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1

Role of Nitrous Oxide in Ambulatory Anaesthesia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the oldest anaesthetic still in routine use, the continued role of nitrous oxide is frequently questioned. There are a few well-defined situations in which nitrous oxide is contraindicated or undesirable; i...

Sarah Billingham; Ian Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

3

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill ... Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N2O emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. ...

Janne Rinne; Mari Pihlatie; Annalea Lohila; Tea Thum; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila; Timo Vesala

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...specific ammonia oxidation rate. Symbols represent...Research Council (ARC) for funding this...correlated to its ammonia oxidation rate. 51 Arp, D...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...2004 Anaerobic oxidation of inorganic nitrogen...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic nitrous oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such concentrations of anesthetics are safe... ), hypoxemia (eg, nitrogen and carbon monoxide), addiction (eg, nitrous oxide), or health effects resulting... from chronic exposure...

8

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

9

Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center

1992-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

Chatterjee, A.

11

Development of a New Chemiluminescence Detector for Sub-ppm Level Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......atmosphere (15) and sea water (7), sometimes...sub-ppm level atmospheric N2O without any...through a standard gas generator (Model SGGU-72...Lodger, Jr. Atmospheric ni- trious oxide...Measurement of atmospheric nitrous oxide using...oxide in air and water using a 5A molecular......

Shun Araki; Shigetaka Suzuki; Masaaki Yamada; Hiroshi Suzuki; Toshiyuki Hobo

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A kinetics study of the atmospheric pressure CVD reaction of silane and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanistic study of oxide deposition from silane and nitrous oxide between 495{sup 0}C and 690{sup 0}C was performed in a laminar flow, cool wall reactor. Results indicate the existence of two distinct chemical pathways. At high nitrous oxide concentrations, the deposition reaction is dominated by radical chain chemistry initiated by the decomposition of N/sub 2/O. At lower N/sub 2/O concentrations, the decomposition of silane to form silylene (SiH/sub 2/) initiates the deposition. Studies of the reaction of disilane and nitrous oxide confirmed the role of SiH/sub 2/ in the deposition. Reactions involving SiH/sub 2/ are used to explain the observed growth of sub-stoichiometric oxides under low N/sub 2/O conditions.

Chapple-Sokol, J.D.; Giunta, C.J.; Gordon, R.G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" Primary Investigator: Craig Stow -NOAA GLERL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forecasts require accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emission rates. Currently, there are few measurements Management Research Laboratory Overview Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential ~300 times that of carbon dioxide

14

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent changing global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year time series of annual values. A spline function has been fit to the data to provide a continuous time series of

15

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

16

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-produced electricity for battery electric vehicles. Already, vehicles powered by compressed natural gas, propane. LIPMAN AND MARK A. DELUCCHI example, promising strategies for powering motor vehicles with reduced GHGEMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

Kammen, Daniel M.

17

Sensitive detection of methane and nitrous oxide isotopomers using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A continuous wave quantum cascade laser (QCL), operating near 8.1 ?m...4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) stable isotopes. Several rotational transitions of 14N2 16O, 15N14N16O, 14N2 18O,

G. Gagliardi; F. Tamassia; P. De Natale…

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions (GHG) from wastewater treatment plants using closed-loop mass balance and data reconciliation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially, nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using data reconciliation and closed-loop mass balance was estimated. This study is based on a...

JungJin Lim; Boddupalli Sankarrao; TaeSeok Oh…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

Potter, Katherine Ellison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha?1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants ferti...

Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Verónica Reyes-Varela…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Nitrous Oxide as a Scavenger for Electrons in the Radiolysis of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... (~400 ml.) using a cobalt-60 ¡-ray source. The dose-rate in propane was 5 ´ 1014 eV ml,?1 min?1 (nitrous oxide dosimeter: assuming ... eV2 and using an experimentally determined value of 1.42 for the stopping power of propane relative to N2O). Total doses were 1016?1017 eV ml.?1. The results ...

G. R. A. JOHNSON; J. M. WARMAN

1964-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

23

Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10li.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Trap...

24

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

25

Effect of Thermal Neutron Irradiation on Oxide Catalysts for the Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... alpha-particles which are produced by an (n, a) reaction with lithium-6 or boron-10 atoms. Nickel oxide contains excess oxygen ions as a £-type semiconductor and probably ...

YASUKAZU SAITO; YUKIO YONEDA; SHOJI MAKISHIMA

1959-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

28

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

Minnesota, University of

29

16 - Ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions combustion in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The historical development of gas turbine low \\{NOx\\} combustion from the pioneering NASA work in the early 1970s to the present generation of ultra-low \\{NOx\\} industrial gas turbine combustors is reviewed. The principles of operation of single digit ultra-low \\{NOx\\} gas turbine combustion for industrial applications are outlined. The review shows the potential has been demonstrated by several investigators using different flame stabilizers for \\{NOx\\} to be reduced to 1 ppm at 1700 K, 2 ppm at 1800 K and 3–4 ppm at 1900 K with no influence of operating pressure and with a practical operating flame stability margin. Under these conditions it is shown that no thermal \\{NOx\\} should occur and all the \\{NOx\\} is formed by the prompt \\{NOx\\} mechanisms. The elimination of thermal \\{NOx\\} makes the \\{NOx\\} emissions independent of residence time or reference velocity and independent of pressure. Also there is no influence of air inlet temperature for the same flame temperature. Where legislation requires emissions to be as low as can be achieved, emissions below 4 ppm in production engines are current technology and this review shows the potential to get even lower than this in the future.

G.E. Andrews

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents latest progress in the development of a new type of lean NOx trapping catalyst based on heterogenous composite nanowires, which could potentially be used in gasoline and diesel engines.

32

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells", (DoctoralImpedance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell LSM/YSZ CompositeCathode materials of solid oxide fuel cells: a review”, J

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

Jochen Stutz

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

35

NOx | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NOx NOx Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides NOx SO2 sulfur dioxide emissions

36

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation...

37

Field Demonstration of 0.2 Grams Per Horsepower-Hour (g/bhp-hr) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: · Reducing health and environmental impacts from air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions related pollution and greenhouse gas emissions beyond applicable standards, and that benefit natural gas ratepayers of nitrogen (NOx) emission standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr for heavy duty engines to reduce levels of this critical

38

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

39

A Return Stroke NOx Production Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is introduced for estimating the nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) production from a lightning return stroke channel. A realistic Modified Transmission Line Model return stroke current is assumed to propagate vertically upward along a ...

William J. Koshak; Richard J. Solakiewicz; Harold S. Peterson

40

Atmospheric pressure gas plasma-induced colorectal cancer cell death is mediated by Nox2–ASK1 apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress is mitigated by Srx–Nrf2 anti-oxidant system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Atmospheric pressure gas plasma (AGP) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce apoptosis in cultured cancer cells. The majority of cancer cells develop a ROS-scavenging anti-oxidant system regulated by Nrf2, which confers resistance to ROS-mediated cancer cell death. Generation of ROS is involved in the AGP-induced cancer cell death of several colorectal cancer cells (Caco2, HCT116 and SW480) by activation of ASK1-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway without affecting control cells (human colonic sub-epithelial myofibroblasts; CO18, human fetal lung fibroblast; MRC5 and fetal human colon; FHC). However, the identity of an oxidase participating in AGP-induced cancer cell death is unknown. Here, we report that AGP up-regulates the expression of Nox2 (NADPH oxidase) to produce ROS. RNA interference designed to target Nox2 effectively inhibits the AGP-induced ROS production and cancer cell death. In some cases both colorectal cancer HT29 and control cells showed resistance to AGP treatment. Compared to AGP-sensitive Caco2 cells, HT29 cells show a higher basal level of the anti-oxidant system transcriptional regulator Nrf2 and its target protein sulfiredoxin (Srx) which are involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Silencing of both Nrf2 and Srx sensitized HT29 cells, leads to ROS overproduction and decreased cell viability. This indicates that in HT29 cells, Nrf2/Srx axis is a protective factor against AGP-induced oxidative stress. The inhibition of Nrf2/Srx signaling should be considered as a central target in drug-resistant colorectal cancer treatments.

Musarat Ishaq; Margaret D.M. Evans; Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx...

42

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fe Promoted NOx Storage Materials: Structural Properties and NOx Uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the European Union regulations (EURO VI),(2) by the end of 2014, diesel passenger cars will be subject to a 3-fold decrease in NOx emissions from 0.25 to 0.08 g km?1. ... Barium oxide crystallizes in the rock salt structure, and the first order Raman scattering is symmetry forbidden(32, 33) However, broad and weak bands within 350?500 cm?1 due to the lattice modes of the defective BaO domains can still be visible via Raman spectroscopy (see for instance, Figure 3 in the Supporting Information). ...

