National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nna carbon ba

  1. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program.

  2. Carbon-14 immobilization via the Ba(OH)/sub 2/. 8H/sub 2/O process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1983-03-01

    The airborne release of /sup 4/C from varous nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 y) and the ease with which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At ORNL, technology has been developed for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is airlike in nature (approx. 330 ppmv CO/sub 2/). The technology that has been developed utilizes the CO/sub 2/-Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possesses excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations < 100 ppbv), high reactant utilization (> 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at a superficial velocity of 13 cm/s) are possible. This paper addresses three areas of experimental investigation: (1) microscale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures; (2) macroscale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg of reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough; and (3) design, construction, and initial operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34-m/sup 3//h (20-ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  3. Carbon-14 immobilization via the Ba(OH)/sub 2/8H/sub 2/O process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne release of /sup 14/C from various nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 yrs) and the ease in which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, technology is under development, as part of the Airborne Waste Management Program, for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that the /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is airlike in nature (approx. 330 ppMv CO/sub 2/). The technology under development utilizes the CO/sub 2/ - Ba(OH)/sub 2/ 8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possessing excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations < 100 ppBv), high reactant utilization (> 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at 13 cm/s superficial velocity) are possible. This paper will address three areas of experimental investigation. These areas are (1) micro-scale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures, (2) macro-scale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow-rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough, and (3) the design, construction, and initial operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34 m/sup 3//h (20 ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  4. Ba(OH)/sub 2/. 8H/sub 2/O process for the removal and immobilization of carbon-14. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.; Holladay, D.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    The airborne release of /sup 14/C from various nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 years) and the ease with which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At ORNL, technology has been developed for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is air-like in nature (approx.300 ppM/sub v/ CO/sub 2/). The technology that has been developed utilizes the CO/sub 2/-Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possesses excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations <100 ppB/sub v/), high reactant utilization (>99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at a superficial velocity of 13 cm/s) are possible. Three areas of experimental investigation are reported: (1) microscale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures; (2) macroscale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg of reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough; and (3) design, construction, and operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34-m/sup 3//h (20-ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  5. Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation on BaO(001) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation ...

  6. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  7. Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene is the main component in the Ba-doped phenanthrene superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xun-Wang; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-12-14

    We have systematically investigated the crystal structure of Ba-doped phenanthrene with various Ba doping levels by the first-principles calculations combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra simulations. Although the experimental stoichiometry ratio of Ba atom and phenanthrene molecule is 1.5:1, the simulated XRD spectra, space group symmetry and optimized lattice parameters of Ba{sub 1.5}phenanthrene are not consistent with the experimental ones, while the results for Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene are in good agreement with the measurements. The strength difference of a few XRD peaks can be explained by the existence of pristine phenanthrene. Our findings suggest that instead of uniform Ba{sub 1.5}phenanthrene, there coexist Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene and undoped phenanthrene in the superconducting sample. The electronic calculations indicate that Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene is a semiconductor with a small energy gap less than 0.05 eV.

  8. A A S BA IMPORTANT ISSUES W BOOK TWO O

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    i * A * A S BA IMPORTANT ISSUES W BOOK TWO O * - U.S. Department of Energy, Transition 2008 - HOT Issue Papers Section 1 - Energy 1-1 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) * CCS could be developed and accelerated to meet aggressive C02 emissions goals. This strategy includes FutureGen and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). * July 2009 - Select CCPI recipients (closes 1/15/09) * December 2009 - Award FutureGen based on a December 2008 selection 1-2 Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Partnership

  9. Interaction between BaCO{sub 3} and OPC/BFS composite cements at 20 {sup o}C and 60 {sup o}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utton, C.A.; Gallucci, E.; Hill, J.; Milestone, N.B.

    2011-03-15

    A BaCO{sub 3} slurry, containing radioactive {sup 14}C, is produced during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This slurry is encapsulated in a Portland-blastfurnace slag composite cement. The effect of BaCO{sub 3} on the hydration of OPC and Portland-blastfurnace slag cements has been studied in this work. Samples containing a simulant BaCO{sub 3} slurry were cured for up to 720 days at 20 and 60 {sup o}C and analysed by XRD, SEM(EDX) and ICC. BaCO{sub 3} reacted with OPC to precipitate BaSO{sub 4} from a reaction between soluble sulfate and BaCO{sub 3}. Calcium monocarboaluminate subsequently formed from the carbonate released. The monocarboaluminate precipitated as crystals in voids formed during hydration. At 60 {sup o}C in OPC, it was not identified by XRD, suggesting the phase is unstable in this system around this temperature. In the Portland-blastfurnace slag cements containing BaCO{sub 3}, less monocarboaluminate and BaSO{sub 4} were formed, but the hydration of BFS was promoted and monocarboaluminate was stable up to 60 {sup o}C.

  10. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoitemore » (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba), thereby providing viable ceramic waste forms for all the Ba decay products.« less

  11. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  12. SeeBA Energiesysteme GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SeeBA Energiesysteme GmbH Place: Stemwede, Germany Zip: 32351 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer, from planning through to implementation...

  13. Abnormal thermal conductivity in tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature interval. Substitution of Sr for Ba brings about a significant decrease in thermal conductivity at x???3 accompanied by development of a low-temperature...

  14. On the Verge of One Petabyte - the Story Behind the BaBar Database...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Story Behind the BaBar Database System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Verge of One Petabyte - the Story Behind the BaBar Database System The BaBar database ...

  15. Unitarity Triangle Angle Measurements at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latham, Thomas E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-30

    We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory. We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory.

  16. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO 3 -based ferroelect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ... ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ...

  17. Innovative methodology for the synthesis of Ba-M hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Helmy, N.; El-Dek, S.I.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscope images for the BaFe12O19. - Highlights: BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}nanoparticles were prepared in single-phase from organometallic precursors. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} possesses small size 65 nm, H{sub C} = 3695 Oe and M{sub s} = 58 emu/g. This method of preparation could be extended in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this piece of work, high quality and homogeneity, barium hexaferrite (BaM) BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were prepared from organometallic precursors for the 1st time. This method is based on the formation of supramolecular crystal structure of Ba[Fe(H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})]Cl{sub 7}8H{sub 2}O. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at two different annealing temperatures namely 1000 C and 1200 C were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that monophasic nanoparticles of hexaferrites were obtained. Nanoparticles of crystallite size 4050 nm distinguished by narrow distribution and excellent homogeneity were obtained with superior magnetic properties which suggested single-domain particles of Ba-M hexaferrite.

  18. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba

  19. Ba2TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J. B.; Tokumoto, T. D.; McGill, S. A.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-01

    For single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba2TeO, we synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba2TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. Moreover, the optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba2TeO is highly insulating.

  20. Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba(Fe (1-X) Co (X) ) (2) As (2) Above the Spin Density Wave Transition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  1. The analysis of Ytrium doped BaZrO3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells Report Title: Computational modeling, synthesis, and characterization of BaZr 1-x Y x O 3- solid state ...

  2. Transition probabilities in the X(5) candidate {sup 122}Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bizzeti, P. G.; Giannatiempo, A.; Melon, B.; Perego, A.; Sona, P.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Marginean, R.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Michelagnoli, C.; Lenzi, S.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Nespolo, M.

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible X(5) character of {sup 122}Ba, suggested by the ground-state band energy pattern, the lifetimes of the lowest yrast states of {sup 122}Ba have been measured, via the recoil distance Doppler-shift method. The relevant levels have been populated by using the {sup 108}Cd({sup 16}O,2n){sup 122}Ba and the {sup 112}Sn({sup 13}C,3n){sup 122}Ba reactions. The B(E2) values deduced in the present work are compared to the predictions of the X(5) model and to calculations performed in the framework of the IBA-1 and IBA-2 models.

  3. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  4. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  5. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  6. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  7. Processing of R-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H.

    1998-02-23

    Precipitation processes were developed to introduce second phases as flux pinning centers in Gd-Ba-Cu-O and Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. In Gd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the upper solubility limit of Gd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} solid solution (Gd123ss) in low oxygen partial pressure. Processing of supersaturated Gd{sub 1.2}Ba{sub 1.8}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} in low oxygen partial pressure can produce dispersed second phases. Gd211 is formed as a separate phase while extensive Gd124 type stacking fault is formed instead of a separate CuO phase. As a result of the precipitation reaction, the transition temperature and critical current density are increased. In Nd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the lower solubility limit of Nd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} solid solution (Nd123ss) in oxygen. DTA results reveal the relative stability of Nd123ss in different oxygen partial pressures. In 1 bar oxygen partial pressure, Nd123ss with x = 0.1 is the most stable phase. In lower oxygen partial pressures, the most stable composition shifts towards the stoichiometric composition. The relative stability changes faster with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, processing in oxygen and air tends to produce broad superconducting transitions but sharp transitions can be achieved in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures. While the lower solubility limits in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures remain at x = 0.00, the solubility limits in oxygen and air show a narrowing with decreasing temperature. Because of the narrowing of the solubility range in oxygen, oxygen annealing of Nd123 initially processed in low oxygen partial pressures will result in precipitation of second phases. The equilibrium second phase is BaCuO{sub 2} for temperature above 608 C, and at lower temperatures the equilibrium second phases are Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3.3} and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5+y}. However, annealing at

  8. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  9. Observation of excited states in /sup 128/Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Zhi-zheng; Guo Ying-xiang; Pan Zong-you; Xiao Jian-min; Lei Xiang-guo; Liu Hong-ye; Sun Xi-jun

    1987-01-01

    Excited states in /sup 128/Ba have been investigated via the /sup 120/Sn (/sup 12/C, 4n..gamma..) /sup 128/Ba reaction by means of in-beam gamma spectroscopy. A 12/sup +/ state other than the previously reported one is observed according to the properties of the 935.0 keV ..gamma..-ray. It does not belong to the ground-state band. Two new interband transitions, 224.8 keV and 632.7 keV, are observed and assigned to sidefeeding between the negative-parity band and ground-state band.

  10. ABUNDANCES OF C, N, Sr, AND Ba ON THE RED GIANT BRANCH OF {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, Laura M.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E. E-mail: gdc@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-05-10

    Abundances relative to iron for carbon, nitrogen, strontium, and barium are presented for 33 stars on the red giant branch (RGB) of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri. They are based on intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data covering the blue spectral region analyzed using spectrum synthesis techniques. The data reveal the existence of a broad range in the abundances of these elements, and a comparison with similar data for main-sequence stars enables insight into the evolutionary history of the cluster. The majority of the RGB stars were found to be depleted in carbon, i.e., [C/Fe] < 0, while [N/Fe] for the same stars shows a range of {approx}1 dex, from [N/Fe] {approx} 0.7 to 1.7 dex. The strontium-to-iron abundance ratios varied from solar to mildly enhanced (0.0 {<=} [Sr/Fe] {<=} 0.8), with [Ba/Fe] generally equal to or greater than [Sr/Fe]. The carbon and nitrogen abundance ratios for the one known CH star in the sample, ROA 279, are [C/Fe] = 0.6 and [N/Fe] = 0.5 dex. Evidence for evolutionary mixing on the RGB is found from the fact that the relative carbon abundances on the main sequence are generally higher than those on the RGB. However, comparison of the RGB and main-sequence samples shows that the upper level of nitrogen enhancement is similar in both sets at [N/Fe] {approx} 2.0 dex. This is most likely the result of primordial rather than evolutionary mixing processes. One RGB star, ROA 276, was found to have Sr and Ba abundance ratios similar to the anomalous Sr-rich main-sequence star S2015448. High-resolution spectra of ROA 276 were obtained with the Magellan Telescope/MIKE spectrograph combination to confirm this result, revealing that ROA 276 is indeed an unusual star. For this star, calculations of the depletion effect, the potential change in surface abundance that results from the increased depth of the convective envelope as a star moves from the main sequence to the RGB, strongly suggest that the observed Sr enhancement in ROA 276 is of

  11. Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment You are ...

  12. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Interfacial ...

  13. Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using CORBA Servers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using ...

  14. Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle You are accessing a document from the ...

  15. Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid You are ...

  16. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface You are accessing a ...

  17. Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar Authors: ...

  18. Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Marra, James; Fox, Kevin; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod; Tang, Ming

    2012-09-17

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

  19. Single phase melt processed powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 for the immobilization of Mo-rich nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin M.; Marra, James C.; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod V.; Tang, Ming

    2012-10-02

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO4 and CaMoO4 were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO4 and BaMoO4 powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 x 1013 Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m2).

  20. Structural phase transitions in BaPrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saines, Paul J.; Kennedy, Brendan J. Smith, Ronald I.

    2009-04-02

    The crystal structures adopted by BaPrO{sub 3} at and above ambient temperature have been examined using a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction. BaPrO{sub 3} has been established to undergo a series of phase transitions from Pbnmorthorhombic{yields}Ibmmorthorhombic{yields}R3-bar crhombohedral{yields}Pm3-barm cubic. BaPrO{sub 3} is the second A{sup 2+}B{sup 4+}O{sub 3} perovskite found to adopt rhombohedral symmetry in preference to the I4/mcm tetragonal structure. Analysis of the octahedral tilting through the rhombohedral to cubic phase transition indicates that this transformation is continuous and tricritical in nature. The tricritical behaviour of this transition is likely to be a result of the competition between tetragonal and rhombohedral structures to be the preferred phase, with the rhombohedral symmetry adopted by BaPrO{sub 3} being stabilised by the unusually large B-site cation.

  1. Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2014-02-10

    We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

  2. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon capture involves the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-based power plant ... are not ready for implementation on coal-based power plants because they have not ...

  3. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  4. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Willson, Patrick Daniel; Gao, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  5. Quarkonium Spectroscopy and New States from BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, L.; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste

    2007-06-08

    We review results on charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. More space is reserved to the new results like the observation of hadronic non-B{bar B} {Upsilon}(4S) decays and the investigation on the production and decay properties of the recently discovered charmonium-like states X(3872) and Y (4260). These results are preliminary, unless otherwise specified.

  6. Structural and chemical characterization of BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagar, K.; Recnik, A.; Sturm, S.; Gajovic, A.; Ceh, M.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized with EPD into AAO templates. {yields} Nanorods are composed of crystalline, nanosized grains with pseudo-cubic structure. {yields} Integrowth of hexagonal BaTiO{sub 3} polymorph within pseudo-cubic structure was observed. -- Abstract: An electron-microscopy investigation was performed on BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods that were processed by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition (EPD) into anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods grown within the template membranes had diameters ranging from 150 to 200 nm, with an average length of 10-50 {mu}m. By using various electron-microscopy techniques we showed that the processed BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were homogeneous in their chemical composition. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were always polycrystalline and were composed of well-crystallized, defect-free, pseudo-cubic BaTiO{sub 3} grains, ranging from 10 to 30 nm. No intergranular phases were observed between the BaTiO{sub 3} grains. A low-temperature hexagonal polymorph that is coherently intergrown with the BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite matrix was also observed as a minor phase. When annealing the AAO templates containing the BaTiO{sub 3} sol in an oxygen atmosphere the presence of the hexagonal polymorph was diminished.

  7. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaO/Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Mei, Donghai; Yi, Cheol-Woo; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos

    2010-12-02

    The formation of adsorbed O (Oad) species and their reactivities in CO oxidation on BaO/Pt(111) (at two BaO coverages) were studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. In neither of these two systems was the Pt(111) surface completely covered with BaO. On the system with lower BaO coverage (~45 % of the Pt(111) surface is covered by BaO), two different Oad species form following the adsorption of O2 at 300 K: O adsorbed on BaO-free Pt(111) sites (OPt) and at the Pt-BaO interface (Oint). On the system with higher BaO coverage (~60 % of the Pt(111) surface is covered by BaO), two types of Oint are seen at the Pt-BaO interface. The desorption of OPt from the BaO-free portion of the Pt(111) surface gives an O2 desorption peak with a maximum desorption rate at ~690 K. Migration of Oint to the Pt(111) sites and their recombinative desorption give two explosive desorption features at ~760 and ~790 K in the TPD spectrum. The reactivities of these Oad species with CO to form CO2 follow their sequence of desorption; i.e., the OPt associated with the BaO-free Pt(111) surface, which desorbs at 690 K, reacts first with CO, followed by the Oint species at the Pt-BaO interface (first the one that desorbs at ~760 K and finally the one that is bound the most strongly to the interface, and desorbs at ~790 K). This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Water adsorption induced in-plane domain switching on BaTiO{sub 3} surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Wang, B. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study, the influences of the adsorption of water molecules on the changes in the atomic and electric structures of BaTiO{sub 3} surface were investigated using ab initio calculation. Water molecules are molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface, which makes electrons transfer from water molecules to the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The redistribution of electrons in the BaTiO{sub 3} surface layers weakens the Ba-O interactions and strengthens the Ti-O interactions, so that the Ti atom shifts in TiO{sub 2} plane, i.e., an in-plane domain switching. The adsorption of water molecules on BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces also results in a reduction in the surface rumpling.

  9. NNA.921218.0092 PARTICULATE MATIER AMEIENT AIR QUALITY DATA REPORT...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... partly due to extended electrical power outages experienced at the site during ... The data recovery rates in 1992 reflect an 3.2 Quality Assurance Results Typical ...

  10. Ba{sub 2}TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J.B.; Tokumoto, T.D.; McGill, S.A.; Singh, D.J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-15

    Single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba{sub 2}TeO, were synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba{sub 2}TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. The optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba{sub 2}TeO is highly insulating. - Graphical abstract: Starting from a simple stacking of rocksalt layers, the final structure of Ba{sub 2}TeO can be obtained by accommodation of structural strain via atom displacements. Density of states calculations and optical absorbance measurements show that Ba{sub 2}TeO has a band gap of 2.93 eV, indicative of semiconductor behavior. - Highlights: • Single crystal synthesis of a new layered oxytelluride, Ba{sub 2}TeO. • The structure features inverse PbO-type BaO layers and NaCl-type BaTe layers. • Optical absorbance show Ba{sub 2}TeO to be a semiconductor with a 2.93 eV gap. • Density of states indicate a small hybridization between Te 5p and Ba 5d states. • The BaTe (BaO) layers dominate the heat capacity at low (high) temperatures.

  11. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuma, Takashi Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro; Xianglian; Takahashi, Haruyuki; Basar, Khairul; Igawa, Naoki; Danilkin, Sergey A.

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10?K and 295?K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295?K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  12. Method of forming superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Richeson, Darrin S.; Tonge, Lauren M.; Zhang, Jiming

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming a superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O film is disclosed, which comprises depositing a Ba-Ca-Cu-O film on a substrate by MOCVD, annealing the deposited film and heat-treating the annealed film in a closed circular vessel with TlBa.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x and cooling to form said superconducting film of TlO.sub.m Ba.sub.2 Ca.sub.n-1 Cu.sub.n O.sub.2n+2, wherein m=1,2 and n=1,2,3.

  13. Ethylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis for the synthesis of hollow BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-04-01

    Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing ethylene glycol (EG) and precursors at 1000 degrees C. The effects of EG concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and magnetic properties were investigated. The hollow spherical particles were found to consist of primary particles, and higher EG concentration led to a bigger primary particle size. EG concentration did not show much effect on the hollow particle size. Better crystallinity and higher magnetic coercivity were obtained with higher EG concentration, which is attributed to further crystallization with the heat produced from EG combustion. Saturation magnetization (emu/g) decreased with increasing EG concentration due to residual carbon from EG incomplete combustion, contributing as a non-magnetic phase to the particles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  15. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  16. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  17. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Fact Sheet Key Contacts Carbon Capture Research & Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power generation is a critical component of realistic strategies for arresting the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but capturing substantial amounts of CO2 using current technology would result in a prohibitive rise in the cost of producing energy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development (NETL-ORD), in collaboration with researchers

  18. Direct spectroscopic evidence for completely filled Cu 3d shell in BaCu₂As₂ and α – BaCu₂Sb₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S. F.; Richard, P.; van Roekeghem, A.; Nie, S. M.; Miao, H.; Xu, N.; Qian, T.; Saparov, B.; Fang, Z.; Biermann, S.; Sefat, Athena S.; Ding, H.

