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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report-January through March 2003  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

4-TAC 4-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project January through March 2003 Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report April 2003 Grand Junction Office U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. N0060900 GJO-2003-434-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report January through March 2003 April 2003 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Task Order Number ST03-107

3

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model of non-aqueous phase liquid flow and dissolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model was developed to simulate the flow of mixtures of aqueous and non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media and the dissolution of the non-aqueous phase in the aqueous phase. The model was used to study the effects of pore-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy on the steady state dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturation when gravity driven DNAPL displaces water from initially water saturated porous media. Pore-scale anisotropy was created by using co-oriented non overlapping elliptically shaped grains to represent the porous media. After a steady state DNAPL saturation was reached, water was injected until a new steady state DNAPL saturation was reached. The amount of trapped DNAPL was found to be greater when DNAPL is displaced in the direction of the major axes of the soil grains than when it is displaced in the direction of the minor axes of the soil grains. The amount of trapped DNAPL was also found to increase with decreasing initial saturation of the continuous DNAPL phase. For the conditions used in our simulations, the saturation of the trapped NAPL with a smaller initial DNAPL saturation was more than 3 times larger than the amount of trapped DNAPL with a larger initial saturation. These simulations were carried out assuming that the DNAPL did not dissolve in water. Simulations including the effect of dissolution of DNAPL in the aqueous phase were also performed, and effective (macroscopic) mass transfer coefficients were determined.

Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Ward, Anderson L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Technical and Economic Evaluation of Coal Tar Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Pumping Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry has become aware of potential environmental issues at some sites resulting from process residues or byproducts at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. One of the greatest challenges utility managers face in the management of these sites is the subsurface presence of coal tar, dense-non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This report, which explores the technical feasibility and life cycle costs for several coal tar DNAPL pumping alternatives, is intended to assist utilities in evalua...

2000-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2002  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

700 700 GJO-2003-411-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2002 January 2003 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Task Order Number ST03-107 Document Number N0057700 Contents DOE/Grand Junction Office Northeast Site NAPL Interim Measures Progress Report January 2003 Page ii Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ iii 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................1

6

CROWTM PROCESS APPLICATION FOR SITES CONTAMINATED WITH LIGHT NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) has successfully applied the CROWTM (Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes) process at two former manufactured gas plants (MGPs), and a large wood treatment site. The three CROW process applications have all occurred at sites contaminated with coal tars or fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) mixtures, which are generally denser than water and are classified as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). While these types of sites are abundant, there are also many sites contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, or fuel oil, which are lighter than water and lie on top of an aquifer. A third site type occurs where chlorinated hydrocarbons have contaminated the aquifer. Unlike the DNAPLs found at MGP and wood treatment sites, chlorinated hydrocarbons are approximately one and a half times more dense than water and have fairly low viscosities. These contaminants tend to accumulate very rapidly at the bottom of an aquifer. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are the major industrial chlorinated solvents that have been found contaminating soils and aquifers. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying the CROW process to sites contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Individual objectives were to determine a range of operating conditions necessary to optimize LNAPL and chlorinated hydrocarbon recovery, to conduct numerical simulations to match the laboratory experiments and determine field-scale recoveries, and determine if chemical addition will increase the process efficiency for LNAPLs. The testing consisted of twelve TCE tests; eight tests with PCE, diesel, and wood treatment waste; and four tests with a fuel oil-diesel blend. Testing was conducted with both vertical and horizontal orientations and with ambient to 211 F (99 C) water or steam. Residual saturations for the horizontal tests ranged from 23.6% PV to 0.3% PV. Also conducted was screening of 13 chemicals to determine their relative effectiveness and the selection of three chemicals for further testing.

L.A. Johnson, Jr.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Coal Tar Treatability Test Program: Chemical Oxidation Effects on Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Using Potassium Permanganate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has initiated a progressive program to investigate the effectiveness of using potassium permanganate to mitigate the impact of coal tar on groundwater at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using potassium permanganate to reduce the rate of dissolution of chemical constituents present in coal-tar-derived dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) into the surrounding groundwater. The focus of the research was 1) to develop a proof of concept for using pot...

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Technical Protocols for Assessing Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Mobility in the Subsurface at Manufactured Gas Plant Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research that has been conducted on dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mobility at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites and presents technical protocols for conducting DNAPL mobility assessments at MGP sites using currently available methodologies and/or technologies. The technical protocols address each of the primary zones of the subsurface environment: vadose zone, saturated zone, and bedrock (both competent and fractured). The report a...

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

9

Electrical resistivity for detecting subsurface non-aqueous phase liquids: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

Soils and groundwater have been contaminated by hazardous substances at many places in the United States and many other countries. The contaminants are commonly either petroleum products or industrial solvents with very low solubility in water. These contaminants are usually called non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The cost of cleaning up the affected sites in the United States is estimated to be of the order of 100 billion dollars. In spite of the expenditure of several billion dollars during the last 15 years, to date, very few, if any major contaminated site has been restored. The presence of NAPL pools in the subsurface is believed to be the main cause for the failure of previous cleanup activities. Due to their relatively low water solubility, and depending on their volume, it takes tens or even hundreds of years to deplete the NAPL sources if they are not removed from the subsurface. The intrinsic electrical resistivity of most NAPLs is typically in the range of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 12}{Omega}-m, which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of groundwater containing dissolved solids (usually in the range of a few {Omega}-m to a few thousand {Omega}-m). Although a dry soil is very resistive, the electrical resistivity of a wet soil is on the order of 100 {Omega}-m and is dependent on the extent of water saturation. For a given soil, the electrical resistivity increases with decrease of water saturation. Therefore, if part of the pore water is replaced by a NAPL, the electrical resistivity will increase. At many NAPL sites, both the vadose and phreatic zones can be partially occupied by NAPL pools. It is the great contrast in electrical resistivity between the NAPLs and groundwater that may render the method to be effective in detecting subsurface NAPLs at contaminated sites. The following experiments were conducted to investigate the change of the electrical resistivity of porous media when diesel fuel (NAPL) replaces part of the water.

Lee, K.H.; Shan, C.; Javandel, I.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Residual Saturation of Coal Tar, a Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL), in Soils at MGP Sites: March 2002 Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal tar, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), is present in the subsurface at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. EPRI initiated this research project to compile and synthesize available data on residual saturation of various NAPLs, as well as to summarize available data on groundwater quality and soil concentrations of coal tar constituents found at a number of MGP sites. The continuing EPRI research will carry out laboratory experiments to generate residual saturation values for a number of soil-...

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Recovery of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids from Contaminated Soil by CO2-Supersaturated Water Injection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Supersaturated water injection (SWI) is a novel remediation technology which is able to remove entrapped residual NAPLs from saturated porous media by both volatilization (partitioning… (more)

Li, Meichun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Application of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Containment Barriers at Manufactured Gas Plant Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status and use of containment technologies at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites and provides a framework for a rigorous evaluation of containment technologies and applicability. It identifies the performance parameters that, through additional bench- or field-scale research, would promote increased understanding of the use and limitations of containment technologies at MGP sites.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Simulator for Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP ...  

Experimentally verified and supported modeling of dense and light non-aqueous phase liquids ... CO2 exchange technologies for production of natural ga ...

14

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

16

CHEMICAL PROBLEMS OF NON-AQUEOUS FLUID-FUEL REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The three main chemical problems of non-aqueous fluidfuel reactors are selection of a fuel system which meets nuclear and thermal requirements, control of corrosion of structural materials, and development of an efficient and economical separation process. The problems of the fastneutron reactor with a core of fused NaCl, PbCl/sub 2/, UCl/sub 4/ mixture and a blanket of fused UCl/ sub 4/ are discussed, except for the separation process. Brief treatment is given the Bi- U - Pu fuel system for thermal reactors, including tentative flowsheets for the separation process. A detailed discussion of the experiments of Bareis at Brookhaven and related experiments on the distribution of various metals between liquid Bi and fused-salt solutions is given, the experimental results correlated, and application made to reactor problems. A general discussion is given of nonaqueous high-temperature separation processes (L.M.T.)

Scatchard, G.; Clark, H.M.; Golden, S.; Boltax, A.; Schuhmann, R. Jr.

1952-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Spin liquids, exotic phases and phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spin liquid, or featureless Mott-Insulator, is a theoretical state of matter firstly motivated from study on High-Tc superconductor. The most striking property of spin liquids is that they do not break any physical symmetry, ...

Ran, Ying

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Liquid Phase Sintering of Nickel Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

does not seem to be a requisite, the liquid phase being responsible for particle ..... using standard silicate bonded casting molds rather than alum.ina. 413 ...

19

Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Sun, Xuehui (Middle Island, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Nonextensive Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study an effective relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction at finite temperature in the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions. We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instability in a warm and asymmetric nuclear medium and study the consequent nuclear liquid-gas phase transition by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number and electric charge fraction. We show that nonextensive statistical effects play a crucial role in the equation of state and in the formation of mixed phase also for small deviations from the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.

A. Lavagno; D. Pigato

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol ...  

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor United States Patent

25

Electric cell with a non-aqueous electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A secondary electric cell is described which includes: a non-aqueous electrolyte, a negative electrode whose active material includes at least one alkali metal in contact with the electrolyte, and a positive electrode whose active material is suitable for intercalating the active material of the negative electrode, wherein said positive electrode includes an active compound or solid solution whose general formula is Mxx, RyX3 where: M is an element chosen from lead and tin; R is an element chosen from bismuth and antimony; and X is an element chosen from sulphur and selenium, with X having a value lying between 0 and 1 (Inclusive), and Y having a value lying between 0 and 2 (Inclusive). Such cells may be used in watches or pacemakers.

Brec, R.; Dugast, A.; Le Mehaute, A.

1982-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electric cell with a non-aqueous electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electric cell with a non-aqueous electrolyte. The cell includes a positive electrode whose active material is suitable for inserting the negative active material dynamically, a negative electrode whose active material includes at least one alkali metal, and an electrolyte, wherein said positive electrode includes at least one compound whose general formula is mx4rntp, where M represents an element chosen from among silicon, germanium, tin and lead, X represents sulphur, selenium or tellurium, R and T represent an element chosen from among copper, silver, manganese, iron, cobalt and nickel, N being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 4, P being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 2. The invention is used in connection with button type electric cells.

Le Blanc-Soreau, A.; Le Mehaute, A.; Rouxel, J.

1982-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

PHASE TRANSITION NEAR A LIQUID-GAS COEXISTENCE EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHASE TRANSITION NEAR A LIQUID-GAS COEXISTENCE EQUILIBRIUM XINFU CHEN AND XIAO-PING WANG SIAM J. Effects of small perturbations from a liquid-gas coexistence equilibrium (the Maxwell states) is studied for an isothermal (or isentropic) gas-liquid phase transition in a sealed one- dimensional finite length tube

Wang, Xiao-Ping

28

On a phase field model for solid-liquid phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distinct phases. This is the case for solid-liquid mix- tures (e.g. ice-water or alloys duringOn a phase field model for solid-liquid phase transitions S. Benzoni-Gavage , L. Chupin , D. Jamet , and J. Vovelle December 3, 2010 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Phase field equations 3 2.1 Derivation

29

Fission and Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature dependence of the liquid-drop fission barrier is considered, the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter being a parameter. Experimental and calculated data on the fission probability are compared for highly excited $^{188}$Os. The calculations have been made in the framework of the statistical model. It is concluded that the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid--gas phase transition is higher than 16 MeV.

E. A. Cherepanov; V. A. Karnaukhov

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

31

Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.

S. J. Lee; A. Z. Mekjian

1997-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

32

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help scientists predict how carbon is stored underground August 22, 2013 | Tags: Earth Sciences, Geosciences Dan Krotz 510-486-4019 dakrotz@lbl.gov red2.jpg Artistic rendition of liquid-liquid separation in a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. New research suggests that a dense liquid phase (shown in red in the background and in full atomistic detail based on computer simulations in the foreground) forms at the onset of calcium carbonate crystallization. (Credit: Berkeley Lab) Computer simulations conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could help scientists

33

Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. May 2004, Monterey, California. Charles Tabor, Randall Juhlin, Paul Darr, Julian Caballero, Joseph Daniel, David Ingle Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling More Documents & Publications Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young - Rainey STAR Center

34

Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. May 2004, Monterey, California. Charles Tabor, Randall Juhlin, Paul Darr, Julian Caballero, Joseph Daniel, David Ingle Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification Sampling More Documents & Publications Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young - Rainey STAR Center Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center

35

Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped lixmnyoz  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.z precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder.

Boyle, Timothy J. (5801 Eubank, N.E., Apt. #97, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Voigt, James A. (187 Aaramar La., Corrales, NM 87048)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Gamma-ray spectra of hexane in gas phase and liquid phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Surko et al, 1997) and liquid (Kerr et al, 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane exhibit the same probability to annihilate a positron. Only the positrophilic electrons in the valence space dominate the gamma-ray spectra, which are in good agreement with the gas phase measurement. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an averaged contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of the positrophilic electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.

Xiaoguang Ma; Feng Wang

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Gamma-ray spectra of hexane in gas phase and liquid phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Surko et al, 1997) and liquid (Kerr et al, 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane exhibit the same probability to annihilate a positron. Only the positrophilic electrons in the valence space dominate the gamma-ray spectra, which are in good agreement with the gas phase measurement. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an averaged contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of the positrophilic electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.

Ma, Xiaoguang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Multifragmentation and nuclear phase transitions (liquid-fog and liquid-gas)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid-fog phase transition. The charge distributions of the intermediate mass fragments produced in p(3.6 GeV) + Au and p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed within the statistical multifragmentation model with the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition Tc as a free parameter. The analysis presented here provides strong support for a value of Tc > 15 MeV.

V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; S. P. Avdeyev; V. K. Rodionov; A. V. Simomenko; V. V. Kirakosyan; A. Budzanowski; W. Karcz; I. Skwirczynska; E. A. Kuzmin; E. Norbeck; A. S. Botvina

2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report an analysis based on topological arguments of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

Egor Babaev; Asle Sudbo; N. W. Ashcroft

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

40

Saturation properties and liquid-gas phase transition of nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saturation properties and liquid-gas phase transition of nucleus are analysed in the framework of Hatree-Fock theory. We modify Hill-Wheller formula with a finite-size-effect parameter by fitting the zero-temperature properties of nucleus. Employing Gogny effective interaction and phenomenological expression of Coulomb energy, we give the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition of nucleus being about 12 MeV, which agrees with the result extracted from heavy-ion collision experiments. It is pointed out that a phenomenological formula of surface energy of hot nucleus is not avaliable in the region where nucleon density is far away from the normal density.

Fu-Guang Cao; Shan-de Yang

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of the Gas-Diffusion-Electrode Used as Lithium/Air Cathode in Non-aqueous Electrolyte and the Importance of Carbon Material Porosity  

SciTech Connect

The gas-diffusion-electrode used in a Li-air cell has been studied in a unique homemade electrochemical cell. Three major obstacles for the development of a feasible Li-air system were discussed with a focus on the development of a functional gas-diffusion-electrode in non-aqueous electrolytes and the way of avoiding the passivation of gas-diffusion-electrodes caused by the deposition of the reduction products. It is the first time that the importance of establishing the 3-phase electrochemical interface in non-aqueous electrolyte is demonstrated by creating air-diffusion paths and an air saturated portion for an air cathode. A model mechanism of electrode passivation by the reaction products was also proposed. Lithium oxides formed during O{sub 2} reduction tend to block small pores, preventing them from further utilization in the electrochemical reaction. On the other hand, lithium oxides would accumulate inside the large pores during the reduction until the density of oxides becomes high enough to choke-off the mass transfer. Carbon materials with a high surface area associated with larger pores should be selected to make the gas-diffusion-electrode for Li-air battery. For the first time, a near linear relationship between the capacity of GDE in a non-aqueous electrolyte and the average pore diameter was demonstrated, which could be used to estimate the capacity of the GDE quantitatively.

Qu, D.; Yang, X.; Tran, C.

2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

42

Experimental observables on nuclear liquid gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Progress on nuclear liquid gas phase transition (LGPT) or critical behavior has been simply reviewed and some signals of LGPT in heavy ion collisions, especially in NIMROD data, are focused. These signals include the power-law charge distribution, the largest fluctuation of the fragment observables, the nuclear Zipf law, caloric curve and critical exponent analysis etc.

Y. G. Ma

2006-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Critical Temperature for the Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The charge distribution of the intermediate mass fragments produced in p (8.1 GeV) + Au collisions is analyzed in the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model with the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition $T_c$ as a free parameter. It is found that $T_c=20\\pm3$ MeV (90% CL).

V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; S. P. Avdeyev; E. V. Duginova; V. K. Rodionov; A. Budzanowski; W. Karcz; O. V. Bochkarev; E. A. Kuzmin; L. V. Chulkov; E. Norbeck; A. S. Botvina

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Zipf's Law in the Liquid Gas Phase Transition of Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zipf's law in the field of linguistics is tested in the nuclear disassembly within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank $n$ in the charge (or mass) list shows exactly inversely to its rank, i.e., there exists Zipf's law, at the phase transition temperature. This novel criterion shall be helpful to search the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the finite size scaling of the effective phase transition temperature at which the Zipf's law appears is studied for several systems with different mass and the critical exponents of $\

Y. G. Ma

2000-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter including strangeness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of strange hadronic matter at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition is studied as a function of the strangeness fraction. The pressure of the system cannot remain constant during the phase transition, since there are two independent conserved charges (baryon and strangeness number). In a range of temperatures around 15 MeV (precise values depending on the model used) the equation of state exhibits multiple bifurcates. The difference in the strangeness fraction $f_s$ between the liquid and gas phases is small when they coexist. The critical temperature of strange matter turns out to be a non-trivial function of the strangeness fraction.

P. Wang; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence: A review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field.

Ph. Chomaz

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

Liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter is studied utilizing an extended Furnstahl-Serot-Tang model with nucleons and hyperons. The system is treated as of two components. The phase transition is analyzed by investigating the stability of the system and Gibbs conditions for phase equilibrium. A two-dimensional binodal surface resulted from the two-phase equilibrium, namely the phase boundary, is obtained. For each temperature ranging from T = 8 MeV to T = 12 MeV, a limit pressure on the binodal surface section is found, while a critical point is spotted for the temperature around T = 13 MeV. The Maxwell constructions are also illustrated to give a vivid description of the course of the phase transition. Moreover, the entropy per baryon and heat capacity per baryon as functions of temperature are examined. The entropy is continuous during the phase transition but the heat capacity is discontinuous, indicating that the phase transition is of second order. By these efforts, the L-G phase transition can be concluded to exist in the strange hadronic matter.

Li Yang; Wei Liang Qian; Ru-Keng Su; Hong Qiu Song

2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Continental Liquid-phase Stratus Clouds at SGP: Meteorological Influences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continental Liquid-phase Stratus Clouds at SGP: Meteorological Influences Continental Liquid-phase Stratus Clouds at SGP: Meteorological Influences and Relationship to Adiabacity Kim, Byung-Gon Kangnung National University Schwartz, Stephen Brookhaven National Laboratory Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Category: Cloud Properties The microphysical properties of continental stratus clouds observed over SGP appear to be substantially influenced by micrometeorological conditions, such as static stability and updraft velocity. These influences may contribute to the observed weak correlation of aerosol light scattering coefficient with cloud-drop effective radius [Kim et al., JGR, 2003], although aerosol light scattering coefficient is not necessarily the most suitable surrogate aerosol property for number concentration of cloud

50

Liquid-Gas phase transition in Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of a repulsive three-body interaction on a system of trapped ultra-cold atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensed state. The corresponding $s-$wave non-linear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is solved numerically and also by a variational approach. A first-order liquid-gas phase transition is observed for the condensed state up to a critical strength of the effective three-body force.

A. Gammal; T. Frederico; L. Tomio; Ph. Chomaz

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

51

Application of Information Theory in Nuclear Liquid Gas Phase Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information entropy and Zipf's law in the field of information theory have been used for studying the disassembly of nuclei in the framework of the isospin dependent lattice gas model and molecular dynamical model. We found that the information entropy in the event space is maximum at the phase transition point and the mass of the cluster show exactly inversely to its rank, i.e. Zipf's law appears. Both novel criteria are useful in searching the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically.