Emine Kayhan; Stanislava M. Andonova; Go?ksu S. S?entu?rk; Charles C. Chusuei; Emrah Ozensoy

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

46

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% ...

Grenfell, J L; Patzer, B; Rauer, H; Segura, A; Stadelmann, A; Stracke, B; Titz, R; Von Paris, P; Grenfell, John Lee; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Segura, Antigona; Stadelmann, Anja; Stracke, Barbara; Titz, Ruth; Paris, Philip von

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41 - Nox Budget Trading 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These regulations apply to units that serve generators with a nameplate capacity greater than 15 MWe and sell any amount of electricity, as well as to units that have a maximum

48

Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1sigma) based on gas-exchange parametrization...upper 500 m of the water column. -The...its effect on solubility. -Our estimates...emissions based on gas-exchange parametrization...load of organic nitrogen. This fertilization...also affect the solubility of N2O. Rising...created by warming water masses after their...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

3, 729764, 2006 Nitrous oxide in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable concentrations: Shallow stations in the10 Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples followed by GC analysis has been used in both laboratory scale reactors and full-scale plants...two laboratory scale reactors. Foley et al. [23...measurements. Combining the analyses of both the microsensor...significantly increases the reliability of data. Similar to...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels ... NOx emissions appear to be different for biodiesels from different feedstocks. ... For the suite of biodiesels prepared from nearly pure fatty acids, all biodiesel fuels produced higher NOx than certification diesel with the following exceptions:? methyl palmitate, methyl laurate, ethyl stearate, and the ethyl ester of hydrogenated soybean oil. ...

Sandun Fernando; Chris Hall; Saroj Jha

2005-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

52

Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

53

Reduction of NOx emission on NiCrAl-Titanium Oxide coated direct injection diesel engine fuelled with radish (Raphanus sativus) biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main aim of this study is the experimental investigation of single cylinder DI diesel engine with and without coating. Diesel and radish (Raphanus sativus) oil Methyl Ester are used as fuels and the results are compared to find the effect of biodiesel in a thermal barrier coating engine. For this purpose engine cylinder head valves and piston crown are coated with 100??m of nickel-chrome-aluminium bond coat and 450??m of TiO2 by the plasma spray method. Radish oil methyl ester is produced by the transesterification process method. From the experimental investigation slight increase in specific fuel consumption in thermal barrier coating engine is observed when compared with the uncoated engine whereas NOx HC Smoke and CO emissions decreased with coated engine for all test fuels used in the coated engine when compared with that of the uncoated engine.

V. Ravikumar; D. Senthilkumar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential than emissions in the United States to perturb the global oxidizing power of the atmosphere. #12% of NOx concentrations in the lower and middle troposphere throughout the extratropical northern of the ocean. Sources in the United States are found to contribute about half of the fossil fuel NOx over

Jacob, Daniel J.

56

Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects...

57

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissions from Multi-Burners Emissions from Multi-Burners The University of Utah working with Reaction Engineering International and Brigham Young University is investigating a project that consists of integrated experimental, theoretical and computational modeling efforts. The primary objective is to evaluate NOx formation/destruction processes as they occur in multi-burner arrays, a geometry almost always utilized in utility practice. Most controlled experimental work examining NOx has been conducted on single burners. The range of potential intra-burner interactions are likely to provide added degrees of freedom for reducing NOx. The resultant findings may allow existing utilities to arrange fuel and air distribution to minimize NOx. In new applications, orientation of individual burners within an array may also be altered to reduce NOx. Comprehensive combustion codes will be modified to incorporate the latest submodels of nitrogen release and heterogeneous chemistry. Comparison of pilot scale experiments and simulations will be utilized to validate/develop theory.

58

Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

59

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% lower CH4 fluxes compared to those studies. Unlike on the Earth, relatively modest changes in these fluxes can lead to larger changes in the concentrations of biomarker and related species on the M-star world. We calculate a CH4 greenhouse heating effect of up to 4K. O3 photochemistry in terms of the smog mechanism and the catalytic loss cycles on the M-star world differs considerably compared with the Earth.

John Lee Grenfell; Jean-Mathias Griessmeier; Beate Patzer; Heike Rauer; Antigona Segura; Anja Stadelmann; Barbara Stracke; Ruth Titz; Philip von Paris

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

9, 11231155, 2009 Lightning NOx  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of lightning intensities. By im-20 posing an updated lightning NO production value of 520 mol NO/Flash, weACPD 9, 1123­1155, 2009 Lightning NOx emissions over the USA investigated using TES L. Jourdain et to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA investigated using TES, NLDN

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Model for NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Southern Research Institute is developing a validated tool or methodology to accurately and confidently design and optimize biomass-cofiring systems for full-scale utility boilers to produce the lowest NOX emissions and the least unburned carbon. The computer model will be validated through an extensive set of tests at the 6 MMBtu/hr pilot combustor in the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. Full-scale demonstration testing can be compared to the model for further validation. The project is designed to balance the development of a systematic and expansive database detailing the effects of cofiring parameters on NOx formation with the complementary modeling effort that will yield a capability to predict, and therefore optimize, NOx reductions by the selection of those parameters. The database of biomass cofiring results will be developed through an extensive set of pilot-scale tests at the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. The testing in this program will monitor NOx, LOI, and other emissions over a broad domain of biomass composition, coal quality, and cofiring injection configurations to quantify the dependence of NOx formation and LOI on these parameters. This database of cofiring cases will characterize an extensive suite of emissions and combustion properties for each of the fuel and injection configuration combinations tested.

63

Nox1 and Nox4 enzymes are persistently elevated in human hepatocytes producing infectious hepatitis C virus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

location of NOX4 and NOX1 enzymes by cell fractionation. 6.13. Proposed role of hepatocyte NOX enzymes in HCV-inducedMERCED Nox1 and Nox4 enzymes are persistently elevated in

Reyes de Mochel, Nabora Soledad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

Martin, Katherine C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 (LS-2) located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This quarterly update provides a description of the flow modeling study. This modeling effort centers on evaluating the in-furnace flow and mixing phenomena for the various low NOx firing systems being demonstrated at LS-2. Testing on the 1/12 scale model of the LS-2 boiler and the 1/6 scale model of the overfire air ductwork was completed. The test matrix included an analysis of the overfire air ductwork and three different boiler configurations. This report also contains results from the Phase 1 baseline tests. Data from the diagnostic, performance, and verification tests are presented. In addition, NOx emissions data and unit load profiles collected during long-term testing are reported. At the full load condition, the baseline NOx emission level at LS-2 is 0.62 lb/mBtu.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving 50% NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level 1 long-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

69

NOx Sensor Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

zirconia (PSZ) for better mechanical properties * (bottom) Dense LSM (Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite oxide) with yttria fully- stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for...

70

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber...

71

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps...

72

EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated 472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas SUMMARY The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower's Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas.

73

Control of NOx by combustion process modifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

Ber?, J. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

NETL: News Release - DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November 5, 2004 November 5, 2004 DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid Rain and Smog Industry Partners to Focus on Reducing Emissions While Cutting Energy Costs PITTSBURGH, PA - Continuing efforts to cut acid rain and smog-producing nitrogen oxides (NOx) have prompted the U.S. Department of Energy to partner with industry experts to develop advanced NOx-control technologies. With the selection of five new NOx-control projects, the Energy Department continues as a leader in developing advanced technologies to achieve environmental compliance for the nation's fleet of coal-fired power plants. Although today's NOx-control workhorses, such as low-NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), have been successfully deployed to address existing regulations, proposed regulations will require deeper cuts in NOx emissions, at a greater number of generating facilities. Many of the smaller affected plants will not be able to cost-effectively use today's technologies; these are the focus of the advanced technologies selected in this announcement.

75

Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V, .=DL ULL LI~C a~ailability 01 ILILKLL~: IIILIU~~I~ LU curn, l~aa, 8011 31LY3 1 27.3 .53 .I447 1 I 1 5: 1250 .I349 ic nitrogen ( 37.P' 1 -59 1 .2195 ru.. nv / 36.6 .57 1 .2086 I -2141 1 .O7b/ I 1. gm. nitrous nitrogen 30.2 1 .64 1 .I933 1... .12 -.01 ' .09 V1 -- I w 01 ---- I ------ el M - 1 --O6 X * ---- ------ U1 $ !z - --- i d $ --- - I -20 2 Y * F - I M 4 M .34 I --- .20 M .14 5 nitrogen --- --- -.02 .14 -.48 -.01 -12 .18 .OS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

77

LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit...

