National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nominal pack voltage

  1. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables

  2. Property:Nominal Voltage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, searchContDivSerialNumber Jump

  3. PREDICTING VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David

    ($200 mV for a nominal volt- age of 1.1 V).1 Such conservative operating voltage margins guarantee VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM AND MICROARCHITECTURAL EVENT ACTIVITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SHRINKING FEATURE SIZE AND DIMINISHING SUPPLY VOLTAGE ARE MAKING CIRCUITS MORE SENSITIVE TO SUPPLY VOLTAGE

  4. Packed Lunches. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances L.

    1982-01-01

    puddings; hard cheeses; unopen ed, r~urized process cheese spreads. Jot Group. Canned potted meats, canned meat spreads, canned Vienna sausages, canned luncheon meats, jerky and canned fish such as salmon, sardines, shrimp, tuna; peanut butter and nuts.... Wash your hands before handling the food and clean the working areas and utensils used to prepare it. Also store food properly after it is purchased. Packing Pointers Time Savers Buy fresh fruits that only require washing in prepa ration for lunch...

  5. Nominal Logic Programming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Cheney; Christian Urban

    Nominal logic is an extension of first-order logic which provides a simple foundation for formalizing and reasoning about abstract syntax modulo consistent renaming of bound names (that is, ?-equivalence). This article investigates logic programming...

  6. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  7. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  8. Pete_Lyons_Nomination_Testimony

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    where I worked for nearly 30 years. In 2005, I was nominated to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), where I served until my term ended in June of 2009. At the NRC, I...

  9. Professional Training Information Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Intending Professional Training Students Year 2 Information Pack #12;- 1 - Applying for a Professional Training Placement To be allowed to do the Professional Training you must have enrolled on one must talk to Dr J. M. Thompson immediately. General introduction to professional training Students

  10. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  11. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  12. Enumerating rigid sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda C. Holmes-Cerfon

    2015-05-08

    Packing problems, which ask how to arrange a collection of objects in space to meet certain criteria, are important in a great many physical and biological systems, where geometrical arrangements at small scales control behaviour at larger ones. In many systems there is no single, optimal packing that dominates, but rather one must understand the entire set of possible packings. As a step in this direction we enumerate rigid clusters of identical hard spheres for $n\\leq 14$, and clusters with the maximum number of contacts for $n\\leq 19$. A rigid cluster is one that cannot be continuously deformed while maintaining all contacts. This is a nonlinear notion that arises naturally because such clusters are the metastable states when the spheres interact with a short-range potential, as is the case in many nano- or micro-scale systems. We expect these lists are nearly complete, except for a small number of highly singular clusters (linearly floppy but nonlinearly rigid.) The data contains some major geometrical surprises, such as the prevalence of hypostatic clusters: those with less than the $3n-6$ contacts generically necessary for rigidity. We discuss these and several other unusual clusters, whose geometries may shed insight into physical mechanisms, pose mathematical and computational problems, or bring inspiration for designing new materials.

  13. What to Pack for Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Weck, Olivier L.

    De Weck, O.L. “What to Pack for Mars.” Spectrum, IEEE 46.6 (2009): 39. © 2009 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  14. Convex Optimization Course Welcome Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    1 NATCOR Convex Optimization Course 23rd ­ 27th June 2014 Welcome Pack This pack contains. ABSTRACT Convex optimization is the fundamental process of optimal decision-making. Although mathematically restrictive, many practical problems may be modelled directly as convex optimization problems. Convex

  15. Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 2016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 ­ 2016 #12;#12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 5 Welcome from the Dean of Undergraduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11 Financial

  16. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  17. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  18. test problem for packing_sumit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chenwang

    2006-07-21

    Test problems of circles in circle packing with constraints and known ... test problems for circles packing problem with the optimal solutions known. That is ...

  19. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  20. Word-level Nominalization in Choctaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haag, Marcia

    1994-01-01

    naa is a nominalizer that conforms to the theoretical constraints that both the base and the product of a word formation rule be predictable....

  1. VALIDATION OF NOMINATIONS IN GAS NETWORK OPTIMIZATION ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-11-17

    in gas transportation, namely the validation of nomination problem: Given a ...... Mathematical Methods in Fluid Dynamics, volume 67 of Pitman Monographs.

  2. Ball Packings with Periodic Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connelly; Jeffrey D. Shen; Alexander D. Smith

    2013-01-04

    We call a periodic ball packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space periodically (strictly) jammed with respect to a period lattice if there are no nontrivial motions of the balls that preserve the period (that maintain some period with smaller or equal volume). In particular, we call a packing consistently periodically (strictly) jammed if it is periodically (strictly) jammed on every one of its periods. After extending a well-known bar framework and stress condition to strict jamming, we prove that a packing with period Lambda is consistently strictly jammed if and only if it is strictly jammed with respect to Lambda and consistently periodically jammed. We next extend a result about rigid unit mode spectra in crystallography to characterize periodic jamming on sublattices. After that, we prove that there are finitely many strictly jammed packings of m unit balls and other similar results. An interesting example shows that the size of the first sublattice on which a packing is first periodically unjammed is not bounded. Finally, we find an example of a consistently periodically jammed packing of low density \\delta = \\frac{4 \\pi}{6 \\sqrt{3} + 11} + \\epsilon ~ 0.59, where \\epsilon is an arbitrarily small positive number. Throughout the paper, the statements for the closely related notions of periodic infinitesimal rigidity and affine infinitesimal rigidity for tensegrity frameworks are also given.

  3. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  4. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  5. Nominate Your Mentor for the Presidential Award in Science, Math...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nominate Your Mentor for the Presidential Award in Science, Math, and Engineering Mentoring Nominate Your Mentor for the Presidential Award in Science, Math, and Engineering...

  6. Microfabricated packed gas chromatographic column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kottenstette, Richard; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-16

    A new class of miniaturized gas chromatographic columns has been invented. These chromatographic columns are formed using conventional micromachining techniques, and allow packed columns having lengths on the order of a meter to be fabricated with a footprint on the order of a square centimeter.

  7. Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC660 100mA CMOS Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION U s Simple Conversion of 5V to ­5V Supply s Output Drive: 100mA s ROUT: 6.5 (0.65V Loss at 100mA) s BOOST Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range

  8. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  9. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  10. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  11. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and...

  12. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  13. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  14. Adhesive Loose Packings of Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwei Liu; Shuiqing Li; Adrian Baule; Hernán A. Makse

    2014-10-08

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  15. Effect of packing material on methane activation in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-12-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (16–20 mesh). Investigations on the surface properties and shape of the three packing materials clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by the material used. Capacitances inside the discharge gap are estimated from charge–voltage plots, and a comparison of the generated and transferred charges for different packing conditions show that the difference in surface properties between ?- and ?-phase Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} affects the discharge characteristics. Moreover, all packing conditions show different charge characteristics that are related to the electron density. Finally, the packing material's shape affects the local electron temperature, which is strongly related to methane conversion. The combined results indicate that both microscale and macroscale variations in a packing material affect the discharge characteristics, and a packing material should be considered carefully for effective methane activation.

  16. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  17. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  18. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  19. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, N. Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  20. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  1. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  2. Call for nominations for the C. Hart Merriam Award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    for nominations for the C. Hart Merriam Award The Americanis now accepting nominations for the C. Hart Merriam Award.The C. Hart Merriam Award is given to eminent scholars in

  3. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  4. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  5. Control of Cascaded Multilevel Converters with Unequal Voltage Sources for HEVs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    can be chosen to achieve a required fundamental voltage and not generate specified higher order and Electric Machinery Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory, NTRC, 2360 Cherahala Boulevard, Knoxville, TN 37932 Abstract­ One promising technology to interface battery packs in electric and hybrid

  6. New value packing technology extends service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.; Jackson, R. (Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    New packing techniques can extend packing life and retain low stem leakage. The HPI can use these designs to avoid mandatory monitoring and repair schedules for valves that exceed the 500-ppm emission threshold. New EPA leakage limits will enforce monitoring and maintenance programs if more than 2% of the facility's valves exceed this limit. Because valves are dynamic, their control actions are prone to leakage. Also, the best fire-resistant packing material, graphite, has inherent deficiencies such as high compression stress and a high-friction coefficient that shortens its service life. Four basic principles overcome graphite packing's shortcomings for control valve applications. Examples show how these criteria improve sliding stem and rotary valve performance. Incorporating these principles into valve-packing designs can ensure long, low-maintenance service life, and the added benefit of low leakage. Graphite is a very important packing material for the HPI. Unlike fluoropolymer (e.g., PTFE) packing, graphite can tolerate high process temperature without decomposing or losing its sealing properties. More importantly, graphite packing is fire safe. It can survive a fire without a catastrophic failure that could add more flammable materials.

  7. How to Pack Microfossils By Skip Lyles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    are the materials that we will be using to pack this roll of slides: raw bedding cotton 6" x 4" empty Kodak box materials that you're going to need are flexible corrugated cardboard and masking tape. Here we'll show you how to pack microfossils step-by-step using only these two materials. Step 1: Here are the materials

  8. Application pack for funding commencing in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheifets, Anatoli

    Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME #12;PAGE 2 OF 9GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME © GROUP OF EIGHT Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 ABOUT THE GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT

  9. Graduate Offer Pack 2 University College Dublin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 #12;2 University College Dublin #12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 3 Welcome from the Dean of Graduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11

  10. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  11. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  12. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore »shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  13. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  14. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the...

  15. Packing TRU Waste Containers Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Packing TRU Waste Containers Design Packing TRU Waste Containers Design This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident...

  16. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  17. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  18. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  19. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  20. Beta dose distribution for randomly packed microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urashkin, Alexander

    2007-04-25

    of radiation dose distribution when utilizing this technique. This study focuses on random packing of microspheres and seeks to determine dose distributions for specific cases. The Monte Carlo Neutral Particle code (MCNP) developed by Los Alamos National...

  1. DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communication...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communications Commission's Communications, Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council March 29, 2011 - 5:22pm Addthis...

  2. Method for packed column separations and purifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-08-15

    The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

  3. The Thomas Green Clemson Award for Excellence Nomination Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    The Thomas Green Clemson Award for Excellence Nomination Form The Thomas Green Clemson Award been recognized at the University level. To nominate an individual for the Thomas Green Clemson Award, please do the following: 1. Complete this form by identifying the nominee, certifying that you have

  4. University of Alberta Museums Curator Hall of Fame: Nomination Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    University of Alberta Museums Curator Hall of Fame: Nomination Form General Instructions: 1. Please someone other than the nominator 3. To be eligible for the University of Alberta Museums' Curator Hall of service in the role as Designated Curator of one of the registered University of Alberta Museums

  5. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  6. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  7. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  8. Module: Material Structure Focus: Crystal Packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    ) and body centered cubic. Materials: Styrofoam Balls (20) Smaller Styrofoam Ball Round Toothpicks (16-258-5598 Teacher Notes: After a short review of crystal packing, have the students take 4 Styrofoam balls the students take 8 Styrofoam balls and attach them using toothpick so that they form 2 -4 ball diamond shape

  9. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water. Disease,predation,pollution, accidents and climatic conditions are among other limiting factors which can affect an animal's ability to meet its needs. This section will look further into the impact of Climate

  10. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  11. Copyright Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Copyright © Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack Blogs of Maryland College Park Spring 2015 #12;#12;1 Contents Introduction to Campus Pack Blogs Blog, Wiki, or Journal to an ELMS Course Space......................................... 3

  12. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  13. Do parties still matter? : the politics of gubernatorial nominations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Rachael V

    2006-01-01

    Who controls the nomination in gubernatorial elections? This dissertation seeks to answer this simple question. Parties have classically been the organizations held responsible for throwing their collective effort behind ...

  14. Effects of detector censoring in nominally Gaussian noise 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunna, Matthew Ghaleb

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the robustness and performance of a sensor system which detects a known constant signal in additive, mutually i.i.d., nominally Gaussian noise. The detector utilizes the Huber-type detector ...

  15. Voltage Regulation PHYS 309 Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Rhett

    an regulated output of 5. It will also put out up to 1.5 yielding a power of 7.5. Obviously there are some LED circuits is to be used as a switch. Use 6 identical LEDs in this circuit. Use a multimeter to check that the LEDs all activate at the same voltage. Record the value of the LED voltage and your Zener

  16. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  17. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  18. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  19. Energy transport in jammed sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Xu; Vincenzo Vitelli; Matthieu Wyart; Andrea J. Liu; Sidney R. Nagel

    2008-11-17

    We calculate the normal modes of vibration in jammed sphere packings to obtain the energy diffusivity, a spectral measure of transport. At the boson peak frequency, we find an Ioffe-Regel crossover from a diffusivity that drops rapidly with frequency to one that is nearly frequency-independent. This crossover frequency shifts to zero as the system is decompressed towards the jamming transition, providing unambiguous evidence of a regime in frequency of nearly constant diffusivity. Such a regime, postulated to exist in glasses to explain the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, therefore appears to arise from properties of the jamming transition.

  20. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  1. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg van Anders; Daphne Klotsa; N. Khalid Ahmed; Michael Engel; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2014-10-28

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals has been demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems, and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show that they are on the order of a few kT at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems, and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.