Yu-Gang Ma

2001-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

Liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, we calculate density distributions of hot nuclei enclosed in a freeze-out volume of few times the normal nuclear volume and then construct the caloric curve, with and without inclusion of radial collective flow. In both cases, the calculated specific heats $C_v$ show a peaked structure signalling a liquid-gas phase transition. Without flow, the caloric curve indicates a continuous phase transition whereas with inclusion of flow, the transition is very sharp. In the latter case, the nucleus undergoes a shape change to a bubble from a diffuse sphere at the transition temperature.

J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; S. Shlomo

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers reference to related application  

SciTech Connect

Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

Kim; Yu Seung (Los Alamos, NM), Lee; Kwan-Soo (Los Alamos, NM), Rockward; Tommy Q. T. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M dimensional two-phase (liquid and gas) flows. The main goal is to improve the mod- eling of kinetic imbalance between the phases. We present a method that solves the mix- ture (liquid-gas) mass and enthalpy equations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble of asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble of asymmetric nuclear matter K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract New calculus of the liquid-gas phase transition is developed. The appearance of the retrograde condensation is also proved. The liquid-gas phase transition in warm nuclear

57

Liquid-gas phase transition in canonical and micro-canonical ensembles of strange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-gas phase transition in canonical and micro-canonical ensembles of strange hadronic matter K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract New calculus of the liquid-gas phase transition The author has recently developed a new calculus [1,2] of the liquid-gas phase transition [3-6] in asymmetric

58

The statistical multifragmentation model for liquid-gas phase transition with a compressible nuclear liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new formulation of the statistical multifragmentation model based on the analysis of the virial expansion for a system of the nuclear fragments of all sizes. The developed model not only enables us to account for short-range repulsion, but also to calculate the surface free energy which is induced by the interaction between the fragments. We propose a new parameterization for the liquid phase pressure which allows us to introduce a compressible nuclear liquid into the statistical multifragmentation model. The resulting model is exactly solvable and has no irregular behavior of the isotherms in the mixed phase region that is typical for mean-field models. The general conditions for the 1-st and 2-nd (or higher) order phase transitions are formulated. It is shown that all endpoints of the present model phase diagram are the tricritical points, if the Fisher exponent $\\tau$ is in the range $\\{3}{2} \\le \\tau \\le 2$. The treatment of nuclear liquid compressibility allows us to reduce the tricritical endpoint density of the statistical multifragmentation model to one third of the normal nuclear density. A specific attention is paid to of the fragment size distributions in the region of a negative surface tension at supercritical temperatures.

V. V. Sagun; A. I. Ivanytskyi; K. A. Bugaev; I. N. Mishustin

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

NETL: Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent CO2 Capture Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0013865 Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is continuing the development process for a non-aqueous solvent (NAS)-based CO2 capture process that was originated at laboratory scale under an ARPA-E project. This project will conduct bench-scale testing to show the potential of the technology to reduce the parasitic energy penalty. Key technical and economic challenges and uncertainties to be addressed include solvent makeup cost, scalable regenerator design, development of a complete NAS process arrangement, and improved confidence in the capital cost estimate that will enable the scale up of the process. One major focus is identification of best-candidate NAS formulations. This will entail reducing solvent makeup costs by reducing the formulation cost. In addition, efforts will be made to reduce evaporative and degradation losses while maintaining the desired CO2 absorption chemistry. A second focus area involves advancing the design of the process. This will be done by developing and evaluating the effectiveness of two process units specific to NASs - the NAS Recovery/Wash Section and NAS Regenerator. As the project proceeds, the testing campaign will evaluate thermal regeneration energy requirements [kJt / kg CO2] and develop a detailed understanding of the operation of the process. Preliminary analyses indicate that the NAS process can reduce energy consumption by 30 to 50 percent compared to current state of the art CO2 capture processes.

60

Simulations of strongly phase-separated liquid-gas systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid-gas systems are believed to be restricted to modest density ratios of less than 10. In this article we show that reducing the speed of sound and, just as importantly, the interfacial contributions to the pressure allows lattice Boltzmann simulations to achieve high density ratios of 1000 or more. We also present explicit expressions for the limits of the parameter region in which the method gives accurate results. There are two separate limiting phenomena. The first is the stability of the bulk liquid phase. This consideration is specific to lattice Boltzmann methods. The second is a general argument for the interface discretization that applies to any diffuse interface method.

A. J. Wagner; C. M. Pooley

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

1985-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equation of state of nuclear matter suggests that at suitable beam energies the disassembling hot system formed in heavy ion collisions will pass through a liquid-gas coexistence region. Searching for the signatures of the phase transition has been a very important focal point of experimental endeavours in heavy ion collisions, in the last fifteen years. Simultaneously theoretical models have been developed to provide information about the equation of state and reaction mechanisms consistent with the experimental observables. This article is a review of this endeavour.

S. Das Gupta; A. Z. Mekjian; M. B. Tsang

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

64

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

LIQUID-GAS PHASE TRANSITION IN 3He M. Barranco, A. Polls and S. Stringari+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

911 LIQUID-GAS PHASE TRANSITION IN 3He M. Barranco, A. Polls and S. Stringari+ Departament d ligne de coexistence. Abstract.- A mean field approach is used to investigate the liquid-gas phase of températures. The prédictions for the critical point and the température dependence of the liquid and gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Dynamic Transition Theory and its Application to Gas-Liquid Phase Transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Transition Theory and its Application to Gas-Liquid Phase Transitions Tian Ma, Shouhong close links to the physics. In return the theory is applied to the physical problems. 2 #12;liquid gas #12;Objective: To study the types and the mechanisms of liquid-gas transitions. The phases correspond

Wang, Shouhong

67

Calculations of free energies in liquid and solid phases: Fundamental measure density-functional approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculations of free energies in liquid and solid phases: Fundamental measure density, a theoretical description of the free energies and correlation functions of hard-sphere (HS) liquid and solid-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, free energies of liquid and solid phases with many interaction potentials can be obtained

Song, Xueyu

68

thors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representation of a phase diagram for the surface region. Ice is also believed to have a surface region of the liquid phase during the melting of ice appears to occur in the disordered surface region, and further melthors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative

69

High Rate Oxygen Reduction in Non-aqueous Electrolytes with the Addition of Perfluorinated Additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discharge rate capability of Li-air batteries is substantially increased by using perfluorinated compounds as oxygen carriers. The solubility of oxygen in a non-aqueous electrolyte can be significantly increased by the introduction of such compounds, which leads to the increase in the diffusion-limited current of oxygen reduction on the gas diffusion electrode in a Li-air battery. The perfluorinated compound is found to be stable within the electrochemical window of the electrolyte. A powder microelectrode and a rotating disk electrode were used to study the gas diffusion-limited current together with a rotating disk electrode. A 5 mA cm{sup -2} discharge rate is demonstrated in a lab Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; Zheng, D.; Qu, D.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Echos of the liquid-gas phase transition in multifragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general discussion is made concerning the ways in which one can get signatures about a possible liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter. Microcanonical temperature, heat capacity and second order derivative of the entropy versus energy formulas have been deduced in a general case. These formulas are {\\em exact}, simply applicable and do not depend on any model assumption. Therefore, they are suitable to be applied on experimental data. The formulas are tested in various situations. It is evidenced that when the freeze-out constraint is of fluctuating volume type the deduced (heat capacity and second order derivative of the entropy versus energy) formulas will prompt the spinodal region through specific signals. Finally, the same microcanonical formulas are deduced for the case when an incomplete number of fragments per event are available. These formulas could overcome the freeze-out backtracking deficiencies.

Al. H. Raduta; Ad. R. Raduta

2001-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition and supernovae evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the large density fluctuations appearing at the onset of the first order nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can play an important role in the supernovae evolution. Due to these fluctuations, the neutrino gas may be trapped inside a thin layer of matter near the proto-neutron star surface. The resulting increase of pressure may induce strong particle ejection a few hundred milliseconds after the bounce of the collapse, contributing to the revival of the shock wave. The Hartree-Fock+RPA scheme, with a finite-range nucleon-nucleon effective interaction, is employed to estimate the effects of the neutrino trapping due to the strong density fluctuations, and to discuss qualitatively the consequences of the suggested new scenario.

Jerome Margueron; Jesus Navarro; Patrick Blottiau

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

73

Caloric curve for nuclear liquid-gas phase transition in relativistic mean-field hadronic model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main thermodynamical properties of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition were explored in the framework of the relativistic mean-field hadronic model in three statistical ensembles: canonical, grand canonical and isobaric. We have found that the liquid-gas phase transition, i.e., the first order phase transition which is defined by the plateau in the isotherms, cannot contain the plateau in the caloric curves in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. The plateau in the isotherms is incompatible with the plateau in the caloric curves at fixed baryon density. Moreover, for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition the caloric curve has a plateau only at fixed pressure or chemical potential. The results of the statistical multifragmentation models for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition were reanalyzed. It was revealed that one class of statistical multifragmentation models do indeed predict the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition for the nuclear multifragmentation. However, there is another class o...

Parvan, A S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Liquid-Gas Relative Permeabilities in Fractures: Effects of Flow Structures, Phase Transformation and Surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-177 Liquid-Gas Relative Permeabilities in Fractures: Effects of Flow Structures, Phase) the liquid-gas relative permeabilities in fractures can be modeled by characterizing the flow structures permeabilities in both smooth and rough fractures. For the theoretical analysis of liquid-vapor relative

Stanford University

75

Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

Freund, Samuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maier, II, William B. (Los Alamos, NM); Beattie, Willard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Holland, Redus F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

An efficient multigrid-FEM method for the simulation of solid-liquid two phase flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient multigrid-FEM method for the detailed simulation of solid-liquid two phase flows with large number of moving particles is presented. An explicit fictitious boundary method based on a FEM background grid which covers the whole computational ... Keywords: 65K99, 65M55, 65N55, Fictitious boundary method, Multigrid FEM, Solid-liquid two phase

Decheng Wan; Stefan Turek

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

Jubin, Robert T. (Powell, TN); Randolph, John D. (Maryville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Liquid-gas phase transition and its order in finite nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei is studied in a heated liquid-drop model where the drop is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the vapour emanated from it. Changing pressure along the liquid-gas coexistence line of the systems, symmetric or asymmetric, suggests that the phase transition is a continuous one. This is further corroborated from the study of the thermal evolution of the entropy at constant pressure.

Tapas Sil; S. K. Samaddar; J. N. De; S. Shlomo

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

80

Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Measurement of Liquid to Gel Phase Transition Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The agar is a hydrophilic colloid extracted from some red marine algae which are soluble in boiling water, and performed a reversible liquid to gel ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

82

Two-Phase Liquid Dielectrics - Industrial Partnerships Office  

Industry uses liquid dielectrics for a number of applications. For example, Mineral oil is used extensively inside electrical transformers as a fluid dielectric and ...

83

Heat capacity of liquids: an approach from the solid phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the energy and heat capacity of a liquid on the basis of its elastic properties and vibrational states. The experimental decrease of liquid heat capacity with temperature is attributed to the increasing loss of two transverse modes with frequency $\\omegacapacity is related to viscosity and is compared with the experimental data of mercury. We also calculate the vibrational energy of a quantum liquid, and show that transverse phonons can not be excited in the low-temperature limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of the proposed approach to liquids for the problem of glass transition.

Kostya Trachenko

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

84

Sedimentation of a two-dimensional colloidal mixture exhibiting liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation: a dynamical density functional theory study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present dynamical density functional theory results for the time evolution of the density distribution of a sedimenting model two-dimensional binary mixture of colloids. The interplay between the bulk phase behaviour of the mixture, its interfacial properties at the confining walls, and the gravitational field gives rise to a rich variety of equilibrium and non-equilibrium morphologies. In the fluid state, the system exhibits both liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation. As the system sediments, the phase separation significantly affects the dynamics and we explore situations where the final state is a coexistence of up to three different phases. Solving the dynamical equations in two-dimensions, we find that in certain situations the final density profiles of the two species have a symmetry that is different from that of the external potentials, which is perhaps surprising, given the statistical mechanics origin of the theory. The paper concludes with a discussion on this.

Alexandr Malijevsky; Andrew J. Archer

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effect of Cluster Formation on Isospin Asymmetry in the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear matter within the liquid-gas phase transition region is investigated in a mean-field two-component Fermi-gas model. Following largely analytic considerations, it is shown that: (1) Due to density dependence of asymmetry energy, some of the neutron excess from the high-density phase could be expelled into the low-density region. (2) Formation of clusters in the gas phase tends to counteract this trend, making the gas phase more liquid-like and reducing the asymmetry in the gas phase. Flow of asymmetry between the spectator and midrapidity region in reactions is discussed and a possible inversion of the flow direction is indicated.

L. Shi; P. Danielewicz

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

87

Mixing-Demixing Phase Diagram for Simple Liquids in Non-Uniform Electric Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We deduce the mixing-demixing phase diagram for binary liquid mixtures in an electric field for various electrode geometries and arbitrary constitutive relation for the dielectric constant. By focusing on the behavior of the liquid-liquid interface, we produce simple analytic expressions for the dependence of the interface location on experimental parameters. We also show that the phase diagram contains regions where liquid separation cannot occur under any applied field. The analytic expression for the boundary "electrostatic binodal" line reveals that the regions' size and shape depend strongly on the dielectric relation between the liquids. Moreover, we predict the existence of an "electrostatic spinodal" line that identifies conditions where the liquids are in a metastable state. We finally construct the phase diagram for closed systems by mapping solutions onto those of an open system via an effective liquid composition. For closed systems at a fixed temperature and mixture composition, liquid separation occurs in a finite "window" of surface potential (or charge density). Larger potentials or charge densities counterintuitively destroy the interface, leading to liquid mixing. These results give valuable guides for experiments by providing easily testable predictions for how liquids behave in non-uniform electric fields.

Jennifer Galanis; Yoav Tsori

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

required to meet the target G G G G G Introduction This project focuses on the APR of biomass-derived liquids for the production of hydrogen. We target the development of...

89

Relative Humidity in Liquid, Mixed-Phase, and Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of in situ observations of the relative humidity in liquid, mixed, and ice clouds typically stratiform in nature and associated with mesoscale frontal systems at temperatures ?45°C < Ta < ?5°C are presented. The data were collected ...

Alexei Korolev; George A. Isaac

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Chen, Meng-Hsiu (San Francisco, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Isospin dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By using the Furnstahl, Serot and Tang's model, the effect of density dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon-rho-meson (NN-rho) coupling on the liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated. A limit pressure p_lim has been found. We found that the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place if p>p_lim. The binodal surface for density dependent NN-rho coupling situation is addressed.

W. L. Qian; Ru-Keng Su; Ping Wang

2000-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition: Q.E.D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the past decade, intense experimental effort has been devoted to the search for a liquid-gas phase transition in highly excited nuclei. Now, synthesis of the large body of existing multifragmentation data provides a strong case for identification of this phenomenon. In this presentation we discuss several salient features of the data that support their interpretation in terms of a spinodal liquid-gas phase transition.

V. E. Viola

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Non-congruence of liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We first explore the liquid-gas mixed phase in a bulk calculation, where two phases coexist without the geometrical structures. In the case of symmetric nuclear matter, the system behaves congruently, and the Maxwell construction becomes relevant. For asymmetric nuclear matter, on the other hand, the phase equilibrium is no more attained by the Maxwell construction since the liquid and gas phases are non-congruent; the particle fractions become completely different with each other. One of the origins of such non-congruence is attributed to the large symmetry energy. Subsequently we explore the charge-neutral nuclear matter with electrons by fully applying the Gibbs conditions to figure out the geometrical (pasta) structures in the liquid-gas mixed phase. We emphasize the effects of the surface tension and the Coulomb interaction on the pasta structures. We also discuss the thermal effects on the pasta structures.

Toshiki Maruyama; Toshitaka Tatsumi

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

96

Non-congruence of liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We first explore the liquid-gas mixed phase in a bulk calculation, where two phases coexist without the geometrical structures. In the case of symmetric nuclear matter, the system behaves congruently, and the Maxwell construction becomes relevant. For asymmetric nuclear matter, on the other hand, the phase equilibrium is no more attained by the Maxwell construction since the liquid and gas phases are non-congruent; the particle fractions become completely different with each other. One of the origins of such non-congruence is attributed to the large symmetry energy. Subsequently we explore the charge-neutral nuclear matter with electrons by fully applying the Gibbs conditions to figure out the geometrical (pasta) structures in the liquid-gas mixed phase. We emphasize the effects of the surface tension and the Coulomb interaction on the pasta structures. We also discuss the thermal effects on the pasta structures.

Maruyama, Toshiki

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Kerr-AdS analogue of tricritical point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d=6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q=J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the `every day thermodynamics' of simple substances. For q=0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 0liquid' phase transition. Furthermore, for 0.00905liquid/gas phase transition except that the coexistence line of small and intermediate black holes does not continue for an arbitrary value of pressure (similar to the solid/liquid coexistence line) but rather terminates at one of the critical points. Finally, for q>0.0985 we observe the `standard liquid/gas behavior' of the Van der Waals fluid.

Natacha Altamirano; David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann; Zeinab Sherkatghanad

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Phase diagrams in the lattice RPM model: from order-disorder to gas-liquid phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase behavior of the lattice restricted primitive model (RPM) for ionic systems with additional short-range nearest neighbor (nn) repulsive interactions has been studied by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a rich phase behavior as the nn strength is varied. In particular, the phase diagram is very similar to the continuum RPM model for high nn strength. Specifically, we have found both gas-liquid phase separation, with associated Ising critical point, and first-order liquid-solid transition. We discuss how the line of continuous order-disorder transitions present for the low nn strength changes into the continuum-space behavior as one increases the nn strength and compare our findings with recent theoretical results by Ciach and Stell [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 91}, 060601 (2003)].

Alexandre Diehl; Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos

2004-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A in a uniform dielectric continuum. We show that the gas-liquid critical point becomes metastable with respect the primitive model, like-charge attraction has been shown to give rise to a gas-liquid phase coexistence [5

100

Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical Tian Ma and Shouhong Wang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point Tian Ma-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point Tian Ma1 and Shouhong Wang2 1 is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical

Wang, Shouhong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Liquid-gas phase transition in hot nuclei studied with INDRA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thanks to the high detection quality of the INDRA array, signatures related to the dynamics (spinodal decomposition) and thermodynamics (negative microcanonical heat capacity) of a liquid-gas phase transition have been simultaneously studied in multifragmentation events in the Fermi energy domain. The correlation between both types of signals strongly supports the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

B. Borderie; R. Bougault; P. Desesquelles; E. Galichet; B. Guiot; Ph. Lautesse; N. Le Neindre; J. Marie; M. Parlog; M. Pichon. M. F. Rivet; E. Rosato; G. Tabacaru; M. Vigilante; J. P. Wieleczko

2003-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Liquid-Gas Phase Transitions in a Multicomponent Nuclear System with Coulomb and Surface Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition is studied in a multi-component nuclear system using a local Skyrme interaction with Coulomb and surface effects. Some features are qualitatively the same as the results of Muller and Serot which uses relativistic mean field without Coulomb and surface effects. Surface tension brings the coexistance binodal surface to lower pressure. The Coulomb interaction makes the binodal surface smaller and cause another pair of binodal points at low pressure and large proton fraction with less protons in liquid phase and more protons in gas phase.

S. J. Lee; A. Z. Mekjian

2000-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Using Henry's Constant for Determining the Amount of Isoprene in the Liquid Phase The amount of isoprene in the gas phase (mols)1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure 101,000 (Pa)2. Volume of the liquid phase3. Things you need to know Math Amount of isoprene in gas = ideal gas constant 8.314 J mol-1 K-1 T = temperature of liquid phase units °K (which is 273.1 + °C) CUsing Henry's Constant for Determining the Amount of Isoprene in the Liquid Phase The amount

Last, Robert L.

104

Liquid-Phase Deposition of CIS Thin Layers: Final Report, February 2003--July 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to fabricate single-phase CIS (a-Cu-In-Se, stoichiometric composition: CuInSe2) thin films for photovoltaic applications from a liquid phase - a Cu-In-Se melt of appropriate composition. This approach of liquid-phase deposition (LPD) is based on the new phase diagram we have established for Cu-In-Se, the first complete equilibrium phase diagram of this system. The liquidus projection exhibits four composition fields in which the primary solid phase, i.e., the first solid material that forms on cooling down from an entirely liquid state, is a-CuInSe2. Remarkably, none of the four composition fields is anywhere near the stoichiometric composition (CuInSe2) of a-CuInSe2. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is indeed capable of producing films with a particularly large grain size and a correspondingly low density of grain boundaries. To obtain films sufficiently thin for solar cell applications and with a sufficiently smooth surface, it is advantageous to employ a sliding boat mechanism. Future work on liquid-phase deposition of CIS should focus on the interaction between the melt and the substrate surface, the resulting CIS interfaces, the surface morphology of the LPD-grown films, and, of course, the electronic properties of the material.

