reductions. The approval process is inconsistent, and accounting and auditing expertise needed to evaluate reduction requests have not been used adequately. GAO recommends that Interior develop a more clearly defined policy and accompanying regulations on royalty rate reductions, determine when audits of applicants' financial statements are needed, and better use existing financial expertise in its evaluations of reduction requests.

Not Available

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Proposal for User-defined Reductions in OpenMP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reductions are commonly used in parallel programs to produce a global result from partial results computed in parallel. Currently, OpenMP only supports reductions for primitive data types and a limited set of base language operators. This is a significant limitation for those applications that employ user-defined data types (e. g., objects). Implementing manual reduction algorithms makes software development more complex and error-prone. Additionally, an OpenMP runtime system cannot optimize a manual reduction algorithm in ways typically applied to reductions on primitive types. In this paper, we propose new mechanisms to allow the use of most pre-existing binary functions on user-defined data types as User-Defined Reduction (UDR) operators. Our measurements show that our UDR prototype implementation provides consistently good performance across a range of thread counts without increasing general runtime overheads.

Duran, A; Ferrer, R; Klemm, M; de Supinski, B R; Ayguade, E

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

445

Multi-leg One-loop Massive Amplitudes from Integrand Reduction via Laurent Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the application of a novel reduction technique for one-loop scattering amplitudes based on the combination of the integrand reduction and Laurent expansion. We describe the general features of its implementation in the computer code NINJA, and its interface to GoSam. We apply the new reduction to a series of selected processes involving massive particles, from six to eight legs.

Hans van Deurzen; Gionata Luisoni; Pierpaolo Mastrolia; Edoardo Mirabella; Giovanni Ossola; Tiziano Peraro

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

Observed Holiday Aerosol Reduction and Temperature Cooling over East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Spring Festival air pollution in China was investigated using the long-term observations from 2001-2012 over 323 stations. During the Spring Festival with nearly half of urban population leaving the cities for holidays, the particulate matter (PM10) concentration is about 24.5?gm-3 (23%) lower than normal days. Associated with the national-wide burning of firework, the PM10 concentration sharply increases to 123.8?gm-3 at Chinese New Year Day (increment of 35%). Similar to PM10, the SO2 and NO2 decrease from high values in normal days to a holiday minimum with reduction of 23.3% and 30.6%, respectively. The NO2 has no peak in New Year Day because of the different emission source. The night mean and minimum temperature co-vary with PM10. Both nighttime mean and minimum temperature decrease by about 2.1C during the holidays. And in association with the pollution jump at New Year Day the night temperature simultaneously increase by about 0.89C. The in-phase co-variations between PM10 and night temperature suggest an overall warming effect of holiday aerosol during winter in China.

Gong, Daoyi; Wang, Wenshan; Qian, Yun; Bai, Wenbing; Guo, Yuanxi; Mao, Rui

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

Cummins, Kelly [DOE/NNSA (United States); Bolshinsky, Igor [INL/NNSA (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Artifact reduction in industrial computed tomography via data fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the most stressed part of a gas turbine the first row of turbine blades is not only a challenge for the materials used. Also the testing of these parts have to meet the highest standards. Computed tomography (CT) as the technique which could reveal the most details also provides the biggest challenges [1]: A full penetration of large sized turbine blades is often only possible at high X-ray voltages causing disproportional high costs. A reduction of the X-ray voltage is able to reduce these arising costs but yields non penetration artifacts in the reconstructed CT image. In most instances, these artifacts manifests itself as blurred and smeared regions at concave edges due to a reduced signal to noise ratio. In order to complement the missing information and to increase the overall image quality of our reconstruction, we use further imaging modalities such as a 3-D Scanner and ultrasonic imaging. A 3-D scanner is easy and cost effective to implement and is able to acquire all relevant data simultaneously with the CT projections. If, however, the interior structure is of supplemental interest, an ultrasonic imaging method is additionally used. We consider this data as a priori knowledge to employ them in an iterative reconstruction. To do so, standard iterative reconstruction methods are modified to incorporate the a priori data in a regularization approach in combination with minimizing the total variation of our image. Applying this procedure on turbine blades, we are able to reduce the apparent artifacts almost completely.