    2015-06-08

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to extract the band dispersion and the Fermi surface of BaCu₂As₂ and α - BaCu₂Sb₂. While the Cu 3d bands in both materials are located around 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, the low-energy photoemission intensity mainly comes from As 4p states, suggesting a completely filled Cu 3d shell. The splitting of the As 3d core levels and the lack of pronounced three-dimensionality in the measured band structure of BaCu₂As₂ indicate a surface state likely induced by the cleavage of this material in the collapsed tetragonal phase, which is consistent with our observation of a Cu⁺¹ oxidation state. However, the observation of Cu states at similar energy in α - BaCu₂Sb₂ without the pnictide-pnictide interlayer bonding characteristic of the collapsed tetragonal phase suggests that the short interlayer distance in BaCu₂As₂ follows from the stability of the Cu⁺¹ rather than the other way around. Our results confirm the prediction that BaCu₂As₂ is an sp metal with weak electronic correlations.

  19. Dipole strength distributions in the stable Ba isotopes {sup 134-138}Ba: A study in the mass region of a nuclear shape transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheck, M.; Garrel, H. von; Belic, D.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Nord, A.; Pitz, H.H.; Stedile, F.; Tsoneva, N.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Gade, A.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.; Stoyanov, C.

    2004-10-01

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions in the odd-mass isotopes {sup 135,137}Ba were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments (NRF) performed at the Stuttgart Dynamitron facility using bremsstrahlung beams with end point energies of 4.1, 3.1, and 2.5 MeV. Numerous excited states, most of them unknown so far, were observed in the excitation energy range up to 4 MeV. Detailed spectroscopic information has been obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The results for {sup 137}Ba are compared with calculations in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model. The new data for {sup 135,137}Ba complete the systematics of low-lying dipole excitations as observed for the even Ba isotopes {sup 134,136,138}Ba in previous NRF experiments in Stuttgart. The complete systematics within the Ba isotopic chain, exhibiting a nuclear shape transition, is discussed with respect to E1 two-phonon excitations, M1 scissors mode excitations, and in regard to the new critical point symmetries.

  20. Submillimeter and microwave residual losses in epitaxial films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Garrison, S.M.; Newman, N.; Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T.; Martens, J.S.; Lee, W.Y.; Bourne, L.C.

    1992-03-01

    We have used a novel bolometric technique and a resonant technique to obtain accurate submillimeter and microwave residual loss data for epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} and Tl{sub 2}CaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. For all films we obtain good agreement between the submillimeter and microwave data, with the residual losses in both the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films scaling approximately as frequency squared below {approximately} 1 THz. We are able to fit the losses in the Y-Ba-Cu-O films to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity, in good agreement with results from a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the loss data. We observe strong phonon structure in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films for frequencies between 2 and 21 THz, and are unable to fit these losses to the simple weakly coupled grain model. This is in strong contrast to the case for other high {Tc} superconductors such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, where phonon structure observed in ceramic samples is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of the electronic screening due to the high conductivity of the a-b planes.

  1. Direct spectroscopic evidence for completely filled Cu 3d shell in BaCu₂As₂ and α – BaCu₂Sb₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, S. F.; Richard, P.; van Roekeghem, A.; Nie, S. M.; Miao, H.; Xu, N.; Qian, T.; Saparov, B.; Fang, Z.; Biermann, S.; et al

    2015-06-08

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to extract the band dispersion and the Fermi surface of BaCu₂As₂ and α - BaCu₂Sb₂. While the Cu 3d bands in both materials are located around 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, the low-energy photoemission intensity mainly comes from As 4p states, suggesting a completely filled Cu 3d shell. The splitting of the As 3d core levels and the lack of pronounced three-dimensionality in the measured band structure of BaCu₂As₂ indicate a surface state likely induced by the cleavage of this material in the collapsed tetragonal phase, which is consistent with our observation of amore » Cu⁺¹ oxidation state. However, the observation of Cu states at similar energy in α - BaCu₂Sb₂ without the pnictide-pnictide interlayer bonding characteristic of the collapsed tetragonal phase suggests that the short interlayer distance in BaCu₂As₂ follows from the stability of the Cu⁺¹ rather than the other way around. Our results confirm the prediction that BaCu₂As₂ is an sp metal with weak electronic correlations.« less

  2. Phonon properties of BaFe?X? (X=S, Se) spin ladder compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popovicq, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.; Scepanovic, M.; Lazarevic, N.; Opacic, M.; Radonjic, M. M.; Tanaskovic, D.; Lei, Hechang

    2015-02-27

    We present the Raman scattering spectra of the S=2 spin ladder compounds BaFe?X? (X=S,Se) in a temperature range between 20 and 400 K. Although the crystal structures of these two compounds are both orthorhombic and very similar, they are not isostructural. The unit cell of BaFe?S? (BaFe?Se?) is base-centered Cmcm (primitive Pnma), giving 18 (36) modes to be observed in the Raman scattering experiment. We have detected almost all Raman active modes, predicted by factor group analysis, which can be observed from the cleavage planes of these compounds. Assignment of the observed Raman modes of BaFe?S(Se)? is supported by themorelattice dynamics calculations. The antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in BaFe?Se? below TN=255K leaves a fingerprint both in the A1g and B3g phonon mode linewidth and energy.less

  3. Nanocrystalline BaTiO3 powder via ambient conditions sol process (Prop.2001-071)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payzant, E Andrew; Wang, X.; Hu, Michael Z.; Blom, Douglas Allen

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been prepared by ambient condition sol (ACS) process starting from soluble precursors of barium and titanium yielding a mixed oxide/hydroxide gel. The gel was peptized and crystallized in water under a refluxing condition. Higher initial pH and Ba/Ti ratio led to smaller crystallite sizes of BaTiO{sub 3} powders. Organic mineralizer, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), can adsorb on the BaTiO{sub 3} nuclei and inhibited further growth of the particles. Adding a polymer during BaTiO{sub 3} synthesis led to a smaller particle size and increased redispersibility of the particles in water.

  4. Catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-04-07

    The decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 formed on BaO/Pt(111) (Pt(111) surface is partially covered by BaO) in the presence of CO was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to elevated NO2 pressure (1.0×10-4 Torr) at 450 K leads to the formation of Ba(NO3)2, chemisorbed O (OPt) and Pt-oxide-like domains. During TPD, the Ba(NO3)2 begins to thermally decompose near 490 K, releasing NO and NO2 with the maximum NOx desorption rate seen at 605 K. The OPt species formed following the exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to NO2 react with CO to release CO2 at 450 K. The consumption of OPt during CO oxidation initiates the migration of O from the Pt-oxide-like domains to the chemisorbed phase, where the CO oxidation reaction occurs. Therefore, the removal of OPt by CO leads to the reduction of oxidized Pt, and to the formation of metallic Pt(111) domains, where, subsequently, catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 can take place. The Pt-catalyzed decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 occurs readily at 450 K, a temperature much lower than the onset of the decomposition temperature of Ba(NO3)2 in the presence of oxidized Pt. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  5. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  6. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  7. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  8. Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960...

  9. Y-Ba-Cu-O films prepared by a paint-on method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, I.; Qiu, C.X.

    1988-02-29

    Polycrystalline films of Y-Ba-Cu-O with a thickness of about 20--40 ..mu..m have been prepared on alumina substrates using a paint-on method. The liquid source used was obtained by mixing powder of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BaCO/sub 3/, and CuO in liquid triethanolamine. Several Y-Ba-Cu-O films with an onset temperature of about 100 K and a zero resistance temperature of 85 K have been obtained after a short heat treatment at 1000 /sup 0/C in flowing O/sub 2/.

  10. Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCe{sub...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCesub 0.8Ysub 0.2Osub 3-delta. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thickness dependence of ...

  11. Ba{sub 2}TeO as an optoelectronic material: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.; Siegrist, Theo

    2015-05-21

    The band structure, optical, and defects properties of Ba{sub 2}TeO are systematically investigated using density functional theory with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or transparent conducting material. Ba{sub 2}TeO crystallizes with tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm) and with a 2.93 eV optical bandgap [Besara et al., J. Solid State Chem. 222, 60 (2015)]. We find relatively modest band masses for both electrons and holes suggesting applications. Optical properties show infrared-red absorption when doped. This could potentially be useful for combining wavelength filtering and transparent conducting functions. Furthermore, our defect calculations show that Ba{sub 2}TeO is intrinsically p-type conducting under Ba-poor condition. However, the spontaneous formation of the donor defects may constrain the p-type transport properties and would need to be addressed to enable applications.

  12. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba( Fe 1 - x M x ) 2 As...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba( Fe 1 - x M x ) 2 As 2 ( M Co ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials ...

  13. Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    spectroscopy and microscopy study Morphology and Composition cycle of BaOAl2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study 2005 Diesel ...

  14. Ba2TeO as an optoelectronic material: First-principles study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua; Siegrist, Theo; Singh, David J.

    2015-05-21

    The band structure, optical and defects properties of Ba2TeO are systematically investigated using density functional theory with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or transparent conducting material. Ba2TeO crystallizes with tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm) and with a 2.93 eV optical band gap1. We find relatively modest band masses for both electrons and holes suggesting applications. Optical properties show a infrared-red absorption when doped. This could potentially be useful for combining wavelength filtering and transparent conducting functions. Furthermore, our defect calculations show that Ba2TeO is intrinsically p-type conducting under Ba-poor condition. However, the spontaneous formation of themore » donor defects may constrain the p-type transport properties and would need to be addressed to enable applications.« less

  15. The U5+ compound Ba9Ag10U4S24: Synthesis, structure, and electronic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The U5+ compound Ba9Ag10U4S24: Synthesis, structure, and electronic properties This ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  16. Observation in BaBar of a Narrow Resonance in the D{sub s} pi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Dsub s pisup 0 System at 2317 MeVcsup 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation in BaBar of a Narrow Resonance in the Dsub s pisup 0 System at ...

  17. Chiral Anomaly Effects And the BaBar Measurements of the$\\gamma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...to pi0 Transition Form Factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chiral Anomaly Effects And the BaBar Measurements of the gammagamma*to pi0 ...

  18. NO2 uptake under practically relevant conditions on BaO/Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos

    2012-02-14

    The formation of nitrites and nitrates (Ba(NOx)2) under practically relevant conditions (PNO2 up to 1.0 Torr and T = 500 K) and their thermal decomposition on BaO (>20 monolayer equivalent (MLE))/Pt(1 1 1) were studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA), and Xray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO to 1.0 × 10−8 Torr NO2 at 500 K leads to the formation of a Ba(NOx)2 layer with small, disordered crystalline nitrate clusters. Under these conditions (PNO2 = 1.0 × 10−8 Torr and T = 500 K) only the top portion of the BaO layer converts to Ba(NOx)2 and the nitrites in this Ba(NOx)2 layer stay without converting completely to nitrates even after 100 min of NO2 exposure. In the thermal decomposition of Ba(NOx)2, first nitrites decompose, releasing NO and then the decomposition of nitrates occurs via two pathways releasing NO2 and NO + O2. At 500 K and PNO2 ≥ 1.0 × 10−7 Torr, first NO2 reacts with BaO to form small disordered crystalline Ba(NO3)2 particles and then these particles agglomerate to form large, well-ordered (bulk-like) crystalline nitrates as the NO2 exposure increases. The thermal decomposition of these well-ordered, bulk-like crystalline nitrate aggregates occurs in two steps releasing NO2 and NO + O2 in each step in two different temperature regions. NO2 pressure ≥1.0 × 10−5 Torr is required for the complete oxidation of initially formed nitrites to nitrates and the full nitration of the BaO layer at 500 K sample temperature. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US

  19. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  20. Building America Team (BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review Building America Team (BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Eric Martin, Florida Solar Energy Center Building America research projects develop and demonstrate market-ready building solutions that improve the energy efficiency of new and existing homes, increasing comfort, health, safety, and durability. When fully deployed, proven solutions will reduce building-related energy use in new and existing residential building stock by 30% and 25%,

  1. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K; Quirinale, Dante G; Lee, Yongbin; Harmon, Bruce N; Furukawa, Yuji; Ogloblichev, V V; Huq, A; Abernathy, D L; Stephens, P W; McQueeney, Robert J; Kreyssig, Aandreas; Goldman, Alan I; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  2. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keVmore » in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.« less

  3. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchn, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ ? 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two ?-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via ?-decay, the J? = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keV in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.

  4. Measurements of the CKM Angle Alpha at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2012-04-04

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fractions and CP-asymmetries fin the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0} decays, which impact the determination of {alpha}. The combined branching fractions of B {yields} K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and B {yields} K{sub 1}(1400){pi} decays are measured for the first time and allow a novel determination of {alpha} in the B{sup 0} {yields} {alpha}{sub 1}(1260){sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay channel. These measurements are performed using the final dataset collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II B-factory. The primary goal of the experiments based at the B factories is to test the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) picture of CP violation in the standard model of electroweak interactions. This can be achieved by measuring the angles and sides of the Unitarity Triangle in a redundant way.

  5. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothrici...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction ...

  6. Carbonation of steel slag for CO{sub 2} sequestration: leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wouter J.J. Huijgen; Rob N.J. Comans

    2006-04-15

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO{sub 2} sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of major and trace elements, both with regard to carbonation mechanisms and the environmental properties of the (carbonated) steel slag. Carbonation was shown to reduce the leaching of alkaline earth metals (except Mg) by conversion of Ca-phases, such as portlandite, ettringite, and Ca-(Fe)-silicates into calcite, possibly containing traces of Ba and Sr. The leaching of vanadium increased substantially upon carbonation, probably due to the dissolution of a Ca-vanadate. The reactive surface area of Al- and Fe-(hydr)oxides increased with the carbonation degree, which tends to reduce the leaching of sorption-controlled trace elements. Sorption on Mn-(hydr)oxides was found to be required to adequately model the leaching of divalent cations, but was not influenced by carbonation. Consideration of these three distinct reactive surfaces and possible (surface) precipitation reactions resulted in adequate modeling predictions of oxyanion and trace metal leaching from (carbonated) steel slag. Hence, these surfaces exert a major influence on the environmental properties of both fresh and carbonated steel slag. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films, and (BaTiO3)5(SrTiO3)5 superlattice grown on SrRuO3SrTiO3(001) substrates Citation Details In-Document ...

  8. Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capital Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon...

  9. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Jackson, Robert A.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  10. Work Function Reduction by BaO: Growth of Crystalline Barium Oxide on Ag(001) and Ag(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droubay, Timothy C.; Kong, Lingmei; Chambers, Scott A.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin films of barium oxide were grown on Ag(001) and Ag(111) using the evaporation of Ba metal in an O2 atmosphere by molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy reveals that films consisting of predominantly BaO or BaO2 result in Ag(001) work function reductions of 1.74 eV and 0.64 eV, respectively. On the Ag(001) surface, Ba oxide growth is initiated by two-dimensional nucleation of epitaxial BaO, followed by a transition to three-dimensional dual-phase nucleation of epitaxial BaO and BaO2. Three-dimensional islands of primarily BaO2(111) nucleate epitaxially on the Ag(111) substrate leaving large patches of Ag uncovered. We find no indication of chemical reaction or charge transfer between the films and the Ag substrates. These data suggest that the origin of the observed work function reduction is largely due to a combination of BaO surface relaxation and an electrostatic compressive effect.

  11. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  12. Forest Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forest carbon cycle Forest Carbon Cycle Terrestrial carbon stocks above- and belowground (in humus and litter layers, woody debris, and mineral soil) are not only sensitive to physical environmental controls (e.g., temperature, precipitation, soil moisture) but also to land use history/management, disturbance, "quality" of carbon input (a reflection of plant carbon allocation and species controls), and the microbial community. The relative importance of these controls on soil carbon

  13. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  15. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-11-03

    The low Curie temperature (T{sub c}?=?130?C) of bulk BaTiO{sub 3} greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5?nm to 10?nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained at 600?C, suggesting a significant increase of T{sub c}. Based on the in-situ TEM results and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO{sub 3} particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the T{sub c} obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.

  16. Lattice dynamics of BaFe2X3(X=S,Se) compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popović, Z. V.; Šćepanović, M.; Lazarević, N.; Opačić, M.; Radonjić, M. M.; Tanasković, D.; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.

    2015-02-27

    We present the Raman scattering spectra of the S=2 spin ladder compounds BaFe₂X₃ (X=S,Se) in a temperature range between 20 and 400 K. Although the crystal structures of these two compounds are both orthorhombic and very similar, they are not isostructural. The unit cell of BaFe₂S₃ (BaFe₂Se₃) is base-centered Cmcm (primitive Pnma), giving 18 (36) modes to be observed in the Raman scattering experiment. We have detected almost all Raman active modes, predicted by factor group analysis, which can be observed from the cleavage planes of these compounds. Assignment of the observed Raman modes of BaFe₂S(Se)₃ is supported by themore » lattice dynamics calculations. The antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in BaFe₂Se₃ below TN=255K leaves a fingerprint both in the A1g and B3g phonon mode linewidth and energy.« less

  17. Investigation of the {sup 128}Ba nucleus with the (p,t) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascu, S.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D.; Marginean, N.; Zamfir, N. V.; Graw, G.; Gollwitzer, A.; Hofer, D.; Valnion, B. D.

    2009-06-15

    The low lying states in {sup 128}Ba have been investigated for the first time with the {sup 130}Ba(p,t){sup 128}Ba reaction. The experiment was performed at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph with a 25-MeV proton beam and a high-resolution, 1.5-m-long focal plane detector. As a result of this experiment 27 excited levels with energies below 3.7 MeV have been observed for the first time, significantly increasing (by {approx}50%) the number of levels observed in {sup 128}Ba. Angular distributions of tritons were measured and their comparison with the distorted wave Born approximation calculation allowed in most cases spin and parity assignments for the nuclear levels. The experimental two-neutron transition strengths with transferred angular momentum L=0 and 2 are compared with the predictions of the IBA-1 model with a new set of parameters. The results indicate for the first time from a hadronic probe perspective a transitional structure close to the O(6) symmetry for the {sup 128}Ba nucleus, confirming previous conclusions of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy studies.

  18. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Kovarik, Libor; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry

    2014-08-07

    Radionuclide 137Cs is one of the major fission products that dominate heat generation in spent fuels over the first 300 hundred years. A durable waste form for 137Cs that decays to 137Ba is needed to minimize its environmental impact. Aluminosilicate pollucite CsAlSi2O6 is selected as a model waste form to study the decay-induced structural effects. While Ba-containing precipitates are not present in charge-balanced Cs0.9Ba0.05AlSi2O6, they are found in Cs0.9Ba0.1AlSi2O6 and identified as monoclinic Ba2Si3O8. Pollucite is susceptible to electron irradiation induced amorphization. The threshold density of the electronic energy deposition for amorphization is determined to be ~235 keV/nm3. Pollucite can be readily amorphized under F+ ion irradiation at 673 K. A significant amount of Cs diffusion and release from the amorphized pollucite is observed during the irradiation. However, cesium is immobile in the crystalline structure under He+ ion irradiation at room temperature. The critical temperature for amorphization is not higher than 873 K under F+ ion irradiation. If kept at or above 873 K all the time, the pollucite structure is unlikely to be amorphized; Cs diffusion and release are improbable. A general discussion regarding pollucite as a potential waste form is provided in this report.

  19. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, Abhinav Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  20. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  2. Ba2TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J. B.; Tokumoto, T. D.; McGill, S. A.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-01

    For single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba2TeO, we synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba2TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. Moreover, the optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba2TeO is highly insulating.

  3. High-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnO{sub x}. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in films grown on PrScO{sub 3}. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  5. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  6. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  7. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  8. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-01

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe12O19 spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 degrees C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures and phase transitions in Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Brendan J. Saines, Paul J.; Kubota, Yoshiki; Minakata, Chiharu; Hano, Hiroko; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2007-11-06

    The structure of the cation-ordered double perovskite Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} was examined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction at fine temperature intervals over the range of 90-300 K. Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} has a cubic structure in space group Fm3-barm at room temperature. A proper ferroelastic phase transition to I4/m tetragonal symmetry occurs near approximately 260 K. Analysis of the spontaneous tetragonal strain versus temperature indicated that the phase transition is second order in nature.

  11. Electron-hole asymmetry, Dirac fermions, and quantum magnetoresistance in BaMnBi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Lijun; Wang, Kefeng; Graf, D.; Wang, Limin; Wang, Aifeng; Petrovic, C.

    2016-03-28

    Here, we report two-dimensional quantum transport and Dirac fermions in BaMnBi2 single crystals. BaMnBi2 is a layered bad metal with highly anisotropic conductivity and magnetic order below 290 K. Magnetotransport properties, nonzero Berry phase, small cyclotron mass, and the first-principles band structure calculations indicate the presence of Dirac fermions in Bi square nets. Quantum oscillations in the Hall channel suggest the presence of both electron and hole pockets, whereas Dirac and parabolic states coexist at the Fermi level.