  2. A study of a cooling tower with variable packing heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, A. M. M. Farid

    1957-01-01

    and Electronic Relay 17 6. 7 ~ 8. View of the Instrument Panel Racking Arrangement Spacer and Packing Types 23 23 10. Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Ratio for Rectangular Packing 35 Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Rptio for Circular... - round type packing 33 VI. Average results ? triangular packing with vertex up 34 SYMBOLS ALUB ABB?', 'VIATIO&IS mass air flow rate, pounds per (hour)(unit ground area) h" ent'halpy of saturated ai- at water temperature, Btu per pound of dry air. ha...

  3. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Peter C. (Espanola, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Espanola, NM); Pereyra, Ramiro A. (Medanales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  4. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  5. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  6. Saving Megawatts with Voltage Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, T.; Bell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system...

  7. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    ?' In most applications, the differences between current feedback (CFB) and voltage feedback (VFB) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique Performance · Feedback Freedom Aside from the well-known attribute of CFB amplifiers, gain

  8. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  9. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  10. Volatile Components from Packing Matrials, Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-03-01

    An outgassing study was conducted on five packing materials, comprising two experiments. These materials comprised 277-4 borated concrete, Borobond4 concrete, polyethylene bags, silica-filled silicone rubber seals, and silicone foam padding. The purpose was measure the volume of gases which diffuse from packaging materials when sealed in containers. Two heating profiles were used to study the offgassing quantities in a set of accelerated aging tests. It was determined that the concretes contain a large quantity of water. The plastic materials hold much less moisture, with the silicone materials even consuming water, possibly due to the presence of silica filler. Polyethylene tends to degrade as the temperature is elevated and the foam stiffens.

  11. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umbanhowar, Paul; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.010301

    2010-01-01

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  12. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Umbanhowar; Daniel I. Goldman

    2010-07-16

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  13. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1992-01-01

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  14. . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION $- By A. Selling Commissioner to the Danish Government Fisheries Department, London, England Paper presented before the Fourth for pagination #12;AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION. ,JI By A. Stl

  15. Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release Campus Pack has introduced a new version Navigation Navigate through the wiki (blog, journal) pages by clicking the "Pages" button in the upper left. All of the pages will be listed. Click the "Add New Page" button to add pages to the blog, wiki

  16. Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K. H.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    -09-03 Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e Kee Han Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar-Cervantes, Ph.D. September 2010 ESL-TR-10-09-03 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1... ................................................................................................................................................. 7 1. OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 7 2. PROCESS OF PACKING WEATHER DATA FOR DOE-2e SIMULATION ............................... 8 2...

  17. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  18. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  19. 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion Award 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion...

  20. Structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers at large electrode voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cagle, Clint [Clemson University; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at interfaces of NaCl solutions and planar electrodes are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) and Poisson Nernst Planck (PNP) simulations. Based on the MD results and prior experimental data, we show that counterion packing in planar EDLs does not reach the steric limit at electrode voltages below 1 V. In addition, we demonstrate that a PNP model, when complemented with a Stern model, can be effectively used to capture the overall charging kinetics. However, the PNP/Stern model can only give a qualitative description of the fine features of the EDL.

  1. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  2. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  3. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-06-30

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the switch continued to operate satisfactorily with no apparent tracking or deterioration of the insulator.

  4. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington,FL LLC Jump to:EnergyVogt SolarVoltage

  5. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences...

  6. PACKING TRIANGLES ON A SPHERE ISAAC OTTONI WILHELM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    a more general procedure that we call the Windmill Algorithm for packing equilateral triangles onto a sphere. In Section 4 we prove several facts about the Windmill Algorithm and use those facts to prove

  7. FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing measure for protein structure refinement volumetric in nature. However, the total cavity volume is not a good dis- criminator between computational

  8. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    1990-01-01

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  9. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  10. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  11. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  12. The Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) for Mitigating Effects of Voltage Sags on Industrial Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferraro, R. J.; Osborne, R.; Stephens, R.

    2000-01-01

    , Sizing Constant Voltage Transformers to Maximize Voltage Regulationfor Process Control Devices. 4. EPRl PEAC, 1997, PQTN Application Brochure #Io-Tutorial; Inrush Current Measurement 5. Basic Measuring Instruments, Inc., Alex McEachern, power...

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee

  14. Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNew scholarshipThreeFebruary 2015NikkiBig Eddy Nominations Open for

  15. Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Pie chart: gives percent power flow is of the line's rating 3 #12;Base Case Voltage Contours Area

  16. Understanding and Improving High Voltage Vacuum Insulators for Microsecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javedani, J B; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Lauer, E J; Speer, R D; Tully, L K; Vogtlin, G E; White, A D

    2007-03-05

    High voltage insulation is one of the main areas of pulsed power research and development, and dielectric breakdown is usually the limiting factor in attaining the highest possible performance in pulsed power devices. For many applications the delivery of pulsed power into a vacuum region is the most critical aspect of operation. The surface of an insulator exposed to vacuum can fail electrically at an applied field more than an order or magnitude below the bulk dielectric strength of the insulator. This mode of breakdown, called surface flashover, imposes serious limitations on the power flow into a vacuum region. This is especially troublesome for applications where high voltage conditioning of the insulator and electrodes is not practical and for applications where relatively long pulses, on the order of several microseconds, are required. The goal of this project is to establish a sound fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that lead to surface flashover, and then evaluate the most promising techniques to improve vacuum insulators and enable high voltage operation at stress levels near the intrinsic bulk breakdown limits of the material. The approach we proposed and followed was to develop this understanding through a combination of theoretical and computation methods coupled with experiments to validate and quantify expected behaviors. In this report we summarize our modeling and simulation efforts, theoretical studies, and experimental investigations. The computational work began by exploring the limits of commercially available codes and demonstrating methods to examine field enhancements and defect mechanisms at microscopic levels. Plasma simulations with particle codes used in conjunction with circuit models of the experimental apparatus enabled comparisons with experimental measurements. The large scale plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell (PIC) code was run on multiprocessor platforms and used to simulate expanding plasma conditions in vacuum gap regions. Algorithms were incorporated into LSP to handle secondary electron emission from dielectric materials to enable detailed simulations of flashover phenomenon. Theoretical studies were focused on explaining a possible mechanism for anode initiated surface flashover that involves an electron avalanche process starting near the anode, not a mechanism involving bulk dielectric breakdown. Experiments were performed in Engineering's Pulsed Power Lab using an available 100-kV, 10-{micro}s pulse generator and vacuum chamber. The initial experiments were done with polyethylene insulator material in the shape of a truncated cone cut at +45{sup o} angle between flat electrodes with a gap of 1.0 cm. The insulator was sized so there were no flashovers or breakdowns under nominal operating conditions. Insulator flashover or gap closure was induced by introducing a plasma source, a tuft of velvet, in proximity to the insulator or electrode.

  17. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  18. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  19. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    and was embedded in a Teflon rod. The beam energies were varied between 30 and 100 kV. A maximum voltage of approximately 90 kV was achieved on the target, and at this voltage, the power efficiency was approximately 85 percent. This power efficiency was greater...

  20. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Naperville, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  1. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  2. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  3. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  4. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  5. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  6. Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH -High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH - High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory (EEH) of the Department of Information Technology and Electrical focus of the high voltage laboratory is in the area of technologies for a future sustainable electric

  7. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits Emad Bidari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits by Emad Bidari A THESIS submitted to Oregon State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. THE OPERATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOW-VOLTAGE INTEGRA- TOR. LOW-VOLTAGE SC FILTER STAGES

  8. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  9. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  10. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  11. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  12. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  13. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  14. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  15. Voltage Management of Networks with Distributed Generation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, James

    2008-01-01

    At present there is much debate about the impacts and benefits of increasing the amount of generation connected to the low voltage areas of the electricity distribution network. The UK government is under political ...

  16. Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior David Schell,1,2 Jerry Tsai,1 J System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843-1114 ABSTRACT The contribution of hydrogen to the stability, but experimental studies show that bury- ing polar groups, especially those that are hydrogen

  17. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced Computational Kernels OBJECTIVE The U Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (509) 375-3899 bruce.palmer@pnnl.gov ABOUT FPGI The Future Power and ensure a more secure, efficient and reliable future grid. Building on the Electricity Infrastructure

  18. Geometry and Optimal Packing of Twisted Columns and Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2015-01-30

    This review presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing non-trivial textures, focusing in particular on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between line-like, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the inter-filament {\\it metric} properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of {\\it fibrations} of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folded of multi-filament bundles.

  19. Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas E.

    Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko Repulsive DNA-DNA Interactions Accelerate, and Douglas E. Smith Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 248101 (2014) Published June 17, 2014 Featured in Physics Editors reported in Physical Review Letters show that, surprisingly, switching the DNA self-interaction from

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  2. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Undervoltage operation can result in increased currents, reduced starting torque, and lower efficiency. Suggested Actions Conduct a voltage drop survey. Voltage drop...

  3. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  4. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  5. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  6. Local analysis of the history dependence in tetrahedra packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Nirmal Thyagu; Max Neudecker; Matthias Schröter

    2015-01-19

    The mechanical properties of a granular sample can depend on the way the packing was prepared. However, the variables which store this information are often unknown. Here we present an X-ray tomography study of tetrahedra packings prepared with three different tapping strengths. Our main result is that the relative contribution of the three different contact types possible between tetrahedra -- face-to-face (F2F), edge-to-face (E2F), and point contacts -- is one variable which stores the preparation history. We show this by preparing pairs of packings that differ either in their bulk volume fraction $\\phi_{global}$ or in their number of mechanical constraints per particle $C$, where $C$ is determined from all three contact types which each fix a different amount of constraints. For the pairs with the same $\\phi_{global}$ the number of E2F and point contacts varies with preparation, while the number of F2F contacts stays constant. For the iso-constraint packings the relative contribution of all three contact types stays the same. We then perform a local analysis of the contact distribution by grouping the particles together according to their individual volume fraction $\\phi_{local}$ computed from a Voronoi tessellation. We find that the probability distribution of $\\phi_{local}$ depends only on $\\phi_{global}$, not on $C$. The number of F2F and E2F contacts increases in all experiments with $\\phi_{local}$; the number of point contacts, while always being the largest, decreases with $\\phi_{local}$. However, only the number of F2F contacts can be described by an universal function of $\\phi_{local}$. This behavior differs from spheres and ellipsoids and posses a significant constraint for any mean-field approach to tetrahedra packings.

  7. Piston ring pack design effects on production spark ignition engine oil consumption : a simulation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senzer, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant contributors to an engine's total oil consumption is the piston ring-pack. As a result, optimization of the ring pack is becoming more important for engine manufacturers and lubricant suppliers. ...

  8. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  9. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  10. The effect of surface finish on piston ring-pack performance in advanced reciprocating engine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocsak, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Alan)

    2005-01-01

    Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately 20% of the total frictional losses within an engine. Methods of surface texture optimization were investigated to reduce piston ring-pack ...

  11. Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes) ------------------------------------------- Data Element;------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Station (Packed into 3 bytes Loops | 3 | [0]|Data Present, 0=No Data | |Scan Cnt| 11 | [0]|

  12. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  13. Computer modeling approach for microsphere-packed bone scaffold Pallavi Lal, Wei Sun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei

    bone graft [5,6], for structural and human cellular assessment of scaffolds for bone repair [7 modeling approach for constructing a three-dimensional microsphere-packed bone graft structure is presented packing model to determine the number of microspheres packed in a synthesized bone graft. The pore size

  14. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Gareth

    Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations H.E. Johnson1 , R.J. Merry, M.K. THEODOROU AND G.W. GRIFFITH. 2004. Aims: To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube and vacuum-packed silos over a 35-day period

  15. Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 Abstract This paper outlines a method for optimizing the design of a lithium-ion battery pack for hy- brid, volume or material cost. Keywords: Lithium-ion, Optimization, Hybrid vehicle, Battery pack design

  16. Estimates of the optimal density of sphere packings in high dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    though existing upper bounds suggest that such improve­ ment should be possible. Using a statistical in digital communications and storage. 12 Physicists have investigated sphere packings in high dimensions theory. 4,5,12,16,17 The packing density or simply density #1; of a sphere packing is the fraction

  17. QccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    -message routines. All QccPack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programsPack Web page, is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding James E. Fowler

  18. QccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    Pack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programs provide command-line accessPack software package is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding James E. Fowler

  19. Frustration and Packing in Curved-Filament Assemblies: From Isometric to Isomorphic Bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2013-01-21

    Densely-packed bundles of biological filaments (filamentous proteins) are common and critical structural elements in range of biological materials. While most bundles form from intrinsically straight filaments, there are notable examples of protein filaments possessing a natural, or intrinsic, curvature, such as the helical bacterial flagellum. We study the non-linear interplay between thermodynamic preference for dense and regular inter-filament packing and the mechanical preference for uniform filament shape in bundles of helically-curved filaments. Geometric constraints in bundles make perfect inter-filament (constant spacing, or isometric) packing incompatible with perfect intra-filament (constant shape, or isomorphic) packing. As a consequence, we predict that bundle packing exhibits a strong sensitivity to bundle size, evolving from the isometric packing at small radii to an isomorphic packing at large radii. The nature of the transition between these extremal states depends on thermodynamic costs of packing distortion, with packing in elastically-constrained bundles evolving smoothly with size, while packing in osmotically-compressed bundles may exhibit a singular transition from the isometric packing at a finite bundle radius. We consider the equilibrium assembly of bundles in a saturated solution of filaments and show that mechanical cost of isomorphic packing leads to self-limited equilibrium bundle diameters, whose size and range of thermodynamic stability depend both on condensation mechanism, as well as the helical geometry of filaments.