Schrapp, Michael; Goldammer, Matthias; Stephan, Jrgen [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

451

Background reduction and sensitivity for germanium double beta decay experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germanium detectors have very good capabilities for the investigation of rare phenomena like the neutrinoless double beta decay. Rejection of the background entangling the expected signal is one primary goal in this kind of experiments. Here, the attainable background reduction in the energy region where the neutrinoless double beta decay signal of 76Ge is expected to appear has been evaluated for experiments using germanium detectors, taking into consideration different strategies like the granularity of the detector system, the segmentation of each individual germanium detector and the application of Pulse Shape Analysis techniques to discriminate signal from background events. Detection efficiency to the signal is affected by background rejection techniques, and therefore it has been estimated for each of the background rejection scenarios considered. Finally, conditions regarding crystal mass, radiopurity, exposure to cosmic rays, shielding and rejection capabilities are discussed with the aim to achieve a background level of 10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the region of interest, which would allow to explore neutrino effective masses around 40 meV.

H. Gmez; S. Cebrin; J. Morales; J. A. Villar

2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

452

Time-to-Compromise Model for Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a new model for estimating the time to compromise a system component that is visible to an attacker. The model provides an estimate of the expected value of the time-to-compromise as a function of known and visible vulnerabilities, and attacker skill level. The time-to-compromise random process model is a composite of three subprocesses associated with attacker actions aimed at the exploitation of vulnerabilities. In a case study, the model was used to aid in a risk reduction estimate between a baseline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and the baseline system enhanced through a specific set of control system security remedial actions. For our case study, the total number of system vulnerabilities was reduced by 86% but the dominant attack path was through a component where the number of vulnerabilities was reduced by only 42% and the time-to-compromise of that component was increased by only 13% to 30% depending on attacker skill level.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O. [AREVA, 33 rue Lafayette, F-75009 Paris (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Stoichiometric CO reduction by supported metal carbonyls. Annual report Dec 82-Jan 83  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project objective is to study stoichiometric reactions on supported organometallic complexes with emphasis on the reduction of carbon monoxide. Previous work in their laboratory has shown that the homogeneous proton-induced reduction of CO to CH4 in metal carbonyls in neat super acid is greatly dependent on the metal cluster nuclearity. A study of the effect of metal nuclearity on the heterogeneous reduction of CO should provide insight on the physical requirements for CO reduction. Ways to improve product selectivity in this complex reaction may also result from such a study.

Shriver, D.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OCt. 1986, p. 751-757 0099-224086100751-0702.000 Summary: ) reduction in sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions and depth profiles of oxalate-extractable...

457

Reduction of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust via Two-Step Plasma...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Citation: Tonkyn RG, SE Barlow, and J Hoard.2003."Reduction of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust via Two-Step Plasma-Catalysis Treatment."Applied Catalysis. B,...

458

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, Chinasthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-biological reduction integrated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

UOW Environment ManagementUOW Environment Management Summary: responses)gy g ( p ) Energy consumption reduction (205) RenewableAlternative energy Carbon (135)gy... ( ) -...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerodynamic drag reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aerodynamic drag reduction Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Strategies for In-Cylinder Reductions to Reach Bin 2 and LEV...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Project Dual Loop EGR VTG Boost System Baseline: 2.0L Bin 5 Production Diesel Advanced Air Management Controls achieved: 2% reduction in fuel consumption on...

462

Overview of Vehicle Test and Analysis Results from NREL's A/C Fuel Use Reduction Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes results of air-conditioning fuel use reduction technologies and techniques for light-duty vehicles evaluated over the last 10 years.

Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.; Farrington, R. B.; Lustbader, J.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J. P.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A Non-Aqueous Reduction Process for Purifying 153Gd Produced in Natural Europium Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gadolinium-153 is a low-energy gamma-emitter used in nuclear medicine imaging quality assurance. Produced in nuclear reactors using natural Eu2O3 targets, 153Gd is radiochemically separated from europium isotopes by europium reduction. However, conventional aqueous europium reduction produces hydrogen gas, a flammability hazard in radiological hot cells. We altered the traditional reduction method, using methanol as the process solvent to nearly eliminate hydrogen gas production. This new, non-aqueous reduction process demonstrates greater than 98% europium removal and gadolinium yields of 90%.

Johnsen, Amanda M.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Fisher, Darrell R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy Consumption Characterization and Reduction Strategies for Milling Machine Tool Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategies for Green Manufacturing, in: Proceedings of theGreen Machine Tools; Energy Consumption Reduction; Specific Energy Characterization INTRODUCTION A product undergoes three life-cycle stages: manufacturing,

Diaz, Nancy; E. Redelsheimer; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Review of technical literature and trends related to automobile mass-reduction technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projects have found a variety of different mass-reduction vehicle designs across different light-duty vehicle classes (sportscars, sedans,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in the Fithian and Muloorina Illites...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fe(III) in the Fithian and Muloorina Illites : Contrasting Extents and Rates of Bioreduction. Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in the Fithian and Muloorina Illites : Contrasting...

468

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced emission reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark Summary: 11 Agriculture 13 Pollutants summary 14 Emission reduction scenarios 15 Financial and welfare... 104 2.5.3 NMVOC...

469

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedworld-best-practice-energy-intensity-values-selected-One main reason for the energy intensity reduction in recent

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Review of technical literature and trends related to automobile mass-reduction technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engine cradle for weight reductions that vary from 1 to 12 lbs for technologies that have been used by General Motors,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Darrow, K et al. (2009), CHP Market Assessment Integratedwith combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment ingas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving deep reductions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of policies focused on emissions reductions, most notably its Emissions Trading Scheme and Clean Development... Mechanism. But it has become apparent that such...

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted percutaneous reduction Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transducer must... ., have merged real- world images with computerized tomography (CT) data, while achieving a reduction Source: Stetten, George - Department of Bioengineering,...

474

Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil fired laboratory combustion tunnel with pyridine and thiophene added to the fuel oil. Two distinct, but interrelated effects were observed. The conversion of a fixed amount of fuel nitrogen to NO in the flame increased as the fuel sulfur concentration increased. In the post-combustion gases, there was a shift in the temperature dependence of the reduction process when the sulfur combustion products were present. The extent of the NO reduction was not significantly altered, but the optimum temperature for reduction shifted to higher values as the sulfur concentration increased.

Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Tribal Request for Proposals for EPA Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Funding  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting proposals for the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Tribal Competition Request for a total of up to $1 million.

476

Competitive Reduction of Pertechnetate (99TcO4-) by Dissimilatory...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AE, JK Fredrickson, JM Zachara, A Dohnalkova, SM Heald, DA Moore, DW Kennedy, MJ Marshall, CM Wang, CT Resch, and P Nachimuthu.2011."Competitive Reduction of Pertechnetate...

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving poverty reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 14 Northwest Area Foundation Horizons Program Summary: of Change. Focusing small rural communities on poverty reduction, helping them to acknowledge and understand......

478

Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Mastication of forest biomass for wildfire hazard reduction and forest health improvement has expanded dramatically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mastication of forest biomass for wildfire hazard reduction and forest health improvement has or tree spacing is adequate to allow sufficient room for equipment operation. b. Carefully review

480

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid reduction proton Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acids, were known to be good proton conductors (see ref... of the electrolyte due to creep, evaporation and reduction of sulphate ... Source: Haile, Sossina M. - Departments of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-catalytic reduction sncr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Influence of Biogenic Fe(II) on the Extent of Microbial Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

indicating that other factors, such as blockage of the electron transfer chain and mineralogy, restricted the reduction extent. This study also revealed that the relative...