  12. Spin-driven multiferroics in BaYFeO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Jun-Zhuang; Shen, Shi-Peng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Yan, Li-Qin; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Sun, Young

    2015-05-07

    We report on the spin-driven multiferroic property and magnetoelectric effect in the lately synthesized compound BaYFeO{sub 4}. Due to its peculiar crystal structure, the system exhibits complex magnetic phases with multiple transitions. The dielectric and pyroelectric measurements evidence a spin-driven multiferroic state raised by the cycloidal spin structure below T{sub 1} = 36 K. Strong magnetoelectric effect has also been observed in the multiferroic state. The origin of noncollinear cycloidal spin structure in BaYFeO{sub 4} is believed to arise from the interactions between low-dimensional magnetic columns.

  13. The luminescence of BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles upon high-energy excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vistovskyy, V. V. Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Mitina, N. E.; Zaichenko, A. S.; Rodnyi, P. A.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Gektin, A. V.

    2014-08-07

    The dependence of X-ray excited luminescence intensity on BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size was studied. A sharp decrease of self-trapped exciton luminescence intensity was observed when the nanoparticle size is less than 80?nm. The main mechanism of the luminescence quenching is caused by the escape of electrons from the nanoparticles. Escape of electrons from nanoparticles is confirmed by the considerable increase of luminescence intensity of the polystyrene scintillator with embedded BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles comparing with pure polystyrene scintillator.

  14. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  15. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M = Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M Co,Ni,Cu,Zn) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M ...

  16. Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (M=Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (MCo, Ni, Cu, Zn) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (MCo,...

  17. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-15

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB{sub 6}, SrB{sub 6}, BaB{sub 6} and the ternary hexaborides Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6} (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB{sub 6} (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials.

  18. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  19. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. Synthesis and Structure Determination of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors LaAMnSnO6 (A = Sr Ba)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T Yang; T Perkisas; J Hadermann; M Croft; A Ignatov; M Greenblatt

    2011-12-31

    LaAMnSnO{sub 6} (A = Sr, Ba) have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reactions under dynamic 1% H{sub 2}/Ar flow. Rietveld refinements on room temperature powder X-ray diffraction data indicate that LaSrMnSnO{sub 6} crystallizes in the GdFeO{sub 3}-structure, with space group Pnma and, combined with transmission electron microscopy, LaBaMnSnO{sub 6} in Imma. Both space groups are common in disordered double-perovskites. The Mn{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions whose valence states were confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are completely disordered over the B-sites and the BO{sub 6} octahedra are slightly distorted. LaAMnSnO{sub 6} are ferromagnetic semiconductors with a T{sub C} = 83 K for the Sr- and 66 K for the Ba-compound. The title compounds, together with the previously reported LaCaMnSnO{sub 6} provide an interesting example of progression from Pnma to Imma as the tolerance factor increases. An analysis of the relationship between space group and tolerance factor for the series LaAMnMO{sub 6} (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; M = Sn, Ru) provides a better understanding of the symmetry determination for double perovskites.

  2. Atomic and electronic structure of the ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge(001) interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; Ponath, Patrick; Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A.; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.; Aoki, Toshihiro

    2014-06-16

    In this study, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of BaTiO{sub 3} on Ge(001) by molecular beam epitaxy using a thin Zintl template buffer layer. A combination of density functional theory, atomic-resolution electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy is used to investigate the electronic properties and atomic structure of the BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge interface. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron micrographs reveal that the Ge(001) 2??1 surface reconstruction remains intact during the subsequent BaTiO{sub 3} growth, thereby enabling a choice to be made between several theoretically predicted interface structures. The measured valence band offset of 2.7?eV matches well with the theoretical value of 2.5?eV based on the model structure for an in-plane-polarized interface. The agreement between the calculated and measured band offsets, which are highly sensitive to the detailed atomic arrangement, indicates that the most likely BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge(001) interface structure has been identified.

  3. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  4. Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Jungle Place: El Segundo, California Zip: 90246 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere...

  5. Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Connections Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Connections Place: Norfolk, England, United Kingdom Zip: NR4 7TJ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Connections links partner...

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  7. Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asset Carbon Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References: Asset Carbon1 This article...

  8. Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Carbon capture, utilization, and storage can provide a...

  9. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

  10. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  11. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  12. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals via ethanol/water solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Qinghua; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10039 ; Li, Zhi; Ma, Wangjing; Shi, Yao; Yang, Xinmin

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and cost-effective approach for the controlled synthesis of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals is introduced. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products are affected by the amount of water and ethanol in the solvent mixtures. Highlights: ► Precipitation route for preparing BaFBr nano and micro crystals in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. ► Controlled growth of BaFBr nano crystals by tuning the volume ratio of Ethanol/water. ► Luminescence properties after annealing at 200 °C are investigated. ► Short lifetimes of photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals are presented. ► Shortened lifetimes in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals demonstrate that they are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging systems. -- Abstract: BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals with different structures were successfully fabricated via a simple precipitation method using ethanol/water mixtures as solvents. The amount of ethanol in the solvent mixtures played a significant role in the formation of final products, enabling the well-controlled growth of the BaFBr crystals. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of controlled experiments. The phases and morphologies of the resulting samples were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and elementary analysis. The optical properties of the annealed BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano-cuboids were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSL) and kinetic decays. Faster decay behaviors demonstrate that these BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors are promising materials for applications in optical storage fields. Furthermore, it is envisaged that this environmentally benign method can be extended to prepare other fluoride halides.

  13. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fully fluorinated compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Wright, Adrian J.; Berry, Frank J.; Smith, Ronald I.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-02-15

    The compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F (P6{sub 3}/mmc) was synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. Structural characterisation by XRD and NPD suggests that the local positions of the oxygen and fluorine atoms vary with no evidence for ordering on the anion sites. This compound shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. The use of PVDF also allows the possibility of tuning the fluorine content in materials of composition 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} to any value of 0BaFeO{sub 2}F. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of the hexagonal perovskite phase 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This analysis suggests differences for the local coordination of O{sup 2-} and F{sup -} anions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic moments align parallel to the a-axis.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  15. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  16. Carbon Sequestration.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concepts Current Sequestration Methods Novel Concepts * Glacial Storage * Biogenic Methane * Mineralization * Waste Streams Recycling * Calcium Carbonate Hydrates Glacial...

  17. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon bearing trace gases Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and how will these sinks evolve under rising CO2 concentrations and expected climate change and ecosystem response. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide impart their signature on the distribution, concentration, and isotopic composition of CO2. Spatial and temporal trends (variability) provide

  18. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture R&D Carbon Capture R&D DOE's Carbon Capture Program, administered by the Office of Fossil Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is conducting research and development activities on Second Generation and Transformational carbon capture technologies that have the potential to provide step-change reductions in both cost and energy penalty as compared to currently available First Generation technologies. The Carbon Capture Program consists of two core research

  19. Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wetland peat carbon cycle Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are uncertain. This is in part because many climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems will partition future releases of carbon to the atmosphere. Ecosystem observations of CH4 emissions lack mechanistic links to the processes that

  20. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  1. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fluorinated compound 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Berry, Frank J.; Bauer, Jessica; Wright, Adrian J.; Knight, Kevin S.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-07-15

    The compounds 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5} have been synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 15R-BaFeO{sub 3−d}F{sub 0.2} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. The materials have been structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray- and HRPD-powder neutron diffraction data. A detailed analysis of bond valence sums suggests that the oxide and fluoride ions order on the different anion sites. A reinvestigation of our recently published structure (Clemens et al., 2013) [34] of 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F is also reported and incorporation of fluoride in h-type layers is also confirmed in this compound. The magnetic moments for 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.25}F{sub 0.5} align in the a/b-plane with antiferromagnetic alignment of the moments between adjacent layers, and are flipped by 90° as compared to the precursor compound. 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F exhibits very robust antiferromagnetism with a Néel temperature between 300 and 400 °C. - Graphical abstract: The crystal and magnetic structure of the perovskite phase 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F. - Highlights: • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5}were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. • A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. • This analysis suggests ordering of O{sup 2−} and F{sup −} anions between different layers. • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K with T{sub N} ∼300–400 °C. • The magnetic moments align in the a/b-plane.

  2. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  3. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  4. Crystal structure and physical properties of quaternary clathrates Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}, Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Cu){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x} and Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Pd){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasir, Navida; Grytsiv, Andriy; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Rogl, Peter; Bednar, Ingeborg; Bauer, Ernst

    2010-10-15

    Three series of vacancy-free quaternary clathrates of type I, Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}, Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Cu){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}, and Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Pd){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}, have been prepared by reactions of elemental ingots in vacuum sealed quartz at 800 {sup o}C. In all cases cubic primitive symmetry (space group Pm3n, a{approx}1.1 nm) was confirmed for the clathrate phase by X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray single crystal analyses. The lattice parameters show a linear increase with increase in Ge for Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}. M atoms (Zn, Pd, Cu) preferably occupy the 6d site in random mixtures. No defects were observed for the 6d site. Site preference of Ge and Si in Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y} has been elucidated from X-ray refinement: Ge atoms linearly substitute Si in the 24k site whilst a significant deviation from linearity is observed for occupation of the 16i site. A connectivity scheme for the phase equilibria in the 'Ba{sub 8}Ge{sub 46}' corner at 800 {sup o}C has been derived and a three-dimensional isothermal section at 800 {sup o}C is presented for the Ba-Pd-Zn-Ge system. Studies of transport properties carried out for Ba{sub 8{l_brace}}Cu,Pd,Zn{r_brace}{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x} and Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Si{sub y}Ge{sub 46-x-y} evidenced predominantly electrons as charge carriers and the closeness of the systems to a metal-to-insulator transition, fine-tuned by substitution and mechanical processing of starting material Ba{sub 8}Ge{sub 43}. A promising figure of merit, ZT {approx}0.45 at 750 K, has been derived for Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub 7.4}Ge{sub 19.8}Si{sub 18.8}, where pricey germanium is exchanged by reasonably cheap silicon. - Graphical abstract: Quaternary phase diagram of Ba-Pd-Zn-Ge system at 800 {sup o}C.

  5. Optical properties of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade, Adriano B. Mello, Ana C. S. de; Valerio, Mrio E. G.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Baldochi, Sonia L.

    2014-08-07

    Crystalline samples of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} (BaYF) were prepared by zone melting technique. The pure phase obtained was identified by X-ray diffraction measurement. Optical absorption result was evaluated and it showed that the formation of the absorption bands can be connected to color centers generated by radiation in the matrix. Radioluminescence emission measurements after excitation by X-ray showed that the material exhibited components responsible for long lasting phosphorescence. Short decay times were also evaluated, the measurements showed a fast component around 70?ns associated to the 4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1} ? 4f{sup 2} transition of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. The Thermoluminescence (TL) results indicate the presence of two trapping centers.

  6. Single crystal growth and characterization of the large-unit-cell compound Cu13Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesche, Anton; Budko, Serguei L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2013-10-31

    Single crystals of Cu13Ba were successfully grown out of BaCu self flux. Temperature dependent magnetization, M (T ), electrical resistivity, ?(T)?(T), and specific heat, Cp(T)Cp(T), data are reported. Isothermal magnetization measurements, M(H)M(H), show clear de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at T = 2 K for applied fields as low as View the MathML source?0H=1T. An anomalous behavior of the magnetic susceptibility is observed up to T ? 50 K reflecting the effect of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at fairly high temperatures. The field- and temperature-dependencies of the magnetization indicate the presence of diluted magnetic impurities with a concentration of the order of 0.01 at.%. Accordingly, the minimum and lower temperature rise observed in the electrical resistivity at and below T = 15 K is attributed to the Kondo-impurity effect.

  7. Melt-processing of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors for improved levitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.; Emerson, J.E.; McDaniel, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Melt processed bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) superconductors are of considerable interest in the application of low-friction, superconducting permanent magnet bearings and flywheel-energy-storage devices. The mechanisms of enhanced flux pinning in the melt processed samples has been the subject of many investigations. Fine precipitates of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (211) are considered potential flux-pinning sites by many investigators. Several groups have reported the refinement of 211 precipitates through Pt additions. In this paper, the authors describe the melt processing of YBCO with additives such as 211, Pt, and Ag. Large single domain regions are obtained using small SmBa2Cu3O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (Sm-123) single crystal seeds. The microstructure and levitation forces are measured and reported here.

  8. Infrared-optical spectroscopy of transparent conducting perovskite (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongmin; Yu, Kwangnam; Jun Chang, Young; Choi, E. J.; Sohn, Egon; Hoon Kim, Kee

    2014-01-13

    We have performed optical transmission, reflection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Hall effect measurements on the electron-doped La{sub x}Ba{sub 1x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.04) transparent thin films. From the infrared Drude response and plasma frequency analysis we determine the effective mass of the conducting electron m*?=?0.35m{sub 0}. In the visible-UV region the optical band gap shifts to high energy in (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} by 0.18?eV compared with undoped BaSnO{sub 3} which, in the context of the Burstein-Moss analysis, is consistent with the infrared-m*. m* of BaSnO{sub 3} is compared with other existing transparent conducting oxides (TCO), and implication on search for high-mobility TCO compounds is discussed.

  9. K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2}: A hexagonal structured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    K and Mn co-doped BaCdsub 2Assub 2: A hexagonal structured bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor with large magnetoresistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: K and Mn ...

  10. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  11. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx)2As2 (M = Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx)2As2 (M Co,Ni,Cu,Zn) ... (EFRC); Center for Defect Physics in Structural Materials (CDP) Sponsoring Org: USDOE ...

  12. Recent Results on D0 - Anti-D0 Mixing from BaBar and Belle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Recent Results on D0 - Anti-D0 Mixing from BaBar and Belle Authors: Neri, Nicola ; Pisa U. INFN, Pisa Publication Date: 2013-06-04 OSTI Identifier: 1082815 Report ...

  13. Data:3dfe9516-886e-413a-baed-ae8390939e0b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dfe9516-886e-413a-baed-ae8390939e0b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  14. A Measurement of the Exclusive Branching Fraction for B → π K at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aspinwall, Marie Louise

    2002-02-01

    This thesis presents an exclusive measurement of the branching fraction B for the rare charmless hadronic B decays to πK final states. A sample of 22.57±0.36 million BB pairs was collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's PEP-II B Factory, during the Run 1 data taking period (1999-2000).

  15. Dielectric investigations in nanostructured tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, L.G.D.; Alves, M.F.S.; Ctica, L.F.; Gotardo, R.A.M.; Nascimento, W.J.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J.A.; Santos, I.A.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Nanostructured BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics processed by an innovative protocol. ? Dielectric relaxations related to strains and vacancies. ? Dielectric and ferroelectric properties enhanced by strain. - Abstract: In this paper, structural and dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics obtained under extreme conditions were investigated. The temperature dependent dielectric investigations revealed that the phase transition temperatures of the BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were raised as a function of residual strains associated to the nanostructuration, while structural characterizations showed a tetragonal arrangement at room temperature. From the frequency dependence analyses of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity, impedance and modulus function, three relaxation processes were identified. Two of them exhibit activation energies of 0.45 and 0.63 eV, and were attributed to single and double-ionization of oxygen vacancies. The whole set of results also indicated that the electrons resulting from the ionization of oxygen vacancies are trapped and do not contribute to the electrical conductivity, while the physical properties of the analyzed samples were enhanced by retaining a strained microstructure.

  16. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  17. Growth and self-assembly of BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes for resistive switching memory cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Dewei, E-mail: D.Chu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Lin, Xi; Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Li, Chang Ming [Chongqing Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Clean Energies of Techonologies Dean, Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing (China); Dang, Feng [Research Center for Materials Back Casting Technology (MBT Center), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Li, Sean [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes based resistive switching memory capacitors are fabricated with hydrothermal and drop-coating approaches. The device exhibits excellent bipolar resistance switching characteristics with ON/OFF ratio of 5870, better reliability and stability over various polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures. It is believed that the inter cube junctions is responsible for such a switching behaviour and it can be described by the filament model. The effect of film thickness on switching ratio (ON/OFF) was also investigated in details. - Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel resistive switching memory cell based on self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes. - Highlights: BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes were prepared by one step facile hydrothermal method. Self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes thin films were obtained by drop-coating approach. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes show excellent resistive switching properties for memory applications.

  18. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  19. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  20. The new barium zinc mercurides Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} and BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} - Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Michael; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2012-12-15

    The title compounds Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} and BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures, which both represent new structure types, have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. The structure of Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} (orthorhombic, oP28, space group Pmmn, a=701.2(3), b=1706.9(8), c=627.3(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0657) contains folded 4{sup 4} Hg nets, where the meshes form the bases of flat rectangular pyramids resembling the structure of BaAl{sub 4}. The flat pyramids are connected via Hg-Zn/Hg bonds, leaving large channels at the folds, in which Ba(1) and Hg(2) atoms alternate. Whereas the remaining Hg/Zn atoms form a covalent 3D network of three- to five-bonded atoms with short M-M distances (273-301 pm; CN 9-11), the Hg(2) atoms in the channels adopt a comparatively large coordination number of 12 and increased distances (317-348 pm) to their Zn/Hg neighbours. In the structure of BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} (cubic, cI320, space group I4{sup Macron }3d, a=2025.50(7) pm, Z=64, R1=0.0440), with a chemical composition not much different from that of Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10}, the Zn/Hg atoms of the mixed positions M(1/2) are arranged in an slightly distorted primitive cubic lattice with a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 subcell relation to the unit cell. The 24 of the originating 64 cubes contain planar cis tetramers Hg(5,6){sub 4} with Hg in a nearly trigonal planar or tetrahedral coordination. In another 24 of the small cubes, two opposing faces are decorated by Hg(3,4){sub 2} dumbbells, two by Ba(2) atoms respectively. The third type of small cubes are centered by Ba(1) atoms only. The complex 3D polyanionic Hg/Zn network thus formed is compared with the Hg partial structure in Rb{sub 3}Hg{sub 20} applying a group-subgroup relation. Despite their different overall structures, the connectivity of the negatively charged Hg atoms, the rather metallic Zn bonding characteristic

  1. Ba-filled Ni–Sb–Sn based skutterudites with anomalously high lattice thermal conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschinger, W.; Rogl, Gerda; Grytsiv, A.; Michor, H.; Heinrich, P. R.; Mueller, H.; Puchegger, S.; Klobes, B.; Hermann, Raphael P.; Reinecker, M.; et al

    2016-06-21

    Here, in this study, novel filled skutterudites BayNi4Sb12-xSnx (ymax = 0.93) have been prepared by arc melting followed by annealing at 250, 350 and 450°C up to 30 days in vacuum-sealed quartz vials. Extension of the homogeneity region, solidus temperatures and structural investigations were performed for the skutterudite phase in the ternary Ni–Sn–Sb and in the quaternary Ba–Ni–Sb–Sn systems. Phase equilibria in the Ni–Sn–Sb system at 450°C were established by means of Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). With rather small cages Ni4(Sb,Sn)12, the Ba–Ni–Sn–Sb skutterudite system is perfectly suited to study the influence of filler atomsmore » on the phonon thermal conductivity. Single-phase samples with the composition Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8, Ba0.42Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3 were used to measure their physical properties, i.e. temperature dependent electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity. The resistivity data demonstrate a crossover from metallic to semiconducting behaviour. The corresponding gap width was extracted from the maxima in the Seebeck coefficient data as a function of temperature. Single crystal X-ray structure analyses at 100, 200 and 300 K revealed the thermal expansion coefficients as well as Einstein and Debye temperatures for Ba0.73Ni4Sb8.1Sn3.9 and Ba0.95Ni4Sb6.1Sn5.9. These data were in accordance with the Debye temperatures obtained from the specific heat (4.4 K < T < 140 K) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (10 K < T < 290 K). Rather small atom displacement parameters for the Ba filler atoms indicate a severe reduction in the “rattling behaviour” consistent with the high levels of lattice thermal conductivity. The elastic moduli, collected from Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy ranged from 100 GPa for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 to 116 GPa for Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3. The thermal expansion coefficients were 11.8 × 10-6 K-1 for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and 13.8 × 10-6 K-1 for Ba0.92Ni4

  2. Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit will be held in Newark, New Jersey, from Feb. 24–26, 2016. The conference will look at the benefits and challenges of carbon dioxide utilization. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Devinn Lambert will be in attendance. Dr. Goss Eng will be chairing a round table on Fuels and Chemicals during the Carbon Dioxide Utilization: From R&D to Commercialization discussion session.