  20. Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory

  1. Damage mechanisms in the dynamic fracture of nominally brittle polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davy Dalmas; Claudia Guerra; Julien Scheibert; Daniel Bonamy

    2013-04-23

    Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) provides a consistent framework to evaluate quantitatively the energy flux released to the tip of a growing crack. Still, the way in which the crack selects its velocity in response to this energy flux remains far from completely understood. To uncover the underlying mechanisms, we experimentally studied damage and dissipation processes that develop during the dynamic failure of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), classically considered as the archetype of brittle amorphous materials. We evidenced a well-defined critical velocity along which failure switches from nominally-brittle to quasi-brittle, where crack propagation goes hand in hand with the nucleation and growth of microcracks. Via post-mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces, we were able to reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics with micrometer/nanosecond resolution. We demonstrated that the true local propagation speed of individual crack fronts is limited to a fairly low value, which can be much smaller than the apparent speed measured at the continuum-level scale. By coalescing with the main front, microcracks boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor of geometrical origin. We discuss the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics.

  2. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  3. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  4. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  5. Office use only: Date rec. _______________ Date appr. _______________ Level appr. ____________ More info. _____________ UTAS ADJUNCT AND CLINICAL TITLES NOMINATION AND RENEWAL FORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    info. _____________ UTAS ADJUNCT AND CLINICAL TITLES NOMINATION AND RENEWAL FORM 1. TITLE CATEGORY of each category and the qualifications required 2. NEW NOMINATION OR REQUEST FOR RENEWAL? See the Adjunct and Clinical Titles Procedure for renewal processes Is this a new nomination? _________ OR Is this a request

  6. Close-packed array of light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2013-04-09

    A close-packed array of light emitting diodes includes a nonconductive substrate having a plurality of elongate channels extending therethrough from a first side to a second side, where each of the elongate channels in at least a portion of the substrate includes a conductive rod therein. The conductive rods have a density over the substrate of at least about 1,000 rods per square centimeter and include first conductive rods and second conductive rods. The close-packed array further includes a plurality of light emitting diodes on the first side of the substrate, where each light emitting diode is in physical contact with at least one first conductive rod and in electrical contact with at least one second conductive rod.

  7. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  8. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  9. Nominate An Inspirational STEM Teacher for the Nation’s Highest Honors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nominations are now open for the nation’s highest honors for K-12 mathematics and science teachers. The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching, or PAEMST, have been...

  10. The Psychology Society Award Nomination Form for the 2014 -2015 Academic Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyet, Alwell

    The Psychology Society Award Nomination Form for the 2014 - 2015 Academic Year The Psychology Society Award has been established by the students of the Psychology to an undergraduate student majoring in Psychology or Behavioural Neuroscience who is beyond

  11. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  12. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  13. VolPack: A Volume Rendering Library This chapter describes the design of an experimental software library called VolPack. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    library based on user­defined callback functions for shading and classification. Alterna­ tivelyChapter 8 VolPack: A Volume Rendering Library This chapter describes the design of an experimental software library called VolPack. The library provides a high­performance implementation of the algorithms

  14. News: Awards and Nominations: San Martin´s 2nd International Theatre Festival FIESTA 98!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Gustavo

    1999-04-01

    104 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Awards and Nominations San Martin's 2nd International Theatre Festival FIESTA 98! This letter is to certify that the Jury of San Martin's 2nd International Theatre Festival, composed of Gisela Pérez Guzman...104 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Awards and Nominations San Martin's 2nd International Theatre Festival FIESTA 98! This letter is to certify that the Jury of San Martin's 2nd International Theatre Festival, composed of Gisela Pérez Guzman...

  15. On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheriyan, Joseph

    On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z January 24: laminar family of subsets, 1-covers, 2-covers, 1-packings, 2-packings, NP-hard, approximation algorithm grant CCR{9625297. 1 #12;1 Introduction Coverings and packings of laminar families by edges Let H

  16. Table of Contents: Entropy difference between the face-centred cubic and hexagonal close-packed crystal structures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    -packed crystal structures. Silurian hydrothermal-vent community from the southern Urals, Russia. Abstract Recent

  17. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  18. Power-law friction in closely-packed granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Hatano

    2007-05-08

    In order to understand the nature of friction in closely-packed granular materials, a discrete element simulation on granular layers subjected to isobaric plain shear is performed. It is found that the friction coefficient increases as the power of the shear rate, the exponent of which does not depend on the material constants. Using a nondimensional parameter that is known as the inertial number, the power-law can be cast in a generalized form so that the friction coefficients at different confining pressures collapse on the same curve. We show that the volume fraction also obeys a power-law.

  19. Grain Scale Modeling of Arbitrary Fluid Saturation in Random Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantin Melnikov; Roman Mani; Falk K. Wittel; Marcel Thielmann; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-03-25

    We propose a model for increasing liquid saturation in a granular packing which can account for liquid redistribution at saturation levels beyond the well-studied capillary bridge regime. The model is capable of resolving and combining capillary bridges, menisci and fully saturated pores to form local liquid clusters of any shape. They can exchange volume due to the local Laplace pressure gradient via a liquid film on the surfaces of grains. Local instabilities like Haines jumps trigger the discontinuous evolution of the liquid front. The applicability of the model is demonstrated and compared to benchmark experiments on the level of individual liquid structures as well as on larger systems.

  20. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  1. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01

    This work concentrates on circuit realization of high speed and low voltage switched capacitor circuits, with emphasis on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An overview of switched capacitor circuits is given. Speed and voltage...

  2. Goddard rattler-jamming mechanism for quantifying pressure dependence of elastic moduli of grain packs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pride, Steven R.; Berryman, James G.

    2009-01-05

    An analysis is presented to show how it is possible for unconsolidated granular packings to obey overall non-Hertzian pressure dependence due to the imperfect and random spatial arrangements of the grains in these packs. With imperfect arrangement, some gaps that remain between grains can be closed by strains applied to the grain packing. As these gaps are closed, former rattler grains become jammed and new stress-bearing contacts are created that increase the elastic stiffness of the packing. By allowing for such a mechanism, detailed analytical expressions are obtained for increases in bulk modulus of a random packing of grains with increasing stress and strain. Only isotropic stress and strain are considered in this analysis. The model is shown to give a favorable fit to laboratory data on variations in bulk modulus due to variations in applied pressure for bead packs.

  3. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  4. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  5. Long term voltage stability analysis for small disturbances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Men, Kun

    2009-05-15

    design and optimize the system. ?? Challenge 2, accurately estimating voltage stability margin online remains as a dream for industry. So far, due to heavy computation burden, the major thrust in voltage stability analysis, especially for large... of load dynamics to restore power consumption beyond the capability of the combined transmission and generation system. ? This definition try to emphasize that load is the main driving force of a voltage collapse, and voltage stability is a stuctural...

  6. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  7. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  8. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  9. Shear modulus and Dilatancy Softening in Granular Packings above Jamming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corentin Coulais; Antoine Seguin; Olivier Dauchot

    2014-11-07

    We investigate experimentally the mechanical response of a monolayer of bi-disperse frictional grains to an inhomogeneous shear perturbation across the jamming transition. We inflate an intruder inside the packing and use photo-elasticity and tracking techniques to measure the induced shear strain and stresses at the grain scale. We quantify experimentally the constitutive relations for strain amplitudes as low as 0.001 and for a range of packing fractions within 2% variation around the jamming transition. At the transition strong nonlinear effects set in : both the shear modulus and the dilatancy shear-soften at small strain until a critical strain is reached where effective linearity is recovered. The dependencies of the critical strain and the associated critical stresses on the distance from jamming are extracted via scaling analysis. We check that the constitutive laws, when applied to the equations governing mechanical equilibrium, lead to the observed stress and strain profiles. These profiles exhibit a spatial crossover between an effective linear regime close to the inflater and the truly nonlinear regime away from it. The crossover length diverges at the jamming transition.

  10. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  11. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  12. Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk version (APA): Beczkowski, S., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2012). Current-voltage model of LED light sources from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;Current-voltage model of LED light sources Szymon Bczkowski, Stig

  13. LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY Phillip E. Allen, Benjamin J. Blalock implies battery operation which favors low voltage and low power circuits. These factors and others have of the magnitudes of the n-channel and p-channel thresholds [4]. This implies that low voltage analog circuits

  14. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  15. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  16. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  17. Electrical Circuit Flashover Model of Polluted Insulators under AC Voltage Based on the Arc Root Voltage Gradient Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing

    In order to study the flashover mechanism of polluted insulators under AC voltage, a new arc propagation criterion which is based on an arc root voltage gradient is proposed. This criterion can explain the variation of the ...

  18. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  19. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  20. Critical-like Features of Stress Response in Frictional Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah Cakir; Leonardo E. Silbert

    2015-02-25

    The mechanical response of static, unconfined, overcompressed face centred cubic, granular arrays is studied using large-scale, discrete element method simulations. Specifically, the stress response due to the application of a localised force perturbation - the Green function technique - is obtained in granular packings generated over several orders of magnitude in both the particle friction coefficient and the applied forcing. We observe crossover behaviour in the mechanical state of the system characterised by the changing nature of the resulting stress response. The transition between anisotropic and isotropic stress response exhibits critical-like features through the identification of a diverging length scale that distinguishes the spatial extent of anisotropic regions from those that display isotropic behaviour. A multidimensional phase diagram is constructed that parameterises the response of the system due to changing friction and force perturbations.

  1. GravitinoPack and decays of supersymmetric metastable particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We present the package GravitinoPack that calculates the two- and three-body decays of unstable supersymmetric particles involving the gravitino in the final or initial state. In a previous paper, we already showed results for the gravitino decays into two and three particles. In this paper, we incorporate the processes where an unstable neutralino, stau or stop decays into a gravitino and Standard Model particles. This is the case in gravitino dark matter supersymmetric models, where the gravitino is the lightest SUSY particle. We give instructions for the installation and the use of the package. In the numerical analysis, we discuss various MSSM scenarios. We show that the calculation of all the decay channels and the three-body decay branching ratios is essential for the accurate application of cosmological bounds on these models.

  2. METHOD TO TEST ISOTOPIC SEPARATION EFFICIENCY OF PALLADIUM PACKED COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; Gregory Staack, G; James Klein, J; William Jacobs, W

    2007-06-27

    The isotopic effect of palladium has been applied in different ways to separate hydrogen isotopes for many years. At Savannah River Site palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in a thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) to purify tritium for over ten years. The need to design columns for different throughputs and the desire to advance the performance of TCAP created the need to evaluate different column designs and packing materials for their separation efficiency. In this work, columns with variations in length, diameter and metal foam use, were tested using an isotope displacement method. A simple computer model was also developed to calculate the number of theoretical separation stages using the test results. The effects of column diameter, metal foam and gas flow rate were identified.

  3. Tests of isotopic separation efficiency of palladium packed columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L. K.; Staack, G. C.; Klein, J. E.; Jacobs, W. D.

    2008-07-15

    The isotopic effect of palladium has been applied in different ways to separate hydrogen isotopes for many years. At Savannah River Site palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in a thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) to purify tritium for over ten years. The need to design columns for different throughputs and the desire to advance the performance of TCAP created the need to evaluate different column designs and packing materials for their separation efficiency. In this work, columns with variations in length, diameter and metal foam presence were tested using an isotope displacement method. A simple computer model was also developed to calculate the number of theoretical separation stages based on the test results. The effects of column diameter, metal foam presence and gas flow rate were identified. (authors)

  4. Confined polymer nematics: order and packing in a nematic drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Svenšek; Gregor Veble; Rudolf Podgornik

    2010-05-04

    We investigate the tight packing of nematic polymers inside a confining hard sphere. We model the polymer {\\sl via} the continuum Frank elastic free energy augmented by a simple density dependent part as well as by taking proper care of the connectivity of the polymer chains when compared with simple nematics. The free energy {\\sl ansatz} is capable of describing an orientational ordering transition within the sample between an isotropic polymer solution and a polymer nematic phase. We solve the Euler-Lagrange equations numerically with the appropriate boundary conditions for the director and density field and investigate the orientation and density profile within a sphere. Two important parameters of the solution are the exact locations of the beginning and the end of the polymer chain. Pending on their spatial distribution and the actual size of the hard sphere enclosure we can get a plethora of various configurations of the chain exhibiting different defect geometry.

  5. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,Local GovernmentofVoltage unbalance degrades the performance

  7. Aalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    in a e-mobility application. Simulation results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this newlyAalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs Barreras, R. E. (2014). Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs: A paradigm

  8. ERROR OF THE NETWORK APPROXIMATION FOR DENSELY PACKED COMPOSITES WITH IRREGULAR GEOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlyand, Leonid

    of the effective conductivity of the high contrast, highly packed composites in which inclusions are irregularly in the case of the high contrast, highly packed particulate composites, that is, when the conductivity inclusions is high is particularly relevant to polymer/ceramic composites, because a polymer matrix com

  9. Close-Packed Floating Clusters: Granular Hydrodynamics Beyond the Freezing Point? Baruch Meerson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meerson, Baruch

    Close-Packed Floating Clusters: Granular Hydrodynamics Beyond the Freezing Point? Baruch Meerson,1 a simple explanation for the success of NSGH beyond the freezing point. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91 the packing fraction approaches the freezing point value f ' 0:49 (in three dimensions) or 0.69 (in two

  10. The Texas Meat Packing Industry -- Structure, Operational Characteristics, and Competitive Practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Raymond A.; Farris, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    Bulletin] The Texas Meat Packing Industry - Structure, Operational Characteristics, and Competitive Practices Mention of a trademar k'or a proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by The Texas Agricultural..., age, or national origin. [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] CONTENT S Page Highlights ................................................... ii Structural Characteristics of the Slaughter Industry ......... 3 Meat Packing Operations...