Ernst, F.; Pirouz, P.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ionic Liquid Materials as Gas Chromatography Stationary Phases and Sorbent Coatings in Solid-Phase Microextraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points below 100 °C. Their unique properties including high thermal stability, wide viscosity range,… (more)

Zhao, Qichao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Possible links between the liquid-gas and deconfinement-hadronization phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly accepted that strongly interacting matter has several phase transitions in different domains of temperature and baryon density. In this contribution I discuss two most popular phase transitions which in principle can be accessed in nuclear collisions. One of them, the liquid-gas phase transition, is well established theoretically and studied experimentally in nuclear multifragmentation reactions at intermediate energies. The other one, the deconfinement-hadronization phase transition, is at the focus of present and future experimental studies with relativistic heavy-ion beams at SPS, RHIC and LHC. Pssible links between these two phase transitions are identified from the viewpoint of their manifestation in violent nuclear collisions.

I. N. Mishustin

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

107

Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new solid and liquid phase systems new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen By Guido P. Pez Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure for Fuel Cell Vehicle Transportation Scenario A: Distributed H 2 from a Large Scale Plant (150-230 tonne/day) Large Scale H 2 Plant (300-800 psi H 2 ) H 2 Buffer Storage Tube Trailer Liquid H 2 Truck H 2 Pipeline Multi-vehicle filling stations Feedstock: N. gas, Coal, Biomass Pet. Coke, Resids. Future: Carbon sequestration Storage: Underground well? Output: Depends on the vehicle's H 2 storage technology Currently H 2 up to >6000 psi for 5000 psi tanks Scenario B: Hydrogen by a small scale reforming of pipeline natural gas and compression Natural Gas Pipeline Reformer Liquid H 2 Backup Compressor H 2 (>6000 psig) H 2 Production: 100-400 kg/day; 4-5Kg H

108

Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Hydrodynamics and energy consumption studies in a three-phase liquid circulating three-phase fluid bed contactor  

SciTech Connect

The hydrodynamics and energy consumption have been studied in a cold flow, bubbling and turbulent, pressurized gas-liquid-solid three-phase fluidized bed (0.15 m ID x 1 m height) with concurrent gas-liquid up flow is proposed with the intention of increasing the gas hold up. The hydrodynamic behaviour is described and characterised by some specific gas and liquid velocities. Particles are easily fluidized and can be uniformly distributed over the whole height of the column. The effect of parameters like liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, particle loading, particle size, and solid density on gas hold up and effect of gas flow rate, solid density and particle size on solid hold up, energy consumption and minimum fluidization velocity has been studied. At the elevated pressures a superior method for better prediction of minimum fluidization velocity and terminal settling velocities has been adopted. The results have been interpreted with Bernoulli's theorem and Richardson-Zaki equation. Based on the assumption of the gas and liquid as a pretend fluid, a simplification has been made to predict the particle terminal settling velocities. The Richardson-Zaki parameter n' was compared with Renzo's results. A correlation has been proposed with the experimental results for the three-phase fluidization. (author)

Rusumdar, Ahmad J [Thirumalai Engineering College, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu (India); Dept. of Modelling, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Abuthalib, A. [Dept. of Modelling, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Mohan, Vaka Murali; Srinivasa Kumar, C. [Dept. of CSE, New Netaji Institute of Technology, Toopranpet, Nalgonda 508 252, AP (India); Sujatha, V.; Rajendra Prasad, P. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Andhra University, College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam 530 003, AP (India)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Moving Character Observation of Bubble Rising in Vertical Gas?Liquid Two?Phase Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of bubble motion in water is a basic subject in gas?liquid two?phase flow research. A suit of visualized experimental device was designed and set up. Bubble rising in stagnant liquid in a vertical translucent rectangular tank was studied using the high?speed video system combined with digital image process methods. Several bubble parameters were calculated base on the processed images. Bubble track

H. Y. Wang; F. Dong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gas-liquid phase separation in oppositely charged colloids: stability and interfacial tension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the phase behavior and the interfacial tension of the screened Coulomb (Yukawa) restricted primitive model (YRPM) of oppositely charged hard spheres with diameter s using Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the gas-liquid and gas-solid phase transition using free energy calculations and grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations for varying inverse Debye screening length k. We find that the gas-liquid phase separation is stable for k s gas-liquid interfacial tension using grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The interfacial tension decreases upon increasing the range of the interaction. In particular, we find that simple scaling can be used to relate the interfacial tension of the YRPM to that of the restricted primitive model, where particles interact with bare Coulomb interactions.

Andrea Fortini; Antti-Pekka Hynninen; Marjolein Dijkstra

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

112

Liquid-gas Phase Transition in Strange Hadronic Matter with Weak Y-Y Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter is reexamined by using the new parameters about the $\\Lambda - \\Lambda$ interaction deduced from recent observation of $^{6}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}He$ double hypernucleus. The extended Furnstahl-Serot-Tang model with nucleons and hyperons is utilized. The binodal surface, the limit pressure, the entropy, the specific heat capacity and the Caloric curves are addressed. We find that the liquid-gas phase transition can occur more easily in strange hadronic matter with weak Y-Y interaction than that of the strong Y-Y interaction.

Li Yang; Shao Yu Yin; Wei Liang Qian; Ru-keng Su

2005-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

113

Liquid-gas mixed phase in nuclear matter at finite temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the geometrical structure of Liquid-gas (LG) mixed phase which is relevant to nuclear matter in the crust region of compact stars or supernovae. To get the equation of state (EOS) of the system, the Maxwell construction is found to be applicable to symmetric nuclear matter, where protons and neutrons behave simultaneously. For asymmetric nuclear matter, on the other hand, the phase equilibrium can be obtained by fully solving the Gibbs conditions since the components in the L and G phases are completely different. We also discuss the effects of surface and the Coulomb interaction on the mixed phase.

Toshiki Maruyama; Toshitaka Tatsumi

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

Crystalline, liquid crystalline, and isotropic phases of sodium deoxycholate in water  

SciTech Connect

Sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) is an important example of bile salts, representing systems with complex phase behavior involving both crystalline and mesophase structures. In this study, properties of NaDC-water mixtures were evaluated as a function of composition and temperature via X-ray diffraction with synchrotron (sXRD) and laboratory radiation sources, water sorption, polarized light, hot-stage microscopy, and freezing-point osmometry. Several phases were detected depending on the composition and temperature, including isotropic solution phase, liquid crystalline (LC) phase, crystalline hydrate, and ice. The LC phase was identified as hexagonal structure by sXRD, with up to 14 high-order reflections detected. The crystalline phase was found to be nonstoichiometric hydrate, based on XRD and water sorption data. The phase diagram of NaDC-water system has been refined based on both results of this study and other reports in literature.

Su, Ziyang; Luthra, Suman; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F.; Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Kumar, Satyendra; Byrn, Stephen R.; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y. (Pfizer); (Purdue); (Kent)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

115

A swollen phase observed between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol in DPPC aqueous solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A swollen phase, in which the mean repeat distance of lipid bilayers is larger than the other phases, is found between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC aqueous solution. Temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration dependences of the structure were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, and a bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was by neutron spin echo. The nature of the swollen phase is similar to the anomalous swelling reported previously. However, the temperature dependence of the mean repeat distance and the bending rigidity of lipid bilayers are different. This phase could be a precursor to the interdigitated gel phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol.

H. Seto; M. Hishida; H. Nobutou; N. L. Yamada; M. Nagao; T. Takeda

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition: Present Status and Future Perspectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

More than two decades ago, the van der Waals behavior of the nucleon - nucleon force inspired the idea of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter. Heavy-ion reactions at relativistic energies offer the unique possibility for studying this phase transition in a finite, hadronic system. A general overview of this subject is given emphasizing the most recent results on nuclear calorimetry.

J. Pochodzalla; ALADIN collaboration

1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

117

Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition within the lattice gas model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition on the basis of a two-component lattice gas model. A Metropolis type of sampling method is used to generate microscopic states in the canonical ensemble. The effective equation of state and fragment mass distributions are evaluated in a wide range of temperatures and densities. A definition of the phase coexistence region appropriate for mesoscopic systems is proposed. The caloric curve resulting from different types of freeze-out conditions are presented.

J. Borg; I. N. Mishustin; J. P. Bondorf

1998-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

118

Correlations between signals of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finite systems such as atomic nuclei present at phase transition specific features different from those observed at the thermodynamic limit. Several characteristic signals were found in samples of events resulting from heavy ion collisions at and above the Fermi energy. The concomitant observation of different signatures of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei on a given sample strongly supports the occurrence of this transition.

Marie-France Rivet; N. Le Neindre; J. P. Wieleczko; B. Borderie; R. Bougault; A. Chbihi; J. D. Frankland; M. Parlog; M. Pichon; B. Tamain; the INDRA; ALADIN Collaboration

2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

119

Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction.

Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-An Li; Hong-Ru Ma

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

To the electrostrictive mechanism of nanosecond-pulsed breakdown in liquid phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we have studied the initial stage of the nanosecond-pulsed discharge development in liquid phase. Modeling predicts that in the case of fast rising strong nonhomogeneous electric fields in the vicinity of high voltage pin electrode a region saturated with nanoscale non-uniformities may be developed. This phenomenon is attributed to the electrostriction mechanisms and may be used to explain development of breakdown in liquid phase. In this work, schlieren method was used in order to demonstrate formation of negative pressure region in liquids with different dielectric permittivity constants: water, ethanol and ethanol-water mixture. It is shown that this density perturbation, formed at the raising edge of the high voltage pulse, is followed by a generation of a shock wave propagating with the speed of sound away from the electrode, with negative pressure behind it.

Seepersad, Yohan; Pekker, Mikhail; Shneider, Mikhail N; Fridman, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Simulation of multiple fluids with solid–liquid phase?transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physically based multiphase fluid simulation has been a hot topic in computer graphics. Since there are complex changing interface topology and interactions among air, solid, and different fluids, few papers have devoted to simulate the multiple fluids ... Keywords: free surface, hierarchical lattice, multiple fluids, solid–liquid phase transition

Changbo Wang; Qiang Zhang; Huajun Xiao; Qiuyan Shen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Molecular Tagging Diagnostics for the Study of Kinematics and Mixing in Liquid-Phase Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Tagging Diagnostics for the Study of Kinematics and Mixing in Liquid-Phase Flows M. M based on molecular tagging approaches. These developments take advantage of a class of newly engineered and caged fluorescein are briefly discussed and compared. The application of molecular tagging velocimetry

Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

123

Liquid-gas phase transition in a two-components isospin lattice gas model for asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-components isospin lattice gas model has been employed to study the liquid-gas phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter. An additional degree of freedom, namely, the asymmetry parameter alpha has been considered carefully for studying the phase transition. We have shown that under the mean field approximation, the liquid-gas phase transition given by this model is of second order. The entropy continues at the phase transition point. The binodal surface is addressed.

Wei Liang Qian; Ru-Keng Su

2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

124

DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Analytical risk-based model of gaseous and liquid-phase radon transport in landfills with radium sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical model of gaseous and liquid-phase radon transport through soils is derived for environmental modeling of landfills containing uranium mill tailings or Ra-226 sources. Processes include radon diffusion in both the gas and liquid phases, ... Keywords: Landfill, Multiphase, Performance assessment, Probabilistic modeling, Radium, Radon, Transport

Clifford K. Ho

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The influence of Coulomb on the liquid-gas phase transition and nuclear multifragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition is analyzed from the topologic properties of the event distribution in the obervables space. A multi-canonical formalism allows to directly relate the standard phase transition with neutral particles to the case where the non saturating Coulomb interaction is present, and to interpret the effect of Coulomb as a deformation of the probability distributions and a rotation of the order parameter. This formalism is applied to a statistical multifragmentation model and consequences for the nuclear multifragmentation phase transitions are drawn.

F. Gulminelli; Ph. Chomaz; Al. H. Raduta; Ad. R. Raduta

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

127

Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition studied with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition of the system in ideal thermal equilibrium is studied with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The time evolution of a many-nucleon system confined in a container is solved for a long time to get a microcanonical ensemble of a given energy and volume. The temperature and the pressure are extracted from this ensemble and the caloric curves are constructed. The present work is the first time that a microscopic dynamical model which describes nuclear multifragmentation reactions well is directly applied to get the nuclear caloric curve. The obtained constant pressure caloric curves clearly show the characteristic feature of the liquid-gas phase transition, namely negative heat capacity (backbending), which is expected for the phase transition in finite systems.

Takuya Furuta; Akira Ono

2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

Isospin Lattice-Gas Model and Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An isospin lattice-gas model, which is a spin-1 Ising model, is employed to investigate the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter. We consider nuclear matter as a lattice where each lattice site can be either empty or occupied by a proton or a neutron, with a nearest-neighbor interaction among the nucleons. With the Bragg-Williams mean field approximation, we calculate various thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter for different densities and different proton-neutron asymmetry parameter s. Our model exhibits liquidgas phase transition below a critical temperature Tc, and predicts a monotonic decreasing of Tc as the magnitude of s is increased. The dependence of the nuclear matter isotherms on the asymmetry parameter s is discussed. Ray, Shamanna and Kuo / Liquid-gas phase transition in Nuclear matter 2 1.

S. Ray; J. Shamanna; T. T. S. Kuo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Third-Order Gas-Liquid Phase Transition and the Nature of Andrews Critical Point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT) system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1) the Andrews critical point is a switching point where the phase transition changes from the first order to the third order, 2) the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 3) the liquid-gas phase transition going beyond Andrews point is of the third order. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system.

Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Refusing to Twist: Demonstration of a Line Hexatic Phase in DNA Liquid Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report conclusive high resolution small angle x-ray scattering evidence that long DNA fragments form an untwisted line hexatic phase between the cholesteric and the crystalline phases. The line hexatic phase is a liquid-crystalline phase with long-range hexagonal bond-orientational order, long-range nematic order, but liquidlike, i.e., short-range, positional order. So far, it has not been seen in any other three dimensional system. By line-shape analysis of x-ray scattering data we found that positional order decreases when the line hexatic phase is compressed. We suggest that such anomalous behavior is a result of the chiral nature of DNA molecules. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Strey, H. H. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); NICHD/LPSB, National Institutes of Health, Building 12A/2041, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5626 (United States); Wang, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Corporate Strategic Research, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 (United States); Podgornik, R. [NICHD/LPSB, National Institutes of Health, Building 12A/2041, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5626 (United States); Rupprecht, A. [Physical Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, (Sweden); Yu, L. [NIAMS/LPB, National Institutes of Health, Building 6/408, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Parsegian, V. A. [NICHD/LPSB, National Institutes of Health, Building 12A/2041, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5626 (United States); Sirota, E. B. [Corporate Strategic Research, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 (United States)

2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

131

Liquid-phase dispersion during injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of water injection plumes in vapor-dominated reservoirs is examined. Stressing the similarity to water infiltration in heterogeneous soils, we suggest that ever-present heterogeneities in individual fractures and fracture networks will cause a lateral broadening of descending injection plumes. The process of lateral spreading of liquid phase is viewed in analogy to transverse dispersion in miscible displacement. To account for the postulated ``phase dispersion`` the conventional two-phase immiscible flow theory is extended by adding a Fickian-type dispersive term. The validity of the proposed phase dispersion model is explored by means of simulations with detailed resolution of small-scale heterogeneity. We also present an illustrative application to injection into a depleted vapor zone. It is concluded that phase dispersion effects will broaden descending injection plumes, with important consequences for pressure support and potential water breakthrough at neighboring production wells.

Pruess, K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Experimental two-phase liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic generator program. Annual report, October 1976--September 1977  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the second diverging-channel generator with the revised ambient-temperature NaK-N/sub 2/ facility has been completed. The primary goal of the revised facility, demonstrating reduced slip ratio (ratio of gas velocity to liquid velocity) with higher liquid velocity (flow rate), was accomplished. The reduction in slip ratio was dramatically demonstrated by a series of consecutive runs with varying flow rate (from 6 kg/s to 12 kg/s for the liquid). Substantial increases in generator efficiency were obtained with higher liquid flow rates. Experiments to demonstrate that good liquid-to-gas heat transfer exists in the generator were successfully completed. Good heat transfer is essential because it is the almost-constant-temperature expansion of the gas (vapor) in the generator that yields the higher system efficiencies for liquid-metal MHD power cycles. The feasibility of generating relatively-stable bubbles, hence, a foam, in liquid metals has been demonstrated. Photographic documentation of these phenomena, both motion and still pictures, was made. Surface tension measurements and foaming experiments have shown that viscosity is also a factor in promoting bubble formation and persistence. Wetting and contact angle measurements have been made for stainless steel and carbon steel immersed in eutectic NaK. An analytical study of the liquid shunt (wall) layer sizes and losses has shown that these losses are not expected to be significant for large generators; less than 1.0 percent decrease in efficiency is anticipated. A two-phase pressure-gradient correlation developed for MHD flows has been shown to agree to within 20 percent with the generator data.

Petrick, M.; Fabris, G.; Pierson, E.S.; Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Shear viscosity of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within a relaxation time approach using free nucleon-nucleon cross sections modified by the in-medium nucleon masses that are determined from an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, we investigate the specific shear viscosity ($\\eta/s$) of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition. It is found that as the nucleonic matter is heated at fixed pressure or compressed at fixed temperature, its specific shear viscosity shows a valley shape in the temperature or density dependence, with the minimum located at the boundary of the phase transition. Moreover, the value of $\\eta/s$ drops suddenly at the first-order liquid-gas phase transition temperature, reaching as low as $4\\sim5$ times the KSS bound of $\\hbar/4\\pi$. However, it varies smoothly for the second-order liquid-gas phase transition. Effects of the isospin degree of freedom and the nuclear symmetry energy on the value of $\\eta/s$ are also discussed.

Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li; Yu-Gang Ma

2013-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

Rapid liquid phase epitaxial growth studies of GaAs: Final report, July 1984-June 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single crystal layers of gallium arsenide have been grown on (111) and (100) oriented GaAs substrates from a flowing, GaAs saturated, gallium solution with a few degrees temperature differential across the liquid/solid interface. Very high growth rates, on the order of 8..mu..m per minute, have been observed. Such rates are in agreement with the growth theory developed as part of this program, and are about two orders greater than those typically achieved in conventional, static solution, liquid phase epitaxy. Both undoped and p-doped (Si) GaAs layers have been grown and some of their material properties measured. Good crystallinity was inferred from the narrowness of x-ray diffraction lines and from the intensities of the photoluminescence responses of all specimens sampled. While these results do not prove that the epi material is of photovoltaic quality, they indicate both a high crystallographic perfection and a low density of life-time poisoning impurities; conditions which are usually necessary for PV device development. Thus far, smooth surfaces have not been produced directly by the rapid liquid phase epitaxy (RLPE) process. The rough surface morphologies are due, at least in part, to incomplete wipe off of the liquid when the substrate is withdrawn at the end of the growth cycle. Another potential source is growth instabilities which will be discussed later. This report summarizes the three year research program of the RLPE process sponsored by DOE-SOLERAS.

Gerritsen, H.J.; Crisman, E.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Liquid-Gas phase transition in Bose-Einstein Condensates with time evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of a repulsive three-body interaction on a system of trapped ultra-cold atoms in Bose-Einstein condensed state. The stationary solutions of the corresponding $s-$wave non-linear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation suggest a scenario of first-order liquid-gas phase transition in the condensed state up to a critical strength of the effective three-body force. The time evolution of the condensate with feeding process and three-body recombination losses has a new characteristic pattern. Also, the decay time of the dense (liquid) phase is longer than expected due to strong oscillations of the mean-square-radius.

A. Gammal; T. Frederico; Lauro Tomio; Ph. Chomaz

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Isospin Lattice-Gas Model and Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An isospin lattice-gas model, which is a spin-1 Ising model, is employed to investigate the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter. We consider nuclear matter as a lattice where each lattice site can be either empty or occupied by a proton or a neutron, with a nearest-neighbor interaction among the nucleons. With the Bragg-Williams mean field approximation, we calculate various thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter for different densities and different proton-neutron asymmetry parameter $s$. Our model exhibits liquid-gas phase transition below a critical temperature $T_c$, and predicts a monotonic decreasing of $T_c$ as the magnitude of $s$ is increased. The dependence of the nuclear matter isotherms on the asymmetry parameter $s$ is discussed.