  3. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  4. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  5. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  6. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the Energy Department's work to advance capture and safe, sustainable storage of carbon dioxide emissions in underground geologic formations.

  7. Activated carbon material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  8. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  9. Boston Carbon Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Boston Carbon Corp Place: Carlisle, Massachusetts Zip: 1741 Sector: Carbon Product: Boston Carbon Corporation helps develop clean...

  10. Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Place: Cornwall, Vermont Zip: 57530 Sector: Carbon Product: Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC...

  11. Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Germany-based carbon emission projects developer....

  12. Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Investment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd. Place: Shanghai, China Zip: 200052 Sector: Carbon Product: Renaissance Carbon Investment...

  13. Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Conversion of Biomass Carbon-based heterogeneous catalysts play a central role in the conversion of biomass to...

  14. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock

  15. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  16. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  17. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  18. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  19. carbon | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    carbon Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities carbon cities CO2...

  20. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Liu, Tianqing; Zhao, Jun; Na, Liyan; Chen, Baojiu

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu{sup 2+} was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaAlF{sub 5} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu{sup 2+} at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu{sup 2+} can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors suggests that

  1. Robust antiferromagnetism preventing superconductivity in pressurized (Ba0.61K0.39)Mn2Bi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Dachun; Dai, Xia; Le, Congcong; Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Guo, Jing; Gao, Peiwen; Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Yazhou; et al

    2014-12-05

    BaMn2Bi2 possesses an iso-structure of iron pnictide superconductors and similar antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state to that of cuprates, therefore, it receives much more attention on its properties and is expected to be the parent compound of a new family of superconductors. When doped with potassium (K), BaMn2Bi2 undergoes a transition from an AFM insulator to an AFM metal. Consequently, it is of great interest to suppress the AFM order in the K-doped BaMn2Bi2 with the aim of exploring the potential superconductivity. Here, we report that external pressure up to 35.6 GPa cannot suppress the AFM order in the K-doped BaMn2Bi2more » to develop superconductivity in the temperature range of 300 K–1.5 K, but induces a tetragonal (T) to an orthorhombic (OR) phase transition at ~20 GPa. Theoretical calculations for the T and OR phases, on basis of our high-pressure XRD data, indicate that the AFM order is robust in the pressurized Ba0.61K0.39Mn2Bi2. Utlimately, both of our experimental and theoretical results suggest that the robust AFM order essentially prevents the emergence of superconductivity.« less

  2. Facile synthesis of Ba1-xKxFe?As? superconductors via hydride route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikina, Julia V. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Batuk, Maria [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Abakumov, Artem M. [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    We have developed a fast, easy, and scalable synthesis method for Ba1-xKxFe?As? (0 ? x ? 1) superconductors using hydrides BaH? and KH as a source of barium and potassium metals. Synthesis from hydrides provides better mixing and easier handling of the starting materials, consequently leading to faster reactions and/or lower synthesis temperatures. The reducing atmosphere provided by the evolved hydrogen facilitates preparation of oxygen-free powders. By a combination of methods we have shown that Ba1-xKxFe?As? obtained via hydride route has the same characteristics as when it is prepared by traditional solid-state synthesis. Refinement from synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data confirms a linear dependence of unit cell parameters upon K content as well as the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition at low temperatures for compositions with x < 0.2. Magnetic measurements revealed dome-like dependence of superconducting transition temperature Tc upon K content with a maximum of 38 K for x close to 0.4. Electron diffraction and high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates an absence of Ba/K ordering, while local inhomogeneity in the Ba/K distribution takes place at a scale of several angstroms along [110] crystallographic direction.

  3. Analysis of BaBar data for three meson tau decay modes using the Tauola generator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shekhovtsova, Olga

    2014-11-24

    The hadronic current for the τ⁻ → π⁻π⁺π⁻ντ decay calculated in the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory with an additional modification to include the σ meson is described. In addition, implementation into the Monte Carlo generator Tauola and fitting strategy to get the model parameters using the one-dimensional distributions are discussed. The results of the fit to one-dimensional mass invariant spectrum of the BaBar data are presented.

  4. Analysis of BaBar data for three meson tau decay modes using the Tauola generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhovtsova, Olga

    2014-11-24

    The hadronic current for the τ⁻ → π⁻π⁺π⁻ντ decay calculated in the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory with an additional modification to include the σ meson is described. In addition, implementation into the Monte Carlo generator Tauola and fitting strategy to get the model parameters using the one-dimensional distributions are discussed. The results of the fit to one-dimensional mass invariant spectrum of the BaBar data are presented.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon in its very absorbing, elemental, non-organic, non-oxide form (e.g. graphite). Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

  6. Carbon Capture Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

  7. Carbon International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon International Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications...

  8. Carbone Lorraine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbone Lorraine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbone Lorraine Place: France Product: Paris-based company developing industrial applications and systems for the optimal...

  9. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism,...

  10. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensors, and data processing. Fortunately, additional research has proven that etching carbon with sulfuric acid can also make the carbon magnetic, opening the door for...

  11. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage (CCS) science and technology. ... and storing in geologic formations carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial or power plants. ...

  12. Reaction dynamics and photochemistry of divalent systems. [Reaction of Ba with NO sub 2 , H sub 2 O, methanol, ClO sub 2 , O sub 3; photodissociation of NO sub 3 radical and OClO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.F.

    1992-05-01

    Results are presented of molecular beam studies of bimolecular and unimolecular reactions of Ba. Chapter 1 discusses the reaction Ba + NO{sub 2}. Formation of the dominant BaO({sup 1}{Sigma}) + NO products resulted primarily from decay of long-lived Ba{sup +}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} collision complexes. Secondary mechanisms led to formation of forward scattered, internally excited BaO, and BaNO + O. D{sub o}(Ba-NO) = 65{plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Reactions of ground state and electronically excited Ba with water and alcohols are examined in Chapter 2. Reaction of Ba({sup 1}S) + H{sup 2}O led to BaO + H{sub 2}, whereas excited state Ba({sup 1}D) + H{sub 2}O reacted to form BaOH + H. Collisions between Ba and CH{sub 3}OH led to BaOCH{sub 3} + H. Radical channels involve H-atom migration and are promoted by excitation of the incident Ba atom. In Chapter 3, reactions of Ba({sup 1}S) with ClO{sub 2}2 and O{sub 3} are discussed. Again, direct and complex mechanisms were observed. Formation of BaCl + O{sub 2} from decomposition of Ba{sup +}ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} accounted for 10% of total reaction crass section. Although Ba + O{sub 3} {yields} BaO + 0{sub 2} occurs primarily by direct reaction mechanisms, the secondary channel Ba + 0{sub 3} {yields} BaO{sub 2} + 0 involved decay of long lived Ba{sup +}O{sub 3}{sup {minus}} intermediates. D{sub o}(Ba{minus}O{sub 2}) = 120 {plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Photodissociation dynamics of NO{sub 3} is explored in chapter 4. Visible excitation leads to formation of NO + 0{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} + O. Wavelength dependence of branching ratios is investigated. D{sub o}(O-NO{sub 2}) = 48.55 kcal/mole ;and calculate {Delta}H{sub f}(NO{sub 3}) = 17.75 kcal/mole (298K). Chapter 5 discusses the photodissociation of OClO in a molecular beam. Although ClO({sup 2}II) + O({sup 3}P) is dominant, Cl({sup 2}P) + O{sub 2} also forms, with a max yield of 3.9{plus minus}0.8% near 404nm.

  13. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  14. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle Terrestrial Carbon Cycle "Only about half of the CO2 released into the atmosphere by human activities currently resides in the atmosphere, the rest absorbed on land and in the oceans. The period over which the carbon will be sequestered is unclear, and the efficiency of future sinks is unknown." US Carbon Cycle Research Plan "We" desire to be able to predict the future spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 and their interaction

  15. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  16. High temperature crystal structures and superionic properties of SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Stephen; Norberg, Stefan T.; Ahmed, Istaq; Eriksson, Sten G.; Mohn, Chris E.

    2011-11-15

    The structural properties of the binary alkaline-earth halides SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} have been investigated from ambient temperature up to close to their melting points, using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Fluorite-structured SrCl{sub 2} undergoes a gradual transition to a superionic phase at 900-1100 K, characterised by an increasing concentration of anion Frenkel defects. At a temperature of 920(3) K, the tetragonal phase of SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order transition to a cubic fluorite phase. This high temperature phase shows the presence of extensive disorder within the anion sublattice, which differs from that found in superionic SrCl{sub 2}. BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} both adopt the cotunnite crystal structure under ambient conditions. BaCl{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition at 917(5) K to a disordered fluorite-structured phase. The relationship between the (disordered) crystal structures and the ionic conductivity behaviour is discussed and the influence of the size of the mobile anion on the superionic behaviour is explored. - Graphical abstract: Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} at temperatures of {approx}1000 K is associated with the gradual transition to a superionic phase, whilst SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition ({beta}{yields}{alpha}) to a fluorite-structured superionic phase at 920(3) K. Highlights: > Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} occurs at temperatures {approx}1000 K. > Crystal structure of {beta}-SrBr{sub 2} is described in detail. > On heating, SrBr{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2} transform to a fluorite-structured superionic phase. > Temperature dependence of the BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} structures is presented. > Nature of the superionic phases within the alkaline-earth halides is discussed.

  17. Crystal and electronic structures of two new iron selenides: Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berthebaud, David; Perez, Olivier; Tobola, Janusz; Pelloquin, Denis; Maignan, Antoine

    2015-10-15

    The new ternary selenides, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4,} were synthesized from a reaction of appropriate amounts of elements at high temperature in a silica sealed tube, and their structures were resolved using X-ray single crystal diffraction. BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4/m with a=8.008(9) Å and c=5.483(3) Å as cell parameters. It is a new compound with a structure isotypical to the sulfide BaFe{sub 2}S{sub 4} which belongs to the infinitely adaptive structures series Ba{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The second compound, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n with a=8.8593(1) Å, b=8.8073(1) Å, c=12.2724(1) Å and β=109.037(6)° as cell parameters. It exhibits an original structure with a new type of iron selenide polyhedra. These data were consistent with the powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses. Their electronic structures point towards metallicity and electronic correlations for both selenides. - Graphical abstract: Experimental [010] oriented ED pattern and corresponding HREM image of Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}. Image calculated with a focus and thickness to 15nm and 8 nm respectively is inserted. Bright contrasts are correlated to Se rows belonging to FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−}–FeSe{sub 6}–FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−} trimers. The corresponding structure projection is also shown. - Highlights: • Two new barium iron selenide compounds. • An original structure type Ba4Fe3Se10. • Electronic structure calculations.

  18. Engineered unique elastic modes at a BaTiO3/2x1-Ge(001) interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumah, D. P.; Dogan, M.; Ngai, J. H.; Qiu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Su, D.; Specht, E. D.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.

    2016-03-07

    Here, the strong interaction at an interface between a substrate and thin film leads to epitaxy and provides a means of inducing structural changes in the epitaxial film. These induced material phases often exhibit technologically relevant electronic, magnetic, and functional properties. The 2×1 surface of a Ge(001) substrate applies a unique type of epitaxial constraint on thin films of the perovskite oxide BaTiO3 where a change in bonding and symmetry at the interface leads to a non-bulk-like crystal structure of the BaTiO3. While the complex crystal structure is predicted using first-principles theory, it is further shown that the details ofmore » the structure are a consequence of hidden phases found in the bulk elastic response of the BaTiO3 induced by the symmetry of forces exerted by the germanium substrate.« less

  19. Formation of BaSi{sub 2} heterojunction solar cells using transparent MoO{sub x} hole transport layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, W.; Takabe, R.; Baba, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Toko, K.; Hara, K. O.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2015-03-23

    Heterojunction solar cells that consist of 15?nm thick molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub x}, x?BaSi{sub 2} layers were demonstrated. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics were observed when the surface of BaSi{sub 2} was exposed to air. When the exposure time was decreased to 1?min, an open circuit voltage of 200?mV and a short circuit current density of 0.5?mA/cm{sup 2} were obtained under AM1.5 illumination. The photocurrent density under a reverse bias voltage of ?1 V reached 25?mA/cm{sup 2}, which demonstrates the significant potential of BaSi{sub 2} for solar cell applications.

  20. Long-range magnetic ordering in Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headspith, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Battle, P.D. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Francesconi, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.francesconi@hull.ac.uk

    2007-10-15

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to determine the magnetic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional compound Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}, which contains linear [001] chains of vertex-sharing CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra, spaced apart by Ba{sup 2+} cations. At 1.5 K the Co{sup 2+} cations in the chains are antiferromagnetically ordered with an ordered magnetic moment of 1.97(4) {mu}{sub B} per cation aligned along [100]. Each Co{sup 2+} cation is ferromagnetically aligned with four cation in neighbouring chains and antiferromagnetically aligned with two others. - Graphical abstract: Neutron powder diffraction has been used to prove that Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3} shows long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures, despite the quasi-one-dimensional arrangement of the CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra in the crystal structure.

  1. Structure and transport in high pressure oxygen sputter-deposited BaSnO{sub 3−δ}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Koustav; Ambwani, Palak; Xu, Peng; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Leighton, C. E-mail: leighton@umn.edu; Jalan, Bharat E-mail: leighton@umn.edu

    2015-06-01

    BaSnO{sub 3} has recently been identified as a high mobility wide gap semiconductor with significant potential for room temperature oxide electronics. Here, a detailed study of the high pressure oxygen sputter-deposition, microstructure, morphology, and stoichiometry of epitaxial BaSnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) and MgO(001) is reported, optimized conditions resulting in single-phase, relaxed, close to stoichiometric films. Most significantly, vacuum annealing is established as a facile route to n-doped BaSnO{sub 3−δ}, leading to electron densities above 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, 5 mΩ cm resistivities, and room temperature mobility of 20 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in 300-Å-thick films on MgO(001). Mobility limiting factors, and the substantial scope for their improvement, are discussed.

  2. Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium into Type I Ba8AlySi46-y Clathrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas; Davidowski, Stephen; Baggetto, Loic; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Holland, Gregory p; Yarger, Jeffery L; Veith, Gabriel M; Ellis-Terrell, Carol; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai; Chan, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Silicon clathrates contain cage-like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. Here we present an electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8AlySi46-y for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Post-cycling characterization with NMR and XRD show no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li into the clathrate structure. The observed properties are in stark contrast with lithiation of other silicon anodes, which become amorphous and suffer from larger volume changes. The lithiation/delithiation processes are proposed to occur in single phase reactions at approximately 0.2 and 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively, distinct from other diamond cubic or amorphous silicon anodes. Reversible capacities as high as 499 mAh g-1 at a 5 mA g-1 rate were observed for silicon clathrate with composition Ba8Al8.54Si37.46, corresponding to Li:Si of 1.18:1. The results show that silicon clathrates could be promising durable anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-20

    REBa2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (Jc) above 20 MA/cm2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher thanmore » the Jc typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in Jc (ratio of Jc at 30 K, 3 T to the Jc at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 1011 cm–2 as well as 2–3nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high Jc films.« less

  4. Direct evidence of octupole deformation in neutron-rich 144Ba

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; Wu, C. Y.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Butler, P. A.; Campbell, C. M.; et al

    2016-03-17

    Here, the neutron-rich nucleus 144Ba (t1/2 = 11.5 s) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV 144Ba beam on a 1.0–mg/cm2 208Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, < 31–∥M(E3)∥01+ >= 0.65(+17–23) eb3/2, corresponds to a reduced B(E3) transition probabilitymore » of 48(+25–34) W.u. This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation.« less

  5. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  6. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  7. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Calayag, Bon

    2014-03-05

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  8. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Unit-cell thick BaTiO{sub 3} blocks octahedral tilt propagation across oxide heterointerface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Daisuke Aso, Ryotaro; Kurata, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2014-05-14

    We fabricated SrRuO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3}/GdScO{sub 3} heterostructures in which the BaTiO{sub 3} layer is one unit cell thick by pulsed laser deposition and elucidated how the BaTiO{sub 3} layer influences structural and magneto-transport properties of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer through octahedral connections across the heterointerface. Our X-ray-diffraction-based structural characterizations show that while an epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} layer grown directly on a GdScO{sub 3} substrate is in the monoclinic phase with RuO{sub 6} octahedral tilts, a one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO{sub 3} layer inserted between SrRuO{sub 3} and GdScO{sub 3} stabilizes the tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer with largely reduced RuO{sub 6} tilts. Our high-angle annular dark-field and annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations provide an atomic-level view of the octahedral connections across the heterostructure and reveal that the BaTiO{sub 3} layer only one unit cell thick is thick enough to stabilize the RuO{sub 6}-TiO{sub 6} octahedral connections with negligible in-plane oxygen atomic displacements. This results in no octahedral tilts propagating into the SrRuO{sub 3} layer and leads to the formation of a tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The magneto-transport property characterizations also reveal a strong impact of the octahedral connections modified by the inserted BaTiO{sub 3} layer on the spin-orbit interaction of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The SrRuO{sub 3} layer on BaTiO{sub 3}/ GdScO{sub 3} has in-plane magnetic anisotropy. This is in contrast to the magnetic anisotropy of the monoclinic SrRuO{sub 3} films on the GdScO{sub 3} substrate, in which the easy axis is ?45 to the film surface normal. Our results demonstrate that the one-unit-cell-thick layer of BaTiO{sub 3} can control and manipulate the interfacial octahedral connection closely linked to the structure-property relationship of heterostructures.

  10. Role of magnetism in superconductivity of BaFe2As2: Study of 5d Au-doped crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; McGuire, Michael A.; Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Sefat, Athena Safa

    2015-09-09

    We investigate properties of BaFe2As2 (122) single crystals upon gold doping, which is the transition metal with the highest atomic weight. The Au substitution into the FeAs-planes of 122 crystal structure (Au-122) is only possible up to a small amount of ~3%. We find that 5d is more effective in reducing magnetism in 122 than its counter 3d Cu, and this relates to superconductivity. We provide evidence of short-range magnetic fluctuations and local lattice inhomogeneities that may prevent strong percolative superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xAux)2As2.

  11. Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study | Department of Energy Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_kim.pdf (868.73 KB) More Documents &

  12. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  13. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  14. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Dave Warren, PI Cliff Eberle, Presenter Technology Development Manager Polymer Matrix Composites Oak Ridge National Laboratory May 16, 2012 Project ID # LM003 Status as of March 30, 2012 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) ARRA CAPITAL Project Overview * Funds received FY10Q2 * Scheduled finish FY13Q4

  15. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes the recent development of carbon nanotube based electrochemical biosensors work at PNNL.

  16. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng; J. A. Schwarz, C. Contescu, K. Putyera

    2004-04-01

    This invited review article summarizes recent work on biosensor development based on carbon nanotubes

  17. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  19. 2016 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Cover The 2016 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio provides a comprehensive overview of the NETL Carbon Storage Program's current and recently completed work. The portfolio includes division personnel contact information, technology area introductions, project communication products for projects active on or after 10/1/2016, papers and technical reports, best practices manuals, and access to all archived projects. Carbon Storage

  20. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  1. Potential variation around grain boundaries in BaSi{sub 2} films grown on multicrystalline silicon evaluated using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Masakazu; Tsukahara, Daichi; Toko, Kaoru; Hara, Kosuke O.; Usami, Noritaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Suemasu, Takashi

    2014-12-21

    Potential variations across the grain boundaries (GBs) in a 100?nm thick undoped n-BaSi{sub 2} film on a cast-grown multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) substrate are evaluated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). The ?-2? X-ray diffraction pattern reveals diffraction peaks, such as (201), (301), (410), and (411) of BaSi{sub 2}. Local-area electron backscatter diffraction reveals that the a-axis of BaSi{sub 2} is tilted slightly from the surface normal, depending on the local crystal plane of the mc-Si. KFM measurements show that the potentials are not significantly disordered in the grown BaSi{sub 2}, even around the GBs of mc-Si. The potentials are higher at GBs of BaSi{sub 2} around Si GBs that are formed by grains with a Si(111) face and those with faces that deviate slightly from Si(111). Thus, downward band bending occurs at these BaSi{sub 2} GBs. Minority carriers (holes) undergo a repelling force near the GBs, which may suppress recombination as in the case of undoped n-BaSi{sub 2} epitaxial films on a single crystal Si(111) substrate. The barrier height for hole transport across the GBs varies in the range from 10 to 55?meV. The potentials are also higher at the BaSi{sub 2} GBs grown around Si GBs composed of grains with Si(001) and Si(111) faces. The barrier height for hole transport ranges from 5 to 55?meV. These results indicate that BaSi{sub 2} GBs formed on (111)-dominant Si surfaces do not have a negative influence on the minority-carrier properties, and thus BaSi{sub 2} formed on underlayers, such as (111)-oriented Si or Ge and on (111)-oriented mc-Si, can be utilized as a solar cell active layer.