79

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Options and Integration Control Options and Integration Reaction Engineering International (REI) is optimizing the performance of, and reduce the technical risks associated with the combined application of low-NOx firing systems (LNFS) and post combustion controls through modeling, bench-scale testing, and field verification. Teaming with REI are the University of Utah and Brown University. During this two-year effort, REI will assess real-time monitoring equipment to evaluate waterwall wastage, soot formation, and burner stoichiometry, demonstrate analysis techniques to improve LNFS in combination with reburning/SNCR, assess selective catalytic reduction catalyst life, and develop UBC/fly ash separation processes. The REI program will be applicable to coal-fired boilers currently in use in the United States, including corner-, wall-, turbo-, and cyclone-fired units. However, the primary target of the research will be cyclone boilers, which are high NOx producing units and represent about 20% of the U.S. generating capacity. The results will also be applicable to all U.S. coals. The research will be divided into four key components:

80

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

82

An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

83

Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System EPA Mobile Source Rule Update...

84

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

85

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

86

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

87

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor...

88

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

89

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

90

Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored...

91

Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions pm02glass.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel...

92

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Regulatory and legislative requirements have predominantly driven the need to develop NOx control technologies for existing coal-fired power plants. The first driver was the Title IV acid rain program, established through the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). This program included a two-phase strategy to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants – Phase I started January 1, 1996 and Phase II started January 1, 2000. The Title IV NOx program was implemented through unit-specific NOx emission rate limits ranging from 0.40 to 0.86 lb/MMBtu depending on the type of boiler/burner configuration and based on application of LNB technology.

93

Nitrous Oxide Production in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the annual freshwater discharge, 98.5% of the annual nitrogen load, and 98% of the annual phosphorus load into the zone most likely to influence hypoxia (Rabalais et al. 2007). Ecosystem responses to hypoxia include diminished biodiversity and altered...

Visser, Lindsey A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

94

AT A GLANCE Title: Hydrogen, Methane and Nitrous oxide: Trend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to increases in atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) and reductions of fossil fuel burning emissions burning emissions have been calculated with one of the models. MAIN RESULTS Improved methane emissions (from ruminants and waste) is larger. First robust estimates of the uptake of hydrogen by

Haak, Hein

95

Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...82071; e Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge, TN 37831; f Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology...experiments on their lands. We also acknowledge the many workers who helped with the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen experiments...

Jake J. Beaulieu; Jennifer L. Tank; Stephen K. Hamilton; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Robert O. Hall; Jr.; Patrick J. Mulholland; Bruce J. Peterson; Linda R. Ashkenas; Lee W. Cooper; Clifford N. Dahm; Walter K. Dodds; Nancy B. Grimm; Sherri L. Johnson; William H. McDowell; Geoffrey C. Poole; H. Maurice Valett; Clay P. Arango; Melody J. Bernot; Amy J. Burgin; Chelsea L. Crenshaw; Ashley M. Helton; Laura T. Johnson; Jonathan M. O'Brien; Jody D. Potter; Richard W. Sheibley; Daniel J. Sobota; Suzanne M. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Decomposition of nitrous oxide on AlFe-PILC catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two AlFe-PILC catalysts were prepared with different OH/metal...2O) decomposition reactions. The 100% conversion of N2O with NH3into N2and H2O was achieved below 500oC with both applied catalysts. However, the ac...

Ern? E. Kiss; Tatjana J Vuli?…

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...other land use, (v) waste, and (vi) other sources...forestry (LULUCF) and waste are similarly proportioned...8 per cent and manure storage systems for 6 per cent...is reported here from long-term monitoring of greenhouse...are still not enough long-term datasets to provide the...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Methane and nitrous oxide in the ice core record  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...observed changes would lead to other feedbacks in atmospheric chemistry, which need to be included in future coupled Earth system models. The pre-industrial Holocene also shows interesting and significant changes, and a debate still exists about...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ranges from 33 to 170 per cent for fuel combustion processes and 195 per cent for other combustion processes (annex 7 of MacCarthy et al. [11...manure storage and N fertilizers. Combustion processes are the main source of NO x and microbial...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are International. b DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst; DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter; EGR = Exhaust GasREAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 26-28, 2012 #12;2 Objectives 1. Quantify inter-run variability in exhaust emission rates 2. Assess

Frey, H. Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the January 1 to March 31, 2004 time period.

S. Wu; Z. Fan; R. Herman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 31, 2003 time period.

S. Wu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs

104

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August,...

108

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

109

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Air Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Most relevant emissions into the air are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides ... compounds (VOC).The major cause of all air pollution

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Methane de-NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

METHANE de-NOx® METHANE de-NOx® The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is teaming with the All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute and DB Riley to develop a pulverized-coal (PC)-combustion system that is an extension of IGT's METHANE de-NOx® technology. The technology is composed of a novel PC burner design using natural gas fired coal preheating developed and demonstrated in Russia, LNBs with internal combustion staging, and additional natural gas injection with overfire air. The coal is preheated at elevated temperatures (up to 1500oF) in oxygen deficient conditions prior to combustion. Coal preheat releases fuel-bound nitrogen together with volatiles present in the coal. These conditions promote the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen rather than to NOx.

112

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 5, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions ... Life cycle GHG emissions were found to decrease by less than 4% in almost all scenarios modeled. ... Resulting changes in fuel use, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are estimated. ...

Aranya Venkatesh; Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

Mass Balance of Gaseous and Particulate Products from ?-Pinene/O3/Air in the Absence of Light and ?-Pinene/NOx/Air in the Presence of Natural Sunlight  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas and particle phase products from the reaction of ?-pinene with the atmospheric oxidants O3 and OH radicals in the presence of NOx were investigated using both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ...

M. Jaoui; R. M. Kamens

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A decoupled approach for NOx–N2O 3-D CFD modeling in CFB plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a 3D CFD model for the formation of \\{NOx\\} and N2O in a lignite fired 1.2 MWth CFB pilot plant is developed. The decoupled approach (decoupled from combustion simulation) is tested for the minimization of computational cost. As combustion simulation is prerequired, this was achieved through a simplified 3-D CFD combustion model. The developed model is then applied to the pilot-scale 1.2 MWth CFB plant and validated against experimental data. As concerns the NOx–N2O model, an extensive literature review is also carried out for the incorporation of the appropriate reactions network and respective reaction rates expressions. Results show that homogenous reactions are favoured on the lower section of the bed, due to the abundance of fuel devolatilization products. On the other hand, on the upper section, heterogeneous reactions govern nitric oxide formation/reduction. It is found that for the lignite examined in this work, HCN is released in negligible amounts during char combustion. The proposed and validated CFD model for \\{NOx\\} and N2O, is capable of examining the effect of different operational parameters and coal properties on the overall nitric oxides emissions from a CFB combustor, with low computational cost and without the additional expenses for pilot-scale experiments.

A. Nikolopoulos; I. Malgarinos; N. Nikolopoulos; P. Grammelis; S. Karrelas; E. Kakaras

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Many variations on the process cycle were developed to improve efficiency...NOx ) emitted from lean-burn diesel engines. Many catalyst developers...hydrocarbon oxidation in conventional diesel engines and NOx reduction...reduction and system durability. General Motors achieved 50,000-mile-aged...

John D. Sherman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NOx emissions data from bench-scale experiments and Class III truck operated using a low freezing point diesel exhaust fluid

120

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Noxtechs PAC System Development and Demonstration Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement...

122

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with standard high-temperature SCR catalyst formulation in one system provides...

123

Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for the Department of Energy Purpose of Work: Enable efficient lean engine market penetration by meeting emission regulations with aftertreatment * Research of Lean NOx...

124

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE AMR Review This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted...

125

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

126

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sam Crane August 28, 2003 H 2 -Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2 Project Objectives * Determine Advantages of H 2 Assisted NO x Trap Regeneration *...

127

Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

"Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

128

Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for Diesel Engine Emissions Control R. Dalla Betta, D. Sheridan, J. Cizeron Catalytica Energy Systems Inc. Mountain View, California 2 Outline Why use a fuel processor for NOx...

129

Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Examine other fuel properties 6 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Each platform will determine effects of fuel properties on: * NOx and PM reduction...

130

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

131

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

132

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean...