S. Ray; J. Shamanna; T. T. S. Kuo

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei within Fermionic Molecular Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) a quantal nuclear system with only 16 nucleons shows a clearly visible liquid-gas phase transition. The FMD model is an approximation to the many-body problem which describes the system by antisymmetrized many-body states in which each nucleon is occupying a Gaussian shaped time-dependent wave-packet. The statistical ensemble is obtained by time averaging.

H. Feldmeier; J. Schnack

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Dimensional crossover in a spin liquid to helimagnet quantum phase transition.  

SciTech Connect

Neutron scattering is used to study magnetic field induced ordering in the quasi-1D quantum spin-tube compound Sul-Cu2Cl4 that in zero field has a non-magnetic spin-liquid ground state. The experiments reveal an incommensurate chiral high-field phase stabilized by a geometric frustration of the magnetic interactions. The measured critical exponents \\beta= 0.235 and \

Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Zheludev, Andrey I [ORNL; Habicht, Klaus [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Meissner, Michael [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Grenier, B. [CEA, Grenoble, France; Regnault, L.-P. [CEA, Grenoble, France; Ressouche, E. [CEA, Grenoble, France

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter from realistic many-body approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of a liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear systems at subsaturation densities is a well established prediction of finite temperature nuclear many-body theory. In this paper, we discuss for the first time the properties of such phase transition for homogeneous nuclear matter within the Self-Consistent Green's Functions approach. We find a substantial decrease of the critical temperature with respect to the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Even within the same approximation, the use of two different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions gives rise to large differences in the properties of the critical point.

A. Rios; A. Polls; A. Ramos; H. Müther

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Equation of state for finite nuclei and liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct the equation of state (EOS) of finite nuclei including surface and Coulomb effects in a Thomas-Fermi framework using a finite range, momentum and density dependent two-body interaction. We identify critical temperatures for nuclei below which the EOS so constructed shows clear signals for liquid-gas phase transition in these finite systems. Comparison with the EOS of infinite nuclear matter shows that the critical density and temperature of the phase transition in nuclei are influenced by the mentioned finite size effects.

J. N. De; B. K. Agrawal; S. K. Samaddar

1998-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

At certain combinations of temperature and density, nuclear matter may exist as a liquid-gas mixture exhibiting phase instabilities, a characteristic signature of which may be found in the emission of intermediate-mass fragments in nuclear collisions. The present analysis of fragment distributions from proton-- and heavy-ion--induced reactions, in the framework of a theory of condensation, is suggestive of the occurrence of such phase transitions with a critical exponent kapprox.1.7 and a critical temperature T/sub C/approx.12 MeV.

Panagiotou, A.D.; Curtin, M.W.; Toki, H.; Scott, D.K.; Siemens, P.J.

1984-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

142

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Direct experimental evidence for a negative heat capacity in the liquid-to-gas like phase transitionin hydrogen cluster ions backbending of the caloric curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct experimental evidence for a negative heat capacity in the liquid-to-gas like phase transitionin hydrogen cluster ions

Gobet, F; Farizon, M; Gaillard, M J; Buchet, J P; Carré, M; Schreier, P; Märk, T D

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Phase diagram and universality of the Lennard-Jones gas-liquid system Hiroshi Watanabe, Nobuyasu Ito, and Chin-Kun Hu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase diagram and universality of the Lennard-Jones gas-liquid system Hiroshi Watanabe, Nobuyasu JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 136, 204102 (2012) Phase diagram and universality of the Lennard-Jones gas-liquid; published online 23 May 2012) The gas-liquid phase transition of the three-dimensional Lennard

145

Cr(VI) adsorption on functionalized amorphous and mesoporous silica from aqueous and non-aqueous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mesoporous silica (SBA-15) and amorphous silica (SG) have been chemically modified with 2-mercaptopyridine using the homogeneous route. This synthetic route involved the reaction of 2-mercaptopyridine with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane prior to immobilization on the support. The resulting material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption, FT-IR and MAS NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. The solid was employed as a Cr(VI) adsorbent from aqueous and non-aqueous solutions at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, metal concentration and solvent polarity) has been studied using the batch technique. The results indicate that under the optimum conditions, the maximum adsorption value for Cr(VI) was 1.83 {+-} 0.03 mmol/g for MP-SBA-15, whereas the adsorption capacity of the MP-SG was 0.86 {+-} 0.02 mmol/g. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically SBA-15 and SG with 2-mercaptopyridine and to use the resulting modified silicas as effective adsorbents for Cr(VI)

Perez-Quintanilla, Damian [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: damian.perez@urjc.es; Hierro, Isabel del [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fajardo, Mariano [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Sierra, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: isabel.sierra@urjc.es

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

In Situ Aircraft Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Liquid and Ice Water Content in Midlatitude Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical distribution of liquid and ice water content and their partitioning is studied using 34 cases of in situ measured microphysical properties in midlatitude mixed-phase clouds, with liquid water path ranging from near zero to ~248 g m?2, ...

Yoo-Jeong Noh; Curtis J. Seaman; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Guosheng Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

The effect of surface and Coulomb interaction on the liquid-gas phase transition of finite nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By means of the Furnstahl, Serot and Tang's model, the effects of surface tension and Coulomb interaction on the liquid-gas phase transition for finite nuclei are investigated. A limit pressure p-lim above which the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place has been found. It is found that comparing to the Coulomb interaction, the contribution of surface tension is dominate in low temperature regions. The binodal surface is also addressed.

W. L. Qian; Ru-Keng Su; H. Q. Song

2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

149

Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997--September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

Mohan, Ram S.; Shoham, Ovadia

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this five-year project (October 1997--September 2002) was to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project was executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) focused on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase included the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crude conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

Mohan, R.S.; Shoham, O.

2001-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

151

Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gas phase and a slurry phase radioactive tracer study was performed on the 12 ton/day Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) in LaPorte, Texas. To study the gas phase mixing characteristics, a radioactive argon tracer was injected into the feed gas and residence time distribution was generated by measuring the response at the reactor outlet. Radioactive manganese oxide powder was independently injected into the reactor to measure the slurry phase mixing characteristics. A tanks-in-series model and an axial dispersion model were applied to the data to characterize the mixing in the reactor. From the axial dispersion model, a translation to the number of CSTR's (continuous stirred tank reactors) was made for comparison purposes with the first analysis. Dispersion correlations currently available in the literature were also compared. The tanks-in-series analysis is a simpler model whose results are easily interpreted. However, it does have a few drawbacks; among them, the lack of a reliable method for scaleup of a reactor and no direct correlation between mixing in the slurry and gas phases. The dispersion model allows the mixing in the gas and slurry phases to be characterized separately while including the effects of phase transfer. This analysis offers a means for combining the gas and slurry phase dispersion models into an effective dispersion coefficient, which, in turn, can be related to an equivalent number of tanks-in-series. The dispersion methods reported are recommended for scaleup of a reactor system. 24 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material in contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention. 3 figs.

Blair, D.S.; Frye, G.C.; Hughes, R.C.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material in contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention. 3 figs.

Blair, D.S.; Frye, G.C.; Hughes, R.C.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Caloric curve for nuclear liquid-gas phase transition in relativistic mean-field hadronic model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main thermodynamical properties of the first order phase transition of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic model were explored in the isobaric, the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles on the basis of the method of the thermodynamical potentials and their first derivatives. It was proved that the first order phase transition of the RMF model is the liquid-gas type one associated with the Gibbs free energy $G$. The thermodynamical potential $G$ is the piecewise smooth function and its first order partial derivatives with respect to variables of state are the piecewise continuous functions. We have found that the energy in the caloric curve is discontinuous in the isobaric and the grand canonical ensembles at fixed values of the pressure and the chemical potential, respectively, and it is continuous, i.e. it has no plateau, in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles at fixed values of baryon density, while the baryon density in the isotherms is discontinuous in the isobaric and the canonical ensembles at fixed values of the temperature. The general criterion for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble was identified.

A. S. Parvan

2011-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Nuclear Chemical and Mechanical Instability and the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of nuclei are studied in a mean field model using a Skryme interaction. Properties of two component systems are investigated over the complete range of proton fraction from a system of pure neutrons to a system of only protons. Besides volume, symmetry, and Coulomb effects we also include momentum or velocity dependent forces. Applications of the results developed are then given which include nuclear mechanical and chemical instability and an associated liquid/gas phase transition in two component systems. The velocity dependence leads to further changes in the coexistence curve and nuclear mechanical and chemical instability curves.

S. J. Lee; A. Z. Mekjian

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

157

Liquid-gas phase transition and Coulomb instability of asymmetric nuclear systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of nuclear systems at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. For two formulations of the model the critical temperature, $T_c$, for symmetric nuclear matter is found to be 15.8 MeV and 17.9 MeV. These values are consistent with those derived from recent experiments. The limiting temperatures for finite nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental points.

P. Wang; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

In-medium properties of nuclear fragments at the liquid-gas phase coexistence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactions of nuclear multifragmentation of excited finite nuclei can be interpreted as manifestation of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. During this process the matter at subnuclear density clusterizes into hot primary fragments, which are located in the vicinity of other nuclear species. In recent experiments there were found evidences that the symmetry and surface energies of primary fragments change considerably as compared to isolated cold or low-excited nuclei. The new modified properties of primary fragments should be taken into account during their secondary de-excitation.

A. S. Botvina

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

159

Critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition (from multifragmentation and fission)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Critical temperature Tc for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is stimated both from the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case,the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the IMF yields in p(8.1 GeV)+Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation (SMM). In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited 188Os is compared with the calculated one with Tc as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 16 MeV.

V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; A. Budzanowski; S. P. Avdeyev; A. S. Botvina; E. A. Cherepanov; W. Karcz; V. V. Kirakosyan; P. A. Rukoyatkin; I. Skwirczynska; E. Norbeck

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

160

Liquid-Gas Phase Transition and Instabilities in Asymmetric Two Component Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition and associated instability in two component systems are investigated using a mean field theory. The importance of the role of both the Coulomb force and symmetry energy terms are studied. The addition of the Coulomb terms bring asymmetry into a mean field and thus result in important differences with previous approaches which did not include such terms. The Coulomb effects modify the chemical instability and mechanical instability domains shifting many features away from proton fraction point y=1/2 to a value closer to the valley of \\beta stability. These features are discussed in detail.

S. J. Lee; A. Z. Mekjian

2002-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Joining of Ion Transport Membranes Using a Novel Transient Liquid Phase Process  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a novel transient liquid phase (TLP) joining method has been demonstrated in joining La{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} materials. Metal oxide powders were processed to form the TLP compositions which were used in the joining process. The method has been successful in producing joint interfaces that effectively disappear, as they are the same material and have the same properties as the joined parts. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated for a single system, but many systems where the method can potentially be applied have been identified.

Darryl P. Butt

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Bimodality as a signal of Liquid-Gas phase transition in nuclei?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration) Model to discuss the origin of the bimodality in charge asymmetry observed in nuclear reactions around the Fermi energy. We show that it may be related to the important angular momentum (spin) transferred into the quasi-projectile before secondary decay. As the spin overcomes the critical value, a sudden opening of decay channels is induced and leads to a bimodal distribution for the charge asymmetry. In the model, it is not assigned to a liquid-gas phase transition but to specific instabilities in nuclei with high spin. Therefore, we propose to use these reactions to study instabilities in rotating nuclear droplets.

Olivier Lopez; Denis Lacroix; Emmanuel Vient

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Liquid-Gas Phase Transition of Supernova Matter and Its Relation to Nucleosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of dense matter in supernova explosion by the relativistic mean field approach and fragment based statistical model. The boiling temperature is found to be high (T_{boil} >= 0.7 MeV for rho_B >= 10^{-7} fm^{-3}), and adiabatic paths are shown to go across the boundary of coexisting region even with high entropy. This suggests that materials experienced phase transition can be ejected to outside. We calculated fragment mass and isotope distribution around the boiling point. We found that heavy elements at the iron, the first, second, and third peaks of r-process are abundantly formed at rho_B = 10^{-7}, 10^{-5}, 10^{-3} and 10^{-2} fm^{-3}, respectively.

C. Ishizuka; A. Ohnishi; K. Sumiyoshi

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

Delineation of Coal Tar Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid and Groundwater Plumes at a Former Manufactured Gas Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a field investigation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in the Midwest. The focus of the investigation was delineating the distribution of coal tar (a dense nonaqueous phase liquid) and the associated dissolved-phase constituents in groundwater using a combination of analysis methodologies. The results will be used to determine remediation needs at the site.

1998-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-entrained operations at the LaPorte Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) continued during June and July 1988 under Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC90005 for the US Department of Energy. The primary focus of this PDU operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with an optimized and simplified process. Several new design options had been identified and thoroughly evaluated in a detailed process engineering study completed under the LPMEOH Part-2 contract (DE-AC22-85PC80007), which then became the basis for the current PDU modification/operating program. The focus of the Process Engineering Design was to optimize and simplifications focused on the slurry loop, which consists of the reactor, vapor/liquid separator, slurry heat exchanger, and slurry circulation pump. Two-Phase Gas Holdup tests began at LaPorte in June 1988 with nitrogen/oil and CO- rich gas/oil systems. The purpose of these tests was to study the hydrodynamics of the reactor, detect metal carbonyl catalyst poisons, and train operating personnel. Any effect of the new gas sparger and the internal heat exchanger would be revealed by comparing the hydrodynamic data with previous PDU hydrodynamic data. The Equipment Evaluation'' Run E-5 was conducted at the LaPorte LPMEOH PDU in July 1988. The objective of Run E-5 was to systematically evaluate each new piece of equipment (sparger, internal heat exchanger, V/L disengagement zone, demister, and cyclone) which had been added to the system, and attempt to run the reactor in an internal-only mode. In addition, a successful catalyst activation with a concentrated (45 wt % oxide) slurry was sought. 9 refs., 26 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter with density-dependent relativistic mean-field models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within density-dependent relativistic mean-field models where the density dependence is introduced according to the Brown-Rho scaling and constrained by available data at low densities and empirical properties of nuclear matter. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is obtained to be 15.7 MeV in symmetric nuclear matter falling on the lower edge of the small experimental error bars. In hot asymmetric matter, the boundary of the phase-coexistence region is found to be sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. The critical pressure and the area of phase-coexistence region increases clearly with the softening of the symmetry energy. The critical temperature of hot asymmetric matter separating the gas phase from the LG coexistence phase is found to be higher for the softer symmetry energy.

Guang-Hua Zhang; Wei-Zhou Jiang

2012-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of Cluster Formation on Isospin Asymmetry in the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition Region Effect of Cluster Formation on Isospin Asymmetry in the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Nuclear matter within the liquid-gas phase transition region is investigated in a mean-field two-component Fermi-gas model. Following largely analytic considerations, it is shown that: (1) Due to density dependence of asymmetry energy, some of the neutron excess from the high-density phase could be expelled into the low-density region. (2) Formation of clusters in the gas phase tends to counteract this trend, making the gas phase more liquid-like and reducing the asymmetry in the gas phase. Flow of asymmetry between the spectator and midrapidity region in reactions is discussed and a possible inversion of the flow direction is indicated. PACS. 25.70.Mn- Projectile and target fragmentation. PACS. 25.70.Pq- Multifragment emission and correlations.

L. Shi; P. Danielewicz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Search for the First-Order Liquid-to-Liquid Phase Transition in Low-Temperature Confined Water by Neutron Scattering  

SciTech Connect

It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the alpha-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

Chen, Sow-Hsin [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Wang, Zhe [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Liu, Kao-Hsiang [National Taiwan University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Investigation of Internal Cleaning Effects in Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pressure waves in a gas-liquid medium with a stratifiedDynamics of Gas and Vapor-Liquid Media, Energoatomizdat,the pressure waves in a gas liquid medium with a stratified

Garg, Saurabh; Dornfeld, David; Klaus Berger

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-water mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)

Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei in the relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equation of state (EOS) of finite nuclei is constructed in the relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory using the non-linear $\\sigma-\\omega -\\rho$ model. The caloric curves are calculated by confining the nuclei in the freeze-out volume taken to be a sphere of size about 4 to 8 times the normal nuclear volume. The results obtained from the relativistic theory are not significantly different from those obtained earlier in a non-relativistic framework. The nature of the EOS and the peaked structure of the specific heat $C_v$ obtained from the caloric curves show clear signals of a liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei. The temperature evolution of the Gibbs potential and the entropy at constant pressure indicate that the characteristics of the transition are not too different from the first-order one.

Tapas Sil; B. K. Agrawal; J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar

2000-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

176

Effective interaction dependence of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition for homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter is studied in the mean-field approximation. Critical properties are computed using a comprehensive group of Skyrme and Gogny forces in an effort to elucidate the effective interaction dependence of the results. Analytical models for the thermodynamical and critical properties are discussed and compared to an extensive set of mean-field data. In agreement with these models, a tight correlation is found between the flashing and the critical points. Accurate predictions for the critical temperature, based on saturation properties, can only be obtained after the density dependence of the effective mass is properly taken into account. While the thermodynamical properties coming from different mean-fields do not follow a law of corresponding states, the critical exponents for all the mean-fields have been found to be the same. Their values coincide with those predicted by the Landau mean-field theory of critical phenomena.

A. Rios

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

177

Effects of the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster formation on the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons.

S. Typel; H. H. Wolter; G. Röpke; D. Blaschke

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

178

Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

179

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Multifragmentation and the liquid-gas phase transition: an experimental overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two roads are presently being followed in order to establish the existence of a liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclear systems from nuclear reactions at high energy. The clean experiment of observing the thermodynamic properties of a finite number of nucleons in a container is presently only possible with the computer. Performed with advanced nuclear transport models, it has revealed the first-order character of the transition and allowed the extraction of the pertinent thermodynamic parameters. The validity of the applied theory is being confirmed by comparing its predictions for heavy-ion reactions with exclusive experiments. The second approach is experimentally more direct. Signals of the transition are searched for by analysing reaction data within the framework of thermodynamics of small systems. A variety of potential signals has been investigated and found to be qualitatively consistent with the expectations for the phase transition. Many of them are well reproduced with percolation models which places the nuclear fragmentation into the more general context of partitioning phenomena in finite systems. A wealth of new data on this subject has been obtained in recent experiments, some of them with a new generation of multi-detector devices aiming at higher resolutions, isotopic identification of the fragments, and the coincident detection of neutrons. Isotopic effects in multifragmentation were addressed quite intensively, with particular attention being given to their relation to the symmetry energy and its dependence on density.

W. Trautmann

2004-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Computer-assisted rapid-scan cyclic staircase voltametry in normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The use of a large-volume wall-jet detector for cyclic staircase voltametry following normal-phase HPLC separation is described. Both reductive and oxidative ranges are investigated. The detection limits of the technique (of the order of tens of picomoles) are comparable to other scanning voltametry techniques following reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The techniques is tested for some oxy and nitro derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, catechlolamines, and oestrogen steroids.

Gunasingham, H.; Tay, B.T.; Ang, K.P.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

A Scheme for Calculation of the Liquid Fraction in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds in Large-Scale Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme for calculation of the liquid fraction fl in mixed-phase stratiform clouds has been developed for use in large-scale models. An advantage of the scheme, compared to the interpolation in temperature that is typically used, is that it ...

Leon D. Rotstayn; Brian F. Ryan; Jack J. Katzfey

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Hydrodynamic Studies in a Centrifugal Contactor Separator; Liquid Hold-up, Residence Time Distribution, Phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators Boelo Schuur, Joelle Floure, Andy Hallett centrifugal contactor separator; process intensification; enantioselectivity; 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2- dichloroethane using a Centrifugal Contact Separator (CCS) was studied

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

185

The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition at large $N_c$ in the Van der Waals approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition at large number of colors ($N_c$) within the framework of the Van Der Waals (VdW) model. We argue that the VdW equation is appropriate at describing inter-nucleon forces, and discuss how each parameter scales with $N_c$. We demonstrate that $N_c=3$ (our world) is not large with respect to the other dimensionless scale relevant to baryonic matter, the number of neighbors in a dense system $N_N$. Consequently, we show that the liquid-gas phase transition looks dramatically different at $N_c \\to \\infty$ with respect of our world: The critical point temperature becomes of the order of $\\lqcd$ rather than below it. The critical point density becomes of the order of the baryonic density, rather than an order of magnitude below it. These are precisely the characteristics usually associated with the "Quarkyonic phase". We therefore conjecture that quarkyonic matter is simply the large $N_c$ limit of the nuclear liquid, and the interplay between $N_c$ and $N_N$ is the reason why the nuclear liquid in our world is so different from quarkyonic matter. We conclude by suggesting ways our conjecture can be tested in future lattice measurements.