483

Fe(III) Reduction and U(VI) Immobilization by Paenibacillus sp...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of either of electron transfer mediators (ETMs) flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Maximum initial Fh reduction rates were observed at...

484

Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, originally presented on March 12, 2013.

485

application-driven power-reduction features: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This applica- tion is particularly challenging due to its demand for multiple concurrent media Smith, Jonathan M. 15 Leakage Power Reduction of Embedded Memories on FPGAs Through...

486

ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitricformicglycolic and nitricformicsugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitricformicglycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitricglycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitricformic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitricglycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300C-700C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

487

Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a radically new surface coating approach that greatly enhances the performance of thermal spray coatings. Rather than relying on a roughened grit blasted substrate surface for developing a mechanical bond between the coating and substrate, which is the normal practice with conventional thermal spraying, a hybrid approach of combining a focused laser beam to thermally treat the substrate surface in the vicinity of the rapidly approaching thermally-sprayed powder particles was developed. This new surface coating process is targeted primarily at enabling remanufacturing of components used in engines, drive trains and undercarriage systems; thereby providing a substantial global opportunity for increasing the magnitude and breadth of parts that are remanufactured through their life cycle, as opposed to simply being replaced by new components. The projected benefits of a new remanufacturing process that increases the quantity of components that are salvaged and reused compared to being fabricated from raw materials will clearly vary based on the specific industry and range of candidate components that are considered. At the outset of this project two different metal processing routes were considered, castings and forgings, and the prototypical components for each process were liners and crankshafts, respectively. The quantities of parts used in the analysis are based on our internal production of approximately 158,000 diesel engines in 2007. This leads to roughly 1,000,000 liners (assuming a mixture of 6- and 8-cylinder engines) and 158,000 crankshafts. Using energy intensity factors for casting and forgings, respectively, of 4450 and 5970 Btu-hr/lb along with the energy-induced CO2 generation factor of 0.00038 lbs CO2/Btu, energy savings of over 17 trillion BTUs and CO2 reductions of over 6.5 million lbs could potentially be realized by remanufacturing the above mentioned quantities of crankshafts and liners. This project supported the Industrial Technologies Program's initiative titled 'Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge.' To contribute to this Grand Challenge, we. pursued an innovative processing approach for the next generation of thermal spray coatings to capture substantial energy savings and green house gas emission reductions through the remanufacturing of steel and aluminum-based components. The primary goal was to develop a new thermal spray coating process that yields significantly enhanced bond strength. To reach the goal of higher coating bond strength, a laser was coupled with a traditional twin-wire arc (TWA) spray gun to treat the component surface (i.e., heat or partially melt) during deposition. Both ferrous and aluminum-based substrates and coating alloys were examined to determine what materials are more suitable for the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coating technique. Coating adhesion was measured by static tensile and dynamic fatigue techniques, and the results helped to guide the identification of appropriate remanufacturing opportunities that will now be viable due to the increased bond strength of the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coatings. The feasibility of the laser-assisted TWA (LATWA) process was successfully demonstrated in this current effort. Critical processing parameters were identified, and when these were properly controlled, a strong, diffusion bond was developed between the substrate and the deposited coating. Consequently, bond strengths were nearly doubled over those typically obtained using conventional grit-blast TWA coatings. Note, however, that successful LATWA processing was limited to ferrous substrates coated with steel coatings (e.g., 1020 and 1080 steel). With Al-based substrates, it was not possible to avoid melting a thin layer of the substrate during spraying, and this layer re-solidified to form a band of intermetallic phases at the substrate/coating interface, which significantly diminished the coating adhesion. The capability to significantly increase the bond strength with ferrous substrates and coatings may open new reman

Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

488

Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

Robert Balch

2004-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

490

RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

Robert Balch

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

Robert Balch

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

492

DEVELOPMENT OF ONE METER-LONG LITHIUM PLASMA SOURCE AND EXCIMER MODE REDUCTION FOR PLASMA WAKEFIELD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF ONE METER-LONG LITHIUM PLASMA SOURCE AND EXCIMER MODE REDUCTION FOR PLASMA WAKEFIELD 94720 K. Marsh, P. Muggli, S. Wang, and C. Joshi, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024 Abstract A one meter long reduction. 1 INTRODUCTION A one-meter long plasma source has been constructed which will permit

493

Thermal Conductivity Reduction and Thermoelectric Figure of Merit Increase by Embedding Nanoparticles in Crystalline Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of a material defined as ZT S2 T=k, where S, , k, and T are the Seebeck by nanostructuring thermoelectric materials, and the key reason for increase in ZT was the reduction of thermalThermal Conductivity Reduction and Thermoelectric Figure of Merit Increase by Embedding

494

A PRODUCTIVITY AND COST COMPARISON OF TWO NON-COMMERCIAL FOREST FUEL REDUCTION MACHINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PRODUCTIVITY AND COST COMPARISON OF TWO NON-COMMERCIAL FOREST FUEL REDUCTION MACHINES M. Chad-commercial equipment designs in a fuel reduction treatment. The machines were: 1) a swing-boom excavator (SBE) equipped with a rotary disc mulching head, and 2) a drive-to- tree flexible tracked machine (FTM) with a rotating drum

Bolding, M. Chad

495

Carbon Reduction Analysis and Action Using the CoolClimate Version date: 12/17/2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Reduction Analysis and Action Using the CoolClimate Calculator Version date: 12 of publication. Recommended citation: Cuitation: Jones, C.M. and Kammen, D.M. (2009.) Carbon Reduction Analysis research and development of advanced carbon footprint management tools for U.S. households, small

Kammen, Daniel M.

496

Microbial reduction of iron(III)-rich nontronite and uranium(VI)1 Gengxin Zhang1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Microbial reduction of iron(III)-rich nontronite and uranium(VI)1 2 Gengxin Zhang1 , John M Cosmochimica Acta9 10 Title running head: bioreduction of nontronite and uranium11 12 *Corresponding author17 examined the reduction of iron(III)-rich nontronite NAu-2 and uranium(VI) by18 Shewanella

Burgos, William

497

RECYCLING AND REMOVAL OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES AN INTERACTIVE METHOD FOR REDUCTION OF NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RECYCLING AND REMOVAL OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES ­ AN INTERACTIVE METHOD FOR REDUCTION OF NEGATIVE.borup@risoe.dk ABSTRACT: This paper describes a method for reduction of negative environmental impacts of wind turbines and an analysis of future removal and recycling processes of offshore wind turbines. The method is process

498

Enhanced activity and stability of Pt catalysts on functionalized graphene sheets for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction Rong Kou a , Yuyan Shao a , Donghai Wang a , Mark H. Engelhard a , Ja Hun Kwak a higher electrochemical surface area and oxygen reduction activity with improved stability as compared with the commercial catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical

Aksay, Ilhan A.

499

Overexpression of ATP Sulfurylase in Indian Mustard Leads to Increased Selenate Uptake, Reduction, and Tolerance1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overexpression of ATP Sulfurylase in Indian Mustard Leads to Increased Selenate Uptake, Reduction by plants appeared to be limited by its reduction, a step that is thought to be mediated by ATP sulfurylase. Here, the Arabidopsis APS1 gene, encoding a plastidic ATP sulfurylase, was constitutively overexpressed

500

User Monitor & Feedback Mechanism for Social Scientific Study on Laptop Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change among laptop users via interactive energy-usage feedback with college students as the initiali User Monitor & Feedback Mechanism for Social Scientific Study on Laptop Energy Reduction SCIENTIFIC STUDY ON LAPTOP ENERGY REDUCTION by Namrata Buddhadev APPROVED FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER

Stamp, Mark