133

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

134

Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Aftertreatment (Agreement 13415) Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by LeanRich Cycling Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices...

135

Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation.

Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C. (James River Corp., Camas, WA (United States)); Caron, A.L. (NCASI West Coast Regional Office, Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber...

137

Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

138

Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

139

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions -...

140

Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011 Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental investigation of the thermal and diluent effects of EGR components on combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of a turbocharged natural gas SI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of effective measures used in natural gas (NG) engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Each component of EGR gases can exert different effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates, such as thermal effect, diluent effect, and chemical effect. In this study, the thermal and diluent effects of the main components of EGR gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), were experimentally investigated. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty natural gas spark-ignition (SI) engine with multi-point injection and 6-cylinder. In order to define the diluent effect of EGR components, argon (Ar) was introduced to the test, for its low and unchangeable specific heat capacity under different temperatures. The results showed that the contribution of the diluent effect on \\{NOx\\} reductions was 50–60% and 41–53% for N2 and CO2 respectively, and the relevant contribution of the thermal effect was 40–50% and 47–59% respectively. CO2 had greater effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates than N2 at the same dilution ratio. Increasing Ar improved the thermal efficiency due to the higher specific heat ratio provided. Meanwhile, \\{NOx\\} emissions were found to be decreased with increasing DR as a result of the diluent effect of Ar on combustion and \\{NOx\\} formations.

Weifeng Li; Zhongchang Liu; Zhongshu Wang; Yun Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

ULTRA-LOW NOX ADVANCED VORTEX COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Ryan G. Edmonds; Robert C. Steele; Joseph T. Williams; Douglas L. Straub; Kent H. Casleton; Avtar Bining

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Adv. Low-NOx Burner Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive, high-quality database characterizing PM2.5 emissions from utility plants firing high sulfur coals. The specific objectives are to: 1) develop and test an ultra low-NOx pulverized coal burner for plug-in retrofit applications without boiler wall tube modifications, 2) assess the impact of low-NOx PC burner operation on NOx and PM2.5 emissions, and 3) provide high-quality data to ensure that future PM2.5 regulations are based on good scientific information. The work will be performed in the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF), a 100 million Btu/hr near-full-scale facility located at the Alliance Research Center. Related Papers and Publications:

148

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions- Fact Sheet, 2014  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx Burner Technology to Meet Emissions Standards and Improve System Efficiency

151

Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor - Nuclear Engineering Division  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NPNS > Sensors and NPNS > Sensors and Instrumentation and NDE > Energy System Application > DOE Office of Transportation Technologies > Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor Capabilities Sensors and Instrumentation and Nondestructive Evaluation Overview Energy System Applications Overview DOE Office of Fossil Energy DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor DOE Office of Power Technology Work for Others Safety-Related Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Millimiter Wave Group Papers Other NPNS Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Sensors and Instrumentation and Nondestructive Evaluation Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor

152

Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

N.A. Ottinger, J.A. Pihl, T.J. Toops, C. Finney, M. Lance, C. Stuart Daw, "Types, Spatial Distribution, Stability, and Performance Impact of Sulfur on a Lean NOx Trap...

153

Reducing NOx emissions using the humid air motor concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of water to prevent NOx...formation during the combustion process is well known. The H.A.M. system (Humid Air Motor) is an original and promising solution compared ... . This system involves evaporating l...

Emmanuel Riom; Lars-Ola Larsson; Ulf Hagström

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace026peden2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials...

155

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reducing fishing vessel fuel consumption and NOX emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a growing concern with the impact of marine operations on the environment. This requires reducing fuel consumption and vessel pollution during operation. On-board computers and satellite communications will enable the operator to reduce fuel consumption and NOX emissions during vessel operations. This paper presents the results of a study on this problem and how such an on-board system could be implemented to reduce fuel consumption and engine NOX emissions.

Robert Latorre

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Approved ss to style and content by: K. Annamalai (Chair of Committee) Cr, R. Laster (Member) J. Wagne (Member...

Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

158

Applicability of Anaerobic Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation to Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Furthermore, both of the substrates of the NDFO organisms [Fe(II) and nitrate] and the various end products of the metabolism [Fe(III), nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide] all have known anti-souring and sulfide-scouring activities. ... A glass wool pad was placed on the bottom of the bead beds to prevent beads from falling into the inlet tubing. ...

Hongbo Zhu; Han K. Carlson; John D. Coates

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Effects of diesel-water emulsion combustion on diesel engine NOx emissions. Final report, 1 January 1998--1 May 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the effects of combusting a mixture of diesel fuel, water, and surfactant on the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a compression ignition diesel engine. Extensive previous research in the literature has attributed the observed reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions to a suppression of flame temperature due to quenching effects from the water, thereby reducing thermal NOx formation. The report highlights the relevant theory, operation, and design parameters of diesel internal combustion engines. Experimental procedures conducted using a Detroit Diesel 4-cylinder diesel engine are discussed. Results from testing diesel fuel with varying ratios of water balanced with a surfactant to stabilize the emulsion are presented and discussed. The data shows significant NOx emission reduction with up to 45 percent water, by volume, in the fuel. These results are correlated with thermodynamic first law and equilibrium combustion products analyses to estimate the adiabatic flame temperature of the standard fuel and fuel-water emulsion cases. Results indicate that thermal NOx is indeed reduced by quenching and flame temperature suppression, confirming reports in the literature. Recommendations are given for further studies, including improving the fuel-water emulsion and considerations for long-term testing.

Canfield, A.C.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCNR Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SNCR Field Demonstration SNCR Field Demonstration American Electric Power (AEP), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, FuelTech, the Ohio Coal Development Office, and fourteen EPRI member utilities, performed a full-scale demonstration of a urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system at Cardinal Unit 1. Cardinal Unit 1 is a 600MWe opposed-wall dry bottom pulverized coal-fired boiler that began service in 1967. This unit burns eastern bituminous high-sulfur coal, (3.72%S). This unit was retrofitted with low NOx burners (LNB's) during its scheduled fall 1998 outage and the SNCR system was installed concurrently. SNCR is a post-combustion NOx control process developed to reduce NOx emissions from fossil-fuel combustion systems. SNCR processes involve the injection of a chemical containing nitrogen into the combustion products, where the temperature is in the range of 1600°F - 2200°F (870°C - 1205°C). In this temperature range, the chemical reacts selectively with NOx in the presence of oxygen, forming primarily nitrogen and water. Although a number of chemicals have been investigated and implemented for SNCR NOx reduction, urea and ammonia have been most widely used for full-scale applications.

165

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Optimized Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimized Fuel Injector Design Optimized Fuel Injector Design This project includes fundamental research and engineering development of low NOx burners and reburning fuel injectors. The team of Reaction Engineering International (REI), the University of Utah, Brown University and DB Riley, Inc., will develop fundamental information on low NOx burners. The work has two phases. In the first phase, the University of Utah will examine two-phase mixing and near-field behavior of coal injectors using a 15-million Btu/hr bench-scale furnace, Brown University will examine char deactivation and effectiveness of reburning, and REI will develop a comprehensive burner model using the data produced by the University of Utah and Brown University. In the second phase, an optimized injector design will be tested at the 100-million Btu/hr Riley Coal Burner Test Facility. It is anticipated that this work will provide improved hardware designs and computer simulation models for reduced NOx emissions and minimized carbon loss.

166

SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

167

Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer...

168

Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

169

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea SCR...

170

Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge...

171

Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

172

The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

173

Industry-Utility Collaborative Efforts to Address Environmental Concerns- Dispatching for Localized NOx Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these objectives. The approach involves dispatching NOx-producing equipment (e.g., boilers and gas turbines) to achieve minimum NOx production during ozone alert periods and purchasing supplemental power under a special tariff to replace any loss in self...

Hamilton, D. E.; Helmick, R. W.; Lambert, W. J.

174

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

175

NOx formation by steam injection using detailed chemical kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine system and better control NOx emission, the injection of steam into a gas turbine combustor has been employed. This study has used both chemical equilibrium calculations and the counterflow diffusion flame calculations of methane-air flame aiming at the elucidation of the NOx reduction mechanism due to the steam injection. The influence of the equivalence ratios, the amount of steam and method of injection, the influence of the temperature of the preheated air and fuel has been also investigated. In this study, the GRI-Mech was employed for modelling the chemical reactions.