  2. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  3. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakanth, S.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Hamad, Syed; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-15

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO{sub 3} samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000{sup o}C and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650{sup o}C-800{sup o}C. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ∼ 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO{sub 3} is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing

  4. The new Hg-rich barium indium mercurides BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1) and BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} (x=0–2.8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendorff, Marco; Schwarz, Michael; Röhr, Caroline

    2013-07-15

    The title compounds BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1(1)) and BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} (x=0–2.8) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1(1)) crystallizes in a new structure type (orthorhombic, oC16, space group Cmmm: a=512.02(1), b=1227.68(3), c=668.61(2) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0311). In the structure, the atoms of the three crystallographically different mixed In/Hg positions form planar nets of four-, six- and eight-membered rings. These nets are shifted against each other such that the four-membered rings form empty distorted cubes. The cubes are connected via common edges, corners and folded ladders, which are also found in BaIn{sub 2}/BaHg{sub 2} (KHg{sub 2} structure type) and BaIn (α-NaHg type). The Ba atoms are centered in the eight-membered rings and exhibit an overall coordination number of 20. The [BaM{sub 20}] polyhedra and twice as many distorted [M{sub 8}] cubes tesselate the space. BaIn{sub 2.8}Hg{sub 8.2} (cubic, cP36, space group Pm3{sup ¯}m, a=961.83(1) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0243) is the border compound of the phase width BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} of the rare BaHg{sub 11} structure type. In the structure, ideal [M{sub 8}] cubes (at the corners of the unit cell) and BaM{sub 20} polyhedra (at the edges of the unit cell) represent the building blocks comparable to the other new In mercuride. In accordance with the increased In/Hg content, additional M-pure regions appear: the center of the unit cell contains a huge [Hg(1)M(2){sub 12}M(3,4){sub 32}] polyhedron, a Hg-centered cuboctahedron of In/Hg atoms surrounded by a capped cantellated cube of 32 additional M atoms. For both structure types, the bonding situation and the ‘coloring’, i.e. the In/Hg distribution of the polyanionic network, are discussed considering the different sizes of the atoms and the charge distribution (Bader AIM charges), which have been

  5. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  6. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less

  7. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  8. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio

    2015-03-01

    t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,

  9. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  10. Thermoelectric and Structural Characterization of Ba2Ho(Cu3-xCox)O6+y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Li, Q.; Yang, Z.; Hu, Y.F.; Huang, Q.; Lowhorn, N.; Otani, M.; Kaduk, J.A.

    2009-03-18

    The search for thermoelectric materials for power generation and for solid-state cooling has led to increased interest of layered cobalt-containing oxides because of their thermal stability at high temperature and their desirable thermoelectric properties. This paper examines the effect of substitution of Co in the layered pervoskite Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} (x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 1.0). Structural analysis using the neutron Rietveld refinement technique reveals that when x {le} 0.4, Co substitutes mainly for Cu in the 'chain sites' of the Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} structure. As x > 0.4, Co also enters in the Cu-O 'plane sites' as well. The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} samples were studied in the temperature range of 10-390 K. In general, as the cobalt content x increases, the resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of these samples increase while the thermal conductivity decreases. Among the five Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} compositions, the x = 0.4 member gives the highest figure of merit ZT of {approx} 0.02 at approximately 270 K.

  11. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  15. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  16. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  17. Microscopic description of spherical to {gamma}-soft shape transitions in Ba and Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2010-03-15

    The rapid transition between spherical and {gamma}-soft shapes in Ba and Xe nuclei in the mass region A>=130 is analyzed using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce the characteristic evolution of excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities, and in general, a good agreement with available data is obtained. The calculated spectra display fingerprints of a second-order shape phase transition that can approximately be described by analytic solutions corresponding to the E(5) dynamical symmetry.

  18. Proton Form Factors And Related Processes in BaBar by ISR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferroli, R.B.; /Enrico Fermi Ctr., Rome /INFN, Rome

    2007-02-12

    BaBar has measured with unprecedented accuracy e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} from the threshold up to Q{sub p{bar p}}{sup 2} {approx} 20 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 4}, finding out an unexpected cross section, with plateaux and drops. In particular it is well established a sharp drop near threshold, where evidence for structures in multihadronic channels has also been found. Other unexpected and spectacular features of the Nucleon form factors are reminded, the behavior of space-like G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} and the neutron time-like form factors.

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of (Ba,In) double-filled skutterudites via randomly arranged micropores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Jian; Zhao, Wen-Yu E-mail: zhangqj@whut.edu.cn; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Tang, Ding-Guo; Lei, Bing; Zhang, Qing-Jie E-mail: zhangqj@whut.edu.cn

    2014-04-07

    Porous (Ba,In) double-filled skutterudite materials with pore diameter about 14??m were prepared by the decomposition of metastable ZnSb inclusions induced by the Zn sublimation. Transport measurements revealed that the Seebeck coefficient was increased due to the electron filtering effect induced by nanostructures in the surfaces of pores, the electrical conductivity was almost unchanged because of the percolation effect of conducted network composed of filled skutterudites, and the lattice thermal conductivity was dramatically suppressed due to the enhanced pore-edge boundary scattering of long-wavelength phonons. As a result, a maximum ZT of 1.36 was obtained, increased by 22.5% as compared to that of the bulk material with same chemical composition. This work demonstrates that by introducing porous structures is thought to be an efficient approach to improve the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials.

  20. Computer modeling of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film deposition and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmester, C.; Gronsky, R. ); Wille, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    The deposition and growth of epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the deposition and diffusion of Y, Ba, and Cu oxide particles. This complements existing experimental characterization techniques to allow the study of kinetic phenomena expected to play a dominant role in the inherently non-equilibrium thin film deposition process. Surface morphologies and defect structures obtained in the simulated films are found to closely resemble those observed experimentally. A systematic study of the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature during in-situ film fabrication reveals that the kinetics of film growth can readily dominate the structural formation of the thin film. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Magnetic structure and spin excitations in BaMn2Bi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calder, Stuart A.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I; Cao, H. B.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Sefat, Athena Safa; Christianson, Andrew D.

    2014-02-19

    We present a single crystal neutron scattering study of BaMn2Bi2, a recently synthesized material with the same ThCr2Si2type structure found in several Fe-based unconventional superconducting materials. We show long range magnetic order, in the form of a G-type antiferromagnetic structure, to exist up to 390 K with an indication of a structural transition at 100 K. Utilizing inelastic neutron scattering we observe a spin-gap of 16 meV, with spin-waves extending up to 55 meV. We find these magnetic excitations are well fit to a J1-J2-Jc Heisenberg model and present values for the exchange interactions. The spin wave spectrum appears tomore » be unchanged by the 100 K structural phase transition.« less

  2. Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaime, Marcelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kohama, Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aczel, A [MCMASTER UNIV; Ninios, K [UNIV OF FL; Chan, H [UNIV OF FL; Balicas, L [NHMFL; Dabkowska, H [MCMASTER UNIV; Like, G [MCMASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.

  3. Self-trapped exciton and core-valence luminescence in BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vistovskyy, V. V. Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Chornodolskyy, Ya. M.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Myagkota, O. S.; Gloskovskii, A.; Gektin, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Rodnyi, P. A.

    2013-11-21

    The influence of the BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size on the intensity of the self-trapped exciton luminescence and the radiative core-valence transitions is studied by the luminescence spectroscopy methods using synchrotron radiation. The decrease of the self-trapped exciton emission intensity at energies of exciting photons in the range of optical exciton creation (h? ? E{sub g}) is less sensitive to the reduction of the nanoparticle sizes than in the case of band-to-band excitation, where excitons are formed by the recombination way. The intensity of the core-valence luminescence shows considerably weaker dependence on the nanoparticle sizes in comparison with the intensity of self-trapped exciton luminescence. The revealed regularities are explained by considering the relationship between nanoparticle size and photoelectron or photohole thermalization length as well as the size of electronic excitations.

  4. Investigation of novel decay B _____ ____(2S)____K at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalch, Jacob; /Oberlin Coll. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    We investigate the undocumented B meson decay, B{sup +} {yields} {Psi}(2S){omega}K{sup +}. The data were collected with the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collier operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV/c{sup 2}. The {gamma}(4S) resonance primarily decays to pairs of B-mesons. The BaBar collaboration at the PEP-II ring was located at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and was designed to study the collisions of positrons and electrons. The e{sup -}e{sup +} pairs collide at asymmetric energies, resulting in a center of mass which is traveling at relativistic speeds. The resulting time dilation allows the decaying particles to travel large distances through the detector before undergoing their rapid decays, a process that occurs in the in the center of mass frame over extremely small distances. As they travel through silicon vertex trackers, a drift chamber, a Cerenkov radiation detector and finally an electromagnetic calorimeter, we measure the charge, energy, momentum, and particle identification in order to reconstruct the decays that have occurred. While all well understood mesons currently fall into the qq model, the quark model has no a priori exclusion of higher configuration states such as qqqq which has led experimentalists and theorists alike to seek evidence supporting the existence of such states. Currently, there are hundreds of known decay modes of the B mesons cataloged by the Particle Data Group, but collectively they only account for approximately 60% of the B branching fraction and it is possible that many more exist.

  5. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  6. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  7. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  9. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Yanagihara, Naohisa; Dyke, James T.; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    1991-09-03

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  10. CarbonMicro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Irvine, California Zip: CA 92618 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery Corporation has a unique technology of creating micro and nanoscale carbon...

  11. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  12. Carbon Solutions Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Solutions Group Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60601 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Solutions Group collaborates with...

  13. Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

  14. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  15. Arreon Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arreon Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arreon Carbon Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100022 Sector: Carbon Product: Beijing-based firm that...

  16. GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Carbon Corporation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10119 Sector: Carbon Product: The company offsets emissions output with...

  17. Carbon Market Brasil Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Market Brasil Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Market Brasil Consulting Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04120-070 Sector: Carbon Product: Brazil-based carbon...

  18. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

  19. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Trust Enterprises...

  20. Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equinox Carbon Equities LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC Place: Newport Beach, California Zip: 92660 Sector: Carbon Product: Investment firm...

  1. The Social Carbon Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Social Carbon Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Social Carbon Company Place: Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brasilia), Brazil Zip: CEP 70610-440 Sector: Carbon, Services...

  2. Carbon Credit Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Credit Capital Place: New York, New York Zip: 10012 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Project Advisory Services and Carbon...

  3. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  4. Investigations of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics and powders prepared by direct current arc discharge technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuangbin; Wang, Xiaohan; Yao, Ying Jia, Yongzhong; Xie, Shaolei; Jing, Yan; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2014-09-01

    Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics with x ranging from 0 to 1 were prepared by direct current arc discharge technique and studied by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The cubic-tetragonal ferroelectric phase transition in Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics was found to occur at x???0.75. XRD investigation of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics revealed co-existence of tetragonal and hexagonal modifications with a small amount of impurity phase BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9}. No evidences of hexagonal phase were observed in Raman spectra of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics, while Raman peaks related to hexagonal phase were clearly observed in the spectrum of fine-grain powders prepared from the same ceramics. A core-shell model for BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics prepared by direct current arc discharge technique is proposed. Absence of the hexagonal phase in any Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} solid solution with x?

  5. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  6. Sub-10 nm lanthanide doped BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals: Shape controllable synthesis, tunable multicolor emission and enhanced near-infrared upconversion luminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Ling; Lu, Wei; Wang, Haibo; Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Songjun; Li, Zheng

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sub-10 nm cubic phase BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals were synthesized by a hydrothermal method for the first time. • Tunable multicolor from yellow to yellow-green was achieved by controlling Gd{sup 3+} content in BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Er system. • Intense near-infrared upconversion luminescence in BaLuF{sub 5}:Gd/Yb/Tm nanocrystal. • The enhancement near-infrared luminescence can be realized by adjusting the content of Gd{sup 3+} in BaLuF{sub 5}:Gd/Yb/Tm system. - Abstract: In this study, sub-10 nm BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals with cubic phase structure were synthesized by a solvothermal method using oleic acid as the stabilizing agent. The as-prepared BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and analyzed by the upconversion (UC) spectra. The TEM results reveal that these samples present high uniformity. Compared with Gd-free samples, the size of BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Er doped with 10% Gd{sup 3+} decreased to 5.6 nm. In addition, BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Tm/Gd upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) presented efficient near-infrared (NIR)-NIR UC luminescence. Therefore, it is expected that these ultra-small BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals with well-controlled shape, size, and UC emission have potential applications in biomedical imaging fields.

  7. A dual chelating solgel synthesis of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with effective photocatalytic activity for removing humic acid from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peigong; Fan, Caimei; Wang, Yawen; Ding, Guangyue; Yuan, Peihong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C by a dual chelating solgel method, and the photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts calcined at different temperatures were investigated by the removal of humic acid (HA) from water under UV light irradiation. Highlights: ? The humic acid in water was firstly degradated by BaTiO{sub 3} photocatalyst. ? The cubic BaTiO{sub 3} was obtained and changed into tetragonal phase at lower temperature. ? The chelating agents had an important influence on the phase formation of BaTiO{sub 3}. ? The tetragonal phase BaTiO{sub 3} calcined at 900 C exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, a dual chelating solgel method was used to synthesize BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles by using acetylacetone and citric acid as chelating agents. The samples calcined at different temperatures were analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis). The results indicated that cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles about 19.6 nm can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C about 97.1 nm. All the BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed effective photocatalytic activities on the removal of humic acid (HA) under UV light irradiation. A comparison of single (acetylacetone or citric acid) and dual chelating (acetylacetone and citric acid) synthetic processes was also studied and the results demonstrated that the dual chelating agents indeed reduced phase transformation temperature from cubic to tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  9. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  10. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  11. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  12. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  13. Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trust Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC4A 3BF Sector: Carbon Product: London-based independent company funded by...

  14. Sustainable Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sustainable Carbon Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04 038 032 Product: Sao Paulo-based joint-venture with CantorCO2e Brazil. The...

  15. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to...

  16. Carbon Clear | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clear Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Clear Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based voluntary offset provider. References: Carbon Clear1 This article is a stub. You can...

  17. Overview of Carbon Storage Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Roughly one third of the United States’ carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the...

  18. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  19. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  20. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  1. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  2. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS

  3. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  4. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  5. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  6. 2e Carbon Access | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e Carbon Access Jump to: navigation, search Name: 2e Carbon Access Place: New York, New York Zip: 10280 Sector: Carbon Product: 2E Carbon Access is an enterprise focused solely on...

  7. Less Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Less Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Less Carbon Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC3M 4BT Sector: Carbon Product: Less Carbon advises energy...

  8. SGL Carbon AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SGL Carbon AG Place: Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany Zip: 65203 Sector: Carbon Product: A Germany-based manufacturer of carbon-based products...

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  10. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  11. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Western Michigan University 58 GEOSCIENCES Geological carbon sequestration Enhanced oil recovery Characterization of oil, gas and saline reservoirs Geological carbon...

  12. Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October 2012 Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October 2012 understandingenergyfootprints2012.p...

  13. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: ...

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAircraft Carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Abstract Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  18. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic excitation in BaFe1.84Co0.16As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsden, Mark D; Christianson, Andrew D; Parshall, Daniel; Stone, Matthew B; Nagler, Stephen E; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Lokshin, Konstantin A; Egami, Takeshi; Abernathy, Douglas L; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; McGuire, Michael A; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on single crystals of superconducting BaFe1.84Co0.16As2 clearly reveal a magnetic excitation located at wavevectors (1/2 1/2 L) in tetragonal notation. The scattering is much broader in L than are spin waves observed in the parent compound BaFe2As2 indicating that the excitations in the superconducting material are more two-dimensional in nature. The excitation appears gapless for T > TC and becomes gapped on cooling below TC. The observed gap energy is approximately 9.6 meV corresponding to 5 kBTC which is remarkably similar to the canonical value for the resonance energy in the cuprates.

  19. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; et al

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediatemore » compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.« less

  20. Data:0a710392-0262-4cde-a5ba-d1dd41e15527 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cde-a5ba-d1dd41e15527 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  1. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  3. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.

  4. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Radaelli, G.; Petti, D.; Plekhanov, E.; Fina, I.; Torelli, P.; Salles, B. R.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Gutiérrez, D.; Panaccione, G.; et al

    2014-03-03

    Interfacial magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) is a viable path to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO3 (BTO) system, only tiny changes of the interfacial Fe magnetic moment upon reversal of the BTO dielectric polarization have been predicted so far. Here, by using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in combination with high resolution electron microscopy and first principles calculations, we report on an undisclosed physical mechanism for interfacial MEC in the Fe/BTO system. At the Fe/BTO interface, an ultrathin FeOx layer exists, whose magnetization can be electrically and reversibly switched on-off at room-temperature by reversing themore » BTO polarization. The suppression / recovery of interfacial ferromagnetism results from the asymmetric effect that ionic displacements in BTO produces on the exchange coupling constants in the adjacent FeOx layer. The observed giant magnetoelectric response holds potential for optimizing interfacial MEC in view of efficient, low-power spintronic devices.« less

  5. Structural and optical study of ? BIMEVOX; ME: Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Sakshi Singh, K.

    2015-05-15

    Bismuth oxide based compounds, such as Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11-?} (BIVOX), exhibit Aurivillus type of interleaving arrangement of (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} and (VO{sub 3}?{sub 0.5}){sup 2-} (?: oxygen vacancies). Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11-?,} is known to have three kinds of temperature dependent interconvertible polymorphs ? (monoclinic), ? (orthorhombic) and ? (tetragonal). Out of all the three phases, the ? phase is highly disordered and hence, is the most conductive one which can be stabilized by proper lower valence cation (ME) doping at V site. Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.90}ME{sub 0.20}O{sub 11-?} (ME: Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}) were prepared via splat quenching technique. The required compositions were melted at 1250 C in an electric furnace. The as quenched samples were sintered at 800 C for 12 hours (h). The formed phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction on quenched and sintered samples, the peak at 32{sup } is found to be singlet in all the samples which confirms the presence of ?-phase. Hence, the stabilization of ?-phase with tetragonal structure was found to have taken place with doping and quenching. These samples are also studied by FT-IR and UV/vis spectroscopy to investigate the effect of dopants on structure and band gaps respectively.

  6. High temperature superconductor step-edge Josephson junctions using Ti-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.; Martens, Jon S.; Plut, Thomas A.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1994-10-25

    A process for formulating non-hysteretic and hysteretic Josephson junctions using HTS materials which results in junctions having the ability to operate at high temperatures while maintaining high uniformity and quality. The non-hysteretic Josephson junction is formed by step-etching a LaAlO.sub.3 crystal substrate and then depositing a thin film of TlCaBaCuO on the substrate, covering the step, and forming a grain boundary at the step and a subsequent Josephson junction. Once the non-hysteretic junction is formed the next step to form the hysteretic Josephson junction is to add capacitance to the system. In the current embodiment, this is accomplished by adding a thin dielectric layer, LaA1O.sub.3, followed by a cap layer of a normal metal where the cap layer is formed by first depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) followed by a layer of gold (Au). The dielectric layer and the normal metal cap are patterned to the desired geometry.

  7. New insulating antiferromagnetic quaternary iridates MLa10Ir4O24 (M=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qingbiao; Han, Fei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Han, Tian -Heng; Li, Hao; Mitchell, J. F.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, oxides of Ir4+ have received renewed attention in the condensed matter physics community, as it has been reported that certain iridates have a strongly spin-orbital coupled (SOC) electronic state, Jeff = ½, that defines the electronic and magnetic properties. The canonical example is the Ruddlesden-Popper compound Sr2IrO4, which has been suggested as a potential route to a new class of high temperature superconductor due to the formal analogy between Jeff = ½ and the S = ½ state of the cuprate superconductors. The quest for other iridium oxides that present tests of the underlying SOC physics is underway. Inmore » this spirit, here we report the synthesis and physical properties of two new quaternary tetravalent iridates, MLa10Ir4O24 (M = Sr, Ba). The crystal structure of both compounds features isolated IrO6 octahedra in which the electronic configuration of Ir is d5. As a result, both compounds order antiferromagnetically despite the lack of obvious superexchange pathways, and resistivity measurement shows that SrLa10Ir4O24 is an insulator.« less

  8. Structural feature controlling superconductivity in compressed BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Wenge; Jia, Feng-Jiang; Tang, Ling-Yun; Tao, Qian; Xu, Zhu-An; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2014-02-28

    Superconductivity can be induced with the application of pressure but it disappears eventually upon heavy compression in the iron-based parent compound BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Structural evolution with pressure is used to understand this behavior. By performing synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements with diamond anvil cells up to 26.1 GPa, we find an anomalous behavior of the lattice parameter with a S shape along the a axis but a monotonic decrease in the c-axis lattice parameter with increasing pressure. The close relationship between the axial ratio c/a and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} is established for this parent compound. The c/a ratio is suggested to be a measure of the spin fluctuation strength. The reduction of T{sub c} with the further increase of pressure is a result of the pressure-driven weakness of the spin-fluctuation strength in this material.