  11. Parametric On-Line Packing x F. K. Miyazawa y Y. Wakabayashi z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    | C. Postal 6176 | 13083-970 | Campinas{SP | Brazil. z Instituto de Matem#19;atica e Estat#19~ao Paulo{SP | Brazil. #12; 1. Strip Packing Problem (SPP): Given a list L of rectangles, and a rectangle, and rectangles of unit dimensions R = (1; 1), called bins, pack the rectangles of L into a minimum number of bins

  12. Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhaohui

    Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence

  13. Aalborg Universitet Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack -Modelling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack - Modelling., Korsgaard, A., Nielsen, M. P., & Kær, S. K. (2006). Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack - Modelling and System Control. Poster session presented at Fuel Cell Seminar 2006 Conference

  14. The Climate Change Action Pack An interactive teaching supplement designed to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    #12;The Climate Change Action Pack An interactive teaching supplement designed to: · Increase the understanding among young Nova Scotians and educators of the science and issues of climate change · Equip Nova at home and in their future workplaces. #12;Climate Change Action Pack printed Mar. 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS

  15. Simulated Annealing Based Algorithm for the 2D Bin Packing Problem with Impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochetov, Yuri

    Simulated Annealing Based Algorithm for the 2D Bin Packing Problem with Impurities B. Beisiegel1 real-world problem originating in the steel industry. The bins are inhomogeneous sheets with impurities;Simulated Annealing Based Algorithm for the 2D Bin Packing Problem with Impurities 3 The oriented tree

  16. The Climate Change Action Pack An interactive teaching supplement designed to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    #3: (Backgrounder) Alternative Energy 118 The Atlantic Conference on Alternative Energy Sources 120 at home and in their future workplaces. #12;Climate Change Action Pack printed Mar. 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS;Climate Change Action Pack printed Mar. 2002 ENERGY SECTION Lesson #1: (Backgrounder) What is Energy? 101

  17. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  18. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng Chen; Shuiqing Li; Wenwei Liu; Hernán A. Makse

    2015-09-26

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles was investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It was found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction \\phi and the average coordination number Z, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad* , which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latestly derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  19. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Packing Materials for the New Student Union Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into Packing Materials for the New Student Union Building Caleb Ng, Jun Oh, Siamak Rahmanian University Investigation into Packing Materials for the New Student Union Building APSC 262 April 4, 2013 Caleb Ng

  20. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs but Plug-in Vehicles use More Battery Capacity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Of the battery packs used for electrified vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt...

  1. Module No: 410314Nominated ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite: Real Rights, Private

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410314Nominated ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite: Real Rights, Private International Law, Insurance Contract Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: Department PrerequisiteModule Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator E-bataineh@philadelphia.edu.joAssistant Professor Eyad

  2. Module No: 410325Insurance ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410325Insurance ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Third Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  3. Module No: 410213Effects of ObligationsModule Title: Co-requisite: nominal contracts,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410213Effects of ObligationsModule Title: Co-requisite: nominal contracts, Law of civil procedures, copyright and neighboring rights Sources of ObligationsPre-requisite: Module Type: Specialization prerequisiteModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time

  4. Module No: 410416Real RightsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominal ContractPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410416Real RightsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominal ContractPre-requisite: Module Type: department prerequisiteModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator Assistant Professor Dr

  5. Support Vector Machines Applied to the Classification of Semantic Relations in Nominalized Noun Phrases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Compound Nominals consist- ing of two consecutive nouns (eg pump drainage - an IN- STRUMENT relation), (2), (Pradhan et al. 2003) have focused on the automatic prediction of se- mantic roles using statistical techniques. These statistical techniques operate on the output of probabilistic parsers and take advantage

  6. A Nominal Filter for Web Search Snippets: Using the Web to Identify Members of Latin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William

    A Nominal Filter for Web Search Snippets: Using the Web to Identify Members of Latin America. This paper presents efforts aimed at using Natural Language Engineering (NLE) techniques to solve of three Latin American countries: Uruguay, Argentina and Colombia. An NLE system is under construction

  7. Standing Orders of the Governors Standing Orders of the Nominations Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocea, Mihaela

    Charter Statutes Standing Orders of the Governors Standing Orders of the Nominations Committee #12.................................................................10 Standing Orders of the Governors.............................45 Standing Orders approved by the Privy Council 10 October 2007 Standing Orders of the Governors approved by Governors 17

  8. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  9. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T. (Phoenix, AZ); McIver, III, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  10. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  11. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    external gate voltage in our schemes. Moreover, proposed schemes are robust against the noise of system parameters. Authors: Lue Xinyou ; Zheng Lili 1 ; Wu, Jing 2 ; Zhan...

  12. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  13. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  14. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  15. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  16. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte Interfacial Processes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards First Principles prediction of...

  17. Sharp interface and voltage conservation in the phase field method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-14

    of rabbit ventricles, with a corresponding reduction in simulation time. ... applied to cardiac tissue modeling and examine voltage conservation when using this.

  18. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  19. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  20. Centrifugal compression of soft particle packings - theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. N. Nordstrom; E. Verneuil; W. G. Ellenbroek; T. C. Lubensky; J. P. Gollub; D. J. Durian

    2010-09-15

    An exact method is developed for computing the height of an elastic medium subjected to centrifugal compression, for arbitrary constitutive relation between stress and strain. Example solutions are obtained for power-law media and for cases where the stress diverges at a critical strain -- for example as required by packings composed of deformable but incompressible particles. Experimental data are presented for the centrifugal compression of thermo-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) microgel beads in water. For small radial acceleration, the results are consistent with Hertzian elasticity, and are analyzed in terms of the Young elastic modulus of the bead material. For large radial acceleration, the sample compression asymptotes to a value corresponding to a space-filling particle volume fraction of unity. Therefore we conclude that the gel beads are incompressible, and deform without deswelling. In addition, we find that the Young elastic modulus of the particulate gel material scales with cross-link density raised to the power 3.3+-0.8, somewhat larger than the Flory expectation.

  1. Similar Energetic Contributions of Packing in the Core of Membrane and Water-Soluble Proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joh, Nathan H.; Oberai, Amit; Yang, Duan; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Bowie, James U.; (UCLA)

    2009-09-15

    A major driving force for water-soluble protein folding is the hydrophobic effect, but membrane proteins cannot make use of this stabilizing contribution in the apolar core of the bilayer. It has been proposed that membrane proteins compensate by packing more efficiently. We therefore investigated packing contributions experimentally by observing the energetic and structural consequences of cavity creating mutations in the core of a membrane protein. We observed little difference in the packing energetics of water and membrane soluble proteins. Our results imply that other mechanisms are employed to stabilize the structure of membrane proteins.

  2. Discrete Elements Method: A New Kind of Initial Conditions - Tetrahedral Packing of Balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark A. Tsayger

    2014-12-15

    The Paper discusses the use of the regular packing of identical balls with the coordination number 4 as a model of a medium consisting of fluid and solid particles in the conditions of fluidization. It is proposed to use the examined packing of balls as an initial condition for the calculations by the Discrete Elements Method (DEM) in technological processes in the fluidized bed in industry, as well as in the modeling of processes that occur in hydraulic and pneumatic transport of granular materials. Filtration properties of such packing required for its use as an initial condition in calculations by DEM are estimated.

  3. Discrete Elements Method: A New Kind of Initial Conditions - Tetrahedral Packing of Balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark A. Tsayger

    2015-10-13

    The Paper discusses the use of the regular packing of identical balls with the coordination number 4 as a model of a medium consisting of fluid and solid particles in the conditions of fluidization. It is proposed to use the examined packing of balls as an initial condition for the calculations by the Discrete Elements Method (DEM) in technological processes in the fluidized bed in industry, as well as in the modeling of processes that occur in hydraulic and pneumatic transport of granular materials. Filtration properties of such packing required for its use as an initial condition in calculations by DEM are estimated.

  4. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01

    . The problem of instability of the LDO voltage regulator at low Electo Static Resistance (ESR) of the load capacitors and the consequences of this problem are highlighted. As a solution to some of the discussed problems, an alternate LDO voltage regulator...

  5. CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

  6. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids Savaghebi). Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids. I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 3 in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.4, pp.1893-1902, Dec. 2012. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2012

  7. Measurement of high voltage using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrego, Celestino Pete

    2007-04-25

    A novel variation of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been utilized to measure a high voltage collected on an aluminum target by Direct Energy Conversion. The maximum high voltage on the target was measured to be 97.5 kV +/- 2 k...

  8. Electrostatics and packing in biomolecules : accounting for conformational change in protein folding and binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caravella, Justin Andrew, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    The role of electrostatics and packing in protein folding and molecular association was assessed in different biomolecular systems. A continuum electrostatic model was applied to long-range electrostatic effects in the ...

  9. Design and fabrication of retrofit e-bike powertrain and custom lithium-ion battery pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A chopper-style bicycle was converted to a functional e-bike with electric powertrain, involving a hub motor, a custom power source, and throttle speed control. A custom battery pack was designed to meet system performance ...

  10. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL...

  11. An Archaeological Survey for the Wallace Pack Unit Wastewater Treatment Plant Project in Grimes County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-15

    Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) conducted archaeological survey and monitoring at the Wallace Pack Unit, Grimes County, Texas in October 2004 under Antiquities Permit 3570. This investigation examined the site of a proposed lift station...

  12. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  13. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  14. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  15. MASS TRANSFER CONTROLLED REACTIONS IN PACKED BEDS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    beds. The Effect of Flow Maldistribution in a Packed Bed onthe effect of flow maldistribution in an array of tubes. Histhis idea of flow maldistribution is expanded upon, and in

  16. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    As the need to reduce production costs causes manufacturers to re-evaluate processing schemes, high efficiency structured packings are increasingly recognized as an effective alternative for reducing energy consumption in ...

  17. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  18. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lower volume, their battery packs are much larger with capacities as high as 85 kWh - a battery offering for the Tesla Model S. Number of Batteries Sold and Battery Capacity Sold...

  19. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  20. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  1. Sand pack residual oil saturations as affected by extraction with various solvents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Clarence

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY S 4 M COLLEGE OF TEXAS SAND PACK RESIDUAL OIL SATURATIONS AS AFFECTED BY EXTRACTION WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS A Thesis CLARENCE MURRAY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, I958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SAND PACK RESIDUAL OIL SAT URATIONS AS AFFECTED BY EXTRACTION WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS A Thesis By CLARENCE MURRAY, JR. Approved...

  2. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, David Eugene

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OIL, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis David E. Gore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College oi' Texas in Partial fulfillment... and thxee-phase fluid saturation on the thermal conductivity of sand packs. The current research was conducted using a sand and lubricating oil on which related studies had been pexfoxmed. The thermal conductivity measuxements were made undex condi...

  3. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  4. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  5. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  6. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  7. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  8. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  9. Social performance as a predictor of peer nominations in newly formed groups: a short-term longitudinal study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinnee, Chandra Leigh Spencer

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the predictive ability of social performance as measured by the Checklist of Adolescent Problem Situations (CAPS; Cavell & Kelley, 1995) for peer nominations of likability and four behavioral dimensions. The ...

  10. Word-Formation Rules in Slovenian Agentive Deverbal Nominalization: A Psycholinguistic Study Based on Pseudo-Words

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjanovi?, Katarina; Manouilidou, Christina; Marvin, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the status of various word-formation rules relating to the derivation of the agentive deverbal nominalization in Slovenian by examining the speakers' perception of pseudo-words that violate these rules. The experiment...

  11. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  12. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  13. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied to optimize for leakage...

  14. High frequency AC power converter for low voltage circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Nathaniel Jay Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel AC power delivery architecture that is suitable for VHF frequency (50-100MHz) polyphase AC/DC power conversion in low voltage integrated circuits. A complete AC power delivery architecture was ...

  15. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  16. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  17. Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage Lithium-ion Battery Composite Oxide Electrodes Apr 11 2014 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Debasish Mohanty, ORNL, Oak Ridge...

  18. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  19. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  20. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  3. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  4. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  5. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  6. Fusing strategies for the dual-voltage fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrivastava, Rupam, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the 42V - 14V fault in a dual voltage system and discusses the possibility of effective fusing. A simple model for the system had been created from technical documentation. Based on the model and the ...

  7. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  8. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  9. Measuring Helical FCG Voltage with an Electric Field Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Javedani, J B; Reisman, D B; Goerz, D A; Ferriera, A J; Speer, R D

    2011-08-01

    A method of measuring the voltage produced by a helical explosive flux compression generator using a remote electric field antenna is described in detail. The diagnostic has been successfully implemented on several experiments. Measured data from the diagnostic compare favorably with voltages predicted using the code CAGEN, validating our predictive modeling tools. The measured data is important to understanding generator performance, and is measured with a low-risk, minimally intrusive approach.