H. Yamashita; D. Zhao; S.N. Danov; T. Furuhata; N. Arai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Aeroderivative Gas Turbines Can Meet Stringent NOx Control Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for controlling NOx emissions will be discussed. Steam injection has a very favorable effect on engine performance raising both the power output and efficiency. As an example, full steam injection in the GE LM5000 gas turbine :tncreases the power output from... methods for reducing the NOx levels of the LM2500 and LM5000 engines. These engines are aircraft-derivative turbine engines, which are used in a variety of industrial applications. Efforts have been concentrated on the use of water or steam injection...

Keller, S. C.; Studniarz, J. J.

177

NOx, SO{sub 3} in the spotlight at NETL's 2006 Environmental Controls conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As emissions caps drop, technological solutions must become increasingly effective and efficient. Researchers, equipment vendors, and plant operators are exploring alternatives to SCR and SNCR, with a view to reducing the overall costs of NOx reduction. They have also achieved 95% to 99% removal of SO{sub 3}, with no visible plume opacity. These topics were discussed at ECC 2006. The first conference session focussed on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) control of nitrogen oxide emissions; the second session addressed the related issue of reducing stack emissions and flue gas concentrations of sulfur trioxide. The article summarises many papers presented. Summaries and/or full versions of all the papers mentioned, and others, are posted at www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/06/ecc/index.html. 2 figs.

Mann, A.N.; Makovsky, L.E.; Sarkus, T.A. [Technology and Management Services Inc. (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

Lyon, Richard

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

180

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roles of ceria in LNT SCR: I ncreases NOx storage & NO conversion at low tem perature P rom otes W GS reaction Conditions: Lean: 500 ppm NO, 5% O 2 ; 60s Rich: 2.5% H 2 ; 5s X H2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a Dionex DX-500 ion chromatograph with an EG40 eluent (methane-sulfonic acid) generator and a CS12A column (13). 7 References...BURPS1106A_2115 YP_001066380 Burkholderia pseudomallei 1106a-HHV NC_009076 BURPS1710b_2255 YP_333650 Burkholderia pseudomallei...

Robert A. Sanford; Darlene D. Wagner; Qingzhong Wu; Joanne C. Chee-Sanford; Sara H. Thomas; Claribel Cruz-García; Gina Rodríguez; Arturo Massol-Deyá; Kishore K. Krishnani; Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Silke Nissen; Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis; Frank E. Löffler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Nitrous oxide emissions. Topical report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published N{sub 2}O emissions data for experimental studies examining large numbers of coals are generally scarce at the pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) level, although some data are available at the laboratory scale. The primary objective of this study was to determine the atmospheric contribution of N{sub 2}O derived from coal combustion. Additionally, the goal was to establish a comprehensive engineering model to assist in the prediction of N{sub 2}O emissions based upon operating and design considerations. To meet the overall objectives of determining the overall contribution of N{sub 2}O derived from FBC and developing an engineering model seven tasks were originally proposed. The objective of each task as originally proposed and finally executed is presented in this topical report. The seven tasks were: (1) literature survey; (2) equipment design and test plan development; (3) experimental techniques; (4) pilot-scale determination of the impacts of coal properties and operating conditions on N{sub 2}O emissions; (5) role of coal char on N{sub 2}O formation and destruction; (6) homogeneous versus heterogeneous reactions; and (7) modeling of N{sub 2}O emissions.

Collings, M.E.; Mann, M.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The potential of mean force of nitrous oxide in a 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

specific binding sites. The penetration bar- rier correlates strongly with the action rate penetration and partitioning between lipid and water is an important step toward elucidating the function of N2O as a general anesthetic. After all, N2O has to penetrate through mem- branes before it reaches

184

Activation of Pd-Ag Catalyst for Selective Hydrogenation of Acetylene via Nitrous Oxide Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of a large excess of ethylene has been investigated on the Pd-Ag catalyst under 60°C and a space velocity...?1.... It was found that an enhancement in the performance of...

Piyasan Praserthdam; Suphot Phatanasri…

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and lowest in a mixed conifer forest soil from the Blodgettin a northern hardwood-conifer forest. Soil Science Societyfir Yellow pine forest Mixed conifer and hardwood Oak

Yang, Wendy Hui-I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of organic nitrogen (eutrophication...m of the water column...affect the solubility of N2O...with other gases CO2, CH4...to yield nitrogen gas, e.g...laughing gas. Water Atmos. 15...2005 Global nitrogen enrichment...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO...

188

Unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contributors to N2O consumption. Apparently, a large...contributions to N2O consumption will advance understanding...flux models. Fossil fuel combustion, agricultural practices...electron donor, and the vessels were inoculated with...contributing to N 2 O consumption in soils...

Robert A. Sanford; Darlene D. Wagner; Qingzhong Wu; Joanne C. Chee-Sanford; Sara H. Thomas; Claribel Cruz-García; Gina Rodríguez; Arturo Massol-Deyá; Kishore K. Krishnani; Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Silke Nissen; Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis; Frank E. Löffler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Photolysis of Nitrous Oxide Isotopomers Studied by Time-Dependent Hermite Propagation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model agrees with available experimental enrichment factors and stratospheric balloon infrared remote sensing data to within the estimated error. ...

Matthew S. Johnson; Gert Due Billing; Alytis Gruodis; Maurice H. M. Janssen

2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used to produce biodiesel and bioethanol...replacement of the fossil fuel by biofuel. It...cereals include engineering bacteria to recognize...considered was the introduction of the nitrogenase...It provides an introduction and background...microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The Resolution of Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide by Gas Solid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1106. R. P. DeGrazio The Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, Golden, Colorado The Resolution of Mixtures...Chromatography* by R. P. DeGrazio, The Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, Golden, Colorado A simple and unique chromato......

R. P. DeGrazio

1965-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modeling Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide in the Vadose Zone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperature, and soil atmosphere composition were being monitored was specifically...and CEL pools were predominant in the composition of the maize residue and were mainly...also taken into account. agriculture agrochemicals Avignon France Cambisols CANTIS carbon...

P. Cannavo; F. Lafolie; B. Nicolardot; P. Renault

193

Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from pelletized and nonpelletized poultry litter incorporated into soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While several studies have shown that the addition of animal manures to soil can increase N2O and CO2 emissions, limited information is available on the effect that manure physical characteristics can have on the...

M. L. Cabrera; S. C. Chiang; W. C. Merka; O. C. Pancorbo; S. A. Thompson

194

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1365-2486.2010.02351.x ) 56 Birch, HF , Friend, MT. 1956 Humus decomposition...covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest. Biogeosciences...review of applications of model-data fusion to studies of terrestrial carbon fluxes...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Elementary Steps and Site Requirements for NOx Adsorption and Oxidation on Metal and Oxide Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ed. ), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 89 th ed. ,Haynes, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st Edition,Haynes, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st Edition,

Weiss, Brian M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

DOE/EA-1472: Finding of No Significant Impact for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air Integration System Emission Reduction Technology (03/11/03)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

IMPACT IMPACT COMMERCIAL DEMONSRATION OF THE LOW NOx BURNER/SEPARATED OVER- FIRE AIR (LNB/SOFA) INTEGRATON SYSTEM EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY HOLCOMB STATION SUNFLOWER ELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION FINNEY COUNTY, KANSAS AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) SUMMARY: The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower's Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO,

198

Diesel Aftertreatment Modeling:? A Systems Approach to NOx Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel Aftertreatment Modeling:? A Systems Approach to NOx Control ... Despite these challenges, the proposed system was able to make several advances:? (1) meeting the T2B5 CO, HC, and PM standards; (2) quantifying the ability to meet T2B5 NOx levels with a more durable DOC and a rapid warm-up strategy to heat the exhaust, especially during the initial cold-start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycle. ... The remainder of this work is organized as follows:? The formulation, calibration, and validation of the DOC and SCR models are presented in section 2. The DOC and SCR models are combined for an analysis of the AT system as a whole in section 3. The final section of the article summarizes the results and offers some general conclusions. ...