  9. High temperature superconductor step-edge Josephson junctions using Ti-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.; Martens, J.S.; Plut, T.A.; Tigges, C.P.; Vawter, G.A.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1994-10-25

    A process is disclosed for formulating non-hysteretic and hysteretic Josephson junctions using HTS materials which results in junctions having the ability to operate at high temperatures while maintaining high uniformity and quality. The non-hysteretic Josephson junction is formed by step-etching a LaAlO[sub 3] crystal substrate and then depositing a thin film of TlCaBaCuO on the substrate, covering the step, and forming a grain boundary at the step and a subsequent Josephson junction. Once the non-hysteretic junction is formed the next step to form the hysteretic Josephson junction is to add capacitance to the system. In the current embodiment, this is accomplished by adding a thin dielectric layer, LaA1O[sub 3], followed by a cap layer of a normal metal where the cap layer is formed by first depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) followed by a layer of gold (Au). The dielectric layer and the normal metal cap are patterned to the desired geometry. 8 figs.

  10. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  11. High field nuclear magnetic resonance in transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garitezi, T. M. Lesseux, G. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Urbano, R. R.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.

    2014-05-07

    We report high field {sup 75}As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on Co and Cu substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals displaying same structural/magnetic transition T{sub 0}≃128  K. From our anisotropy studies in the paramagnetic state, we strikingly found virtually identical quadrupolar splitting and consequently the quadrupole frequency ν{sub Q}≃2.57(1)  MHz for both compounds, despite the claim that each Cu delivers 2 extra 3d electrons in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compared to Co substitution. These results allow us to conclude that a subtle change in the crystallographic structure, particularly in the Fe–As tetrahedra, must be the most probable tuning parameter to determine T{sub 0} in this class of superconductors rather than electronic doping. Furthermore, our NMR data around T{sub 0} suggest coexistence of tetragonal/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phases between the structural and the spin density wave magnetic phase transitions, similarly to what was reported for K-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} [Urbano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107001 (2010)].

  12. Anomalous magneto-elastic and charge doping effects in thallium-doped BaFe2As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sefat, Athena S.; Li, Li; Cao, Huibo B.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sales, Brian; Custelcean, Radu; Parker, David S.

    2016-02-12

    Within the BaFe2As2 crystal lattice, we partially substitute thallium for barium and report the effects of interlayer coupling in Ba1-xTlxFe2As2 crystals. We demonstrate the unusual effects of magneto-elastic coupling and charge doping in this iron-arsenide material, whereby Néel temperature rises with small x, and then falls with additional x. Specifically, we find that Néel and structural transitions in BaFe2As2 (TN = Ts = 133 K) increase for x = 0.05 (TN = 138 K, Ts = 140 K) from magnetization, heat capacity, resistivity, and neutron diffraction measurements. Evidence from single crystal X-ray diffraction and first principles calculations attributes the stronger magnetism in x = 0.05 to magneto-elastic coupling related to the shorter intraplanar Fe-Fe bondmore » distance. With further thallium substitution, the transition temperatures decrease for x = 0.09 (TN = Ts = 131 K), and this is due to charge doping. Finally, we illustrate that small changes related to 3d transition-metal state can have profound effects on magnetism.« less

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of the Kagome antiferromagnet YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huq, A.; Mitchell, J.F. . E-mail: mitchell@anl.gov; Zheng, H.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Knight, K.S.; Stephens, P.W.

    2006-04-15

    The mixed-valent compound YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} is built up of Kagome sheets of CoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, linked in the third dimension by a triangular layer of CoO{sub 4} tetrahedra in an analogous fashion to that found in the known geometrically frustrated magnets such as pyrochlores and SrCr{sub 9} {sub x} Ga{sub 12-9} {sub x} O{sub 19} (SCGO). We have undertaken a study of the structural and magnetic properties of this compound using combined high-resolution powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} undergoes a first-order trigonal{sup {yields}}orthorhombic phase transition at 175 K. We show that this transition occurs as a response to a markedly underbonded Ba{sup 2+} site in the high-temperature phase and does not appear to involve charge ordering of Co{sup 2+}/Co{sup 3+} ions in the tetrahedra. The symmetry lowering relieves the geometric frustration of the structure, and a long-range-ordered 3-D antiferromagnetic state develops below 80 K.

  14. Structural and magnetic phase transitions near optimal superconductivity in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Ding; Lu, Xingye; Zhang, Wenliang; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang; Wang, Peipei; Chen, Genfu; Han, Fei; Banjara, Shree R.; Sapkota, A.; et al

    2015-04-17

    In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution x-ray and neutron scattering to study structural and magnetic phase transitions in phosphorus-doped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. Thus, previous transport, NMR, specific heat, and magnetic penetration depth measurements have provided compelling evidence for the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) near optimal superconductivity at x = 0.3. However, we show that the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural (Ts) and paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (AF, TN) transitions in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 are always coupled and approach to TN ≈ Ts ≥ Tc (≈ 29 K) for x = 0.29 before vanishing abruptly for x ≥ 0.3. These results suggestmore » that AF order in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 disappears in a weakly first order fashion near optimal superconductivity, much like the electron-doped iron pnictides with an avoided QCP.« less

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H-polytype in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macias, Mario A.; Mentre, Olivier; Cuello, Gabriel J.; Gauthier, Gilles H.

    2013-02-15

    Based on the peculiar magnetic properties that are observed in pseudo one-dimensional manganites, we decided to synthesize the new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} compound. The preparation was performed by solid state reaction in air at about 1350 Degree-Sign C, for which we found that the compound crystallizes in a hexagonal symmetry with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (No-194) and cell parameters a=b=5.7861(2) A and c=23.902(1) A. The structural description was correlated with neutron diffraction and bond valence calculations, confirming the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} segregated in the different crystallographic positions. Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} displays evidence for strong AFM couplings already set at room temperature. The main arrangement of Mn{sup 4+} in magnetically isolated tetramers of face-sharing octahedra is responsible for a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. - Graphical abstract: The new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} polytype shows strong AFM couplings in magnetically isolated [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers of face-sharing octahedral, resulting in a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H polytype, has been prepared in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound crystallizes in the P6{sub 3}/mmc space group with (cchhh){sub 2} stacking sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers are separated by [CeO{sub 6}] octahedra in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instead of robust AFM ordering, a metamagnetic-like transition is found around 50 K.

  16. Antiferromagnetic transitions of osmium-containing rare earth double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinatsu, Yukio Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto

    2013-10-15

    The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, SmLu) have been prepared. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis show that Ln{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are structurally ordered at the M site of the perovskite BaMO{sub 3}. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements show that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 6571 K. Magnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} moments occurs when the temperature is furthermore decreased. - Graphical abstract: The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, SmLu) have been prepared. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 6571 K. Measurements and analysis of the specific heat for Ba{sub 2}PrOsO{sub 6} show that magnetic ordering of the Pr{sup 3+} moments should have occurred at ?20 K. Display Omitted.

  17. Effect of Eu substitution on superconductivity in Ba{sub 8?x}Eu{sub x}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} clathrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lihua; Bi, Shanli; Peng, Bailu; Li, Yang

    2015-05-07

    The silicon clathrate superconductor is uncommon as its structure is dominated by strong Si-Si covalent bonds, rather than the metallic bond, that are more typical of traditional superconductors. To understand the influence of large magnetic moment of Eu on superconductivity for type-I clathrates, a series of samples with the chemical formula Ba{sub 8?x}Eu{sub x}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} (x?=?0, 0.5, 1, and 2) were synthesised in which Eu occupied Ba sites in cage center. With the increase of Eu content, the cubic lattice parameter decreases monotonically signifying continuous shrinkage of the constituting (Ba/Eu)@Si{sub 20} and (Ba/Eu)@Si{sub 24} cages. The temperature dependence of magnetization at low temperature revealed that Ba{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} is superconductive with transition temperature at T{sub C}?=?5.6?K. The substitution of Eu for Ba results in a strong superconductivity suppression; Eu-doping largely decreases the superconducting volume and transition temperature T{sub C}. Eu atoms enter the clathrate lattice and their magnetic moments break paired electrons. The Curie-Weiss temperatures were observed at 3.9, 6.6, and 10.9?K, respectively, for samples with x?=?0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Such ferromagnetic interaction of Eu can destroy superconductivity.

  18. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  19. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

  20. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1997-07-15

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

  1. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  2. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. ... testingmore of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system. less ...

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  6. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  7. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  8. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  9. Mixed metallic Ba(Co,Mn)X{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (X=F, Cl) hexagonal perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iorgulescu, Mihaela; Roussel, Pascal; Tancret, Nathalie; Renaut, Nicolas; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Mentre, Olivier

    2013-02-15

    We show here that the incorporation of Mn in Ba-Co-oxohalide, BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, hexagonal perovskite stabilizes the 6H-form (stacking sequence (chhhch Prime ); c, h=[BaO{sub 3}] and h Prime =[BaOX] layers), with tetramers of face-sharing octahedra) rather than the trimeric 10H-form. On the contrary to previous results on the Fe incorporation in similar system leading to more reduced 10H-compounds, the Mn effect is to increase the mean (Co/Mn) valence better suited to the 6H form. We experienced a poor Mn/Co miscibility during our syntheses leading to great difficulties to isolate mixed Co/Mn single phase materials and/or weak reproducibility. Powder neutron diffraction data shows a mixed Mn/Co octahedral occupancy, while the tetrahedra are filled by Co{sup 3+} cations. Anionic vacancies were refined in the h Prime -[BaO{sub 1-z}X{sub 1-x}] layer and the next c-[BaO{sub 3-z}] layers, while the h-[BaO{sub 3}] layers are not oxygen deficient. Magnetic properties suggest that a part of Mn cations remain paramagnetic until low temperature, while isolated spin clusters (probably driven by AFM Co tetrahedral dimers) behave as low-dimensional AFM systems. Transport measurements reveal a transition from high-temperature metallic to low-temperature semi-conducting states that could occur from defect shallow donor upon the Mn for Co substitution. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of Mn in Ba-Co-oxohalide, BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, hexagonal perovskite stabilizes the 6H-form with tetrameric (Co,Mn){sub 4}O{sub 15} face sharing linear chains. This results from a oxidizing Mn effect and particular Mn/Co distribution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of Mn in BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (X=F,Cl) hexagonal perovskites stabilizes the 6H-form. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It contains tetrameric (Co,Mn){sub 4}O{sub 15} face sharing linear chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preference for such chains better than

  10. Exploring the electronic structure and optical properties of the quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}: For photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-09-15

    Due to huge demand on discovering new materials for energy, we used first-principle calculations to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of a recent quaternary selenide, namely Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}. The electronic structure and the optical properties of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} were calculated through a reliable approach of Engle Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA). We found that Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV positioned at Γ. Acquiring the fundamental characteristics of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} we studied the linear optical properties like dielectric function in the energy range of 0–14 eV. From the dielectric function we noticed a weak directional anisotropy for the two components. The absorption spectrum indicates the possibility of greater multiple direct and indirect inter-band transitions in the visible regions and shows similar behavior with experimental spectrum. Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} can be used as shielding material from UV radiations. Present study predicts that the Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is promising for photovoltaic applications due to their high absorption of solar radiations and photoconductivity in the visible range. - Graphical abstract: Interesting quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}, for photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is a quaternary selenide designed for PV and thermoelectric. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} has a maximum reflectivity in the visible and UV regions.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  12. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  13. Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Release 29 May 2007 Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club summary written by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communication Office The exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member-carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, SLAC researchers in collaboration with colleagues from LBNL and the University of Leipzig in Germany have finally put to rest doubts about carbon's ability to be made magnetic. "In the past, some groups thought they had discovered magnetic

  14. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  15. Carbon Stars | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stars Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Stars Place: Netherlands Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References:...

  16. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, David B.; Paisley, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  17. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  20. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  2. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  3. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that ... understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon partitioning ...

  4. The National Carbon Capture Center

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Laboratory OD Outer Diameter OSU Ohio State University PC Pulverized Coal PC4 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center PCC Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture PCD Particulate ...

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  7. Carbonate Deposition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Carbonate deposits come in many forms and sometimes develop into spectacular colorful terraces such as these at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National...

  8. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Greedan, John E.

    2015-02-23

    Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less

  9. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon Nanotube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposites, and Devices Comprising the Nanocomposites - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, and Devices Comprising the Nanocomposites Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology describes methods to fabricate supercapacitors using

  11. A new oxytelluride: Perovskite and CsCl intergrowth in Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, J.B.; Besara, T.; Vasquez, R.; Herrera, F.; Sun, J.; Ramirez, D.; Stillwell, R.L.; and others

    2013-07-15

    The new oxytelluride Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te was obtained from an alkaline earth flux. Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mmm (#123), with a=4.3615(3) Å and c=11.7596(11) Å, Z=1. The structure combines two distinct building blocks, a Ba{sub 2}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5} perovskite-like double layer with square bipyramidal coordination of the ytterbium ions, and a CsCl-type BaTe layer. Short range magnetic order is apparent at below 5 K, with the magnetic behavior above this temperature dominated by crystal field effects. The structure may be considered as an analog to the Ruddlesden–Popper phases, where the NaCl-type layer has been replaced by the CsCl-type layer. The two-dimensional magnetic behavior is expected based on the highly anisotropic nature of the structure. - Graphical abstract: Optical images of Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te in transmission (left) and reflected (right) light, with atomic unit cell overlay. - Highlights: • Single crystal synthesis and characterization of a new phase, Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te. • The structure features the BaTe high pressure polymorph intergrowth. • Magnetic susceptibility measurements show short range 2 dimensional ordering. • Heat capacity measurements show a feature at the magnetic ordering temperature. • Optical reflectivity measurements show a {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} absorption at 976 nm.

  12. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm003_warren_2012_o.pdf (3.98 MB) More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

  13. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director...

  14. Core Carbon Group AS CCG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Group AS CCG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Core Carbon Group AS (CCG) Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: DK-1074 Sector: Carbon Product: The Core Carbon Group (formerly...

  15. Highly constrained ferroelectric [BaTiO{sub 3}]{sub (1−x)Λ}/[BaZrO{sub 3}]{sub xΛ} superlattices: X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belhadi, J.; El Marssi, M. Gagou, Y.; El Mendili, Y.; Bouyanfif, H.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Raevski, I. P.; Wolfman, J.

    2014-07-21

    We report an x-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Raman-scattering investigation of ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices [BaTiO{sub 3}] {sub (1−x)Λ}/[BaZrO{sub 3}]{sub xΛ} for which the composition varied, 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.85, while the superlattice (SL) modulation period Λ was kept constant at about 100 Å. The samples were epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO substrates buffered with La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}. Based on the XRD analysis and on polarized Raman spectra, we have showed that the large strain in SLs induced ferroelectricity in BaZrO{sub 3} (BZ) for all SLs, a material that is paraelectric in the bulk form at any temperature and in the single film. The induced polar axis in BZ layers is perpendicular to the plane of substrate while BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) layers exhibit in-plane polar orientation. Raman spectroscopy revealed a lattice ordering in SLs due to the misfit strain generated by the large lattice mismatch between the alternating BZ and BT layers. This strain induced a huge upward frequency of the lowest E(1TO) soft mode from 60 cm{sup −1} in the BT single film to 215 cm{sup −1} in the SL with x = 0.85. These results show that in spite of relatively large periodicity of SLs, they are highly constrained and the variation of BZ ratio allowed modifying strains between layers. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectra for BT{sub 0.3Λ}/BZ{sub 0.7Λ} and BT{sub 0.7Λ}/BZ{sub 0.3Λ} samples revealed giant shift of the ferroelectric phase transition. The phase transition temperature was found to be upshifted by about 300 °C with respect to BT single crystal.

  16. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  17. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore » this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  18. Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}: A novel blue emitting phosphor for white LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Panlai Wang, Zhijun Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Under the 350 nm radiation excitation, Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band. When the temperature turned up to 150 C, the emission intensity of Ba{sub 1.97}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:0.03Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% of the initial value at room temperature. The activation energy ?E is calculated to be 0.25 eV, which prove the good thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. All the properties indicate that Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} may have potential application in white LEDs. - Highlights: Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band under the 350 nm radiation excitation. Emission intensity of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% (150 C) of the initial value (30 C). The activation energy ?E for thermal quenching is 0.25 eV. - Abstract: A novel blue emitting phosphor Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid state method. The luminescent property and the thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} are investigated. Under the 350 nm radiation excitation, Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band, and the peak locates at 417 nm which is assigned to the 5d{sup 1}4f{sup 1} transition of Ce{sup 3+}. It is further proved that the dipoledipole interaction results in the concentration quenching of Ce{sup 3+} in Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. When the temperature turned up to 150 C, the emission intensity of Ba{sub 1.97}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:0.03Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% of the initial value at room temperature. The activation energy ?E is calculated to be 0.25 eV, which prove the good thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. All the properties indicate that Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} may have potential application in white LEDs.

  19. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  20. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  1. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-05-28

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.891.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  2. Electromotive force responses of Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using BaCl[sub 2]-KCl solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aono, Hiromichi; Sugimoto, Eisuke . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry); Mori, Yoshiaki; Okajima, Yasuhiro . Niihama Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Chlorine is the most important halogen in industrial production. Chlorine exhaust gas has become a serious problem with regard to air pollution and acid rain in recent years. Solid electrolyte-type gas sensors are superior for SO[sub x] or CO[sub 2] detection because of their rapid response. A Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using BaCl[sub 2]-KCl solid electrolyte was investigated. The conductivity was greatly enhanced by KCl doping of the (1 [minus] x)BaCl[sub 2][minus]x KCl system, and a maximum conductivity of 5.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]5]S [times] cm[sup [minus]1] at 573 K was obtained for x = 0.02. The sensor probe was prepared by a melting method at 1,373 K. The electromotive force (EMF) measurement with the Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using the 0.97BaCl[sub 2]-0.03KCl solid electrolyte was performed with an Ag-AgCl solid reference electrode and an RuO[sub 2] measuring electrode. Good agreement between the measured and the calculated EMF values was obtained for Cl[sub 2] gas concentrations from 50 to 10,000 ppm at 623 K. The EMF response time with a change in Cl[sub 2] concentration is ca. 1 min for above 100 ppm and 2 to 5 min for lower concentrations. The measured EMF was not influenced by O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2] gas concentration. This sensor probe was very stable in the presence of water vapor at 623 K during a 90 day test period.

  3. Temperature driven nano-domain evolution in lead-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo Xu, Zhengkui; Su, Shi; Zuo, Ruzhong

    2014-07-21

    Hierarchical micro- and nanoscale domain structures in Pb-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. In situ heating and cooling studies of domain structure evolution reveal an irreversible domain transformation from a wedge-shaped rhombohedral nanodomain structure to a lamellar tetragonal domain structure, which could be associated with strong piezoelectricity in Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics.

  4. Correlation between upconversion photoluminescence and dielectric response in Ba-substituted (Sr{sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, T.; Wang, X. D.; Zhao, C. Z.; Liu, M. F.; Liu, J. M.

    2014-06-30

    The filled tetragonal tungsten bronze (Sr{sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30} (SBLTNx: Ho-Yb) ceramics with different Ba substitution levels (x) are prepared. The upconversion photoluminescence (UC-PL) and dielectric permittivity are investigated. The substitution of Sr{sup 2+} ions at the A{sub 2}-sites by larger Ba{sup 2+} ions results in substantial variation of the UC-PL intensity as a function of substitution level x. Furthermore, the dielectric response to the substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by Ba{sup 2+} suggests a close correlation between the UC-PL intensity and dielectric permittivity. The origin for this correlation is discussed based on the random stress field (RSF) model.