  10. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  11. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  12. Nomination & Selection Guidelines | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications64Newsroom NewsroomNomination & Selection

  13. Nomination & Selection Guidelines | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications64Newsroom NewsroomNomination &

  14. Nominations Now Open: Mid-Career Women in Clean Energy Awards | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications64Newsroom NewsroomNomination &of Energy

  15. Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports (Nominal Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearby the PriceAlaska Natural Gas Exports(NominalCubic

  16. Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Qatar (Nominal Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearby the PriceAlaska Natural Gas Exports(NominalCubicper

  17. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  18. Cross-flow versus counter-current flow packed-bed scrubbers: a mathematical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-02-01

    Little is known about the mass transfer properties of packing media exposed to a crossflow of gas and liquid, whereas there is abundant information related to counter-current scrubbers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mass transfer and hydrodynamics in cross- flow packed bed scrubbers and compares those with information available for counter current towers, so that the first can be evaluated and/or designed based on data derived for the second. Mathematical models of mass transfer in cross-flow and counter- current packed bed scrubbers are presented. From those, one can predict the removal effectiveness of a crossflow scrubber from the number of transfer units (NTU) calculated for a similar counterflow operation; alternatively, when the removal effectiveness in counterflow is known, one can predict the corresponding NTU in crossflow.

  19. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  20. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  1. Impacts of a nominal nuclear electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J.; Nickel, D.L.; Bonk, J.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A high-altitude nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) consisting of intense steep-front short- duration transient electromagnetic fields followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with a duration of tens of seconds. Since 1983, the Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more EMP events on the nation's electric energy supply. A nominal EMP environmental suitable for assessing geographically large systems has been used to provide an indication of EMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which significantly disturbs the geomagnetic field, could cause significant load and generation loss, but permanent damage would be isolated. Multiple bursts would increase the disturbance. Nevertheless, based on the effects of a nominal EMP environment, a long-term blackout is not expected since major components such as power transformers are not likely to be damaged. 60 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Impacts of a nominal nuclear electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems; A probabilistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J.; Nickel, D.L.; Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on a high-altitude nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States that will subject much of the nation to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) consisting of intense steep-front short-duration transient electromagnetic fields followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with a duration of tens of seconds. Since 1983, the Department of energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more EMP events on the nation's electric energy supply. A nominal EMP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems has been used to provide an indication of EMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which significantly disturbs the geomagnetic field, could cause significant load and generation loss, but permanent damage would be isolated. Multiple bursts would increase the disturbance. Nevertheless, based on the effects of a nominal EMP environment, a long term blackout is not expected since major components such as power transformers are not likely to be damaged.

  3. Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lustermann, W; Denes, P; Djambazov, L; Dröge, M; Faure, J L; Iliev, Bozhidar Z; Nanov, I; Raykov, P; Shivarov, N

    1999-01-01

    Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

  4. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  5. Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI Kyung Ki Kim Department of Electrical trigger and an ultra low voltage current source on PD-SOI with low temperature and supply voltage oscillator based VCOs on SOI CMOS [4][5] have been reported. However, VCO with ultra low voltage less than 0

  6. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  7. Voltage sensing in ion channels: Mesoscale simulations of biological devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peyser, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Electrical signaling via voltage-gated ion channels depends upon the function of a voltage sensor (VS), identified with the S1-S4 domain in voltage-gated K+ channels. Here we investigate some energetic aspects of the sliding-helix model of the VS using simulations based on VS charges, linear dielectrics and whole-body motion. Model electrostatics in voltage-clamped boundary conditions are solved using a boundary element method. The statistical mechanical consequences of the electrostatic configurational energy are computed to gain insight into the sliding-helix mechanism and to predict experimentally measured ensemble properties such as gating charge displaced by an applied voltage. Those consequences and ensemble properties are investigated for two alternate S4 configurations, \\alpha- and 3(10)-helical. Both forms of VS are found to have an inherent electrostatic stability. Maximal charge displacement is limited by geometry, specifically the range of movement where S4 charges and counter-charges overlap in t...

  8. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  9. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  10. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  11. A study of temperature compensating circuits for voltage references which use negative temperature coefficient zener diodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Spencer Delano

    1961-01-01

    OF FIGURES Figure Page Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Characteristics. Zener Diode Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature Coefficient . 3a. 1N746 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3b. 1N747 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current... Character- istics in Breakdown Region 10 3c. 1N748 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3d. 1N749 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region . 12 3e. IN750 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current...

  12. Conceptual Designs for a Spallation Neutron Target Constructed of a Helium-Cooled, Packed Bed of Tungsten Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    foundation a target and blanket system that is driven by a proton accelerator. The subcritical blanket-cooled, packed bed of tungsten particles. Two packed bed target designs for accelerator transmutation of waste/p and improved axial distribution of neutrons. * E-mail: ammerman@lanl.gov I. INTRODUCTION The Accelerator

  13. Packing hyperspheres highdimensional Euclidean spaces Monica Skoge, Aleksandar Donev, Frank Stillinger, Salvatore Torquato 2,3,4,5,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    error­correcting codes in communications theory Our focus this paper will the study hard­sphere packings #nonequilibrium# disordered jammed packings hard spheres and their statistical mechanical properties used stringent testing ground such theories. Along these lines and particular interest to paper

  14. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  15. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  16. Error of the network approximation for densely packed composites with irregular geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as the effective conductivity or the effective dielectric constant of composite materials in which a large number in the case of the high contrast, highly packed particular composites, that is when the conductivity inclusions is high is particularly relevant to polymer/ceramic composites, because a polymer matrix

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    , proposed by the European Community for a Demonstration Reactor (DEMO), is based on using ceramic breeder as a material form for the blanket of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Beryllium is usedEXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  19. PennyPacking and TwoDimensional Codes * R. L. Graham and N. J. A. Sloane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane, Neil J. A.

    design, when the points P 1 , . . . , P n form a two­dimensional code [3], [4], [7], U measures of the best packings known for n £ 500. For large n, U ~ Ö``3 n 2 / (4p). _______________ * This appeared diameter d, let P 1 , . . . , P n be their centers and P __ = n - 1 S P i their centroid. Then the problem

  20. Jammed hard-particle packings: From Kepler to Bernal and beyond S. Torquato*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    ," and polyhedra. Because of their relevance to error-correcting codes and information theory, sphere packings for the Science and Technology of Materials, and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton analysis. A fundamental feature of that diversity is the necessity to classify individual jammed

  1. Structure characterization of hard sphere packings in amorphous and crystalline states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    Structure characterization of hard sphere packings in amorphous and crystalline states Vitaliy. A com- mon microstructural feature is observed in crystalline and glassy jammed states, suggesting with the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase11. Hard-sphere models are known to successfully reproduce

  2. Power Strip Packing of Malleable Demands in Mohammad M. Karbasioun, Gennady Shaikhet, Evangelos Kranakis, Ioannis Lambadaris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    of the main goals of Demand Side Management (DSM) in smart grid is to reduce the peak to average ratio (PAR1 Power Strip Packing of Malleable Demands in Smart Grid Mohammad M. Karbasioun, Gennady Shaikhet of electrical energy which has to be supplied during the time interval [0, 1]. We assume that each demand has

  3. "Self-assembly of uniform polyhedral silver nanocrystals into densest packings and exotic superlattices"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzie, Joel; Grunwald, Michael; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph; Geissler, Phillip L.; Yang, Peidong

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how polyhedra pack into extended arrangements is integral to the design and discovery of crystalline materials at all length scales. Much progress has been made in enumerating and characterizing the packing of polyhedral shapes, and the self-assembly of polyhedral nanocrystals into ordered superstructures. However, directing the self-assembly of polyhedral nanocrystals into densest packings requires precise control of particle shape, polydispersity,interactions and driving forces. Here we show with experiment and computer simulation that a range of nanoscale Ag polyhedra can self-assemble into their conjectured densest packings. When passivated with adsorbing polymer, the polyhedra behave as quasi-hard particles and assemble into millimetre-sized three-dimensional supercrystals by sedimentation.We also show, by inducing depletion attraction through excess polymer in solution, that octahedra form an exotic superstructure with complex helical motifs rather than the densest Minkowski lattice. Such large-scale Ag supercrystals may facilitate the design of scalable three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterials for sensing, nanophotonics, and photocatalysis.

  4. Proteins with H-bond packing defects are highly interactive with lipid bilayers: Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Proteins with H-bond packing defects are highly interactive with lipid bilayers: Implications of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637; Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka-related amyloidogenic proteins and espe- cially cellular prion proteins have the highest proportion of incom- pletely

  5. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  6. Fusion Engineering and Design 3940 (1998) 759764 Mechanical behavior and design database of packed beds for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 39­40 (1998) 759­764 Mechanical behavior and design database of packed beds for blanket designs Alice Y. Ying *, Zi Lu, Mohamed A. Abdou Mechanical and Aerospace to fusion solid breeder blanket designs need to be performed. In this paper, the mechanical behavior

  7. Energy Consumption Tools Pack Leandro Fontoura Cupertino, Georges DaCosta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    Resource Manager Energy Efficiency 2 Software development Power consumption of a same functionality varies load Workload classes differ depending on DC type App Monitor App Profiler Resource Manager Energy Efficiency Cupertino, DaCosta, Sayah, Pierson (IRIT) Energy Consumption Tools Pack 4 / 23 #12;Introduction

  8. A statistical approach to close packing of elastic rods and to DNA packaging in viral capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    a statistical minimal model based on Edwards' theory to study the conformations of the rod. This approach provA statistical approach to close packing of elastic rods and to DNA packaging in viral capsids E, France Communicated by Sam Edwards, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, October 13, 2006

  9. Estimates of the optimal density of sphere packings in high dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    suggest that such improve- ment should be possible. Using a statistical-mechanical procedure to optimize-correcting" codes underlie a variety of systems in digital communications and storage.12 Physicists have in discrete geometry and number theory.4,5,12,16,17 The packing density or simply density of a

  10. Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers the efficiency of the solar cells only when they do not intercalate between the polymer side chains. When

  11. Computer simulation of random loose packings of micro-particles in presence of adhesion and friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwei Liu; Shuiqing Li; Sheng Chen

    2015-11-07

    With a novel 3D discrete-element method specially developed with adhesive contact mechanics, random loose packings of uniform spherical micron-sized particles are fully investigated. The results show that large velocity, large size or weak adhesion can produce a relatively dense packing when other parameters are fixed, and these combined effects can be characterized by a dimensionless adhesion parameter ( $Ad=\\omega/2\\rho_pU^2_0R$). Four regimes are identified based on the value of $Ad$: RCP regime with $Adadhesion regime with $120$. Force distribution of these adhesive loose packings follows $P(f)\\sim f^\\theta$ for small forces and $P(f)\\sim \\exp^{-\\beta f}$ for big forces, respectively, which shares a similar form with that in packings without adhesion but results in distinct exponents of $\\theta=0.879$, $\\beta=0.839$. A local mechanical equilibrium analysis shows that adhesion enhances both sliding and rolling resistance so that fewer neighbours are needed to satisfy the force and torque balance.

  12. Aalborg Universitet A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    and Control, Robotics and Mechatronics Center German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling, D-82234, Germany Email@fe.up.pt Abstract--In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price

  13. Error of the network approximation for densely packed composites with irregular geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, Alexei

    the concentration of the filling inclusions is high is particularly relevant to polymer/ceramic composites, because a polymer matrix compensates for the brittle nature of ceramics which is their main weakness. A surveyError of the network approximation for densely packed composites with irregular geometry Leonid

  14. Journal of Embedded Computing 2 (2006) 93102 93 Frame packing algorithms for automotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Embedded Computing 2 (2006) 93­102 93 IOS Press Frame packing algorithms for automotive Vandoeuvre-l `es-Nancy, France Abstract. The set of frames exchanged in automotive applications must meet two proposes algorithms for building off-line the set of frames in automotive communica- tions with the two

  15. ONE-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-HOMOGENEOUS PACKED BED REACTOR MODELING INCLUDING NO-CO KINETICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Anand

    2011-08-31

    -homogeneous packed bed reactor model for this type of reactor setup built in collaboration with the Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department at the University of Kansas. A brief summary of the pseudo-homogeneous model is presented in order to properly develop...

  16. Centrifugal compression of soft particle packings: Theory and experiment K. N. Nordstrom,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, Jerry P.

    Centrifugal compression of soft particle packings: Theory and experiment K. N. Nordstrom,1 E to centrifugal compression, for arbitrary constitutive relation between stress and strain. Example solutions by centrifugal compression, and we illustrate our method with experiments on 1 m diam- eter NIPA microgel beads

  17. Are artificial opals non-close-packed fcc structures? F. Garca-Santamaraa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Are artificial opals non-close-packed fcc structures? F. García-Santamaríaa and P. V. Braun experimental method to accurately measure the volume fraction of artificial opals. The results are modeled in the opal interstices with the optical properties may need revision, especially in the case of high

  18. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  19. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits 0 (rg G x m .- E . . . . . a r, a" P, 44' s" +N m - _ c o3 #12;Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits I

  1. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  2. Satellite power system (SPS). Rectenna siting: availability and distribution of nominally eligible sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Siting of 60 ground receiving stations (rectennas) for the SPS may pose a problem due to the large area per rectenna (15,000 hectares, 38,000 acres) and numerous siting constraints. This study analyzes areas potentially eligible for rectenna sites by mapping, at a national scale, those conditions which would preclude rectenna construction. These exclusion variables which reflect restricted lands, topography, safety, national policy and electromagnetic (microwave) effects, have been computer encoded and tabulated. Subsequent analysis of the nine electric power planning regions that make up the contiguous states indicate an apparently adequate number of nominally eligible sites in all regions in comparison to projected electrical generation. Eligibility in this context means only that areas were not excluded in this national level analysis; more detailed investigation may reveal purely local constraints or smaller scale exclusions. A second major qualification relates to small isolated eligible areas. Eliminating individual eligible clusters with less than nine times the area of one rectenna eliminates much of the Eastern US; a four-to-one adjacent eligible area test poses no such problem. An independant study of the placement of 60 nominal sites in relation to projected load centers reveals that, even with modest transmission distances, the supply of eligible areas is not a key constraint, except perhaps in the Mid-Atlantic (Electric Reliability) Council Region. Even when several less critical (potential) exclusions are considered, more than 19% of the US is eligible; every region except Mid-Atlantic has at least 50 times an many eligible sites as are required.