Santhoji R. Katare; Joseph E. Patterson; Paul M. Laing

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Air Pollution Grant Ideas Possible air pollutants to study: SO2, H2S, NO2, NH3, CO, CO2, O3.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as "oxides://www.gradko.co.uk/ram/ Gradko tubes - http://www.gradko.co.uk/pdf/Nitrogen_Dioxide.pdf Grants and Funding Allegheny County of nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx)." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. While

Short, Daniel

200

Influence of operating conditions and coal properties on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of subbituminous coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This experimental study is aimed at finding effects of operating conditions in PFBC on nitrogen oxide emissions for subbituminous coals differing in ash content/composition, combustion/gasification reactivities and in particle size distribution. The experiments have been done on a smaller laboratory apparatus with ID=8 cm. The effects of operating pressure (0.1–1 MPa), temperature of the fluidized bed (800–900 °C), freeboard temperature and oxygen concentration (3–10 vol.%) on the nitrogen oxides emissions are relatively complex, coupled with temperature of burning coal particles. The coal ash content/composition (esp. CaO and Fe2O3) and fly ash freeboard concentration play an important role in formation/destruction chemistry of both NO and N2O. The \\{NOx\\} emissions decrease with increasing operating pressure at the same volumetric oxygen concentration and temperature. Temperature, volatile content, reactivities of coals and ash composition are the most important factors for N2O emissions. The N2O emissions are either almost constant or can exhibit a maximum at increasing operating pressure. Influence of increasing oxygen concentration on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions is more pronounced at lower operating pressures, esp. for the less reactive, medium ash coal. The particle size distribution of the coal (influence of coal dust) can cause characteristic changes in \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in PFBC, esp. at lower combustion temperatures (800–840 °C). The emission changes are dependent on ash properties/composition.

Karel Svoboda; Michael Poho?elý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment...

203

High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2004deerblint.pdf More Documents & Publications WA02042GENERALMOTORSPOWERTRAINDIVWaiverofDomestic.pdf Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs....

204

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced engines using HCCI or HCCI-like combustion can provide both high efficiencies and very low emissions of NOX and PM

205

Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential synergies of low emission advanced combustion techniques and advanced lean exhaust catalytic aftertreatment....

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminosilicates nox reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Summary: Non-Catalytic Reduction SNCR NOx control throughout the United States and Canada. They correspond... explain why mass balances are not an appro...

207

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many...

208

Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation.

210

Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb per million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. A revised subcontract was executed with BBP to reflect changes in the pilot testing program. Modeling activities were continued to develop and verify revised design approaches for both the Preheat gas combustor and PC burner. Reactivation of the pilot test system was then begun with BBP personnel. During the previous reporting period, reactivation of the pilot test system was completed with the modified Preheat gas combustor. Following shakedown of the modified gas combustor alone, a series of successful tests of the new combustor with PRB coal using the original PC burner were completed. NOx at the furnace exit was reduced significantly with the modified gas combustor, to as low as 150 ppm with only 36 ppm CO (both corrected to 3% O2). Concurrent with testing, GTI and BBP collaborated on development of two modified designs for the PC burner optimized to fire preheated char and pyrolysis products from the Preheat gas combustor. During the current reporting period, one of the two modified PC burner designs was fabricated and installed in the pilot test facility. Testing of the modified pilot system (modified gas combustor and modified PC burner) during the quarter included 38 tests with PRB coal. NOx reduction was significantly improved to levels as low as 60-100 ppmv with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

213

On the NOx production by laboratory electrical discharges and lightning Vernon Cooraya,, Mahbubur Rahman a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in estimating the global production of NOx by lightning flashes, including field measurements carried out during influence extrapolation of laboratory data to lightning flashes. Second, an estimation of the NOx yield per lightning flash is made by treating the lightning flash as a composite event consisting of several discharge

Florida, University of

214

Measurements of NOX produced by rocket-triggered lightning M. Rahman,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lightning flashes were triggered using the rocket- and-wire technique at the International Center atmosphere. [3] A direct measurement of the NOX generated by a natural lightning flash is impractical because generated by lightning flashes. Due to a large number of uncertainties involved, the estimates of global NOX

Florida, University of

215

A Novel Technology for the Reduction of NOx on Char by Microwaves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these applications. The technology is directed at NOx reduction but may also address other pollutants like SO2. The technology employees char, a heat treated and devolitilized form of coal, to adsorb NOx from the flue (or waste) gas. Adsorption of greater than 99...

Buenger, C.; Peterson, E.

216

Improvement of lightning NOx in the TM5 global chemistry transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a key greenhouse gas, and for the formation of the hydroxyl28 radical, which removes methane, also a key greenhouse gas. Estimates of the global lightning NOx production vary29 by an order of magnitude interpreting the lighting NOx contribu-36 tion from satellite and aircraft observations of NO2 in comparison

Haak, Hein

217

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Stand-alone urea SCR system was developed for marine diesel engines and showed a 50-percent reduction in NOx.

218

Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion.

219

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Second Generation Advanced Reburning Second Generation Advanced Reburning General Electric - Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) is carrying out a two Phase research program to develop novel Advanced Reburning (AR) concepts for high efficiency and low cost NOx control from coal-fired utility boilers. AR technologies are based on combination of basic reburning and N-agent/promoter injections. Phase I of the project was successfully completed and EER was selected to continue to develop AR technology during Phase II. Phase I demonstrated that AR technologies are able to provide effective NOx control for coal-fired combustors. Three technologies were originally envisioned for development: AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and Multiple Injection AR (MIAR). Along with these, three additional technologies were identified during the project: reburning plus promoted SNCR; AR-Lean plus promoted SNCR; and AR-Rich plus promoted SNCR. The promoters are sodium salts, in particular sodium carbonate. These AR technologies have different optimum reburn heat input levels and furnace temperature requirements. For full scale application, an optimum technology can be selected on a boiler-specific basis depending on furnace temperature profile and regions of injector access.

220

2004 Conference on Reburning for NOX Control Reburning on Trial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004 Conf. on Reburning for NOx Control Reburning on Trial 2004 Conf. on Reburning for NOx Control Reburning on Trial May 18, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Reburning Overview Commercial Reburning Experience Biomass Reburning Other Applications of Reburning Posters Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NETL: PPII - Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion - Project Brief [PDF-72KB] Sunflower Electric Power Corp., Garden City, Finney County, KS PROJECT FACT SHEET Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion [PDF-260KB] (Oct 2008) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Achieving NSPS Emission Standards Through Integration of Low NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion [PDF-3.4MB] (June 2006) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion: A DOE Assessment [PDF-1.4MB] (Nov 2006)

222

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 88098823, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/8809/2011/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water sol- uble organics, and less soluble in public concern regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants, including gas phase and particulate from livestock include methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrous oxide (N2O

Meskhidze, Nicholas

223

Low NOx burner retrofits and enhancements for a 518 MW oil and gas fired boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low NOx oil/gas burners originally supplied to Jacksonville Electric Authority, Northside No. 3 .500 MW unit, were based on a duplex air register design with lobed spray oil atomizers providing additional fuel staging. Although the burners could meet the targeted NOx levels of 0.3 and 0.2 lbs/10{sup 6} BTU on oil and gas respectively. There was insufficient margin on these NOx levels to enable continuous low NOx operation to be achieved. Further burner development was undertaken based on improved aerodynamic control within the burner design to give an approximate 25% improvement in NOx emission reduction thus providing an adequate operating margin. This `RoBTAS` (Round Burner with Tilted Air Supply) burner design based on techniques developed successfully for front wall coal firing applications achieved the required NOx reductions in full scale firing demonstrations on both heavy fuel oil and natural gas firing. The paper describes the development work and the subsequent application of the `RoBTAS` burners to the Northside No. 3 boiler. The burner will also be test fired on Orimulsion fuel and thus the comparison between heavy fuel oil firing and Orimulsion firing under ultra low NOx conditions will be made.

King, J.J. [Jacksonville Electric Authority, FL (United States); Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom). Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