  5. Carbon Trust CECIC JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CECIC JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust & CECIC JV Place: China Sector: Carbon Product: China-based JV innovator and transferrer of low carbon technology in China....

  6. Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Place: Londaon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1TD Sector: Carbon, Hydro Product:...

  7. First Carbon Fund Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fund Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Carbon Fund Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1V 9EE Sector: Carbon Product: First Carbon Fund Ltd., acts as...

  8. CarbonFree Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CarbonFree Technology Jump to: navigation, search Logo: CarbonFree Technology Name: CarbonFree Technology Address: 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Suite 1103 Place: Toronto, Ontario Country:...

  9. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-07-14

    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq{sub 3} [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3} are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF{sub 2} interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq{sub 3} and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF{sub 2} by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq{sub 3}. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF{sub 2} buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq{sub 3} generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq{sub 3}, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  10. Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Liang, W.S.; Petrov, Peter Kr.; Alford, Neil McN.

    2011-03-15

    Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film was epitaxially grown on a (001) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate using single-target pulsed laser deposition. The dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in the epitaxial Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). For a misfit dislocation with a Burgers vector of [200], it was shown that it could dissociate into four partial dislocations with Burgers vector of type 1/2 < 110>. For the threading dislocations, it was found that they usually coexist with stacking faults. The formation mechanism for the dissociated dislocations was discussed. All the dislocations can relieve the local strain in the Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial film. - Research Highlights: {yields}Dissociation behaviour of misfit dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film. {yields}Dissociation behaviour of threading dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film. {yields}Formation mechanism of the dissociated dislocations.

  11. High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Young Nam, Kim; Bi, Zhonghe; Manthiram, Arumugam; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Huq, Ashfia

    2011-01-01

    InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

  12. Zn-Doping Dependence of Stripe Order in La1.905Ba0.095CuO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucker, M.; Zimmermann, M.v.; Xu, Z.J.; Wen, J.S.; Gu, G.D.; Tian, W.; Zarestky, J.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Zn-doping on the stripe order in La{sub 1.905}Ba{sub 0.095}CuO{sub 4} has been studied by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction as well as magnetization measurements. While 1% Zn leads to an increase of the spin stripe order, it unexpectedly causes a wipe out of the visibility of the charge stripe order. A magnetic field of 10 Tesla applied along the c-axis has no reversing effect on the charge order. We compare this observation with the Zn-doping dependence of the crystal structure, superconductivity, and normal state magnetism.

  13. Photo-induced change of dielectric response in BaCoSiO{sub 4} stuffed tridymite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Hiroki Okamura, Takuma; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2014-04-28

    The photodielectric effect is demonstrated in Mott-insulator BaCoSiO{sub 4} with a stuffed-tridymite-type structure under irradiation of visible light at 365?nm. The real part of dielectric permittivity is enhanced by ?300% with little increase of tan?? in a low-frequency region. Results of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, first-principles calculations and dielectric measurements suggest that the photodielectric effect stems from a response of photo-excited electrons in an unoccupied upper-Hubbard band for 3d-orbitals of cobalt, which have significantly small mobility due to the unique configuration of Co ions in the stuffed-tridymite-type structure.

  14. NMR evidence for inhomogeneous nematic fluctuations in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dioguardi, A. P.; Kissikov, T.; Lin, C. H.; Shirer, K. R.; Lawson, M. M.; Grafe, H. -J.; Chu, J. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Fernandes, R. M.; Curro, N. J.

    2016-03-10

    We present evidence for nuclear spin-lattice relaxation driven by glassy nematic fluctuations in isovalent P-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals. Both the 75As and 31P sites exhibit a stretched-exponential relaxation similar to the electron-doped systems. By comparing the hyperfine fields and the relaxation rates at these sites we find that the As relaxation cannot be explained solely in terms of magnetic spin fluctuations. We demonstrate that nematic fluctuations couple to the As nuclear quadrupolar moment and can explain the excess relaxation. Lastly, these results suggest that glassy nematic dynamics are a common phenomenon in the iron-based superconductors.

  15. Growth of epitaxial (Sr,Ba){sub n+1}Ru{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlom, D.G.; Knapp, S.B.; Wozniak, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [and others

    1997-12-01

    We have grown epitaxial (Sr,Ba) (n+1)Ru(n)O(3n+1) films, n = 1, 2, and infinity, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and controlled their orientation by choosing appropriate substrates. The growth conditions yielding phase pure films have been mapped out. Resistivity versus temperature measurements show that both a and c axis films of Sr2RuO4 are metallic, but not superconducting. The latter is probably due to the presence of low-level impurities that are difficult to avoid given the target preparation process involved in growing these films by PLD.

  16. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  17. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  18. CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desktop Application Website: www.fs.fed.usccrctopicsurban-forestsctcc Cost: Free Language: English References: CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator1 Overview "The CUFR Tree Carbon...

  19. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-14

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  20. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-02-05

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  1. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Guiochon, Georges A. [Farragut, TN; Liang, Chengdu [Knoxville, TN

    2008-11-11

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  2. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2011-02-22

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  3. Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Title: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Authors: Novak, Michael A. ...

  4. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  5. Timing Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Timing Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Timing Carbon Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100022 Product: UK registered, China based CDM and voluntary...

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  7. Carbon Trust Investments Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investments Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Investments Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based venture capital investment division of The...

  8. Campus Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Campus Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Campus Carbon Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Clean Air-Cool Planet Phase: Create a...

  9. Carbon Capture Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capture Corporation Address: 7825 Fay Avenue Place: La Jolla, California Zip: 92037 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Carbon...

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  11. Carbon Sequestration Initiative CSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sequestration Initiative CSI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Sequestration Initiative (CSI) Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: MA 02139-4307 Sector: Carbon Product:...

  12. Carbon Trade Ltd | Open Energy Information

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    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trade Ltd Place: Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: ML12 6HW Product: Scotland-based landfill gas project developer. References: Carbon...

  13. Intan Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information

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    Intan Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intan Carbon Corporation Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100031 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  14. BSMB Carbon Consult | Open Energy Information

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    BSMB Carbon Consult Jump to: navigation, search Name: BSMB Carbon Consult Place: Brazil Product: Sao Paulo-based in-house resource of Banco Sumitomo Mitsui Brasileiro. References:...

  15. Carbon Bank Ireland | Open Energy Information

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    Ireland Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Bank Ireland Place: Nevada Zip: 89411 Product: Investment bank focused on CDM projects. References: Carbon Bank Ireland1 This...

  16. Carbon Opportunity Group | Open Energy Information

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    Opportunity Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Opportunity Group Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Chicago-based firm that provides...

  17. Forest Carbon Index | Open Energy Information

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    Forest Carbon Index Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forest Carbon Index AgencyCompany Organization: Resources for the Future Partner: United Nations...

  18. Low Carbon Research Institute | Open Energy Information

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    Research Institute Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Low Carbon Research Institute Name: Low Carbon Research Institute Address: King Edward VII Avenue CF10 3NB Place: Cardiff,...

  19. Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information

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    Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Common Carbon Metric AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World...

  20. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

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    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  1. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  2. Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solutions provider to measure, manage and mitigate their carbon emissions and realise business and financial benefits. References: Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd.1 This...

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in Liquid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in ...

  4. Planarized Unentangled Carbon Nanotube Arrays. (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Planarized Unentangled Carbon Nanotube Arrays. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Planarized Unentangled Carbon Nanotube Arrays. Abstract not provided. Authors: Friedman, ...

  5. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  6. SciTech Connect: "carbon sequestration"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon sequestration" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "carbon sequestration" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text:...

  7. Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon ...

  8. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  9. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Carbon-free

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon-free Carbon-free en PPPL physicists simulate innovative method for starting up tokamaks without using a solenoid http:www.pppl.govnewspress-releases201601...

  10. USAID Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application ComplexityEase of Use: Not Available Website: www.afolucarbon.org Cost: Free Language: English USAID Carbon Calculator Screenshot Logo: USAID Carbon Calculator This...

  11. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor ...

  12. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint References | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint References footprintreferences.pdf (309.04 KB) More Documents & Publications 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: References ...

  14. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of ...

  15. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of ...

  16. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets (2.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Questions ...

  17. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Steve Erario Energy Programs Associate at Alarm.com March 13, 2013 2 * Steve Erario served as the Carbon Project ...

  18. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  19. China Low Carbon Platform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Platform Jump to: navigation, search Name China Low Carbon Platform AgencyCompany Organization Institute of Development Studies, Climate Change and Development Centre,...

  20. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate ...

  1. Porous templated pyrolytic carbons as electrocatalyst components...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Porous templated pyrolytic carbons as electrocatalyst components. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Porous templated pyrolytic carbons as electrocatalyst components. ...

  2. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  3. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  4. Synthesis and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Hong, Xiaowei; Liu, Jinmei; Le, Zhanggao; Huang, Feihui; Qin, Yuancheng; Zhong, Rong; Gao, Yunhua; Pan, Jianfei; Ling, Yun

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Due to combining different functions and characteristics of individual materials, hybrid nanocomposite materials can strengthen their applications. Magnetic-conductive nanocomposites are the promising materials with electromagnetic loss, which have synergetic behavior between magnetic and conductive materials. It is the first time to report the synthesis of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide (BF/TD) composites by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion process. The influence of mass ratio of BF and TD on the electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites was studied. The tgδ{sub μ} and tgδ{sub ε} of BF–TD composites. - Highlights: • It is the first time to report BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites. • The composites are prepared by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion. • The electromagnetic properties could be adjusted by the mass ratio of BF and TD. • The introduction of TD enhances the dielectric loss and widens the frequency bands. • BF/TD composites will be microwave absorption materials with wide frequency band. - Abstract: Doped BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites have been prepared by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion process. The characterization of the composites are performed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetry (DTA–TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and network analyzer. Both XRD and FT-IR indicate that the doped BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites are successfully synthesized and there are some interactions between BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19} and titanium dioxide. DTA–TG analysis of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites shows that the composite gel

  5. Dielectric studies of BaTi{sub 0.96}Co{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} prepared via solid state route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Ashutosh Mishra, Niyati Jarabana, Kanaka Mahalakshmi Bisen, Supriya

    2014-04-24

    The synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped barium titanate; BaTi{sub 0.96}Co{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} was investigated with a view to understand its structural and dielectric properties. A finest possible sample of Cobalt doped micro particles of BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) with possible cubic structure via a solid-state route was prepared. Prepared samples were structural characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dielectric constant measurements of the sample above and below the Curie temperature were carried out at various frequencies. The Transition temperature is found shifted towards lower side from that of pure BaTiO{sub 3}.

  6. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore » BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  7. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  8. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  9. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  10. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  11. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  12. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  13. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  14. Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

  15. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi; Donner, Wolfgang

    2015-12-14

    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2} ψ” method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  16. Determination of the phase diagram of the electron doped superconductor Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Jiun-Haw; Analytis, James G.; Kucharczyk, Chris; Fisher, Ian R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    Systematic measurements of the resistivity, heat capacity, susceptibility and Hall coefficient are presented for single crystal samples of the electron-doped superconductor Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}. These data delineate an x-T phase diagram in which the single magnetic/structural phase transition that is observed for undoped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} at 134 K apparently splits into two distinct phase transitions, both of which are rapidly suppressed with increasing Co concentration. Superconductivity emerges for Co concentrations above x {approx}0.025, and appears to coexist with the broken symmetry state for an appreciable range of doping, up to x {approx} 0.06. The optimal superconducting transition temperature appears to coincide with the Co concentration at which the magnetic/structural phase transitions are totally suppressed, at least within the resolution provided by the finite step size between crystals prepared with different doping levels. Superconductivity is observed for a further range of Co concentrations, before being completely suppressed for x {approx} 0.018 and above. The form of this x-T phase diagram is suggestive of an association between superconductivity and a quantum critical point arising from suppression of the magnetic and/or structural phase transitions.

  17. Investigations of Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal as a scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Hu, Guan-Qin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Jing-Tai

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}-activated Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12} single crystals have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method (TSSG) for the first time. • Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal exhibits wide transparency in the wavelength range from 250 to 700 nm. • Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal shows high overall scintillation efficiency (1.8 times of BGO) and moderate decay time (860 ns). - Abstract: Single crystals of Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} with high optical quality have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method using BPO{sub 4}–NaF mixture as the flux. Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal exhibits wide transparency in the wavelength range from 250 to 700 nm, and shows a broad emission band in the wavelength range of 350–650 nm when excited by X-ray radiation. The overall scintillation efficiency is about 1.8 times of that of BGO crystal under the same conditions. Its room temperature fluorescence decay curve exhibits a single-exponent shape with decay time of about 860 ns. It is worth noting that Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal may be of great interest for applications in the field of scintillation materials considering its scintillation properties, as well as the good chemical stability.

  18. Preferential Eu Site Occupation and Its Consequences in the Ternary Luminescent HalidesAB2I5:Eu2+(A=Li–Cs;B=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, C.  M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2015-07-22

    Several rare-earth-doped, heavy-metal halides have recently been identified as potential next-generation luminescent materials with high efficiency at low cost. AB2I5:Eu2+ (A=Li–Cs; B=Sr, Ba) is one such family of halides. Its members, such as CsBa2I5:Eu2+ and KSr2I5:Eu2+, are currently being investigated as high-performance scintillators with improved sensitivity, light yield, and energy resolution less than 3% at 662 keV. Within the AB2I5 family, our first-principles-based calculations reveal two remarkably different trends in Eu site occupation. The substitutional Eu ions occupy both eightfold-coordinated B1(VIII) and the sevenfold-coordinated B2(VII) sites in the Sr-containing compounds. However, in the Ba-containing crystals, Eu ions strongly prefer themore »B2(VII)sites. This random versus preferential distribution of Eu affects their electronic properties. The calculations also suggest that in the Ba-containing compounds one can expect the formation of Eu-rich domains. These results provide atomistic insight into recent experimental observations about the concentration and temperature effects in Eu-doped CsBa2I5. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to luminescent properties and applications. We also hypothesize Sr, Ba-mixed quaternary iodides ABaVIIISrVIII5:Eu as scintillators having enhanced homogeneity and electronic properties.« less

  19. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Hai L.; Arai, Masao; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Yahua; Sathish, Clastin I.; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2014-09-15

    A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was synthesized under high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) conditions. The polycrystalline Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, and specific heat measurements. The oxide crystallizes in a double-perovskite structure with an I4/m space group, in which Os(VI) and Cu(II) are ordered in the perovskite B-site. Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} is electrically insulating with an activation energy of 0.813(2) eV and shows antiferromagnetic-like characteristics at temperatures of ∼55 K and ∼70 K. The results of the first-principle calculation suggested that the spin–orbit interaction of Os(VI) plays a substantial role in the insulating state. The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO{sub 6} octahedra influences the magnetic characteristics with regard to possible two-dimensional magnetic correlations. - Graphical abstract: A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} synthesized by a high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) method. - Highlights: • A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was synthesized. • Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} is electrically insulating and antiferromagnetic below ∼70 K. • The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO{sub 6} has relevance to possible magnetic anisotropy.

  20. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Nam, Kim; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Huq, Ashfia

    2012-01-01

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  1. Preferential Eu Site Occupation and Its Consequences in the Ternary Luminescent HalidesAB2I5:Eu2+(A=Li–Cs;B=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, C.  M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2015-07-22

    Several rare-earth-doped, heavy-metal halides have recently been identified as potential next-generation luminescent materials with high efficiency at low cost. AB2I5:Eu2+ (A=Li–Cs; B=Sr, Ba) is one such family of halides. Its members, such as CsBa2I5:Eu2+ and KSr2I5:Eu2+, are currently being investigated as high-performance scintillators with improved sensitivity, light yield, and energy resolution less than 3% at 662 keV. Within the AB2I5 family, our first-principles-based calculations reveal two remarkably different trends in Eu site occupation. The substitutional Eu ions occupy both eightfold-coordinated B1(VIII) and the sevenfold-coordinated B2(VII) sites in the Sr-containing compounds. However, in the Ba-containing crystals, Eu ions strongly prefer themore » B2(VII)sites. This random versus preferential distribution of Eu affects their electronic properties. The calculations also suggest that in the Ba-containing compounds one can expect the formation of Eu-rich domains. These results provide atomistic insight into recent experimental observations about the concentration and temperature effects in Eu-doped CsBa2I5. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to luminescent properties and applications. We also hypothesize Sr, Ba-mixed quaternary iodides ABaVIIISrVIII5:Eu as scintillators having enhanced homogeneity and electronic properties.« less

  2. Site-related near-infrared luminescence in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):Fe{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.J.; Ma, Y.Y.; Ye, S.; Hu, G.P.; Zhang, Q.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intense 700–850 nm NIR emissions in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):1%Fe{sup 3+} has been obtained. • The NIR emissions can be ascribed to the octahedral Fe{sup 3+} sites. • The site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6} and SA{sub 6} may be lower than that in BA{sub 6}. • The phosphors may be potentially applied in the high-resolution bioimaging. - Abstract: Intense and broad near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) peaks locating at 777, 808 and 810 nm is observed for BaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (CA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+} and SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra show that Fe{sup 3+} ions substitute for the different types of Al{sup 3+} sites simultaneously. Meanwhile, the luminescence of Fe{sup 3+} in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) are ascribed to octahedral Fe{sup 3+}. In addition, the site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6}/SA{sub 6} is lower compared with BA{sub 6}, deduced from the photoluminescence excitation (PLE), EPR and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These phosphors can be considered as good candidates for the applications in the field of high-resolution bioimaging.

  3. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weiming; Liang, Shijing; Wang, Xiaowei; Bi, Jinhong; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ling

    2011-01-15

    Microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique, BET surface area analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that single-phase orthorhombic SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} could be obtained after being calcined above 650 {sup o}C, while BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} was tetragonal. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gaps of the obtained samples were calculated to be around 3.34-3.54 eV. For the photocatalytic redox reaction of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation, SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The effects of the crystallinities, BET surface areas and crystal structures of the samples on the photocatalytic activities were discussed in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Aurivillius-type ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} showed different photocatalytic performances in the redox reaction of methyl orange (MO) under UV-light ({lambda}=254 nm), due to the different crystal structures of ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba). Display Omitted

  4. Spin-liquid ground state in the frustrated J1?J2 zigzag chain system BaTb2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Garlea, V. O.; Yan, J. -Q.; Weickert, F.; Zapf, V. S.; Movshovich, R.; Jaime, M.; Baker, P. J.; Keppens, V.; et al

    2015-07-13

    We have investigated polycrystalline samples of the zigzag chain system BaTb2O4 with magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation measurements. No magnetic transitions are observed in the bulk measurements, while neutron diffraction reveals the presence of low-temperature, short-range, intrachain magnetic correlations between Tb3+ ions. muSR indicates that these correlations are dynamic, as no signatures of static magnetism are detected by the technique down to 0.095 K. Altogether these findings provide strong evidence for a spin liquid ground state in BaTb2O4.

  5. Spin-liquid ground state in the frustrated J1-J2 zigzag chain system BaTb2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Garlea, V. O.; Yan, J. -Q.; Weickert, F.; Zapf, V. S.; Movshovich, R.; Jaime, M.; Baker, P. J.; Keppens, V.; et al

    2015-07-13

    We have investigated polycrystalline samples of the zigzag chain system BaTb2O4 with magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation measurements. No magnetic transitions are observed in the bulk measurements, while neutron diffraction reveals low-temperature, short-range, intrachain magnetic correlations between Tb3+ ions. Muon spin relaxation measurements indicate that these correlations are dynamic, as the technique detects no signatures of static magnetism down to 0.095 K. Altogether these findings provide strong evidence for a spin liquid ground state in BaTb2O4.

  6. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  7. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It is a perfect "diamagnet," repelled by an external magnetic field. Over the past decade, however, research has indicated that proton irradiation (i.e. hydrogen doping) of carbon ...

  9. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  10. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  11. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  12. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  13. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  14. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  15. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  16. Activated carbon to the rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, S.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

  17. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  18. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David C.; Litynski, John T.; Brickett, Lynn A.; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  19. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  20. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  1. Mesoporous carbonates and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen; Liu, Jun; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-06-15

    Mesoporous metal carbonate structures are formed by providing a solution containing a non-ionic surfactant and a calcium acetate salt, adding sufficient base to react with the acidic byproducts to be formed by the addition of carbon dioxide, and adding carbon dioxide, thereby forming a mesoporous metal carbonate structure containing the metal from said metal salt.