Giorgio Torrieri; Igor Mishustin

2010-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

Water Detritiation: Better SCK-CEN Catalysts for Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange  

SciTech Connect

A technically and economically sound technology for water detritiation is mandatory for the future of fusion. This technology is expected to be based on water electrolysis and Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE). LPCE requires an efficient hydrophobic catalyst. SCK-CEN invented and developed such a catalyst in the past, which is prepared by depositing platinum on an activated charcoal carrier and mixing it with polytetrafluorethylene as a hydrophobic material. In combination with an appropriate wettable packing, different batches of this catalyst performed very well during years of extensive testing, allowing us to develop the ELEX process for water detritiation at inland reprocessing plants. Recently we succeeded in reproducing this catalyst and preparing a slightly different but clearly ameliorated type. By extrapolation these new results would allow us to obtain, at 40 deg. C and under typical but conservative operating conditions, a decontamination factor of 10000 with a column of less than 3 meters long. Such performances would make this catalyst an excellent candidate for application at JET or ITER. To confirm the performances of our improved catalyst for a longer period of time and in a longer column, we are now starting experiments in a newly built installation and we are collaborating with ICSI, Romania.

Bruggeman, Aime; Braet, Johan; Vanderbiesen, Sven [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

Bharat L. Bhatt

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

Keefer, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

189

The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Espey, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Emergence of Tricritical Point and Liquid-Gas Phase in the Massless 2+1 Dimensional Gross-Neveu Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A complete thermodynamical analysis of the 2+1 dimensional massless Gross-Neveu model is performed using the optimized perturbation theory. This is a non-perturbative method that allows us to go beyond the known large-N results already at lowest order. Our results, for a finite number of fermion species, N, show the existence of a tricritical point in the temperature and chemical potential phase diagram for discrete chiral phase transition allowing us to precisely to locate it. By studying the phase diagram in the pressure and inverse density plane, we also show the existence of a liquid-gas phase, which, so far, was unknown to exist in this model. Finally, we also derive N dependent analytical expressions for the fermionic mass, critical temperature and critical chemical potential.

Jean-Loic Kneur; Marcus Benghi Pinto; Rudnei O. Ramos; Ederson Staudt

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effects of isospin and momentum dependent interactions on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, a momentum-independent interaction (MID), and an isoscalar momentum-dependent interaction (eMDYI). The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy with a softer symmetry energy giving a higher critical pressure and a larger area of phase-coexistence region. Compared with the momentum-independent MID interaction, the isospin and momentum-dependent MDI interaction is found to increase the critical pressure and enlarge the area of phase-coexistence region. For the isoscalar momentum-dependent eMDYI interaction, a limiting pressure above which the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place has been found and it is shown to be sensitive to the stiffness of the symmetry energy.

Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-An Li; Hong-Ru Ma

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Computational studies of the phase behavior and dynamics of rodlike liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, the unusual physics of rodlike liquid crystals are explored through simulations of rigid-rod kinetic theory discretized by the finite element method. As their name suggests. these substances retain crystalline. ...

Green, Micah James

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Sensitivity of Cloud Liquid Water Content Estimates to the Temperature-Dependent Thermodynamic Phase: A Global Study Using CloudSat Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this study is to underline the sensitivity of cloud liquid water content (LWC) estimates purely to 1) the shape of computationally simplified temperature-dependent thermodynamic phase and 2) the range of subzero temperatures ...

Abhay Devasthale; Manu Anna Thomas

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Modeling of multiple three phase contact lines of liquid droplets on geometrically patterned surfaces: continuum and mesoscopic analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By solving the Young Laplace equation of capillary hydrostatics one can accurately determine equilibrium shapes of droplets on relatively smooth solid surfaces. The solution, however of the Young Laplace equation becomes tricky when a droplet is sitting on a geometrically patterned surface and multiple, and unknown a priori, three phase contact lines have not been accounted for, since air pockets are trapped beneath the liquid droplet. In this work, we propose an augmented Young-Laplace equation, in which a unified formulation for the liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces is adopted, incorporating microscale interactions. This way, we bypass the implementation of the Young's contact angle boundary condition at each three phase contact line. We demonstrate the method's efficiency by computing equilibrium wetting states of entire droplets sitting on geometrically structured surfaces, and compare the results with those of the mesoscopic Lattice Boltzmann simulations. The application of well-established parameter continuation techniques enables the tracing of stable and unstable equilibrium solutions if necessary for the determination of energy barriers separating co-existing stable wettign states. Since energy barriers determine whether a surface facilitates or inhibits certain wetting transitions, their computation is important for many technical applications. Our continuum-level analysis can readily be applied to patterned surfaces with increased and unstructured geometric complexity, having a significant computational advantage, as compared to the computationally demanding mesoscopic simulations that are usually employed for the same task.

Nikolaos T. Chamakos; Michail E. Kavousanakis; Athanasios G. Papathanasiou

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

196

CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Mass-transport considerations pertinent to aqueous-phase reactions of gases in liquid-water clouds  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of gases in liquid-water clouds are potentially important in the transformation of atmospheric pollutants affecting their transport in the atmosphere and subsequent removal and deposition to the surface. Such processes consist of the following sequence of steps. Mass-transport of the reagent gas or gases to the air-water interface; transfer across the interface and establishment of solubility equilibria locally at the interface; mass-transport of the dissolved gas or gases within the aqeuous phase; aqueous-phase chemical reactions(s); mass-transport of reaction product(s) and possible subsequent evolution into the gas-phase. Description of the rate of the overall process requires identification of the rate-limiting step (or steps) and evaluation of the rate of such step(s). Identification of the rate-limiting step may be achieved by evaluation and comparison of the characteristic times pertinent to the several processes and may be readily carried out by methods outlined herein, for known or assumed reagent concentrations, drop size, and fundamental constants as follows: gas- and aqueous-phase diffusion coefficients; Henry's law coefficient and other pertinent equilibrium constants; interfacial mass-transfer accommodation coefficient; aqueous-phase reaction rate constant(s). A graphical method is described whereby it may be ascertained whether a given reaction is controlled solely by reagent solubility and intrinsic chemical kinetics or is mass-transport limited by one or another of the above processes. In the absence of mass-transport limitation, reaction rates may be evaluated uniformly for the entire liquid-water content of the cloud using equilibrium reagent concentrations. In contrast, where appreciable mass-transport limitation is indicated, evaluation of the overall rate requires knowledge of and integration over the drop-size distribution characterizing the cloud. 68 references, 16 figures.

Schwartz, S.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Negative heat capacity in the critical region of nuclear fragmentation: an experimental evidence of the liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental indication of negative heat capacity in excited nuclear systems is inferred from the event by event study of energy fluctuations in $Au$ quasi-projectile sources formed in $Au+Au$ collisions at 35 A.MeV. The excited source configuration is reconstructed through a calorimetric analysis of its de-excitation products. Fragment partitions show signs of a critical behavior at about 5 A.MeV excitation energy. In the same energy range the heat capacity shows a negative branch providing a direct evidence of a first order liquid gas phase transition.

M. D'Agostino; F. Gulminelli; Ph. Chomaz; M. Bruno; F. Cannata; R. Bougault; N. Colonna; F. Gramegna; I. Iori; N. Le Neindre; G. V. Margagliotti; P. F. Mastinu; P. M. Milazzo; A. Moroni; G. Vannini

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Well-posedness for a multi-dimensional viscous gas-liquid two-phase flow model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cauchy problem of a multi-dimensional ($d\\geqslant 2$) compressible viscous gas-liquid two-phase flow model is concerned in this paper. We investigate the global existence and uniqueness of the strong solution for the initial data close to an equilibrium and the local in time existence and uniqueness of the solution with general initial data in the framework of Besov spaces. In both cases, the possible vacuum state is included in the equilibrium state for the gas component at spatial far field. A continuation criterion is also obtained for the local solution.

Hao, Chengchun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Interfacial inactivation of epoxide hydrolase in a two-liquid-phase system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Midwest Research Institute (MRI). The concept is based on the use of the SpinCon® gas-liquid contactor the wall. Particles move outward toward the wall due to the centrifugal forces. Any particles that reach percent of the particles initially in the gas stream. Centrifugal forces resulted in the capture

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

202

Liquid-gas phase transition in hot nuclei: correlation between dynamical and thermodynamical signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics and thermodynamics of phase transition in hot nuclei are studied through experimental results on multifragmentation of heavy systems (A$geq$200) formed in central heavy ion collisions. Different signals indicative of a phase transition studied in the INDRA collaboration are presented and their consistency is stressed.

M. F. Rivet; B. Borderie; R. Bougault; P. Désesquelles; E. Galichet; B. Guiot; N. Le Neindre; M. Parlog; G. Tabacaru; J. P. Wieleczko; the INDRA Collaboration

2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

203

Use of the electrically-driven emulsion phase contactor in chemical and biochemical processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrically driven liquid-liquid contactor has been developed to enhance the efficiency of chemical and biochemical processes. A uniform electric field is utilized to induce a drop dispersion- coalescence cycle, producing high surface area for interfacial mass transfer under continuous-countercurrent-flow conditions. The mass- transport capability of this system has been analyzed by observing the extraction of acetic acid from water (dispersed phase) into methyl isobutyl ketone. Results showed that, due to increased efficiency of mass transfer, the electrically-driven device could be an order of magnitude smaller than a conventional contactor accomplishing the same level of separation. In the case of biochemical processes within non-aqueous environments, a biocatalyst (enzymes or bacteria) is introduced in the aqueous (dispersed) phase. The biocatalyst uses nutrients and other reactants to selectively transform species transferred from the continuous (organic) phase to the interior of the drops. An example of such system that has been investigated is the oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase.

Tsouris, C; DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Spin states of para-water and ortho-water molecule in gas and liquid phases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spin degrees of freedom of water molecule in gas and liquid state were investigated in order to provide a reasonable answer about the unsolved problem of a long-term behavior of water spin isomers. The approach used involves an assumption that molecules change their spin state from a pure state to a mixed one when they interact with some sorts of adsorbent surface. Some models and conceptions of the quantum information processing were used.

V. K. Konyukhov

2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

Precipitation and Evolution Sensitivity in Simulated Deep Convective Storms: Comparisons between Liquid-Only and Simple Ice and Liquid Phase Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weisman and Klemp suggested that their liquid-only, deep convective storm experiments should be repeated with a liquid-ice microphysics scheme to determine if the solutions are qualitatively the same. Using a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic ...

Matthew S. Gilmore; Jerry M. Straka; Erik N. Rasmussen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Vertical Profile of Liquid and Ice Water Content in Midlatitude Mixed-Phase Altocumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical properties of mixed-phase altocumulus clouds are investigated using in situ airborne measurements acquired during the ninth Cloud Layer Experiment (CLEX-9) over a midlatitude location. Approximately ? of the sampled profiles are ...

Lawrence D. Carey; Jianguo Niu; Ping Yang; J. Adam Kankiewicz; Vincent E. Larson; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Experimental two-phase liquid--metal magnetohydrodynamic generator program. Annual report, August 1975--September 1976  

SciTech Connect

The revised ambient-temperature NaK-nitrogen facility is described. The maximum liquid flow rate and generator inlet pressure are 10.9 kg/s 200 gpm) and 1.48 MP/sub a/ absolute (200 psig), respectively, compared with the previous values of 6 kg/s (110 gpm) and 0.72 MPa absolute (90 psig). Satisfactory loop operation has been obtained, and new experiments with the second diverging-channel generator were completed. The principal experimental results were a higher power density for the same generator operating conditions, and an apparent tendency for the efficiency to improve more with increasing quality at higher velocities than lower velocities. An evaluation of an annular generator geometry is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the geometry are described, the equations developed, and solutions obtained for three cases--constant velocity and no armature reactions, laminar flow with no armature reaction, and armature reaction with constant velocity. Numerical examples show that: (1) the attainable terminal voltages appear to be very low, (2) flow reversal and large viscous loss occur at or below the desired power densities, and (3) armature reaction effects are important and compensation techniques appear impractical. Thus, this annular geometry does not appear attractive for either generator or pump operation. The initial steps in the program to produce and evaluate liquid-metal foams are described. The future directions of the expermental generator program, including foams, are discussed.

Petrick, M.; Fabris, G.; Pierson, E.S.; Carl, D.A.; Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition within Fermionic Molecular Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The time evolution of excited nuclei, which are in equilibrium with the surrounding vapour, is investigated. It is shown that the finite nuclear systems undergo a first oder phase transition. The caloric curve is presented for excited Oxygen, Magnesium, Aluminum and Calcium and the critical temperature is estimated for Oxygen.

J. Schnack; H. Feldmeier

1997-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

209

TWO-PHASE (GAS-LIQUID) SYSTEM: HEAT TRANSFER AND HYDRAULICS. An Annotated Bibliography  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography of 2843 references in abstracted form is presented which covers the period l950 to 1962. The references are arranged under the following headings: books and review articles, boiling, bubble, condensation, evaporation, equations of state, interfacial characteristics, mass transfer across phase boundaries, measurement techniques, nuclear reactor heat removal, and twophase flow. An author index is included. (D.L.C.)

Kepple, R.R.; Tung, T.V.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

211

Isospin and symmetry energy effects on nuclear fragment production in liquid-gas type phase transition region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have demonstrated that the isospin of nuclei influences the fragment production during the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Calculations for Au197, Sn124, La124 and Kr78 at various excitation energies were carried out on the basis of the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM). We analyzed the behavior of the critical exponent tau with the excitation energy and its dependence on the critical temperature. Relative yields of fragments were classified with respect to the mass number of the fragments in the transition region. In this way, we have demonstrated that nuclear multifragmentation exhibits a 'bimodality' behavior. We have also shown that the symmetry energy has a small influence on fragment mass distribution, however, its effect is more pronounced in the isotope distributions of produced fragments.

N. Buyukcizmeci; R. Ogul; A. S. Botvina

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

212

Isospin and symmetry energy effects on nuclear fragment production in liquid-gas type phase transition region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have demonstrated that the isospin of nuclei influences the fragment production during the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Calculations for Au197, Sn124, La124 and Kr78 at various excitation energies were carried out on the basis of the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM). We analyzed the behavior of the critical exponent tau with the excitation energy and its dependence on the critical temperature. Relative yields of fragments were classified with respect to the mass number of the fragments in the transition region. In this way, we have demonstrated that nuclear multifragmentation exhibits a 'bimodality' behavior. We have also shown that the symmetry energy has a small influence on fragment mass distribution, however, its effect is more pronounced in the isotope distributions of produced fragments.

N. Buyukcizmeci; R. Ogul; A. S. Botvina

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

BEC-BCS Crossover and the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations in symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature is studied beyond BCS theory. Starting from a Hartree-Fock description of nuclear matter with the Gogny effective interaction, we add correlations corresponding to the formation of preformed pairs and scattering states above the superfluid critical temperature within the in-medium T-matrix approach, which is analogous to the Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink theory. We calculate the critical temperature for a BEC superfluid of deuterons, of a BCS superfluid of nucleons, and in the crossover between these limits. The effect of the correlations on thermodynamic properties (equation of state, energy, entropy) and the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed. Our results show that nucleon-nucleon correlations beyond BCS play an important role for the properties of nuclear matter, especially in the low-density region.

Meng Jin; Michael Urban; Peter Schuck

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

214

Laser-Doppler velocimeter for measuring droplet velocities in two-phase liquid-dominated nozzle flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) arrangement for measuring droplet velocities in high velocity, liquid-dominated two-phase nozzle flows was developed. The transmitting optics arrangement for this LDV system is identical to that of a dual beam heterodyne LDV, i.e., the light beam from a single frequency argon laser is divided into two parallel identical beams, which are focused to an intersection volume in the flow. The light backscattered from droplets traveling through this volume is collected for analysis using a scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Because of the dual beam arrangement an unscattered or reference beam is not necessary, and the optical alignment ease and stability are greatly improved over similar LDV-FPI systems. Results of droplet velocity measurements in high velocity, high droplet concentration nozzle jet flows are presented.

Alger, T.W.; Crowe, C.T.; Giedt, W.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of <10-nm SiO2 on top of the black Si surface in a relatively mild chemical bath at room temperature. We demonstrate black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Electric-pulse discharge as a novel technique to synthesize {beta}-SiC nano-crystallites from liquid-phase organic precursors  

SciTech Connect

{beta}-SiC nano-crystallites have been prepared by electric pulses discharged in liquid-phase organic precursors. The composition and crystal structure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electronic and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the sample synthesized from the precursor (hexamethyl disilane) is composed of uniform grains with only 8 nm, while the one synthesize from the other precursor (dimethyl silicone oil) is of better crystalline structure with average grain size 22 nm, which may be attributed to discharge in liquid-phase source and short discharge intervals.

Du Kai [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China); Yang Haibin [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, Henan (China)], E-mail: chinawhirl@hotmail.com; Wei Ronghui; Li Minghui; Yu Qingjiang; Fu Wuyou; Yang Nan; Zhu Hongyang; Zeng Yi [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 a...

Moretto, L G; Phair, L

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

NONE

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.

L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

Surface and Interfacial Properties of Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Mixtures Released to the Subsurface at the Hanford Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface and interfacial tensions that arise at the interface between different phases are key parameters affecting Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) movement and redistribution in the vadose zone after spill events. In this study, the impact of major additive components on surface and interfacial tensions for organic mixtures and wastewater was investigated. Organic mixture and wastewater compositions are based upon carbon tetrachloride (CT) mixtures released at the Hanford site, where CT was discharged simultaneously with dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and a machining lard oil (LO). A considerable amount of wastewater consisting primarily of nitrates and metal salts was also discharged. The tension values measured in this study revealed that the addition of these additive components caused a significant lowering of the interfacial tension with water or wastewater and the surface tension of the wastewater phase in equilibrium with the organic mixtures, compared to pure CT, but had minimal effect on the surface tension of the NAPL itself. These results lead to large differences in spreading coefficients for several mixtures, where the additives caused both a higher (more spreading) initial spreading coefficient and a lower (less spreading) equilibrium spreading coefficient. This indicates that if these mixtures migrate into uncontaminated areas, they will tend to spread quickly, but form a higher residual NAPL saturation after equilibrium, as compared to pure CT. Over time, CT likely volatilizes more rapidly than other components in the originally disposed mixtures and the lard oil and phosphates would become more concentrated in the remaining NAPL, resulting in a lower interfacial tension for the mixture. Spreading coefficients are expected to increase and perhaps change the equilibrated organic mixtures from nonspreading to spreading in water-wetting porous media. These results show that the behavior of organic chemical mixtures should be accounted for in numerical flow and transport models.

Nellis, Scott; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Oostrom, Martinus; Valocchi, Albert J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Novel approaches to low temperature transient liquid phase bonding in the In-Sn/Cu and In-Sn-Bi/Cu systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fluxless low temperature transient liquid phase (LTTLP) bonding process was studied as a method of producing Cu/Cu joints below 125°C and 75°C using interlayer alloys from the In-Sn and In-Sn-Bi systems. Using thermodynamic ...

Fischer, David S., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Liquid-gas and other unusual thermal phase transitions in some large-N magnets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much insight into the low temperature properties of quantum magnets has been gained by generalizing them to symmetry groups of order N, and then studying the large N limit. In this paper we consider an unusual aspect of their finite temperature behavior--their exhibiting a phase transition between a perfectly paramagetic state and a paramagnetic state with a finite correlation length at N = \\infty. We analyze this phenomenon in some detail in the large ``spin'' (classical) limit of the SU(N) ferromagnet which is also a lattice discretization of the CP^{N-1} model. We show that at N = \\infty the order of the transition is governed by lattice connectivity. At finite values of N, the transition goes away in one or less dimension but survives on many lattices in two dimensions and higher, for sufficiently large N. The latter conclusion contradicts a recent conjecture of Sokal and Starinets, yet is consistent with the known finite temperature behavior of the SU(2) case. We also report closely related first order paramagnet-ferromagnet transitions at large N and shed light on a violation of Elitzur's theorem at infinite N via the large q limit of the q-state Potts model, reformulated as an Ising gauge theory.