  3. Primary Voltage Control in Active Distribution Networks via Broadcast Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    energy storage. We show that it is possible to use the same broadcast signal deployed for controlling) for real-time demand response developed by the authors in a previous contribution. We estimate the energy--Active distribution network, ancillary services, primary voltage control, electrical energy storage systems, broad

  4. Simplified VO M&V Protocol Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling is mentioned, it refers to using industry accepted distribution system power flow simulation tools the verification process. · Calculations of all system improvements (reduction of line losses and no-load lossesSimplified VO M&V Protocol 1 Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO) Measurement and Verification

  5. Smart Grid Voltage Sag Detection using Instantaneous Features Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    encountered power quality disturbances. Index Terms--Smart grid, voltage sag detection, power quality (PQ as the generation system is moved nearby the distribution level and this is achieved by using a set of micro grids grids are their availability, reliability, and profitability; in order to fulfill power demand according

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES S.C. Shen, D. T. Becher, D. C. Caruth, and M)333-4054 Fax: (217) 244-6375 Abstract We present novel RF switches using micro-electro- mechanical (MEM) technology. These MEM switches are built on GaAs substrates using GaAs MESFET MMIC- compatible processes

  7. CompilerDirected Dynamic Voltage Scaling Based on Program Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremer, Ulrich

    '' the degraded CPU performance behind the memory hierarchy accesses which are on the critical path. The compiler. processor that can operate over a wide voltage range. The operating system controls the processor speed user environment, but not in a multi­user environment where the CPU is scheduled across di#erent active

  8. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay adopted to save the system from severe states. A test system is built in real time digital simulator (RTDS

  9. High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems Supplier: ABB Railroa d DC Tie USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W 21

  10. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  11. Chronic Benzodiazepine Administration Potentiates High Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Nader G.

    effects from drug withdrawal phenomena to dependence on a variety of drugs of abuse. High voltage benzodiazepine physical dependence. Benzodiazepines, a group of positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors legitimate prescription of benzodiazepines increases the proportion of patients who develop dependence

  12. Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadsby, David

    Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump R.F. Rakowski1 , D.C. Gadsby2 , P. De Weer3 1, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Received: 2 August 1996/Revised: 13 September 1996 Introduction Whether Na/K pump & Rakowski, 1988). While it follows from first principles that the rate of net forward Na/K pumping must

  13. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad

  14. Energy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabal

    network processor results. This design, accompanied by bulk-silicon solar cells for energy scavenging, hasEnergy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors Leyla Nazhandali, Bo ZhaiV and be- low) lends itself well to the performance and energy demands of sensor network processors

  15. Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Stavros Toumpis Electrical balancing in wireless networks with a single class of traffic, focusing our attention on an important example, i.e., Wireless Sensor Networks. The analysis is based on the Wireless Minimum Cost Problem

  16. Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Yiyang Gong1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators Yiyang Gong1,2* , Jin Zhong Li1 by nearly three-fold in comparison to Arch-D95N. Citation: Gong Y, Li JZ, Schnitzer MJ (2013) Enhanced; Published June 19, 2013 Copyright: © 2013 Gong et al. This is an open-access article distributed under

  17. Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Lyon B.

    Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross Lyon B. King Energy efficiency/s of xenon. Acceleration and current efficiencies were compared to thrust efficiency over a range of magnet coil current values of 0 A - 2.5 A. Acceleration efficiencies were obtained with a 4-grid Retarding

  18. Standby Voltage Scaling for Reduced Power B. Calhoun, A. Chandrakasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract Lowering VDD during standby mode leakage, gate leakage, GIDL, and forward biased diode leak- age[2]. At the 0.13 m technology node to pinch in the rail voltages during standby[5]. The quantity and sizes of the devices used in the diode

  19. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab; Kazakov, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  20. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  1. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  2. Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Department of ECE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Maha Nizam Department of ECE University of Toronto devgan@magma-da.com ABSTRACT Full-chip verification requires one to check if the power grid is safe, i of the circuit attached to the grid, thereby precluding early verification of the grid. We propose a power grid

  3. Module No: 410417Private International LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410417Private International LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Fourth Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator

  4. NOMINATIONS INVITED The Executive Director of the Karl W. Ber Solar Energy Medal of Merit Trust, Prof. Michael T. Klein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to the fields of solar energy, wind energy, or other forms of renewable energy in other ways. PANEL OF JUDGES to greater performance and efficiency of solar cells and arrays. Previous award recipients were: 1993NOMINATIONS INVITED · The Executive Director of the Karl W. Böer Solar Energy Medal of Merit Trust

  5. Development of a rules-based advisory system for detecting off-nominal behavior of spacecraft digital autopilots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Hee

    1998-01-01

    the space shuttle dynamic model, and the control torque required, by the phase plane switching logic and jet selection logic. Rules-based methods for detecting off-nominal behavior such as chattering, overshoot, and torque bias are developed. This advisory...

  6. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  7. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleationmore »process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.« less

  8. Review of Inflatable Booms for Deployable Space Structures: Packing and Rigidization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenk, Mark; Viquerat, Andrew D.; Seffen, Keith A.; Guest, Simon D.

    2014-04-21

    Review of Inflatable Booms for Deployable Space Structures: Packing and Rigidization Mark Schenk1, Andrew D. Viquerat 2 and Keith A. Seffen 3 and Simon D. Guest 4 Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom... Senior Lecturer, Cambridge University Engineering Department; kas14@cam.ac.uk 4 Reader, Cambridge University Engineering Department; sdg13@cam.ac.uk 1 Preprint of Mark Schenk, Andrew D. Viquerat, Keith A. Seffen, and Simon D. Guest. "Review...

  9. Novel techniques for fault location, voltage profile calculation and visualization of transients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evrenosoglu, Cansin Yaman

    2009-05-15

    techniques of voltage profiles along transmission lines. A simple yet effective approach to accurately and rapidly obtain the voltage profile along a transmission line during fault transients is presented. The objective of the presented method is to eliminate...

  10. Voltage and Timing Adaptation for Variation and Aging Tolerance in Nanometer VLSI Circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Kyu-Nam 1978-

    2012-09-10

    . Adaptive supply voltage (ASV) is one of the effective adaptation approaches for power-performance tuning. ASV has advantages on controlling dynamic and leakage power, while voltage generation and delivery overheads from conventional ASV systems make...

  11. Switched-capacitor step-down rectifier for low-voltage power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    This paper presents a switched-capacitor rectifier that provides step down voltage conversion from an ac input voltage to a dc output. Coupled with current-drive source, low-loss and high step-down rectification is realized. ...

  12. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  13. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , photovoltaics, and synchronous generators. I. INTRODUCTION Penetration of DG into distribution network in terms of voltage profile improvement, line-loss reduction, and environmental impact reductionVoltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

  14. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    2006-04-12

    state voltage stability index to detect potential dynamic voltage collapse. Finally, this dissertation examines developments in representation, standardization, communication and exchange of power system data. Power system data is the key input to all...

  15. Interline photovoltaic (I-PV) power plants for voltage unbalance compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moawwad, Ahmed

    This paper proposes a stationary-frame control method for voltage unbalance compensation using Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system. I-PV power systems are controlled to compensate voltage unbalance autonomously. The ...

  16. Importance of the Equlibrium Node in Preventing the Voltage Collapse Occurs in the Wind Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    or insufficient reactive power supplies may also contribute to voltage collapse and blackouts. In recent years, the voltage collapse or blackouts have occurred worldwide, such as the blackout in France at 1978 and blackout

  17. Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.

  18. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  19. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  20. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  1. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b , Juan Shi c to P15 g significantly reduced power generation because of a reduction in oxygen transfer due

  2. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G., E-mail: Ioannis.G.Mikellides@jpl.nasa.gov; Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700?V (I{sub sp}???2000–2700?s) at 6?kW, and 800?V (I{sub sp} ? 3000) at 9?kW. At 6?kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300?V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700?V are found not to exceed 10{sup ?2}?mm/kh. Such rates are ?3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300?V. At 9?kW and 800?V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ?1 order of magnitude higher (?10{sup ?1}?mm/kh) than that at 6?kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  3. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage

  4. ME/AE/CompE/EE 378 Mechatronics VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Robert G.

    be labeled and contain units, and diagrams must be drawn with a software package. Table 1: Voltage Amplifier

  5. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  6. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  7. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  8. Performance Characteristics Of The Reduced Common Mode Voltage Near State PWM Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hava, Ahmet

    induction and permanent magnet machines are driven through three-phase Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) which to generate the required output voltages. Conventional Continuous PWM (CPWM) methods such as Space Vector PWM with rather smaller IGBT gate resistances), and high DC bus voltage levels, the CMVs generated result

  9. Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Li, Chendan). Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids. In Proceedings of the 11th.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Chendan Li

  10. Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus by re-dispatching generator outputs, using a normal vector found at a voltage collapse boundary or a low voltage boundary (LVB). This method uses the normal vector as an indicator to change the generation

  11. Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for Michael Leuer, Joachim Bocker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for IPMSM Michael Leuer, Joachim B¨ocker Power (IPMSM). Besides the good dynamics, the utilization of the DC link voltage is important for these motor types. Since the MPC is able to utilize the available DC link voltage optimally, the MPC is superior

  12. Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram Department and energy costs of these level shifters must be taken into account when comparing a multiple-supply voltage a dynamic programming technique for solv- ing the multiple supply voltage scheduling problem in both non

  13. Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines: State-of-the-Art Review deals with low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of wind turbines (WTs) and in particular those as to index some emerging solutions. Index Terms--Wind turbine, doubly-fed induction generator, low voltage

  14. Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI AMIR H. AJAMI, 1 be insufficient to limit the voltage fluctuations over the power grid for future technologies. It is also shown voltage drop in the power grid may result in a functional failure in dynamic logic and a timing violation

  15. Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

  16. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  17. Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

  18. Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller Department fabrication have resulted in an increasing need to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage scaling power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs below a critical speed result in higher power

  19. Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under Process Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under in video decoding) in a system with Voltage-Frequency Island (VFI) partitions in the presence of process of synchronous blocks, communicating with each other on an asynchronous basis. The concept of Voltage

  20. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    scaling (DVS) is an effective approach to power reduction by scaling the processor voltage and frequency the voltage accordingly. On the other hand, a reduction of the operating frequency leads to an increaseEnergy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling Xiliang Zhong

  1. PreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    , dynamic voltage scal- ing, approximation algorithm 1. INTRODUCTION Energy conservation has been the main to save energy is that linear reduction in the supply voltage leads to approximately linear slow downPreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme Weixun

  2. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling for Dynamic Voltage Scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    --Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a promising technique for battery-powered systems to conserve energy consumption reduction is based on dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which exploits the super linear dependence of the power consumption of a CMOS processor on its operating voltage. However, a reduction of the operating frequency

  3. Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwarkadas, Sandhya

    Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture Greg Semeraro the fre- quency/voltage of a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) mi- croarchitecture. The MCD microarchitecture allows the frequency/voltage of microprocessor regions to be adjusted independently and dynamically

  4. Tangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Voltage EnergyperOperation 1.0V #12;Low-Voltage Operation Vdd reduction is one of the best leversTangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy- Efficient On for energy efficiency o Big reduction in dynamic power; also reduction in static power New technologies

  5. Leakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    takes the advantage of the fact that linear reduction in the supply voltage can quadrati- cally reduceLeakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache Reconfiguration in Real are widely used to improve energy efficiency as well as overall performance. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS

  6. DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Recent trends in CMOS fabrication have the demand to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage fabrication processes are increasingly dominated by static power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs

  7. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di#11;ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of voltage control equipment including tapchanging transformers, switched capacitors, SVCs, STATCOMs and the WTGs themselves. The project has considered the coordinated control of this equipment, and has addressed a range of issues that arise in wind-farm operation. The #12;first concerns the ability of WTGs to meet reactive power requirements when voltage saturation in the collector network restricts the reactive power availability of individual generators. Secondly, dynamic interactions between voltage regulating devices have been investigated. It was found that under certain realistic conditions, tap-changing transformers may exhibit instability. In order to meet cost, maintenance, fault tolerance and other requirements, it is desirable for voltage control equipment to be treated as an integrated system rather than as independent devices. The resulting high-level scheduling of wind-farm reactive support has been investigated. In addressing this control problem, several forms of future information were considered, including exact future knowledge and stochastic predictions. Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming techniques were used in the development of control algorithms. The results demonstrated that while exact future knowledge is very useful, simple prediction methods yield little bene#12;fit. The integration of inherently variable wind generation into weak grids, particularly subtransmission networks that are characterized by low X=R ratios, aff#11;ects bus voltages, regulating devices and line flows. The meshed structure of these networks adds to the complexity, especially when wind generation is distributed across multiple nodes. A range of techniques have been considered for analyzing the impact of wind variability on weak grids. Sensitivity analysis, based on the power-flow Jacobian, was used to highlight sections of a system that are most severely a#11;ffected by wind-power variations. A continuation power flow was used to determine parameter changes that reduce the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions betw

  8. A Multiattribute Utility Analysis of Sites Nominated For Characterization For the First Radioactive Waste Repository- A Decision Aiding Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites.