  2. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation lm003_warren_2011_o .pdf (2.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  3. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  4. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  5. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  6. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  7. ARM - What is the Carbon Cycle?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is the Carbon Cycle? Oceanic Properties Future Trends Carbon Cycle Balance Destination of Atmospheric Carbon Sources of Atmospheric Carbon The cycling of carbon from the atmosphere to organic compounds and back again not only involves

  8. Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Molecular Dynamics Simulations Carried Out at NERSC June 18, 2015 Lynn Yarris, (510) 486-5375, lcyarris@lbl.gov Saykally co2 in water When gaseous carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic nature carves out a cylindrical cavity, setting the stage for the proton transfer reactions that produce carbonic acid. Blink your eyes and it's long gone. Carbonic acid exists for only a tiny fraction of a second

  9. Carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

    2002-03-26

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  10. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, V.H.; De la Rosa, E.; Salas, P.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.J.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  11. Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25}: low-temperature Ge-Ge bond breaking during temperature-induced structure transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder . E-mail: carrillo@cpfs.mpg.de; Borrmann, Horst; Paschen, Silke; Baenitz, Michael; Steglich, Frank; Grin, Yuri

    2005-03-15

    In order to find the optimal conditions for sample preparation of the binary germanide Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25}, the germanium-rich part of the Ba-Ge phase diagram was redetermined by means of metallography, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The temperature behavior of cubic Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25} was investigated both on polycrystalline samples and single crystals. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter exhibits two anomalies at about 180 and 230K, respectively, which are caused by a structure transformation in two steps with hysteresis. Powder (T=10-295K) and single-crystal (T=95-295K) X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the symmetry of Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25} (space group P4{sub 1}32) remains unchanged within the entire temperature range. A reconstructive behavior of the structural transformation is observed, involving Ge-Ge bond breaking and barium cation displacements. Some Ge4 type atoms ({approx}28%) are so significantly displaced during cooling that Ge4-Ge6 bonds break and new three-bonded (3b)Ge{sup -} species (electron acceptors) are formed. Consequently, the number of charge carriers is reduced, affecting the physical properties. The reversible bond breaking involved in this process is a typical characteristic of a solid-state chemical reac0010ti.

  12. Spin dynamics near a putative antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Cu-substituted BaFe2As2 and its relation to high-temperature superconductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, M. G.; Wang, M.; Tucker, G. S.; Valdivia, P. N.; Abernathy, D. L.; Chi, Songxue; Christianson, A. D.; Aczel, A. A.; Hong, T.; Heitmann, T. W.; et al

    2015-12-02

    We present the results of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on nonsuperconducting Ba(Fe0.957Cu0.043)2As2, a composition close to a quantum critical point between antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered and paramagnetic phases. By comparing these results with the spin fluctuations in the low-Cu composition as well as the parent compound BaFe2As2 and superconducting Ba(Fe1–xNix)2As2 compounds, we demonstrate that paramagnon-like spin fluctuations are evident in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of Ba(Fe0.957Cu0.043)2As2, which is distinct from the AFM-like spin fluctuations in the superconducting compounds. Our observations suggest that Cu substitution decouples the interaction between quasiparticles and the spin fluctuations. In addition, we show that themore » spin-spin correlation length ξ(T) increases rapidly as the temperature is lowered and find ω/T scaling behavior, the hallmark of quantum criticality, at an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.« less

  13. First Principles Calculations of Oxygen Vacancy Formation and Migration in Ba1?xSrxCo1?yFeyO3?? Perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, Rotraut; Mastrikov, Yuri; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Kukla, Maija M.; Maier, Joachim

    2011-12-28

    Based on first principles DFT calculations, we analyze oxygen vacancy formation and migration energies as a function of chemical composition in complex multicomponent (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3?? perovskites which are candidate materials for SOFC cathodes and permeation membranes. The atomic relaxation, electronic charge redistribution and energies of the transition states of oxygen migration are compared for several perovskites to elucidate the atomistic reason for the exceptionally low migration barrier in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3?? that was previously determined experimentally. The critical comparison of Ba1?xSrxCo1?yFeyO3?? perovskites with different cation compositions and arrangements shows that in addition to the geometric constraints the electronic structure plays a considerable role for the height of the oxygen migration barrier in these materials. These findings help understand advantages and limitations of the fast oxygen permeation and exchange properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3??.

  14. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced structural composites such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have proven to be key materials for blast mitigation due to their enhanced mechanical performance. However, there is a need to further increase total energy absorption of the composites in order to retain structural integrity in high energy environments, for example, blast events. Research has shown that composite failure in high energy environments can be traced to their relatively low shear strength attributed to the limited bond strength between the matrix and the fibers. One area of focus for improving the strength of composite materials has been to create 'multi-scale' composites. The most common approach to date is to introduce carbon nanotubes into a more traditional composite consisting of epoxy with embedded micron scale fibers. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) clearly toughens different matrices. Depositing CNT in brittle matrix increases stiffness by orders of magnitude. Currently, this approach to create multiscale composites is limited due to the difficulty of dispersing significant amounts of nanotubes. It has repeatedly been reported that phase separation occurs above relatively low weight percent loading (ca. 3%) due to the strong van der Waals forces between CNTs compared with that between CNT and polymer. Hence, the nanotubes tend to segregate and form inclusions. One means to prevent nanotube or nanofilament agglomeration is to anchor one end of the nanostructure, thereby creating a stable multi-phase structure. This is most easily done by literally growing the CNTs directly on micron scale fibers. Recently, CNT were grown on carbon fibers, both polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) and pitch-based, by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using H2 and CH4 as precursors. Nickel clusters were electrodeposited on the fiber surfaces to catalyze the growth and uniform CNT coatings were obtained on both the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers. Multiwalled CNTs with

  15. Carbon tax or carbon permits: The impact on generators' risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.

    2008-07-01

    Volatile fuel prices affect both the cost and price of electricity in a liberalized market. Generators with the price-setting technology will face less risk to their profit margins than those with costs that are not correlated with price, even if those costs are not volatile. Emissions permit prices may respond to relative fuel prices, further increasing volatility. This paper simulates the impact of this on generators' profits, comparing an emissions trading scheme and a carbon tax against predictions for the UK in 2020. The carbon tax reduces the volatility faced by nuclear generators, but raises that faced by fossil fuel stations. Optimal portfolios would contain a higher proportion of nuclear plant if a carbon tax was adopted.

  16. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaz, Snjezana; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, Leonard J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210

    2013-11-14

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  17. Unconventional Electronic Reconstruction in Undoped (Ba,Sr)Fe2As2 Across the Spin Density Wave Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, M.

    2010-06-02

    Through a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study of the iron pnictide compounds (Ba,Sr)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, we show that the electronic structures of these compounds are significantly reconstructed across the spin density wave transition, which cannot be described by a simple folding scenario of conventional density wave ordering. Moreover, we find that LDA calculations with an incorporated suppressed magnetic moment of 0.5{mu}{sub B} can match well the details in the reconstructed electronic structure, suggesting that the nature of magnetism in the pnictides is more itinerant than local, while the origin of suppressed magnetic moment remains an important issue for future investigations.

  18. Low-energy planar magnetic defects in BaFe2As2: Nanotwins, twins, antiphase, and domain boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Suffian N. [Ames Laboratory; Alam, Aftab [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-11-27

    In BaFe2As2, structural and magnetic planar defects begin to proliferate below the structural phase transition, affecting descriptions of magnetism and superconductivity. We study, using density-functional theory, the stability and magnetic properties of competing antiphase and domain boundaries, twins and isolated nanotwins (twin nuclei), and spin excitations proposed and/or observed. These nanoscale defects have a very low surface energy (22210 m Jm?2), with twins favorable to the mesoscale. Defects exhibit smaller moments confined near their boundariesmaking a uniform-moment picture inappropriate for long-range magnetic order in real samples. Nanotwins explain features in measured pair distribution functions so should be considered when analyzing scattering data. All these defects can be weakly mobile and/or can have fluctuations that lower assessed ordered moments from longer spatial and/or time averaging and should be considered directly.

  19. Low-energy planar magnetic defects in BaFe2As2: Nanotwins, twins, antiphase, and domain boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S. N. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Alam, A. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2013-01-01

    In BaFe2As2, structural and magnetic planar defects begin to proliferate below the structural phase transition, affecting descriptions of magnetism and superconductivity.We study, using density-functional theory, the stability and magnetic properties of competing antiphase and domain boundaries, twins and isolated nanotwins (twin nuclei), and spin excitations proposed and/or observed. These nanoscale defects have a very low surface energy (22 210 m Jm 2), with twins favorable to the mesoscale. Defects exhibit smaller moments confined near their boundaries making a uniform-moment picture inappropriate for long-range magnetic order in real samples. Nanotwins explain features in measured pair distribution functions so should be considered when analyzing scattering data. All these defects can be weakly mobile and/or can have fluctuations that lower

  20. Magnetic and dielectric behavior of the spin-chain compound Er?BaNiO? well below its Nel temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Tathamay; Singh, Kiran; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Mohapatra, N.

    2014-09-21

    We have recently reported that the Haldane spin-chain system, Er?BaNiO?, undergoing antiferromagnetic order below (T{sub N}=) 32 K, is characterized by the onset of ferroelectricity near 60 K due to magnetoelectric coupling induced by short-range magnetic-order within spin-chains. We have carried out additional magnetic and dielectric studies to understand the properties well below T{sub N}. We emphasize here on the following: (i) A strong frequency dependent behaviors of ac magnetic susceptibility and complex dielectric properties have been observed at much lower temperatures (<8 K), that is, reentrant multiglass-like phenomenon, naturally suggesting the existence of an additional transition well below T{sub N}. (ii) Magnetoelectric phase coexistence is observed at very low temperature (e.g., T=2 K), where the high-field magnetoelectric phase is partially arrested on returning to zero magnetic field after a cycling through metamagnetic transition.

  1. Specific heat investigation for line nodes in heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Liu, Yong; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-06-10

    Previous research has found that the pairing symmetry in the iron-based superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 changes from nodeless s-wave near optimally doped, x≈0.4-0.55 and Tc>30 K, to nodal (either d-wave or s-wave) at the pure endpoint, x=1 and Tc<4 K. Intense theoretical interest has been focused on this possibility of changing pairing symmetry, where in the transition region both order parameters would be present and time reversal symmetry would be broken. Here we report specific heat measurements in zero and applied magnetic fields down to 0.4 K of three individual single crystals, free of low temperature magnetic anomalies, of heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2,more » x= 0.91, 0.88, and 0.81. The values for Tcmid are 5.6, 7.2 and 13 K and for Hc2≈ 4.5, 6, and 20 T respectively. Furthermore, the data can be analyzed in a two gap scenario, Δ2/Δ1 ≈ 4, with the magnetic field dependence of γ (=C/T as T→0) showing an anisotropic ‘S-shaped’ behavior vs H, with the suppression of the lower gap by 1 T and γ ≈ H1/2 overall. Although such a non-linear γ vs H is consistent with deep minima or nodes in the gap structure, it is not clear evidence for one, or both, of the gaps being nodal in these overdoped samples. Thus, following the established theoretical analysis of the specific heat of d-wave cuprate superconductors containing line nodes, we present the specific heat normalized by H1/2 plotted vs T/H1/2 of these heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 samples which – thanks to the absence of magnetic impurities in our sample - convincingly shows the expected scaling for line node behavior for the larger gap for all three compositions. There is however no clear observation of the nodal behavior C ∝ αT2 in zero field at low temperatures, with α ≤ 2 mJ/molK3 being consistent with the data. Together with the scaling, this leaves open the possibility of extreme anisotropy in a nodeless larger gap, Δ2, such that the scaling works for fields above 0.25 – 0

  2. Anisotropic Exchange within Decoupled Tetrahedra in the Quantum Breathing Pyrochlore Ba3Yb2Zn5O11

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rau, J. G.; Wu, L. S.; May, A. F.; Poudel, L.; Winn, B.; Garlea, V. O.; Huq, A.; Whitfield, P.; Taylor, A. E.; Lumsden, M. D.; et al

    2016-06-24

    Tmore » he low energy spin excitation spectrum of the breathing pyrochlore Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 has been investigated with inelastic neutron scattering. Several nearly resolution limited modes with no observable dispersion are observed at 250 mK while, at elevated temperatures, transitions between excited levels become visible. o gain deeper insight, a theoretical model of isolated Yb3+ tetrahedra parametrized by four anisotropic exchange constants is constructed. he model reproduces the inelastic neutron scattering data, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility with high fidelity. he fitted exchange parameters reveal a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a very large Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Ultimately, using this model, we predict the appearance of an unusual octupolar paramagnet at low temperatures and speculate on the development of inter-tetrahedron correlations.« less

  3. An overview of DANCE: a 4II BaF[2] detector for neutron capture measurements at LANSCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture experiments (DANCE) is a 162-element, 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} array designed to make neutron capture cross-section measurements on rare or radioactive targets with masses as little as 1 mg. Accurate capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. These cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and must be measured. Up to now, except for a few long-lived nuclides there are essentially no differential capture measurements on radioactive nuclei. The DANCE array is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE, which is a continuous-spectrum neutron source with useable energies from below thermal to about 100 keV. Data acquisition is done with 320 fast waveform digitizers. The design and initial performance results, including background minimization, will be discussed.

  4. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  5. Magnetoelastically coupled structural, magnetic, and superconducting order parameters in BaFe₂(As₁₋xPx)₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuo, H.-H.; Analytis, James G.; Chu, J.-H.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schmalian, J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2012-10-04

    We measure the transport properties of mechanically strained single crystals of BaFe₂(As₁₋xPx)₂ over a wide range of x. The Néel transition is extremely sensitive to stress and this sensitivity increases as optimal doping is approached (doping with the highest superconducting Tc), even though the magnetic transition itself is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, we observe significant changes in the superconducting transition temperature with applied strain, which mirror changes in the composition x. These experiments are a direct illustration of the intimate coupling between different degrees of freedom in iron-based superconductors, revealing the importance of magnetoelastic coupling to the magnetic and superconducting transitionmore » temperatures.« less

  6. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 ...

  7. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  8. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  9. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  10. Preclinical investigation for developing injectable fiducial markers using a mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Sang Hee; Gil, Moon Soo; Lee, Doo Sung; Han, Youngyih E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Park, Hee Chul E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Yu, Jeong Il; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Jun Sang; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Choi, Doo Ho; Sohn, Jason W.; Kim, Hye Yeong; Shin, Eun Hyuk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the use of mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer as an injectable nonmetallic fiducial marker to reduce artifacts in x-ray images, decrease the absorbed dose distortion in proton therapy, and replace permanent metal markers. Methods: Two samples were made with 90 wt. % polymer phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 10 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B1) or 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B2). Two animal models (mice and rats) were used. To test the injectability and in vivo gelation, a volume of 200 μl at a pH 5.8 were injected into the Sprague-Dawley rats. After sacrificing the rats over time, the authors checked the gel morphology. Detectability of the markers in the x-ray images was tested for two sizes (diameters of 1 and 2 mm) for B1 and B2. Four samples were injected into BALB/C mice. The polymer mixed with BaSO{sub 4} transform from SOL at 20 °C with a pH of 6.0 to GEL in the living body at 37 °C with a pH of 7.4, so the size of the fiducial marker could be controlled by adjusting the injected volume. The detectability of the BaSO{sub 4} marker was measured in x-ray images of cone beam CT (CBCT), on-board imager [anterior–posterior (AP), lateral], and fluoroscopy (AP, lateral) using a Novalis-TX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) repeatedly over 4 months. The volume, HU, and artifacts for the markers were measured in the CBCT images. Artifacts were compared to those of gold marker by analyzing the HU distribution. The dose distortion in proton therapy was computed by using a Monte Carlo (MC) code. A cylindrical shaped marker (diameter: 1 or 2 mm, length: 3 mm) made of gold, stainless-steel [304], titanium, and 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} was positioned at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in parallel or perpendicular to the beam entrance. The dose distortion was measured on the depth dose profile across the markers. Results: Transformation to GEL and the biodegradation were verified. All BaSO{sub 4} markers

  11. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Yarborough, Kenneth D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    2002-01-01

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  12. [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]: A new polymorph of barium vanadium (III) pyrophosphate characterized by intersecting tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Carroll, R.I.; Serra, D.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Investigation into the synthesis of reduced vanadium phosphate has led to the formation of a new form of the barium vanadium (III) pyrophosphate compound [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]. It is a polymorph of the previously known BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2], which is now labeled as the [alpha]-phase. The title compound crystallizes in the P-1 (No. 2) space group with a = 6.269 (1) [angstrom], b = 7.864 (3) [angstrom], c = 6.1592 (9) [angstrom], [alpha] = 101.34 (2)[degree], [beta] = 105.84 (1)[degree], and [gamma] = 96.51 (2)[degree]. The structure consists of corner-shared VO[sub 6] octahedra and PO[sub 4] tetrahedra that are connected in V-O-P-O-V and V-O-P-O-P-O-V bonding arrangements. This interesting three-dimensional framework is characterized by seven types of intersecting tunnels, three of which are occupied by the barium cation, while the others are empty. It is important to know that one of the empty tunnels has a relatively large window with a minimum diagonal distance of 4.4 [angstrom], which facilitates a possible framework for a lithium ion insertion reaction. The barium atom has a 10-coordination sphere, BaO[sub 10], in which the oxygen atoms can be viewed as forming two intersecting pseudohexagonal planes. [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2] appears to form at a relatively higher temperature than its polymorph, [alpha]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]. A detailed structural analysis and structural comparison with the [alpha]-phase, as well as a brief comparison with SrV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2], are presented.

  13. Novel chemically stable Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82-xYxO9- proton conductor: improved proton conductivity through tailored cation ordering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Fang, Shumin; Zhang, Lingling; Tang, Ming; An, Ke; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S.; Chen, Fanglin

    2014-01-01

    Simple perovskite-structured proton conductors encounter significant challenges to simultaneously achieving excellent chemical stability and proton conductivity that are desirable for many important applications in energy conversion and storage. This work demonstrates that Y-doped complex-perovskite-structured Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials possess both improved proton conductivity and exceptional chemical stability. Neutron powder diffraction refinement revealed a Fm3 m perovskite-structure and increased oxygen vacancy concentration due to the Y doping. High-resolution TEM analysis confirmed the perturbation of the B site cation ordering in the structure for the Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials. Such combined effects led to improved proton conductivity with a value of 5.3 10 3 S cm 1 at 600 C for Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.52Y0.3O9 (BCNY0.3), a value 2.4 times higher compared with that of the undoped Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9 . The Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials showed remarkable chemical stability toward water and demonstrated no observable reactions to CO2 exposure. Ionic transport number studies showed that BCNY0.3 had predominantly proton conduction below 600 C. Solid oxide fuel cells using BCNY0.3 as an electrolyte demonstrated cell power output of 103 mW cm 2 at 750 C. These results suggest that a doping strategy that tailors the cation ordering in complex perovskites provides a new direction in the search for novel proton conducting ceramics.

  14. Crystal structure and luminescence properties of a novel red-emitting phosphor BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wanping Zhou, Ahong; Liu, Yan; Dai, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xin

    2014-12-15

    A series of novel red-emitting phosphors BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:xEu{sup 3+} (0.001≤x≤0.08) were first synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of the phosphor, respectively. The phosphor can be effectively excited with a 395 nm light, and shows a dominant {sup 5}D{sub 0}−{sup 7}F{sub 2} emission with chromatic coordination of 0.628 and 0.372. The optimal doping concentration is about 0.04. Rietveld refinement results and the luminescence behavior of Eu{sup 3+} indicate that the Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies a C{sub 3} symmetry site, and the host BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} has a hexagonal structure with P-6 space group. In addition, the phosphor could be a potential candidate as red-emitting phosphor for application in white light-emitting diode. - Graphical abstract: The luminescence behavior and Rietveld refinement of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} indicate that the red-emitting phosphor has potential application in white LED and the host has a hexagonal structure with P-6 space group. - Highlights: • A novel red-emitting phosphor BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} is first synthesized. • The crystal structure of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} is confirmed. • The phosphor shows potential application in white LED.

  15. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of carbonates and carbamates from carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, Cynthia M; Madix, Robert J; Xu, Bingjun

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for producing organic carbonates via the reaction of alcohols and carbon monoxide with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic gold or gold alloy catalyst.

  16. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali; Busch, Donald E.; Fenske, George R.; Lee, Sam; Shepherd, Gary; Pruett, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  18. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  19. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  20. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A microcellular carbon foam characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm.sup.3, substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 .mu.m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 .mu.m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.