O. Tchernyshyov; S. L. Sondhi

2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

Bimodality: a possible experimental signature of the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed a bimodal behaviour of the distribution of the asymmetry between the charges of the two heaviest products resulting from the decay of the quasi-projectile released in binary Xe+Sn and Au+Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Event sorting has been achieved through the transverse energy of light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side, thus avoiding artificial correlations between the bimodality signal and the sorting variable. Bimodality is observed for intermediate impact parameters for which the quasi-projectile is identified. A simulation shows that the deexcitation step rather than the geometry of the collision appears responsible for the bimodal behaviour. The influence of mid-rapidity emission has been verified. The two bumps of the bimodal distribution correspond to different excitation energies and similar temperatures. It is also shown that it is possible to correlate the bimodality signal with a change in the distribution of the heaviest fragment charge and a peak in potential energy fluctuations. All together, this set of data is coherent with what would be expected in a finite system if the corresponding system in the thermodynamic limit exhibits a first order phase transition.

M. Pichon; B. Tamain; R. Bougault; F. Gulminelli; O. Lopez

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

227

The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

Espey, C. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Phased Array Approach To Retrieve Gases, Liquids, Or Solids From Subsurface And Subaqueous Geologic Or Man-Made Formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the remediation of contaminated soils and ground water, production of oil and gas, and production of any solid, gas, and/or liquid from subsurface geologic and man-made formations including the steps of estimating the geometric boundaries of the region containing the material to be recovered, drilling a recovery well(s) into subsurface in a strategic location to recover the material of interest, establishing multiple sources of acoustical power in an array about and spaced-apart from the surface or at various depths below the surface in a borehole(s) and/or well(s), directing a volume of acoustical excitation from the sources into the region containing the material to be recovered, the excitation in the form of either controllable sinusoidal, square, pulsed, or various combinations of these three waveforms, and controlling the phasing, frequency, power, duration, and direction of these waveforms from the sources to increase and control the intensity of acoustical excitation in the region of the material to be recovered to enhance. the recovery of said material from the recovery well(s). The invention will augment any technology affecting the removal of materials from the subsurface.

Rynne, Timothy M. (Long Beach, CA); Spadaro, John F. (Huntington Beach, CA); Iovenitti, Joe L. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Dering, John P. (Lakewood, CA); Hill, Donald G. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

Xiang-Dong Peng

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Ionic Liquids and Applications in Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points considerably lower than conventional inorganic salts. Their unique properties make them an ideal… (more)

Meng, Yunjing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

Lu, X. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H. [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Matsubae, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bai, H. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nagasaka, T., E-mail: t-nagasaka@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder. 1 fig.

Boyle, T.J.; Voigt, J.A.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

234

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 5, July 1--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 6, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading. An off-site product testing program will be conducted to demonstrate the suitability of the methanol product as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications for small modular electric power generators for distributed power.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Liquid-Phase Methanol (LPMeOHTM) Process Development Unit (PDU)--40-Day Run at LaPorte, Texas (1984)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sustained catalyst life is a key to improved methanol synthesis from coal gasification products. A demonstration of scaled-up PDU operation--first using a large-particle catalyst and then a liquid-entrained slurry in a single run--produced a significant amount of crude methanol.

1986-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fractionation and Removal of Solutes from Ionic Liquids ...  

Recovers biomass solids from ionic liquids without formation of gel phase intermediates; Tested on several ionic liquids; Applications and Industries.

242

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of domain growth in the late stage of phase separation of a binary liquid mixture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The domain growth processes occurring during the gravity?dominated regime of the phase separation of a cyclohexane/aniline critical mixture

Franco Cau; Serge Lacelle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Characterization of a chiral phase in an achiral bent-core liquid crystal by polarization studies of resonant x-ray forbidden reflections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The 'forbidden' reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored 'forbidden' reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub A}P{sub A}) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub S}P{sub A}. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.

Ponsinet, V.; Pindak, R.; Barois, P.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.; Huang, C.C.; Wang, S.T.; Baumeister, U. and Weissflog, W.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Liquid phase methanol process development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Topical report. Experimental catalyst preparation program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the preparation of 29 catalyst samples under DOE contract No. DE-AC22-81PC30019. These were selected for gas phase activity testing from a total of 70 prepared. Based on activity results, three compositions were selected for further slurry phase testing in the Chem Systems, Inc. (CSI) laboratories. 11 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

246

Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Study of an Unusually Large Phase Coexistance in Smectic Liquid-Crystal Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recent discovery of the new smectic-C{sub d6}* (SmC{sub d6}*) phase [S. Wang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 027801 (2010)] also revealed the existence of a noisy region in the temperature window between the SmC{sub d6}* phase and the smectic-C{sub d4}* (SmC{sub d4}*) phase. Characterized by multiple resonant peaks spanning a wide region in Q{sub Z}, the corresponding structure of this temperature window has been a mystery. In this Letter, through a careful resonant x-ray diffraction study and simulations of the diffraction spectra, we show that this region is in fact an unusually large coexistence region of the SmC{sub d6}* phase and the SmC{sub d4}* phase. The structure of the noisy region is found to be a heterogeneous mixture of local SmC{sub d6}* and SmC{sub d4}* orders on the sub-{micro}m scale.

Pan L.; Pindak R.; Barois, P.; Liu, Z.Q.; McCoy, B.K. & Hyang, C.C.

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Rep. Prog. Phys. 53 (1990) 659-705. Printed in the UK The liquid-crystalline blue phases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dispersion 3.6. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements 3.7. Morphological studies 3.8. Electric-field effects 3.9. Crystal growth rate 3.10. Viscoelastic properties 3.11. Circular dichroism 4. Theory 4-uniform turbidity. ..' (Reinitzer 1888). This historical detection of selective reflection in the blue phase

Seideman, Tamar

248

Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples  

SciTech Connect

We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

EOS3nn: An iTOUGH2 module for non-Newtonian liquid and gas flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related to the two phases gas and liquid, respectively. Eachassociated phases, gas and liquid, respectively. For anintroduce data describing gas and liquid properties. Record

Wu, Yu-Shu; Finsterle, Stefan; Pruess, Karsten

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Influence of Micro-mixing on the Size of Liposomes Self-Assembled from Miscible Liquid Phases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethanol injection and variations of it are a class of methods where two miscible phases---one of which contains dissolved lipids---are mixed together leading to the self-assembly of lipid molecules to form liposomes. This method has been suggested, among other applications, for in-situ synthesis of liposomes as drug delivery capsules. However, the mechanism that leads to a specific size selection of the liposomes in solution based self-assembly in general, and in flow-focussing microfluidic devices in particular, has so far not been established. Here we report two aspects of this problem. A simple and easily fabricated device for synthesis of monodisperse unilamellar liposomes in a co-axial flow-focussing microfluidic geometry is presented. We also show that the size of liposomes is dependent on the extent of micro-convective mixing of the two miscible phases. Here, a viscosity stratification induced hydrodynamic instability leads to a gentle micro-mixing which results in larger liposome size than when the streams are mixed turbulently. The results are in sharp contrast to a purely diffusive mixing in macroscopic laminar flow that was believed to occur under these conditions. Further precise quantification of the mixing characteristics should provide the insights to develop a general theory for size selection for the class of ethanol injection methods. This will also lay grounds for obtaining empirical evidence that will enable better control of liposome sizes and for designing drug encapsulation and delivery devices.

Sopan Phapal; P Sunthar

2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

251

Geoantineutrino Spectrum, 3He/4He - ratio radial distribution and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 Gpa) and temperature (1600-22000 C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution ...

Rusov, V D; Vaschenko, V N; Tarasov, V A; Zelentsova, T N; Bolshakov, V N; Litvinov, D A; Kosenko, S I; Byegunova, O A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

NAPL Calculator  

An environmental engineer at the Savannah River Site has developed a software application that will determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants are present in soil, groundwater, or soil vapor samples.  The software will determine both ...

254

Kaneen Elizabeth Christensen kaneen@gmail.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Environmental Restoration Planned Graduated Date: May 2011 Dissertation: Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL through to completion at petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites involving lake ice, sea ice, ice, snow

255

Non-Fermi Liquid Regimes and Superconductivity in the Low Temperature Phase Diagrams of Strongly Correlated d- and f-Electron Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zapf, J. Wosnitza, Superconductivity in Conventional andLiquid Regimes and Superconductivity in the Low Temperatureas un- conventional superconductivity and novel magnetic

Brian Maple, M.; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Hamlin, James J.; Janoschek, Marc

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

ARM - Measurement - Cloud phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

property that captures the state o f the hydrometeors within a cloud (liquid, ice, or mixed-phase). This is distinct from cloud type that involves property descriptors...

257

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

NONE

1997-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

Pruess, K.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Carbon-nitrogen bond-forming reactions in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide media : green synthetic chemistry with multiscale reaction and phase behavior modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to develop a detailed understanding of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond-forming reactions of amines carried out in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) media. Key motivations behind ...

Ciccolini, Rocco P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Liquid phase Fischer-Tropsch (II) demonstration in the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Volume 1/2, Main Report. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from a demonstration of Liquid Phase Fischer-Tropsch (LPFT) technology in DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. The run was conducted in a bubble column at the AFDU in May--June 1994. The 10-day run demonstrated a very high level of reactor productivity for LPFT, more than five times the previously demonstrated productivity. The productivity was constrained by mass transfer limitations, perhaps due to slurry thickening as a result of carbon formation on the catalyst. With a cobalt catalyst or an improved iron catalyst, if the carbon formation can be avoided, there is significant room for further improvements. The reactor was operated with 0.7 H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas in the range of 2400--11700 sl/hr-kg Fe, 175--750 psig and 270--300C. The inlet gas velocity ranged from 0.19 to 0.36 ft/sec. The demonstration was conducted at a pilot scale of 5 T/D. Catalyst activation with CO/N{sub 2} proceeded well. Initial catalyst activity was close to the expectations from the CAER autoclave runs. CO conversion of about 85% was obtained at the baseline condition. The catalyst also showed good water-gas shift activity and a low {alpha}. At high productivity conditions, reactor productivity of 136 grams of HC/hr -- liter of slurry volume was demonstrated, which was within the target of 120--150. However, mass transfer limitations were observed at these conditions. To alleviate these limitations and prevent excessive thickening, the slurry was diluted during the run. This enabled operations under kinetic control later in the run. But, the dilution resulted in lower conversion and reactor productivity. A new reactor internal heat exchanger, installed for high productivity conditions, performed well above design,and the system never limited the performance. The control can expected, the reactor temperature control needed manual intervention. The control can be improved by realigning the utility oil system.

Bhatt, B.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

263

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of carbon bonds under a variety of conditions in general, not just in the liquid. Carbon phase diagram. The properties of the liquid phase have remained unclear because of the...

264

Novel Stationary Phase Materials in Separation Science ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Description: The Organic Chemical Metrology Group maintains on ongoing effort to study liquid and gas chromatographic stationary phases. ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

265

Experiment 7: Heat Phase Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiment 7: Heat Phase Changes Matter has 4 phases or states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. This lab looks at the phase transitions from solid to liquid to gas. 1. Obtain the following materials: 600mL beaker of ice, thermometer, hot plate, timer. 2. Add a very small amount of water to the ice so

Peterson, Blake R.

266

Kinetics/Phase Transformations: Visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VISUALS: Animation and video of solidification of solid crystals from a liquid ... JOM article including phase field and level set model animations, 0, 710, Cathy ...

267

A Modeling Study of the Influence of Ice Scavenging on the Chemical Composition of Liquid-Phase Precipitation of a Cumulonimbus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence of the efficient removal of chemicals by ice particles has been deduced from past field experiments and laboratory studies. However, the ice phase has been poorly represented in prior cloud chemistry modeling. This paper uses a two-...

Nicole Audiffren; Sylvie Cautenet; Nadine Chaumerliac

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Geoantineutrino Spectrum, 3He/4He-ratio Distribution in the Earth's Interior and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's Core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The description problem of geoantineutrino spectrum and reactor antineutrino experimental spectrum in KamLAND, which takes place for antineutrino energy \\~2.8 MeV, and also the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silicaalumina melts at high pressure (5-10 GP?) and temperature (1600-2200C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron- fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution in the Earth's interior is offered. It is shown that the 3He/4He ratio distribution can be the natural quantitative criterion of georeactor thermal power. On the basis of O'Nions-Evensen-Hamilton geochemical model of mantle differentiation and the crust growth supplied by actinid shell on the boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core as a nuclear energy source (georeactor with power of 30 TW), the tentative estimation of geoantineutrino intensity and geoantineutrino spectrum on the Earth surface are given.

V. D. Rusov; V. N. Pavlovich; V. N. Vaschenko; V. A. Tarasov; T. N. Zelentsova; V. N. Bolshakov; D. A. Litvinov; S. I. Kosenko; O. A. Byegunova

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

A model for stratified gas-liquid turbulent flow in ducts of arbitrary cross-section  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

93 A model for stratified gas-liquid turbulent flow in ducts of arbitrary cross-section J. M the pressure gradient and the liquid fraction in two-phase gas- liquid fully developed stratified flow.60 Nomenclature. - TWO-PHASE VARIABLES. Definition densities statistical average (gas, liquid) mass average phase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

271

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

272

Investigating the correlation between residual nonwetting phase liquids and pore-scale geometry and topology using synchrotron x-ray tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entrapment of nonwetting phase fluids in unconsolidated porous media systems is strongly dependent on the pore-scale geometry and topology. Synchrotron X-ray tomography allows us to nondestructively obtain high-resolution (on the order of 1-10 micron), three-dimensional images of multiphase porous media systems. Over the past year, a number of multiphase porous media systems have been imaged using the synchrotron X-ray tomography station at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. For each of these systems, we are able to: (1) obtain the physically-representative network structure of the void space including the pore body and throat distribution, coordination number, and aspect ratio; (2) characterize the individual nonwetting phase blobs/ganglia (e.g., volume, sphericity, orientation, surface area); and (3) correlate the porous media and fluid properties. The images, data, and network structure obtained from these experiments provide us with a better understanding of the processes and phenomena associated with the entrapment of nonwetting phase fluids. Results from these experiments will also be extremely useful for researchers interested in interphase mass transfer and those utilizing network models to study the flow of multiphase fluids in porous media systems.

Willson, C.S.; Ham, K.; Thompson, K.A. (LSU)

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

273

Method of foaming a liquid metal  

SciTech Connect

A method for promoting the formation of a foam and for improving bubble retention and foam lifetimes in liquid metal NaK or sodium used to generate power in two-phase liquid metal MHD generators is described. In a two-phase liquid metal MHD generator, a compressed, hot, inert gas is used as the thermodynamic working fluid to electrically drive a conductive liquid metal such as NaK, sodium or tin through the generator channel. The gas and liquid are mixed together just as the mixture enters the generator channel so that the expansion of the gas drives the conductive liquid across the magnetic field, generating electrical power. The two phases are then separated and returned to the mixer through different loops.

Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1978-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

274

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

275

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Dissolution Studies of Si Metal in Liquid Al under Different Forced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Dissolution Studies of Si Metal in Liquid Al under Different Forced ... studies of Silicon metal in liquid Aluminum will be reported under natural and ... conditions of two-phase flow, utilizing Nitrogen gas, in liquid Aluminum will ...

277

Dynamics of quantum spin liquid and spin solid phases in IPA-CuCl3 under an applied magnetic field studied with neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic and elastic neutron scattering is used to study spin correlations in the quasi-one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet IPA-CuCl3 in strong applied magnetic fields. A condensation of magnons and commensurate transverse long-range ordering is observe at a critical field Hc=9.5 T. The field dependencies of the energies and polarizations of all magnon branches are investigated both below and above the transition point. Their dispersion is measured across the entire one-dimensional Brillouin zone in magnetic fields up to 14 T. The critical wave vector of magnon spectrum truncation Masuda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 047210 2006 is found to shift from hc0,35 at HHC to hc=0.25 for HHC. A drastic reduction of magnon bandwidths in the ordered phase Garlea et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167202 2007 is observed and studied in detail. New features of the spectrum, presumably related to this bandwidth collapse, are observed just above the transition field.

Zheludev, Andrey I [ORNL; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Masuda, T. [Yokohama City University, Japan; Manaka, H. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima JAPAN; Regnault, L.-P. [CEA, Grenoble, France; Ressouche, E. [CEA, Grenoble, France; Grenier, B. [CEA, Grenoble, France; Chung, J.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Qiu, Y. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Habicht, Klaus [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Kiefer, K. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Boehm, Martin [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Impact of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone architecture on mass removal mechanisms in strongly layered heterogeneous porous media during soil vapor extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An existing multiphase flow simulator was modified in order to determine the effects of four mechanisms on NAPL mass removal in a strongly layered heterogeneous vadose zone during soil vapor extraction (SVE): a) NAPL flow, b) diffusion and dispersion from low permeability zones, c) slow desorption from sediment grains, and d) rate-limited dissolution of trapped NAPL. The impact of water and NAPL saturation distribution, NAPL type (i.e., free, residual, or trapped) distribution, and spatial heterogeneity of the permeability field on these mechanisms were evaluated. Two different initial source zone architectures (one with and one without trapped NAPL) were considered and these architectures were used to evaluate seven different SVE scenarios. For all runs, slow diffusion from low permeability zones that gas flow bypassed was a dominant factor for diminished SVE effectiveness at later times. This effect was more significant at high water saturation due to the decrease of gas-phase relative permeability. Transverse dispersion contributed to fast NAPL mass removal from the low permeability layer in both source zone architectures, but longitudinal dispersion did not affect overall mass removal time. Both slow desorption from sediment grains and rate-limited mass transfer from trapped NAPL only marginally affected removal times. However, mass transfer from trapped NAPL did affect mass removal at late time, as well as the NAPL distribution. NAPL flow from low to high permeability zones contributed to faster mass removal from the low permeability layer, and this effect increased when water infiltration was eliminated. These simulations indicate that if trapped NAPL exists in heterogeneous porous media, mass transfer can be improved by delivering gas directly to zones with trapped NAPL and by lowering the water content, which increases the gas relative permeability and changes trapped NAPL to free NAPL.

Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Valocchi, Albert J.; Oostrom, Martinus

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

simulation that is in the ice-phase. Note that the y-axis isradiative properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. Quart.include liquid-phase only, ice-phase only, and mixed-phase.

Klein, Stephen A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fluorinated Arylboron Oxalate for Non-Aqueous Battery Electrolytes  

A range of new fluorinated arylboron oxalate compounds for use as additives and anion receptors in lithium-based battery electrolytes have been ...

284

A pentafluorophenylboron oxalate additive in non-aqueous ...  

increase the solubility of lithium ?uorite and lithium oxides. ... per foil were used as current collectors for cathode and anode ... Energy, Of?ce of ...

285

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing low local free-energy configuration, which is bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena are also discussed.

Hajime Tanaka

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAMMA TITANIUM ALUMINIDES: I: Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

They are disordered solution phases: liquid, (Ti, Al), (Ti, Al), (Al); ordered intermetallic phases: 2Ti3Al, TiAl, TiAl3 and stoichiometric compounds: TiAl2, Ti2Al5.

288

LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF METALLIC CARBIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method is given for fabricating uranium carbide composites, The method comprises forming a homogeneous mixture of powdered uranium carbide, a uranium intermetallic compound which wets and forms a eutectic with said carbide and has a non-uranium component which has a relatively high vapor pressure at a temperature in the range 1200 to 1500 deg C, and an organic binder, pressing said mixture to a composite of desired green strength, and then vacuum sintering said composite at the eutectic forming temperature for a period sufficient to remove at least a portion of the non-uranium containing component of said eutectic. (AEC)

Hammond, J.; Sease, J.D.

1964-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

289

Liquid Phase Sintering of NiTi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

290

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite. 2 figs.

Erickson, D.C.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate u...

Limmer, David T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative nonequilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

David T. Limmer; David Chandler

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

294

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Group Substitutions on the Gas-Phase Electron Affinities and Ionization Energies of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ions using Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cathodic and anodic stabilities of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are important factors in their applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, we investigated the electron affinities of cations and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

296

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

297

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990  

SciTech Connect

Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.