  9. A Surprising Clarification of the Mechanism of Ion-channel Voltage-Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Palaniappan

    2011-04-20

    An intense controversy has surrounded the mechanism of voltage-gating in ion channels. We interpreted the two leading models of voltage-gating with respect to the thermodynamic energetics of membrane insertion of the voltage-sensing 'module' from a comprehensive set of potassium channels. KvAP is an archaeal voltage-gated potassium channel whose x-ray structure was the basis for determining the general mechanism of voltage-gating. The free energy of membrane insertion of the KvAP voltage sensor was revealed to be a single outlier. This was due to its unusual sequence that facilitated large gating movements in its native lipid membrane. This degree of free energy was the least typical of the other voltage sensors, including the Shaker potassium channel. We inferred that the two leading models of voltage-gating referred to alternative mechanisms of voltage-gating: each is applicable to an independent set of ion channels. The large motion of the voltage-sensor during gating proposed by the KvAP-paddle model of gating is unlikely to be mirrored by the majority of ion channels whose voltage sensors are not located at the membrane-cytoplasm interface in the channel closed state.

  10. Random loose packing and an order parameter for the parking lot model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hernández; L. I. Reyes

    2010-05-25

    We have obtained the random loose packing fraction of the parking lot model (PLM) by taking the limit of infinite compactivity in the two-variable statistical description of Tarjus and Viot for the PLM. The PLM is a stochastic model of adsorption and desorption of particles on a substrate that have been used as a model for compaction of granular materials. An order parameter $\\rho$ is introduced to characterize how far from a steady state situation the model is. Thus, configurations with $\\rho<1$ age. We propose that $\\rho$ can be a starting point in order to stablish a connection between Edwards' statistical mechanics and granular hydrodynamics.

  11. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  12. GridPACK Toolkit for Developing Power Grid Simulations on High Performance Computing Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Bruce J.; Perkins, William A.; Glass, Kevin A.; Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Callahan, Charles D.

    2013-11-30

    This paper describes the GridPACK™ framework, which is designed to help power grid engineers develop modeling software capable of running on todays high performance computers. The framework contains modules for setting up distributed power grid networks, assigning buses and branches with arbitrary behaviors to the network, creating distributed matrices and vectors, using parallel linear and non-linear solvers to solve algebraic equations, and mapping functionality to create matrices and vectors based on properties of the network. In addition, the framework contains additional functionality to support IO and to manage errors.

  13. Coexistence of dilute and densely packed domains of ligand-receptor bonds in membrane adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Schmidt; Timo Bihr; Udo Seifert; Ana-Sun?ana Smith

    2012-07-11

    We analyze the stability of micro-domains of ligand-receptor bonds that mediate the adhesion of biological model membranes. After evaluating the effects of membrane fluctuations on the binding affinity of a single bond, we characterize the organization of bonds within the domains by theoretical means. In a large range of parameters, we find the commonly suggested dense packing to be separated by a free energy barrier from a regime in which bonds are sparsely distributed. If bonds are mobile, a coexistence of the two regimes should emerge, which agrees with recent experimental observations.

  14. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  15. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  16. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  17. Mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Lindholm, F.A.; Nevgroschel, A.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper reports the results of research on mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in conventional p/n junction silicon solar cells, with a view toward both the understanding of various heavy-doping effects and the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted in order to correlate heavy-doping effects to actual solar cell performance. The experiments have utilized a variety of emitter configurations with various doping concentrations in order to emphasize a number of concentration-dependent mechanisms. The theoretical modeling addresses the determination of both recombination velocity at the passivated front surface and effects of recombination at the front ohmic contact.

  18. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  19. Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirokazu Maruyama

    2007-11-20

    In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 1751 Dual Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters to provide on/off control Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage Floating Gate Drives Yan Yin, Member, IEEE, and Regan Zane, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An integrated circuit (IC) design for low and high side gate drive in high

  1. College of Arts and Sciences Travel Award Application Please submit the following information to request a College of Arts and Sciences Travel Award. Programs may nominate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    College of Arts and Sciences Travel Award Application Please submit the following information to request a College of Arts and Sciences Travel Award. Programs may nominate up to three students the College Graduate Office website for additional information: http

  2. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  3. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  4. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  6. Turning intractable counting into sampling: computing the granular entropy of three-dimensional jammed packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Martiniani; K. Julian Schrenk; Jacob D. Stevenson; David J. Wales; Daan Frenkel

    2015-09-14

    We report a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations $\\Omega$ of $N$ repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume $V$. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)) and Asenjo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)) and we extend the method to allow computation of the granular entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the granular entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of stable packings should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems that aims to find the extrema of a scalar cost function that depends on many degrees of freedom.

  7. Turning intractable counting into sampling: computing the granular entropy of three-dimensional jammed packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J; Frenkel, Daan

    2015-01-01

    We report a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations $\\Omega$ of $N$ repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume $V$. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)) and Asenjo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)) and we extend the method to allow computation of the granular entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the granular entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of stable packings should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems that aims to find the extrema of a scalar cost function tha...

  8. 96 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2004 Low-Input-Voltage, Low-Power Boost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    to connect varying voltage to the fixed voltage load with high efficiency. Individual fuel cells naturally are investigated when a low input voltage is used. Low- input-voltage sources include single fuel cells, single solar cells, and thermoelectric devices. The primary context is interfacing single micro fuel cells

  9. DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into Mid-Voltage Distribution Systems Zhao Wang, Student Member, IEEE-voltage (LV) microgrids. At the same time, reactive power is dispatched coordinatively so that voltage

  10. Abstract -This paper introduces techniques for power efficient design of power delivery network in multiple voltage-island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    in multiple voltage-island System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. The first technique is targeted to SoC designs network, voltage regulator, DC-DC converter, energy efficiency, voltage island, system-on-chip I island approach [3]. In these systems, it is required that the PDN delivers power at appropriate voltage

  11. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  12. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN); Van Berkel, Gary (Clinton, TN)

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  13. Design and Implementation of Switching Voltage Integrated Circuits Based on Sliding Mode Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2010-10-12

    .S. (Honors), ITESM Campus Toluca, Mexico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edgar S?anchez-Sinencio The need for high performance circuits in systems with low-voltage and low-power requirements has exponentially increased during the few last years due... measurements of the dual-output buck voltage regulator for (a) Medium load condition and (b) High load condition : : : 207 132 (a) Power efficiency measurements of the dual-output buck voltage versus both output currents and (b) Top view...

  14. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallik, Arindam (Evanston, IL); Lin, Bin (Hillsboro, OR); Memik, Gokhan (Evanston, IL); Dinda, Peter (Evanston, IL); Dick, Robert (Evanston, IL)

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  15. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  16. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  17. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George (Edison, NJ); Katz, Carlos (Edison, NJ); Bopp, Louis A. (Fair Haven, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  18. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  19. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  20. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  1. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyunyong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM); Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Pimentel, Alejandro A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  2. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  3. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,is one type of Lithium-Ion batteries with voltage around

  4. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  5. Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage-and Calcium-Dependent Potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage- and Calcium-Dependent Potassium (BK) Conductance present in the cellular membrane. Experimental and computational approaches have revealed the dynamic

  6. State-of-the-art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: 2015 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennfier; Dinh, Huyen; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This publication includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2015 for fuel cell technology status, focusing on state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability.

  7. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  8. Sacramento Area Voltage Support Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    The Western Area Power Administration's Central Valley Project transmission system forms an integral part of the interconnected Sacramento area transmission grid. Western is contractually responsible to oversee that the system is operated in accordance with strict reliability standards. Growth in the greater Sacramento, California area and power imported from generation outside the region, have increased the demand on the interconnected electric transmission system, leading to transmission system overloads and reducing the reliability and security of the area power system. Western has prepared this Sacramento Area Voltage Support (SVS) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in compliance with Federal laws, regulations and guidelines, principally the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This Draft EIS evaluates the potential environmental effects of physical improvements to the area's power system. Enhancements are needed to improve system reliability and provide voltage support for the Sacramento area. The results of public scoping meetings, workshops, meetings with agencies, and earlier studies by Western and area utilities helped to develop a range of alternatives for analysis. The Proposed Action involves: (1) Constructing a new double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line paralleling the existing double-circuit, 230-kV line from the O'Banion Substation to the Elverta Substation; (2) Realigning a portion of the existing Cottonwood-Roseville single-circuit, 230-kV transmission line north of Elverta Substation; and (3) Reconductoring the existing double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line from the Elverta Substation to the Tracy Substation. Public Hearings on the Draft EIS will be held between December 9-12, 2002. Comments on this Draft EIS are encouraged and should be sent to Ms. Loreen McMahon (above). Comments must be received by December 30, 2002.

  9. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  10. Active coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides via dark mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suchowski, Haim; Hatakeyama, Taiki; Wu, Chihhui; Feng, Liang; OBrien, Kevin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing need for energy-efficient and fast communications is driving the development of highly integrated photonic circuits where controlling light at the nanoscale becomes the most critical aspect of information transfer . Directional couplers, two interacting optical waveguides placed in close proximity, are important building blocks in these integrated photonics circuits and have been employed as optical modulators and switches for high speed communication, data processing and integrated quantum operations. However, active control over the coupling between closely packed waveguides is highly desirable and yet remains a critical barrier towards ultra small footprint devices. A general approach to achieve active control in waveguide systems is to exploit optical nonlinearities enabled by a strong control pulse. However these devices suffer from the nonlinear absorption induced by the intense control pulse as the signal and its control propagate in the same waveguide. Here we experimentally demonstra...

  11. Pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulation of laminar and turbulent flow through a sphere pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fattahia, Ehsan; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich; Manhart, Michael; Helmig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method can be used to simulate flow through porous media with full geometrical resolution. With such a direct numerical simulation, it becomes possible to study fundamental effects which are difficult to assess either by developing macroscopic mathematical models or experiments. We first evaluate the lattice Boltzmann method with various boundary handling of the solid-wall and various collision operators to assess their suitability for large scale direct numerical simulation of porous media flow. A periodic pressure drop boundary condition is used to mimic the pressure driven flow through the simple sphere pack in a periodic domain. The evaluation of the method is done in the Darcy regime and the results are compared to a semi-analytic solution. Taking into account computational cost and accuracy, we choose the most efficient combination of the solid boundary condition and collision operator. We apply this method to perform simulations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers from Stokes flo...

  12. Recovery of coal from preparation plant effluents using a packed column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V.; Khan, L.; Yang, D.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility of recovering coal from coal preparation plant waste (or effluent) streams at the pilot scale using the packed column flotation process is demonstrated. In Phase I of the project, a total of four effluent samples were tested at the bench scale with the objective of recovering low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal products that were, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal produced by the preparation plants supplying the waste stream samples. Phase II of the project comprised demonstration of the technology at the pilot scale using a 4-in. I.D. {times} 20-ft tall column installed at the Applied Laboratory of the Illinois State Geological Survey. A large effluent sample was conducted, consisting of particle size distribution, proximate and complete analyses, and batch froth flotation testing. Ash, total and pyritic sulfur, and calorific value of the effluent sample were also determined. The effluent feed sample contained 50-55% ash and 2.2% total sulfur. Confirmatory tests were conducted at Michigan Technological University using a bench-scale packed column. A product containing 5.4% ash was obtained at 97.5% ash rejection and 71.8% combustible matter recovery. Changing the process operating parameters allowed the quality of the product to be controlled such that its ash content ranged between 6 and 10%, with combustible matter recoveries in the 71-77% range. Pilot testing was conducted using a test matrix designed to study the effects of primary variables (feed rate, percent solids, and reagent dosage) and operating variables (air rate, wash water, and pulp level) with the objective of optimizing the process performance. Feed rates of 20-108 lb/hour were tested, with very good performance being obtained at a feed rate of 32 lb/hour (374 lb/h/ft{sup 2}).