225

METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. During the current reporting period, BBP's subcontract was modified to reflect changes in the pilot testing program, and the modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor were completed. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach was defined for the combined PC burner and 3-million Btu/h pilot system. Modeling of the modified gas-fired preheat combustor was also started.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus for the project continues to be on developing a PC PREHEAT system design suitable for use with caking coals and readying the 100 MMBtu/h CBTF for testing with noncaking PRB coal. During the current quarter, twenty-two pilot tests were conducted with Central Appalachian (CA) caking coal. The objective for these tests was to achieve continuous operation of the pilot system at its design coal feed rate of 156 lb/h, without plugging or agglomeration in the combustor. One combustor air distribution method tested achieved continuous operation at 110 lb/hr, and inspection of the combustor afterward indicated that this method has potential to solve the caking problem. The NOx results from the pilot caking coal runs indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with CA coal than with the PRB coal tested, to levels near 100 ppmv or lower at 4-6% exit oxygen. It was therefore decided to conduct additional pilot tests of the air distribution method to determine how to incorporate this into a workable CA combustor design. Based on current weather and manpower restrictions at the site, this pilot testing is expected to be started in February. The design for the 100 MMBtu/h unit for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and fabrication and installation started during the quarter. While significant progress has been made in the installation of the unit, weather and combustor fabrication delays are expected to move the start of large-scale testing with PRB coal into February, which will push the project completion date beyond the current 3/30/04 end date. GTI is in the process of developing a revised project schedule and estimated cost to complete.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus for the project during the quarter was shakedown testing of the large-scale coal preheater prototype in the CBTF with non-caking PRB coal. Additional pilot-scale tests were conducted in the PSCF in support of developing a preheating system design suitable for use with caking coals. Thirty-two additional pilot tests were conducted during the quarter with caking coal. These tests further evaluated the use of the air-bleed and indirect air-cooled liner designs to reduce or eliminate combustor plugging with caking coal. The air-bleed configurations tested used air injection holes perpendicular to the liner's longitudinal axis with the number, size and air flow though the air-bleed holes varied to determine the effect on combustor plugging. The indirect cooling configurations tested included a stainless steel liner with spiral fins in the annular space between the liner and the combustor wall, and a silicon carbide liner without fins. Continuous pilot operation was maintained for up to 30 minutes at a coal feed rate of 50 lb/h with the air-bleed liner. The best result achieved was for the stainless steel indirect air-cooled liner with 20 minutes of continuous operation at 126 lb/h of coal followed by an additional 20 minutes at 150 lb/h. The NOx results from these continue to indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with caking coal than with the PRB coal tested. The installation of the large-scale prototype coal preheater for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and shakedown testing with natural gas and PRB coal started during the quarter. Stable operation of the coal system, combustor and burner were achieved at coal feed rates up to 6000 lb/h (50 MMBtu/h).

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

Influencing factors on NOX emission level during grate conversion of three pelletized energy crops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract NOX emission behavior of three different pelletized energy crops, a herbaceous one, Brassica carinata, a short rotation coppice, Populus sp., and a blend of them, was assessed during fixed grate conversion. Measurements of NOX emissions were done at combustion conditions that yielded both thermal efficiency and CO emissions according to the European norm (EN 303-5:2012), and results compared to limits established by the Austrian deviations. Based on the experimental data, NOX results fulfilled the Austrian restrictions except during combustion of brassica, which exhibited the highest Fuel-N content. The Fuel-NOX was identified as the main formation mechanism. An opposite relation was determined between the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio obtained between the N-rich and the N-lean fuels tested here. The influence of the air supply (amount and distribution) on the NOX formation was also noticeable. In general, a higher proportion of air increased the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio. Possibilities to control the NOX emissions level by air staging were rather limited, particularly, during combustion of brassica and the blend because of their peculiarities as ash-rich fuels with high slag formation risk. For attaining an appropriate conversion of these fuels, primary air requirements substantially increased. Due to limitations found during the energy crops conversion, efforts to minimize the level of NOX emissions identified here for the troublesome fuels tested should be mainly focused on attaining both a properly designed air supply system and the grate temperature control as well as on conditioning the Fuel-N content, for instance, by blending.

Maryori Díaz-Ramírez; Fernando Sebastián; Javier Royo; Adeline Rezeau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Exergy analysis of combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of a dual-fuel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of compression ignition engines working on a dual fuel mode are investigated numerically and their exergetic efficiencies are determined. The model has been validated with available experimental results. The simulation results show that dual fuel engine combustion and trend of NOx emissions are well predicted by the present model. Parametric study showed improvements in engine performance and an increase in NOx emissions with decreased advanced injection timing of the pilot fuel as well as with increased intake temperature and pilot fuel quantity. The maximum values for energy and exergy are found to be comparable.

Mohamed H. Morsy; Abdelrahman El-Leathy; Arif Hepbasli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Definition: Reduced Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Functions that provide this benefit can lead to avoided vehicle miles, decrease the amount of central generation needed to their serve load (through reduced electricity consumption, reduced electricity losses, more optimal generation dispatch), and or reduce peak generation. These impacts translate into a reduction in pollutant emissions produced by fossil-based electricity generators and vehicles.[1] Related Terms electricity generation, reduced electricity losses, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An in LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_Sox,_Nox,_And_Pm-2.5_Emissions&oldid=502508

232

Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

Not Available

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx deer12toops.pdf More Documents &...

234

NOx Emissions of Alternative Diesel Fuels:? A Comparative Analysis of Biodiesel and FT Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study explores the diesel injection and combustion processes in an effort to better understand the differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel, Fischer?Tropsch (FT) diesel, and their blends with a conventional diesel fuel. Emissions studies were ...

James P. Szybist; Stephen R. Kirby; André L. Boehman

2005-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

Sulphur Removal Characteristics from a Commercial NOx Storage/Reduction Catalyst.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ability to effectively remove sulphur from sulphur-poisoned NOx storage/reduction (NSR) catalysts, while minimizing associated fuel penalties and thermal degradation, is important for commercial application… (more)

Kisinger, Darren

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

An experimental study on combustion processes and nox emission characteristics of the air-staged burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion processes and emission characteristics in air-staged burner...5H5N) is used to investigate the fuel NOX emission characteristics. Experiments are carried out for a wide range of operating condition...

Kook-Young Ahn; Han-Seok Kim; Eun-Seong Cho; Jin-Hyuk Ahn…

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Posters 2005deerhuff.pdf More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR...

239

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Jim Parks (parksjeii@ornl.gov), Matt Swartz, Shean Huff, Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

240

Evaluation of oxides of nitrogen emissions for the purpose of their transient regulation from a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of defining a regulatory standard for the maximum allowable emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a heavy-duty diesel engine on an instantaneous basis is presented. The significance of this concept from a regulatory point of view is the possibility to realise a steady brake specific NOx emissions result independent of the test schedule used. The emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engine have been examined on an integral as well as on an instantaneous basis over the Federal Test Procedure as well as over several other arbitrary transient cycles generated for this study. Three candidate standards of specific NOx emissions have been evaluated on a real-time, continuous basis. These include brake power specific, fuel mass specific, and carbon dioxide mass specific NOx emissions. Retaining the stock engine control module, the carbon dioxide specific emissions of NOx have been shown to be the most uniform, varying only by about 30% of its mean value regardless of the test schedule or engine operation. The instantaneous fuel specific NOx emissions are shown to be relatively less invariant and the least steady are the brake power specific emissions with a coefficient of variation of up to 200%. Advancing injection timing has been shown to have a wide range of authority over the specific emissions of oxides of nitrogen regardless of the units used, when operating at full load in the vicinity of peak torque speeds. The carbon dioxide specific NOx emissions have shown a linear dependence on the power specific emissions, independent of the examined operating conditions. The trade-off between better brake thermal efficiency, lower exhaust gas temperature at advanced timing and lower NOx emissions has also been shown to be independent of the units of the specific standard used.

Yasser Yacoub; Chris Atkinson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

242

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx results with caking coal are promising, with NOx as low as 150 ppmv at exit oxygen levels of 4% and higher. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design is nearing completion. Design of the caking coal version of the unit continues with additional pilot testing in support of this design expected. GTI and RPI are expediting the fabrication of the 100 MMBtu/h PRB unit in order to start testing in early- to mid-December. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) is nearing completion. As of mid-September, this activity was 95% complete.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Advanced furnace air staging and burner modifications for ultra-low NOx firing systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overfire air is an effective means to reduce NOx emissions from coal fired furnaces. The current range of overfire air usage on wall-fired boilers in the US is in the range of 10 to 20%. In most cases this is enough to achieve current Title IV NOx reduction requirements. Future applications are likely to go beyond 20% Overfire Air to reduce NOx further for lower investment and operating costs of SCR retrofits. Summer ozone reduction requires NOx emissions of 0.15 lb/MBtu. Currently, industry is exploring the conditions under which this goal is attainable. The paper discussed the approach to achieve ultra-low NOx emissions by using advanced furnace air staging. It describes the unique approach of redesigning the burner to maintain low NOx burner performance when the overfire air system is added or increased in capacity. The impact on furnace corrosion and unburned carbon losses are presented. A case study is used to show the effects of overfire air both on emissions and unburned carbon.

McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitored and regu lated a number of pollutants: lead, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, ozone and PM-lO. The Clean Air Act Amendments increased the focus on these pollutants, mandating the reductions to specified limits. Title I...

Mincy, J. E.