Kim, J.M. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hashemi, A. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

300

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Detection of supercooled liquid in mixedphase clouds using radar Doppler spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the temperature range from 0 to -40°C, where both liquid and ice hydrometeor phases are sustainable of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Current cloud parameterizations that parti- tion water into liquid and ice 2010; published 1 October 2010. [1] Cloud phase identification from active remote sensors

Shupe, Matthew

302

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

303

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

304

Liquid phase Fischer-Tropsch (II) demonstration in the Laporte Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Final topical report. Volume 7, Appendix. Task 1, Engineering modifications (Fischer-Tropsch II demonstration) and Task 2, AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal (Fischer-Tropsch II demonstration)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from a demonstration of Liquid Phase Fischer-Tropsch (LPFT) technology in DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. The run was conducted in a bubble column at the AFDU in May--June 1994. The 10-day run demonstrated a very high level of reactor productivity for LPFT, more than five times the previously demonstrated productivity (1). The productivity was constrained by mass transfer limitations, perhaps due to slurry thickening as a result of carbon formation on the catalyst. With a cobalt catalyst or an improved iron catalyst, if the carbon formation can be avoided, there is significant room for further improvements. This volume contains appendices for: reactor temperature stability; Mott Cross-flow filter test for F-T II; Fischer-Tropsch II run authorizations; Fischer-Tropsch II run chronology; liquid compositions; and F-T II / IIA Demonstration Mass Balances.

Bhatt, B.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

306

PHASE TRANSITIONS, CRITICAL PHENOMENA AND EXACTLY SOLVABLE LATTICE MODELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a pond change phase from a liquid state to solid ice. Lastly, if a horseshoe magnet is heated T100 C L G Figure 1. Schematic phase diagram of water showing the solid ice, liquid and gasPHASE TRANSITIONS, CRITICAL PHENOMENA AND EXACTLY SOLVABLE LATTICE MODELS Paul A. Pearce1

Pearce, Paul A.

307

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

phase phase ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor phase Hydrometeor phase such as liquid ice or mixed phase Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Value-Added Products VISST : Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm (Process) VISSTPX04G08V2MINNIS : VISST-derived pixel-level products from satellite GOES8, version 2 VISSTPX04G08V3MINNIS : VISST-derived pixel-level products from satellite GOES8, version 3

308

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Distributions of Liquid, Vapor, and Ice in an Orographic Cloud from Field Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase distribution of the water mass of a cold orographic cloud into vapor, liquid, and ice is calculated from measurements made from an instrumented aircraft. The vapor values are calculated from thermodynamic measurements, and the liquid is ...

Taneil Uttal; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Liquid crystalline thermosetting polyimides. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase separation of rodlike reinforcing polymers and flexible coil matrix polymers is a common problem in formulating molecular composites. One way to reduce phase separation might be to employ liquid crystalline thermosets as the matrix material. In this work, functionally terminated polyimide oligomers which exhibit lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior were successfully prepared. Materials based on 2,2{prime}-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4{prime}-diaminobiphenyl and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-biphenylenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride have been synthesized and characterized.

Hoyt, A.E.; Huang, S.J. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Stripe Dynamics, Global Phase Ordering and Quantum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By modeling the stripe phase in cuprates as spin gapped stripes coupled to the RVB liquid of preformed electron pairs, I derive the low energy effective theory of the RVB phase variable. It is found that the effect of stripe dynamics (including both longitudinal and transverse modes) leads to incipient temporal phase stiffness in the RVB liquid, which tunes a quantum phase transition toward a superconducting ground state with global phase order. Physical consequences of this quantum criticality are discussed. Typeset using REVTEX 1 I.

Criticality High; Tc Superconductors; Wenjun Zheng

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Phase equilibrium studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A phase equilibrium model has been developed for the SRC-I process, as well as the other coal liquefaction processes. It is applicable to both vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid equilibria; it also provides an approximate but adequate description of aqueous mixtures where the volatile electrolyte components dissociate to form ionic species. This report completes the description of the model presented in an earlier report (Mathias and Stein, 1983a). Comparisons of the model to previously published data on coal-fluid mixtures are presented. Further, a preliminary analysis of new data on SRC-I coal fluids is presented. Finally, the current capabilities and deficiencies of the model are discussed. 25 references, 17 figures, 30 tables.

Mathias, P.M.; Stein, F.P.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Orientational relaxation in a discotic liquid crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate orientational relaxation of a model discotic liquid crystal, consists of disc-like molecules, by molecular dynamics simulations along two isobars starting from the high temperature isotropic phase. The two isobars have been so chosen that (A) the phase sequence isotropic (I)-nematic (N)-columnar (C) appears upon cooling along one of them and (B) the sequence isotropic (I)-columnar (C) along the other. While the orientational relaxation in the isotropic phase near the I-N phase transition in system (A) shows a power law decay at short to intermediate times, such power law relaxation is not observed in the isotropic phase near the I-C phase boundary in system (B). In order to understand this difference (the existence or the absence of the power law decay), we calculated the the growth of the orientational pair distribution functions (OPDF) near the I-N phase boundary and also near the I-C phase boundary. We find that OPDF shows a marked growth in long range correlation as the I-N phase boundary is approached in the I-N-C system (A), but such a growth is absent in the I-C system, which appears to be consistent with the result that I-N phase transition in the former is weakly first order while the the I-C phase transition in the later is not weak. As the system settles into the nematic phase, the decay of the single-particle second-rank orientational OTCF follows a pattern that is similar to what is observed with calamitic liquid crystals and supercooled molecular liquids.

Dwaipayan Chakrabarti; Biman Jana; Biman Bagchi

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

317

Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... New Phase in Stoichiometric Cu6Sn5 and Effect of Ni Addition on Phase Stabilization in Wide Temperature Range · Optical Properties of ...

318

Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Phase Diagrams ... TMS: Alloy Phases Committee, TMS: Chemistry and Physics of Materials ...

319

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

322

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source term. The effective heat capacity is described by ( ?C g denote the speci?c heat capacity of the solid phase, theLiquid density Speci?c heat capacity of liquid phase Speci?c

Wang, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Zinc Oxide Nanorods by the Pulsed Plasma in Liquid and Their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulsed plasma submerged into a liquid enables us to synthesize metastable, high-temperature phase nanocrystalline materials by rapidly quenching from ...

325

Method for aqueous phase reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting liquid organic material in a mixture into a product utilizing a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Hart, Todd R. (Kennewick, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

327

A Phase-Field Model for Phase Transformations in Glass-Forming Alloys  

SciTech Connect

A phase-field model is proposed for phase transformations in glass-forming alloys. The glass transition is introduced as a structural relaxation, and the competition between the glass and crystalline phases is investigated. The simulations are performed for Cu-Zr alloys, employing thermodynamic and kinetic parameters derived from reported thermodynamic modeling and molecular dynamics simulation results,[1–3] respectively. Four distinct phase fields are treated with a multi-phase-field approach, representing the liquid/glass, Cu10Zr7, CuZr, and CuZr2 phases. In addition, a continuum-field method is applied to the liquid to accommodate the liquid–glass transformation. The combined phase-field approach is used to investigate the glass formation tendency, and critical cooling rates are estimated and compared with the reported experimental values.

Wang, Tao; Napolitano, Ralph E.

2012-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

328

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

329

Phase five  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase five Phase five 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Phase five Los Alamos physicists have conclusively demonstrated the existence of a new phase of matter. November 25, 2013 Phase five Scientists still have more to learn about the exotic physics of specialty materials. What makes the cuprates special? How about a new phase of matter. Ceramic metals known as cuprates have mystified physicists for decades. They exhibit a variety of distinct phases of matter, each with its own specific properties, including a phase bearing an exotic type of magnetism, a high-temperature superconducting phase, an ordinary metal phase, a poorly understood and weird metallic phase simply called a strange metal, and an equally poorly understood metallic phase known as the pseudogap. The

330

Page 1 of 2 `5-Phase' EOS: A Tabular H2O EOS for Shock Physics Codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Table The 5-Phase H2O tabular equation of state model includes ice Ih, ice VI, ice VII, liquid determined phase boundaries except for the artificial ice Ih-ice VI boundary and the adjacent liquid boundary density phase boundary occupied by the equilibrium mixtures of ice Ih-vapor and liquid-vapor. The tension

Stewart, Sarah T.

331

Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the meltingcrystalline ice at two different temperatures, and gas-phaseof gas-phase water, liquid water and crystalline ice using

Nordlund, Dennis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

High-temperature liquid--metal MHD generator experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed data were obtained for the world's first high-temperature two-phase liquid--metal MHD generator under open-circuit conditions. Both single-phase (sodium) and two-phase (sodium and nitrogen) flows were used in the temperture range of approx. 490 to approx. 740/sup 0/K. The data presented includes pressures, voltages, and slip ratios (ratio of gas velocity to liquid velocity). The two-phase pressure--gradient data were predicted well by a simplified two-phase MHD correlation that includes the effect of a pure-liquid shunt layer between the electrodes. The slip ratio is shown to decrease with increasing temperature, implying higher generator and system efficiencies; this anticipated result was a prime reason for performing these experiments.

Dunn, P.F.; Pierson, E.S.; Staffon, J.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Limitations of the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen Mechanism in the Evolution of Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase transformation and precipitation formation in mixed-phase clouds are usually associated with the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF) process in which ice crystals grow at the expense of liquid droplets. The evolution of mixed-phase clouds, ...

Alexei Korolev

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to an improvement in centrifugal contactors of a type used for solvent extraction systems in nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing. The centrifugal contactor is vertically oriented and is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor wherein the mixing of the process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing takes place. A set of helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is positioned in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the inlets of the process liquids for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a helically disposed vane set carried by the housing which urges the liquid in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and liquid contacts the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone within a desirable level while providing a greater degree of mixing of the process liquids which generates more liquid surface area for contact and improves the mass transfer between the process liquids. The van set in the lower region also significantly reduces or eliminates the formation of vortices which induces cavitation and air entrainment in the process liquids which detract from the efficiency of the centrifugal contactor. 2 figs.

Jubin, R.T.; Randolph, J.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

336

Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

Scott, T.C.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Rayleigh Scattering in Rare Gas Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rayleigh scattering length has been calculated for rare-gas liquids in the ultraviolet for the frequencies at which they luminesce. The calculations are based on the measured dielectric constants in the gas phase, except in the case of xenon for which measurements are available in the liquid. The scattering length mayplace constraints on the design of some large-scale detectors, using uv luminescence, being proposed to observe solar neutrinos and dark matter. Rayleigh scattering in mixtures of rare-gas mixtures is also discussed.

G. M. Seidel; R. E. Lanou; W. Yao

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Molecular mean field theory for liquid water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attractive bonding interactions between molecules typically have inherent conservation laws which influence the statistical properties of such systems in terms of corresponding sum rules. We considered lattice water as an example and enunciated the consequences of the sum rule through a general computational procedure called "Molecular mean field" theory. Fluctuations about mean field are computed and many of the liquid properties have been deduced and compared with Monte Carlo simulation, molecular dynamics and experimental results. Large correlation lengths are seen to be a consequence of the sum rule in liquid phase. Long range Coulomb interactions are shown to have minor effects on our results.

Jampa Maruthi Pradeep Kanth; Ramesh Anishetty

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

340

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

342

RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

Batzer, T.H.

1962-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan potential, the surface curvature, and the pore structure, on the other hand. The value of \\Delta(\\Delta H) has a clear physical meaning and gives a new insight into our understanding of the apparently different phenomena. The model is applicable if the change between entropies of the comparable gas phases is far more than the difference between entropies of the liquid phases.

Vladimir Kh. Dobruskin

2010-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

344

Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...

Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Metastable liquid-liquid coexistence and density anomalies in a core-softened fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linearly-sloped or `ramp' potentials belong to a class of core-softened models which possess a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) in addition to the usual liquid-gas critical point. Furthermore they exhibit thermodynamic anomalies in the density and compressibility, the nature of which may be akin to those occurring in water. Previous simulation studies of ramp potentials have focused on just one functional form, for which the LLCP is thermodynamically stable. In this work we construct a series of ramp potentials, which interpolate between this previously studied form and a ramp-based approximation to the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. By means of Monte Carlo simulation, we locate the LLCP, the first order high density liquid (HDL)-low density liquid (LDL) coexistence line, and the line of density maxima for a selection of potentials in the series. We observe that as the LJ limit is approached, the LLCP becomes metastable with respect to freezing into a hexagonal close packed crystalline solid. The qualitative nature of the phase behaviour in this regime shows a remarkable resemblance to that seen in simulation studies of accurate water models. Specifically, the density of the liquid phase exceeds that of the solid; the gradient of the metastable LDL-HDL line is negative in the pressure (p)-temperature (T) plane; while the line of density maxima in the p-T plane has a shape similar to that seen in water and extends well into the {\\em stable} liquid region of the phase diagram. As such, our results lend weight to the `second critical point' hypothesis as an explanation for the anomalous behaviour of water.

Helen M. Gibson; Nigel B. Wilding

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

PC-based fluid and heat transfer analyzer for two-phase flow in pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Modeling the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid or two-phase gas-liquid flow in pipes is a key aspect in petroleum production. These models can enhance… (more)

Afonja, Gbolahan.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Aging of SRC liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of SRC?LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30?70 blend of SRC?I with SRC?LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper

T. Hara; L. Jones; K. C. Tewari; N. C. Li

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Radioactive Liquid Processing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents guidance for utility liquid radwaste processing program managers. The document is a summation of utility and vendor processing experience, and is intended for use as a tool to enhance liquid radwaste processing programs. Utilization of this information will result in optimized system performance, and a reduction in waste volumes and program costs.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

351

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

353

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

354

IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 3, JULY 2006 287 The Influence of Thermodynamic Phase on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with respect to the assumption of a cloud containing solely liquid or ice phase particles. The analyses suggest liquid phase (or pure ice phase) is assumed for the cloud, whereas the corresponding cloud optical, optical thickness, remote sensing. I. INTRODUCTION BOTH ice and water phase particles may coexist

Baum, Bryan A.

355

Observational Constraints on the Cloud Thermodynamic Phase in Midlatitude Storms CATHERINE M. NAUD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the ice versus the liquid phase. Early prognostic cloud water parameterizations for stratiform clouds supercooled liquid water gradually gives way to ice in the mixed-phase regions of clouds are still poorlyObservational Constraints on the Cloud Thermodynamic Phase in Midlatitude Storms CATHERINE M. NAUD

356

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

Kuester, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method and apparatus for the removal of bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

Scott, Timothy (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

362

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

363

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

Chiral Isotropic Liquids from Achiral Molecules  

SciTech Connect

A variety of simple bent-core molecules exhibit smectic liquid crystal phases of planar fluid layers that are spontaneously both polar and chiral in the absence of crystalline order. We found that because of intralayer structural mismatch, such layers are also only marginally stable against spontaneous saddle splay deformation, which is incompatible with long-range order. This results in macroscopically isotropic fluids that possess only short-range orientational and positional order, in which the only macroscopically broken symmetry is chirality - even though the phases are formed from achiral molecules. Their conglomerate domains exhibit optical rotatory powers comparable to the highest ever found for isotropic fluids of chiral molecules.

L Hough; M Spannuth; M Nakata; D Coleman; C Jones; G Dantlgraber; C Tschierske; J Watanabe; N Clark; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Pilot Scale Evaluation of Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO) Technology: A Field Application at a Former Manu factured Gas Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites commonly contain areas where coal tar has been released, potentially existing in several phases including non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in portions of the subsurface site soils. This report describes a field-based pilot scale study of an in situ oxidation technology called Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO), which was developed by VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.BackgroundCoal tar can remain as ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

A note on the evaporation of a stagnant liquid  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this report was the understanding of the effect of higher pressures on the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. Experimental evidence (Le Romancer et al.) suggests that high-pressure gas injection results under certain conditions in a decrease of the rate of the interface motion, a result that may be due to gas dissolution and diffusion in the liquid phase. To explore this possibility, it was considered in this paper a simple 1-D model of this process as illustrated schematically in a figure. A liquid A, originally occupying a semi-infinite medium, is subject to evaporation and diffusion in a flowing gas B, the composition of which at the top of the medium (at z = 0) remains constant. Due to the possible high pressure in the gas, component B may solubilize and counter-diffuse in the liquid phase.

Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C.; Stubos, A.K.

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

Liquid level controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicolás

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

PHASE DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase detector circuit is described for use at very high frequencies of the order of 50 megacycles. The detector circuit includes a pair of rectifiers inverted relative to each other. One voltage to be compared is applied to the two rectifiers in phase opposition and the other voltage to be compared is commonly applied to the two rectifiers. The two result:ng d-c voltages derived from the rectifiers are combined in phase opposition to produce a single d-c voltage having amplitude and polarity characteristics dependent upon the phase relation between the signals to be compared. Principal novelty resides in the employment of a half-wave transmission line to derive the phase opposing signals from the first voltage to be compared for application to the two rectifiers in place of the transformer commonly utilized for such purpose in phase detector circuits for operation at lower frequency.

Kippenhan, D.O.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Natural-gas liquids  

SciTech Connect

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a day from 30 billion cu ft of natural gas processed in more than 600 gasoline plants. Although casinghead gasoline first was used for automobile fuel, natural-gas liquids now are used for fuel, industrial solvents, aviation blending stock, synthetic rubber, and many other petrochemical uses. Production from the individual plants is shipped by tank car, tank truck, pipeline, and tankers all over the world. Most of the natural-gas liquids come from wet natural gas which contains a considerable quantity of vapor, ranging from 0.5 to 6 gal/Mcf, and some particularly rich gases contain even more which can be liquefied. Nonassociated gas is generally clean, with a comparatively small quantity of gasoline, 0.1 to 0.5 gas/Mcf. The natural-gas liquids branch of the industry is build around the condensation of vapors in natural gas. Natural-gas liquids are processed either by the compression method or by adsorption processes.

Blackstock, W.B.; McCullough, G.W.; McCutchan, R.C.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameterization in BRM scheme accounts for two general mech- anisms distinguishable according to the involvement of liquid phase in the ice

Sednev, I.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Computational approaches to model the phase behaviour of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system with uniform physical and chemical characteristics . #12;The phase diagram of water 15 ice of water models (i.e.various conditions, ice phases)! #12;Less attention received for solid water untilComputational approaches to model the phase behaviour of molecular liquids and solids: water

Kjelstrup, Signe

375

Arctic mixed-phase cloud properties derived from surface-based sensors at SHEBA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixed-phase clouds are an understudied component of global cloudiness and are thus poorly represented in models at all scales, which typically partition cloud phase as a function of temperature. The proper partitioning of cloud phase is particularly important considering the unique radiative properties of liquid droplets and ice particles, the impact of phase on precipitation processes, and the sensitivity of phase

M. D. Shupe; S. Y. Matrosov; T. Uttal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Characterization at the M-Area Settling Basin Western Sector Treatment System (WSTS) Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Characterization at the M-Area Settling Basin Western Sector Treatment System (WSTS) Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina Soil bores will be advanced with a Rotosonic drilling rig to confirm the effectiveness of the Western Sector Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) project at the M-Area Settling Basin. Replacement monitoring wells will also be installed as part of this effort. These groundwater monitoring wells will replace wells that were abandoned due to the installation and / or operation of the DUS system. Now that the heating phase has ended the DUS is transitioning to the Western Sector Treatment System (WSTS). B3.1 - Site characterization and environmental monitoring Andrew R. Grainger

377

Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anomalies and the liquid-liquid critical point in a family of model fluids with multi-Gaussian, core-softened pair interactions. The core-softened pair interactions have two length scales, such that the longer length scale associated with a shallow, attractive well is kept constant while the shorter length scale associated with the repulsive shoulder is varied from an inflexion point to a minimum of progressively increasing depth. As the shoulder well depth increases, the pressure required to form the high density liquid decreases and the temperature up to which the high-density liquid is stable increases, resulting in the shift of the liquid-liquid critical point to much lower pressures and higher temperatures. The pair correlation entropy is computed to show that the excess entropy anomaly diminishes when the shoulder well depth increases. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity in this class of fluids is demonstrated, showing that decreasing strength of the excess entropy anomaly with increasing shoulder depth results in the progressive loss of water-like thermodynamic, structural and transport anomalies. Instantaneous normal mode analysis was used to index the overall curvature distribution of the fluid and the fraction of imaginary frequency modes was shown to correlate well with the anomalous behaviour of the diffusivity and the pair correlation entropy. The results suggest in the case of core-softened potentials, in addition to the presence of two length scales, energetic and entropic effects associated with local minima and curvatures of the pair interaction play an important role in determining the presence of water-like anomalies and the liquid-liquid phase transition.