  13. Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) Frank Elefsen, Centre Manager, Ph.D., and Sten Frandsen, Head of Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) Frank Elefsen, Centre Manager, Ph.D., and Sten Frandsen, Head and an improved environment. 1 Fuel Cell-Shaft Power Packs (FC-SPP) A. Background In line with the growing global technology is receiving a great deal of attention. Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to replace

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Use of Biodegradable Packing Materials in the New SUB: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the Use of Biodegradable Packing Materials in the New SUB: A Triple Bottom-Line Assessment Ken Tam, Yang of Biodegradable Packing Materials in the New SUB: A Triple Bottom-Line Assessment Submitted on April 4, 2013-biodegradable. Nonetheless, the benefit from materials made from bio-based resources are debatable. The new SUB in UBC

  15. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  16. FREE Name Tags for 1st year Students FREE Selected Course Packs for 2nd year Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    · FREE Name Tags for 1st year Students · FREE Selected Course Packs for 2nd year Students · Personalized MVMA Lab Coat at Transition Ceremony for 3rd year Students · Educational Presentations with Dinner to $11,000 each year!) · Discounts on Insurance, Rental Cars, and more! · FREE Legal Advice · Expanded

  17. Anisotropic nonlinear elasticity in a spherical-bead pack: Influence of the fabric anisotropy Yacine Khidas* and Xiaoping Jia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    interest but also of practical impor- tance in many fields, including soil mechanics and geophys- ics. Unlike consolidated porous materials such as sedimen- tary rocks, soils, and sintered bead packs, dry inhomogeneous force network 1­6 . The mechanical properties of such materials depend strongly on both

  18. Accelerating Palladium-Catalyzed C-F Bond Formation: Use of a Microflow Packed-Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maimone, Thomas J.

    A flow process for Pd-catalyzed C-F bond formation is described. A microreactor with a packed-bed design allows for easy handling of large quantities of insoluble CsF with precise control over reaction times, efficient ...

  19. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed by Scanning Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed@uci.edu Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octanethiol and benzeneethanethiol were deposited on clean Pt° unit cell for the octanethiol SAMs and a 4( 3 × 3)R30° periodicity based on 2 × 2 basic molecular

  20. Formation of Rectangular Packing and One-Dimensional Lines of C60 on 11-Phenoxyundecanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Formation of Rectangular Packing and One-Dimensional Lines of C60 on 11-Phenoxyundecanethiol Self Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois. We discuss the possible causes for the formation of this structure as well as the differences between

  1. A New Upper Bound 2.5545 on 2D Online Bin Packing XIN HAN, Dalian University of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Francis Y.L.

    50 A New Upper Bound 2.5545 on 2D Online Bin Packing XIN HAN, Dalian University of Technology was partially supported by NSFC (10971192). Authors' addresses: X. Han, Software School, Dalian University of Technology, Road 8, Economy and Tech- nology Development Zone, Dalian, P.R. China, 116620; email: hanxin

  2. Charge stabilized crystalline colloidal arrays as templates for fabrication of non-close-packed inverted photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    devices. Thus, much of the recent work in photonic crystal fabrication has utilized colloidal particle self assembly. The utility of colloidal particle self assembly is evident from the photonic crystal colloidal particle self assembly work has emphasized methods that form close-packed photonic crystal

  3. Aalborg Universitet Review on Multi-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms Glasdam, Jakob ; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms. I IEEE of large offshore wind farms (OWFs) employing current state-of- the-art voltage source converter based high

  4. A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

  5. Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting}@binghamton.edu Abstract In this paper, an energy aware dynamic voltage and frequency selection (EA-DVFS) algorithm energy and the harvested energy in a future duration. Specifically, if the system has sufficient energy

  6. Low-voltage, low-power, low switching error, class-AB switched current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage, low-power, low switching error, class-AB switched current memory cell C. Sawigun and W into two components by a low-voltage class-AB current splitter and subsequently processes the individual signals by two low switching error class-A memory cells. As a conse- quence, the output current obtained

  7. Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines A Report to the National-Voltage Electric Power Lines: A Report to the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Center to build new power lines. Residents living in counties with planned routes for new transmission lines

  8. Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun Igor Senderovich Abstract, a very high voltage electron gun needs to be designed.1 To these ends, several geometric parameters were were performed on off-axis electron acceleration. Introduction The design of the electrode gun has

  9. Voltage-dependent behavior of a "ball-and-chain" gramicidin channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woolley, G. Andrew; Zunic, Valentin; Karanicolas, John; Jaikaran, Anna S. I.; Starostin, Andrei V.

    1997-11-01

    -trans isomerization on the 10–100-ms time scale. The conductance behavior of gram-EDA is found to be markedly voltage dependent, whereas the behavior of gram-DMEDA is not. In addition, voltage affects the cis-trans ratios of the carbamate groups of gram...

  10. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed., Guerrero, J. M., & Bullo, F. (2015). Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via downloaded from www.microgrids.et.aau.dk is the preprint version of the final paper: J. W. Simpson-Porco, Q

  11. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low

  12. Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits Xin Zhao networks for ultra-low voltage (ULV) circuits. We show that both clock slew and skew play important roles) at comparable or even higher Fmax compared with the existing methods. Keywords--clock network design, ultra-low

  13. PHYSICS 327 Spring 2015 1/13/2015 LAB 1 -DC VOLTAGE DIVIDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    produces output voltage which is independent of the load resistance (RL, in this case). Remember a provided "power supply" for the source of the input voltage Vin. The circuit is described by the equation 2 (breadboard), and use the power supply to provide Vin = 12 V. For each value of R2, measure Vin and Vout

  14. Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution (APA): Trintis, I., Douglass, P., Maheshwari, R., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2015). SiC heat pump converters.aau.dk on: november 29, 2015 #12;SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution

  15. HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage resonance arrangement that acts as a current source. During warm up the filaments are driven by a secondary the filament and shorts out the voltage across the lamp. Simulation and experimental results suggest

  16. A Static PatternIndependent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Static Pattern­Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification # Dionysios Design verification must include the power grid. Checking that the voltage on the power grid does) the obviously large size of the power grids for modern high­performance chips, and ii) the di#culty of setting

  17. A Static Pattern-Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    by the circuit off the grid. The current waveforms of these current sources may be determined by a priorA Static Pattern-Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Dionysios Design verification must include the power grid. Checking that the voltage on the power grid does

  18. Effect of Flow Field Design and Voltage Change Range on the Dynamic Behavior of PEMFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    Effect of Flow Field Design and Voltage Change Range on the Dynamic Behavior of PEMFCs Sunhoe Kim exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC subjected to rapid changes in the voltage depends on the type of flow that these peak heights are limited primarily by oxygen mass transfer, even though the PEMFC is operating at close

  19. Aalborg Universitet Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids," in Proc. IEEE International Energy Conference (EnergyCon'14), 2014. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of- Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

  20. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  1. Ca2 -dependent activation of Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes is modulated by voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Ian

    a fast electrical block to polyspermy in the egg (7). Voltage-clamp recordings of Cl current provide- acteristics that complicate interpretation of the under- lying Ca2 signals (11, 21). In particular, it remains sources of Ca2 can be discriminated by recording ICl,Ca evoked by hyperpolarizing voltage steps because

  2. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  3. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  4. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  5. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  6. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently had an IMD installed. This further study of facilities revealed that the implementation of the project as originally described, while proving the benefits described in the original grant application, would likely intensify sand intake. Increased sand intake would lead to an increase in required shutdowns for maintenance and more rapid depreciation of key equipment which would result in a loss of generation capacity. A better solution to the problem, one that continued to meet the criteria for the original grant and ARRA standards, was developed. A supporting day trip was planned to visit other facilities located on the Arkansas River to determine how they were coping with the same strong amounts of sand, silt, and debris. Upon returning from the trip to other Arkansas River facilities it was extremely clear what direction to go in order to most efficiently address the issue of generator capacity and efficiency. Of the plants visited on the Arkansas River, every one of them was running what is called a rope packing shaft sealing system as opposed to mechanical shaft seals, which the facility was running. Rope packing is a time proven sealing method that has been around for centuries. It has proved to perform very well in dirty water situations just like that of the Arkansas River. In April of 2012 a scope change proposal was submitted to the DOE for approval. In August of 2012 the City received word that the change of scope had been approved. Plans were immediately set in motion to begin the conversion from mechanical seals to a packing box at the facility. Contractors arrived on October 1st, 2012 and the project team began unwatering the unit for disassembly. The seal conversion was completed on February 29th, 2013 with start-up of the unit. Further testing and adjusting was done throughout the first two weeks of March.

  7. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  8. Bonneville Power Administration is investigating wide-area stability and voltage control. The control provides a flexible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.

    Summary Bonneville Power Administration is investigating wide-area stability and voltage control are being developed in close collaboration between Bonneville Power Administration and Washington State and Voltage Control Carson W. Taylor Mani V. Venkatasubramanian Yonghong Chen Bonneville Power Administration

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  10. An analysis of techniques implementing virtual load line voltage sense and regulation for automotive USB buck application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koether, Ethan (Ethan M.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes three diseparate methods of virtual voltage sense in order to achieve voltage regulation at the end of load line cables without the need for two sense cables. This thesis also explores the implementation ...

  11. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

  12. Source of Sustained Voltage Difference between the Xylem of a Potted Ficus benjamina Tree and Its Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mershin, Andreas

    It has long been known that there is a sustained electrical potential (voltage) difference between the xylem of many plants

  13. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies: part 1: type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies: part 1: type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

  14. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  15. Braided Bundles and Compact Coils: The Structure and Thermodynamics of Hexagonally-Packed, Chiral Filament Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2008-12-16

    Molecular chirality frustrates the two-dimensional assembly of filamentous molecules, a fact that reflects the generic impossibility of imposing a global twisting of layered materials. We explore the consequences of this frustration for hexagonally-ordered assemblies of chiral filaments that are {\\it finite} in lateral dimension. Specifically, we employ a continuum-elastic description of cylindrical bundles of filaments, allowing us to consider the most general resistance to and preference for chiral ordering of the assembly. We explore two distinct mechanisms by which chirality at the molecular scale of the filament frustrates the assembly into aggregates. In the first, chiral interactions between filaments impart an overall twisting of filaments around the central axis of the bundle. In the second, we consider filaments that are inherently helical in structure, imparting a writhing geometry to the central axis. For both mechanisms, we find that a thermodynamically-stable state of dispersed bundles of {\\it finite} width appears close to, but below, the point of bulk filament condensation. The range of thermodynamic stability of dispersed bundles is sensitive only to the elastic cost and preference for chiral filament packing. The self-limited assembly of chiral filaments has particular implications for a large class of biological molecules -- DNA, filamentous proteins, viruses, bacterial flagella -- which are universally chiral and are observed to form compact bundles under a broad range of conditions.

  16. Conformational Transition Between Four and Five-Stranded Phenylalanine Zippers Determined by a Local Packing Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu,J.; Zheng, Q.; Deng, Y.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-helical coiled coils play a crucial role in mediating specific protein-protein interactions. However, the rules and mechanisms that govern helix-helix association in coiled coils remain incompletely understood. Here we have engineered a seven heptad 'Phe-zipper' protein (Phe-14) with phenylalanine residues at all 14 hydrophobic a and d positions, and generated a further variant (Phe-14{sub M}) in which a single core Phe residue is substituted with Met. Phe-14 forms a discrete {alpha}-helical pentamer in aqueous solution, while Phe-14M folds into a tetrameric helical structure. X-ray crystal structures reveal that in both the tetramer and the pentamer the a and d side-chains interlock in a classical knobs-into-holes packing to produce parallel coiled-coil structures enclosing large tubular cavities. However, the presence of the Met residue in the apolar interface of the tetramer markedly alters its local coiled-coil conformation and superhelical geometry. Thus, short-range interactions involving the Met side-chain serve to preferentially select for tetramer formation, either by inhibiting a nucleation step essential for pentamer folding or by abrogating an intermediate required to form the pentamer. Although specific trigger sequences have not been clearly identified in dimeric coiled coils, higher-order coiled coils, as well as other oligomeric multi-protein complexes, may require such sequences to nucleate and direct their assembly.

  17. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead coherent conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presilla, Carlo

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead to study multiple-lead coherent conductors in the case of finite applied voltages. In this framework we discuss the transverse voltage arising in a four-lead conductor with two symmetric biased leads. Recently

  19. Optical, electronic, and structural properties of uncoupled and close-packed arrays of InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micic, O.I.; Jones, K.M.; Cahill, A.; Nozik, A.J.

    1998-12-03

    Solid films consisting of close-packed arrays of InP quantum dots have been prepared by slowly evaporating colloidal solutions of InP quantum dots. The diameters of the quantum dots were controlled to be between about 30 to 60 {angstrom}; size-selective precipitation yielded a size distribution of about 10% about the mean diameter. The arrays show regions of hexagonal order, as well as disordered regions. Oxide layers can form irreversibly on the quantum dot surface and limit the effectiveness of the size-selective precipitation. Photoluminescence spectra obtained from close-packed films of InP quantum dots formed from quantum dots with a single mean diameter and from a mixture of two quantum dot sizes show that energy transfer occurs from the photoexcited smaller quantum dots to the larger quantum dots. The efficiency of this energy transfer process is high.

  20. A master equation for force distributions in soft particle packings - Irreversible mechanical responses to isotropic compression and decompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

    2015-07-15

    Mechanical responses of soft particle packings to quasi-static deformations are determined by the microscopic restructuring of force-chain networks, where complex non-affine displacements of constituent particles cause the irreversible macroscopic behavior. Recently, we have proposed a master equation for the probability distribution functions of contact forces and interparticle gaps [K. Saitoh et al., Soft Matter 11, 1253 (2015)], where mutual exchanges of contacts and interparticle gaps, i.e. opening and closing contacts, are also involved in the stochastic description with the aid of Delaunay triangulations. We describe full details of the master equation and numerically investigate irreversible mechanical responses of soft particle packings to cyclic loading. The irreversibility observed in molecular dynamics simulations is well reproduced by the master equation if the system undergoes quasi-static deformations. We also confirm that the degree of irreversible responses is a decreasing function of the area fraction and the number of cycles.