Evy Salcedo; Alan B. de Oliveira; Ney M. Barraz Jr; Charusita Chakravarty; Marcia C. Barbosa

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

379

Two component absorption/phase separation chemical heat pump to provide temperature amplification to waste heat streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump that utilizes liquid/liquid phase separation rather than evaporation to separate two components in a heat of mixing chemical heat pump process. 3 figs.

Scott, T.C.; Kaplan, S.I.

1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

380

Competition between glass transition and liquid-gas separation in attracting colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present simulation results addressing the phenomena of colloidal gelation induced by attractive interactions. The liquid-gas transition is prevented by the glass arrest at high enough attraction strength, resulting in a colloidal gel. The dynamics of the system is controlled by the glass, with little effect of the liquid-gas transition. When the system separates in a liquid and vapor phases, even if the denser phase enters the non-ergodic region, the vapor phase enables the structural relaxation of the system as a whole.

A. M. Puertas; M. Fuchs; M. E. Cates

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A tracer test was conducted at the Coso geothermal field in order to characterize the flow patterns of fluid injected into well 68-20RD. A conservative liquid phase tracer, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and a two-phase tracer, ethanol, were injected into well 68-20RD. Surrounding production wells were sampled over the subsequent 125 days and analyzed for the two tracers. The liquid-phase tracer showed negligible returns, whereas the

383

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

384

Phase Transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 9, 2013 ... O. Advanced Neutron and Synchrotron Studies of Materials: Phase .... We will describe recent advances at the Advanced Photon Source in ... Finally, we will describe upgrade plans for microdiffraction capabilities at the APS.

385

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

SciTech Connect

This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Observed Microphysical Structure ofObserved Microphysical Structure of MidMid--Level, MixedLevel, Mixed--Phase CloudsPhase Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Level, Mixed--Phase CloudsPhase Clouds DOD Center for Geosciences/ Atmospheric Research Colorado State understood, but they cover ~ 22% of globe. Mixed-Phase Structure of Clouds Unknown. 30% are mixed-phase --- i.e. contain both ice and liquid. We need to know ice structure for weather and climate forecasts, e

387

MultiFLIP for Energetic Two-Phase Fluid Simulation LANDON BOYD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with single-phase liquid simulation. Physically-based liquid animations often ignore the influence of air, giv- ing up interesting behaviour. We present a new method which treats both air and liquid of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise

Bridson, Robert

388

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

389

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

390

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Microsoft Word - N0071600-NAPL-Oct to Dec.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

6-TAC 6-TAC U.S. Department of Energy Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measure Progress Report October Through December 2003 January 2004 Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management N0071600 GJO-2004-556-TAC PIN 700.15.10 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2003 January 2004 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491

394

Microsoft Word - DOE_RM_DM-#350832-v1-NAPL_Quarterly_April-June_2006.DOC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Northeast Site Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report April through June 2006 July 2006 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1253-2006 -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy DOE-LM/1253-2006 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report April through June 2006 July 2006 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado

395

Microsoft Word - DOE_RM_DM-#102768-v1-NAPL_Quarterly_Report_Jan-March_2005.ƒ  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

6 6 U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measure Progress Report January through March 2005 April 2005 DOE-LM/GJ876-2005 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report January through March 2005 April 2005 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado

396

Microsoft Word - DOE_RM_DM-#345139-v1-NAPL_Quarterly_Oct-Dec_2005.DOC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 2006 - -L U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measure Progress Report October Through December 2005 January 2006 DOE-LM/GJ1105-2006 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2005 January 2006 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado

397

Microsoft Word - DOE_RM_DM-#100069-v1-NAPL_Quarterly_Oct-Dec_2004.DOC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

1 1 U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measure Progress Report October through December 2004 January 2005 DOE-LM/GJ801-2005 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2004 January 2005 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado

398

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Energy Basics: Solar Liquid Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Liquid Heating Solar liquid heating systems use a collector with a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) steam reforming C2H5OH + H2O Ã? 2CO + 4H2 6) Water gas shift 7) Methanation 8) Coking from CH4 (methane Ethanol Reforming Options Gas Phase Liquid Phase Virent Steam Partial Oxidation Reforming GE (SCPO) decomposition C2H5OH Ã? CH4 + CO + H2 steam reforming CH4 + 2H2O Ã? 4H2 + CO2 3) C2H5OH dehydrogenation

402

Field evaluation of sampling methods for pressurized geothermal liquids, gases, and suspended solids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many different sampling methods were tested and compared for collecting samples for measurement of brine chemistry, gases, and suspended solids from pressurized geothermal systems. The tests were conducted on the 6-2 wellhead and a test loop at the Department of Energy's Geothermal Test Facility at East Mesa, California. The recommended methods for single-phase liquid or single-phase steam (with gases) are presented, together with detailed procedures. The results of testing methods for sampling two phase liquid-steam systems showed significant errors can result. It was recommended that two-phase flowing wells be directed to a full flow separator and the single-phase liquid and single-phase steam sampled separately using the recommended methods.

Shannon, D.W.; Cole, M.W.; DeMonia, D.D.; Divine, J.R.; Jensen, G.A.; Kindle, C.H.; Koski, O.H.; Smith, R.P.; Woodruff, E.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. A. Z. Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallicambient-temperature molten salts. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35,are room-temperature molten salts with melting points near

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

407

Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas Mauricio-dimensional associating lattice gas (ALG) model. This model combines orientational ice-like interactions and "van der the presence of two liquid phase, two critical points and density anomaly. PACS numbers: 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

409

Mechanism and behavior of nucleate boiling heat transfer to the alkalai liquid metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of boiling heat transfer to the alkali liquid metals is postulated from an examination of the events and phases of the nucleate boiling cycle. The model includes the important effect of microlayer evaporation which ...

Deane, Charles William

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of a new QCM-based flow reactor has been completed. Initial results include: (1) stable oscillation achieved with crystals sputter coated at 200 C with 500 nm ZnO; (2) sub-Hz noise level means installation of membrane contactors; (4) determination of ZnO etch rates using dilute ethanolic NH{sub 4}Cl; (5) demonstration of use of an etchant as a probe of oxide-molecule interactions; (6) and use in flow rate-dependent CdS chemical deposition.

Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Examination of Microstructural Liquid Phase Behavior during Heat ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermoelectric materials offer a potentially valuable source of energy by converting a temperature gradient to electricity. Recent progress in ...

413

Thermal bremsstrahlung probing the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of the analysis of the hard photon production in the $^{129}${Xe}+$^{\\rm nat}${Sn} at 50{\\it A} MeV system studied in the GANIL E300 experiment. The energy and angular hard photon distributions confirm the existence of a thermal component which follows the recently measured thermal bremsstrahlung systematics. Exploiting the performances of our complete detection system, consisting of TAPS and 3 charged particle multidetectors, we have also measured the hard photon multiplicity as a function of the charged particle multiplicity.

R. Ortega; D. d'Enterria; F. Fernandez; G. Martinez

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of a new QCM-based flow reactor has been completed. Initial results include: (1) stable oscillation achieved with crystals sputter coated at 200 C with 500 nm ZnO; (2) sub-Hz noise level means << monolayer sensitivity; (3) Operation at elevated temperature possible after installation of membrane contactors; (4) determination of ZnO etch rates using dilute ethanolic NH{sub 4}Cl; (5) demonstration of use of an etchant as a probe of oxide-molecule interactions; (6) and use in flow rate-dependent CdS chemical deposition.

Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the new low-cost tool, its capabilities, potential pitfalls with its use, initial results, and possible future research directions.

Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Liquid-phase ozonation of fusainized components of SS coal  

SciTech Connect

Stepwise ozonation of leaning fusainized components of fossil coal of SS grade in acetic acid was studied. The dynamics of accumulation of oxygen-containing groups in the course of ozonation was examined, and the main pathways of the reaction of ozone with structural fragments of the coal substance were revealed.

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Water Detritiation: Better SCKCEN Catalysts for Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Tritium Science and Technology - Tritium Science and Technology - Detritiation, Purification, and Isotope Separation

Aimé Bruggeman; Johan Braet; Sven Vanderbiesen

418

Two-Phase Liquid Dielectric - Energy Innovation Portal  

Energy Innovation Portal ... the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume so that the beads inhibit electro-hydro dynamically ...

419

Shock dynamics of phase diagrams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamic phase transition denotes a drastic change of state of a physical system due to a continuous change of thermodynamic variables, as for instance pressure and temperature. The classical van der Waals equation of state is the simplest model that predicts the occurrence of a critical point associated with the gas-liquid phase transition. Nevertheless, below the critical temperature, theoretical predictions of the van der Waals theory significantly depart from the observed physical behaviour. We develop a novel approach to classical thermodynamics based on the solution of Maxwell relations for a generalised family of nonlocal entropy functions. This theory provides an exact mathematical description of discontinuities of the order parameter within the phase transition region, it explains the universal form of the equations of state and the occurrence of triple points in terms of the dynamics of nonlinear shock wave fronts.

Antonio Moro

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

420

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

422

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

423

Optical Diagnostics and Direct Injection of Liquid Fuel Sprays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described here addresses the problem of a paucity of high quality data on the full field structure of high pressure liquid fuel sprays for gasoline direct injection, GDI, engines. The paper describes the application of phase Doppler anemometry, ... Keywords: GDI, PDA, laser sheet, spray, visualisation

G. K. Hargrave; G. Wigley; J. Allen; A. Bacon

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Vapor-Liquid Partitioning of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This study focused on the partitioning of sulfuric acid and ammonium bisulfate between the liquid and vapor phases.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

New 'Tool Box' Approaches for Innovative Characterization of NAPL at MGP Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains papers presented at a workshop held by EPRI's Contaminant Characterization and Source Attribution project on June 23, 2004. The project seeks to improve risk management and decision making by delivering better methods and new scientific information for characterizing soils, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and groundwater at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This research will deliver improved conventional methods as well as new methods for characterizing NAPLs, including field a...

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

Experimental assessment and modeling of organic compound interphase mass-transfer rates in multiphase subsurface systems. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

During the initial eight month period of this grant, work has been conducted on all facets of the project. Significant progress has been made in the design, construction and testing of the experimental apparatus. Investigation of methods for characterizing the physical forms of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) residuals (globules or blobs) has led to a narrowing of possible approaches. Development of a numerical simulator that accomodates multiphase transport with mass transfer rate interactions is well underway.

Weber, W.J. Jr.; Abriola, L.M.

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

428

Phase Stability of Multicomponent NAPLs Containing PAHs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural or engineered process that acts to selectively extract compounds will alter NAPL composition examines the relationship between NAPL composition and liquid phase stability for mixtures of polycyclic as a subsurface environmental contaminant at sites of former manufactured gas plants (1). Multicomponent NAPLs

Peters, Catherine A.

429

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Liquid-gas separation in colloidal electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas transition of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged colloids, studied by Monte Carlo simulations, is found in the low temperature -- low density region. The critical temperature shows a non-monotonous behavior as a function of the interaction range, $\\kappa^{-1}$, with a maximum at $\\kappa \\sigma \\approx 10$, implying an island of coexistence in the $\\kappa$-$\\rho$ plane. The system is arranged in such a way that each particle is surrounded by shells of particles with alternating charge. In contrast with the electrolyte primitive model, both neutral and charged clusters are obtained in the vapor phase

Jose B. Caballero; Antonio M. Puertas; Antonio Fernandez-Barbero; F. Javier de las Nieves; J. M. Romero-Enrique; L. F. Rull

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

How NGPL validates its two-phase flow program  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas Pipeline Company (NGPL) has completed a series of studies where liquid flow in gas pipelines is simulated in a two-phase flow program. This analysis determines the relationship between the amount of liquids in a natural gas pipe line and the Weymouth efficiency of the pipe line. To assure valid conclusions, the analysis was broken down into two parts, first, the two-phase flow program was tested against actual data collected by the American Gas Association. Second, curves were developed to show the change in efficiency compared to changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio. It is concluded that where liquids are present in natural gas pipe lines, there will be a decrease in efficiency. NGPL's program eliminates the underdesigning and overdesigning that results when using a 90% Weymouth efficiency, provided that accurate estimates of liquid-togas ratio are available when pipe lines are designed.

Ludwig, M.S.; Remington, W.M.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic, Slag and Refractory Reactions with Liquid Metals - Refining, Evaporation and Gas/Metal Reactions - Fundamentals of Reactions involving Liquid ...

433

Available Technologies: Sugar Extraction and Ionic Liquid ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; Recovery of products using biphasic liquid-liquid extraction; Recovery and ...

434

Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current over 500 amp hours. Analysis of samples from the liquid cadmium cathode ingots showed detectable amounts of transuranics and rare-earth elements. Acknowledgements K. B. Davies and D. M. Pace for the mechanical and electrical engineering needed to prepare the equipment for the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments.

D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Method of using an electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

438

Quantum liquids resulted from the models with four-fermion interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A (nearly) perfect liquid discovered in the experements with ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is investigated by studying the quark ensembles with four-fermion interection as a fundamental theoretical approach. The comparative analysis of several quantum liquid models is performed and it results in the conclusion that the presence of gas---liquid phase transition is their characteristic feature. The problem of instability of the quark droplets of small quark number is discussed and argued to be rooted in the chiral soliton formation. An existence of mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter is proposed as a possible reason of the latter stability.

S. V. Molodtsov; G. M. Zinovjev

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

439

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

Minkov, V.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

440

Separation of heavy water by vapor-phase thermal diffusion coupled with distillation and condensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on the enrichment of heavy water in a vapor-phase thermal-diffusion column has been conducted. With the combination of the effects of distillation, vapor-phase thermal diffusion, and partial condensation, considerable improvement in the degree of enrichment has been achieved in a vapor-phase column rather than in a liquid-phase column. It was also found that even the part of enrichment contributed only by vapor-phase thermal-diffusion effect is much higher than that obtained by liquid-phase thermal diffusion.

Yeh, H.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, S.M. [Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "non-aqueous phase liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Investigation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of Liquid and Gas Bubble Train Flow in a Square Mini-channel Using Infra-Red thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of Liquid and Gas Bubble Train Flow in a Square Mini slug and bubbles, liquid and gas superficial velocities which depend on the volume flow ratio of the channel (Bo) for specific liquid and gas phase. At relatively high Bo (Bo>Bocr1.835) systems gravity force

Khandekar, Sameer

442

Spin-polarized 3He : liquid gas equilibrium S. Stringari (*), M. Barranco (+), A. Polls (+), P. J. Nacher (0394) and F. Lalo (0394)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1337 Spin-polarized 3He : liquid gas equilibrium S. Stringari (*), M. Barranco (+), A. Polls (+), P the effects of nuclear polarization M on the liquid-gas equilibrium phase diagram of 3He, in situations where article, we study another transition which takes place at lower pressures, the liquid-gas transition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in Taylor Flows with complex liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Universitá di Pisa Facoltá di Ingegneria Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali Relazione di tirocinio in Ingegneria Chimica Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in… (more)

ALBERINI, FEDERICO

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Pentafluorophenylboron Oxalate Additive in Non-aqueous Electrolytes 3 for Lithium Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be increased dramatically. The new electrolytes show high ionic conductivity, high lithium ion transference number and good compatibility with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode and MCMB anode. PFPBO was synthesized with the designed structure to act as a bi-functional additive: boron-based anion receptor (BBAR) additive and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation additive in PC-based electrolytes. The results show it does possess these two desired functionalities.

Yang, X.Q.; Li, L.F.; Lee, H.S.; Li, H.; Huang, X.J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of sulphur dioxide in non-aqueous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electroreduction of sulfur dioxide has been studied using three solvents and six supporting electrolytes. Electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements indicate that several follow-on reactions occur after the initial electron transfer step. The results are interpreted in terms of equilibria between SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup -/ and S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2-/. It has been found that both the solvent and supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the distribution of products. These results indicate that ion-pairing plays an important role in determining the course of the reduction process. 11 refs.

Gardner, C.L.; Fouchard, D.T.; Laman, F.C.; Fawcett, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water; published 18 March 2005) It has been suggested that high-density amorphous (HDA) ice is a structurally arrested form of high- density liquid (HDL) water, while low-density amorphous ice is a structurally

Sciortino, Francesco

447

An Analytic Scaling Law for the Depositional Growth of Snow in Thin Mixed-Phase Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In various practical problems, such as assessing the threat of aircraft icing or calculating radiative transfer, it is important to know whether mixed-phase clouds contain significant liquid water content. Some mixed-phase clouds remain ...

Vincent E. Larson; Adam J. Smith

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Parameterization of Ice Cloud Radiative Properties and Its Application to the Potential Climatic Importance of Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is often assumed, in modeling and radiation budget simulation, that clouds below the cirrus level are entirely in the liquid phase. There is substantive evidence from observations that low and middle clouds are often of mixed phase. Using a ...

Zhian Sun; Keith P. Shine

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Vapor phase heat transport systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube solar collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by a pump or by a self-pumping scheme. In one of the test cells the liquid was self-pumped to the roof-mounted collector 17 ft above the condenser. A mechanical valve was designed and tested that showed that the system could operate in a completely passive mode. Performance comparisons have been made with a passive water wall test cell.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Key Words Gas chromatography Liquid chromatography Thermodynamic equilibria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solution and adsorption thermodynamics Gas adsorption isotherms Summary After a brief recall of the chromatographic principles, the different applications of gas chromatographic measurements of thermodynamic equilibria were reviewed. Gas and liquid chromatographies are now well known and elegant methods for measuring the physicochemical properties and phase equilibrium thermodynamic constants. Although fundamentally a dynamical method and mostly known as a powerful separation technique, chromatography can be schematized by a succession of equilibria of a chemical species partitioning between a mobile phase and a fixed liquid or solid stationary phase. It can be operated in either infinite dilution or finite concentration conditions and permits to collect a large number of data for calculating molecular interactions for solutes which are either rare or available at the trace level. Gas chromatography permits the measurement of gas adsorption isotherms, gas-liquid equilibria, molecular diffusion and interaction virials. The modelization of successive partition equilibria occuring in the chromatographic column leads to rather simple expressions of differential enthalpy, entropy, free energy of adsorption or solution, variation of heat capacity, complexation constant, second virial coefficients, gas-solid and gasliquid isotherms and also binary or ternary equilibria. The possibilities of High Performance-Liquid Chromatography to investigate adsorption from solutions and chemical equilibria are also discussed. 1 Present address: D~partement de Chimie, Groupe Masse-Chimie

Cedex France

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Gas-Liquid Coexistence in the Primitive Model for Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda [J. Kolafa and I. Nezbeda, Mol. Phys. 61, 161 (1987)]. Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favored, as in the case of articles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. Differently from spherical potentials, we do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in an homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing.

F. Romano; P. Tartaglia; F. Sciortino

2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

452

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

453

CONTRIBUTING TO THE DISCUSSIONS ON THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS AND COMPLEXITIES OF TALSPEAK CHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

When liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides was monitored at Talspeak-related conditions a characteristic drop in the extraction efficiency was observed at high lactate concentrations. The lactate dependency trend also appears to be directly affected by the increasing complexity of the non-aqueous environment. Some considerations of the non-ideal solution behavior in aqueous and organic environment are presented here in an attempt to explain the observed metal partitioning trends. While the mechanism of metal ion phase transfer appears to adhere to the conventional thermodynamic struggle between HDEHP and DTPA, the diminished metal distribution and suppressed slopes for the extractant dependencies suggest further build-up in the complexity of the non-aqueous environment in Talspeak systems.

Peter R. Zalupski; Leigh R. Martin

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Phase-Field Modeling of Solute Precipitation and Dissolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A phase-field approach to the dynamics of liquid-solid interfaces that evolve due to precipitation and/or dissolution is presented. For the purpose of illustration and comparison with other methods, phase field simulations were carried out assuming first order reaction (dissolution/precipitation) kinetics. In contrast to solidification processes controlled by a temperature field that is continuous across the solid/liquid interface (with a discontinuous temperature gradient) precipitation/dissolution is controlled by a solute concentration field that is discontinuous at the solid/liquid interface. The sharp-interface asymptotic analysis of the phase-field equations for solidification [Karma and Rappel, Phys. Rev. E57 (1998) 4342] has been modified for precipitation/dissolution processes to demonstrate that the phase-field equations converge to the proper sharp-interface limit. The mathematical model has been validated for a one-dimensional precipitation/dissolution problem by comparison with the analytical solution.

Zhijie Xu; Paul Meakin

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

Teitel, R.J.

1959-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

456

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z