245

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and is located in a county designated as nonattainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone submit emission statements. Any facility that is located in a county described above is exempt from these requirements. If NOx

246

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama PowerÂ’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRIÂ’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

247

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Spatially Differentiated Trade of Permits for Multipollutant Electric Power Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulations to control multiple pollutants. The Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) program). Berlin, Germany: Springer, in press. 1 Introduction Electric power plants emit several different air pollutants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NOx), and mercury (Hg

Nagurney, Anna

249

Utilization of computational fluid dynamics technique in low NOx burner/furnace retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been utilized to provide design guidance for retrofitting low NOx combustion systems and incorporating associated furnace modifications into existing utility boilers. The CFD program utilized is FW-FIRES (Fossil fuel, Water-walled Furnace Integrated Reaction and Emission Simulation) which simulates furnace combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation based on fundamental principals of mass, momentum and energy conservations. The program models the gas flow field as a three-dimensional turbulent reacting continuum and the particle flow as a series of discrete particle trajectories through the gas continuum. Chemical reaction, heat transfer, and pollutant formation mechanisms are incorporated in the program. FW-FIRES furnace simulation of low NOx combustion system retrofits has been performed for various furnace configurations including front wall-fired, front and real wall-fired, and tangentially-fired furnaces, to determine the effects of burner/furnace modifications on the NOx emission, furnace exit gas temperature, furnace heat absorption, unburned carbon, and furnace wall corrosion. For front wall-fired, and front and real wall-fired furnaces, the NOx emission requirement is met by the use of Foster Wheeler lox NOx burners and overfire air (OFA) staging. Studies of burner and OFA quantify and spacing are conducted to limit NOx emission and unburned carbon to acceptable levels. A major concern in once-through supercritical units with OFA is furnace wall corrosion which is caused by high furnace wall metal temperature and corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) created in a reducing atmosphere from part of coal sulfur. The FW-FIRES code is used to minimize this corrosion potential by selecting the proper location and quantity of boundary air. A simulation of tangentially-fired unit, which has been retrofitted with low NOx burners, is used to study the effect of the burner tilt on the furnace exit gas temperature. This paper details the basis and results of several CFD analyses conducted for potential retrofit programs.

Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Ma, J.; Steitz, T.H.; Grusha, J.; Cole, R.W.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Pilot-Scale Aftertreatment Using Nonthermal Plasma Reduction of Adsorbed NOx in Marine Diesel-Engine Exhaust Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulations governing marine diesel engine NOx emissions have recently become more stringent. As it is difficult to fulfill these requirements by combustion improvements alone, effective aftertreatment technologi...

Takuya Kuwahara; Keiichiro Yoshida…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

models 19 Technical Back-Up Slides 20 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy * Step1: NO oxidation * Step2: SS NO x & NH 3 conversions, Parasitic NH 3...

252

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

barriers 16 Technical Back-Up Slides 17 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy * Step1: NO oxidation * Step2: SS NO x & NH 3 conversions, Parasitic NH 3...

253

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

green sheet, (3) smoothing surface by chemically inducing reflow using a solvent,solvents comprised circa 35% of the weight of the feedstock materials for the green

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations and WRFChem simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Ghude et al., 2008]. Thermal power plants are the largest consumer of coal in India [Garg et al., 2001 and WRFChem simulations Sachin D. Ghude,1,2 Gabriele G. Pfister,2 Chinmay Jena,1 R.J. van der A,3 Louisa K tropospheric NO2 column retrievals over the Indian region, with tropospheric NO2 columns simulated

Haak, Hein

255

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the unfired ceramic sample during thermal processing steps.ceramic samples were affixed to 4” silicon “handle” wafers using the following bonding agents: thermal

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

122 Table 22. Equivalent circuit model resistances for NOof the resistance elements of the equivalent circuit offersOver time, the resistance values of the equivalent circuit

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

High pressure conversion of \\{NOx\\} and Hg and their capture as aqueous condensates in a laboratory piston-compressor simulating oxy-fuel CO2 compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxy-fuel technology for CO2 capture has largely focused on combustion characteristics as a driver towards demonstration. Impurity removal studies typically centre on the how current environmental control units (FGD, SCR, activated carbon beds) operate in oxy-fuel firing. However, it is expected that some removal of \\{NOx\\} and \\{SOx\\} may occur during compression of flue gas through the lead chamber process. Some commercial systems link the capture of mercury to the formation of acid condensates (as a soluble mercury salt). Mercury in compressed flue gas represents a potential corrosion risk in the processing of CO2 from oxy-fuel combustion processes. Gas phase elemental mercury (Hg0) is difficult to remove from the flue gas and the level of cleaning required to prevent corrosion of cryogenic brazed aluminium heat exchangers is uncertain. This work has investigated the behaviour of gaseous Hg0 in pressurised oxy-fuel systems in terms of the potential capture in acidic condensates, interaction with \\{NOx\\} gases and liquid stability on de-pressurisation. The work was undertaken on an adapted laboratory scale three stage axial-piston compressor with gas and liquid sampling at pressures up to 30 bar. The main finding was that gaseous Hg0 reacts readily with NO2 formed from NO oxidation at high pressure. This reaction occurred without the presence of water, either water vapour or liquid water, contrary to speculation in the literature. Without NO2, no capture of Hg0 was observed in the compression system. Overall, the capture of mercury during compression occurred as a consequence of high pressure, longer residence time and concentration of NO2. Capture rates of 100% Hg and 75–83% \\{NOx\\} were measured from the compressor exit at 30 bar g.

Rohan Stanger; Timothy Ting; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Coal characterisation for \\{NOx\\} prediction in air-staged combustion of pulverised coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of world-traded coal samples has been tested using the Imperial College high temperature wire mesh apparatus (HTWM) in order to assess the relationship between high temperature (1600°C) char nitrogen content and \\{NOx\\} formation in Hemweg Power Station (in the Netherlands) using deep furnace air staging. A linear relationship between high temperature char nitrogen and \\{NOx\\} formation has been confirmed. These results suggest that high temperature char N content is the main factor limiting \\{NOx\\} emissions with deep air-staged combustion. Char N and (hence apparently deep air-staged NOx) can be predicted with an accuracy of approximately ±20% for most coals from the coal proximate and ultimate analysis—but this might not be sufficient for stations operating close to their emission limits. Measuring high temperature char N directly reduces the likely uncertainty in deep air-staged \\{NOx\\} emissions for coals (and most blends) to approximately ±10%. Its use should be considered on a routine basis for coal selection on plants employing this technology.

C.K. Man; J.R. Gibbins; J.G. Witkamp; J. Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...programs, the US Department of Energy Office of Science (Grant DE-FCO2-07ER64494) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Grant DE-ACO5-76RL01830...Tsukuba 36°02 N 140°12 E 12 Brazil Capivari, San Paolo 22°93...

Iurii Shcherbak; Neville Millar; G. Philip Robertson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selected field studies from the literature where in situ measurements of...and in studies identified in reviews by Bouwman (8), Jungkunst...Dataset S1) when available: literature reference; location...fertilizer. Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 16(1):156 ZZQQhy170...

Iurii Shcherbak; Neville Millar; G. Philip Robertson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......equilibrate with atmospheric pressure through...applications involving atmospheric analyses, the instrument...electrolytically from distilled water by a General Electric...Massachusetts) hydrogen generator. The gas is further...the analysis. The water formed by the palladium...737-1-B "clean air generator," a preparative......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reduced by introducing additional fuel hydrogen before the palladium...smaller sample size is that the consumption of standards in long-term...1979 aboard the Research Vessel Wecoma during Leg 9 of the...because of its low rate of consumption of standard gases, but also......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Association of Earthworm-Denitrifier Interactions with Increased Emission of Nitrous Oxide from Soil Mesocosms Amended with Crop Residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mug C kg1, and total mineral N content (extraction...respectively. We used a soda-lime filter during N2O measurements...within 48 h of sampling. Mineral N was extracted using...were also ball milled. Mineral N and MBN was converted...Netherlands) with a SYBR green detection system. Each...

Lucas D. Nebert; Jaap Bloem; Ingrid M. Lubbers; Jan Willem van Groenigen

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test… (more)

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...There is a balance between ozone production...because the mass of N 2 O...such as wastewater, are developing...such as wastewater treatment and aquaculture...coal power plants) emit N...how to balance funding...nitric acid plants in the United...

David Kanter; Denise L. Mauzerall; A. R. Ravishankara; John S. Daniel; Robert W. Portmann; Peter M. Grabiel; William R. Moomaw; James N. Galloway

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......thermistor has a low thermal mass and the circuit...and have longer thermal exchange times will...detectors such as the thermal conductivity detector...equatorial Pacific Ocean during a 24 day...Department of Energy. References Journal...Methanizer" catalytic converter. 5. W.E. Wentworth......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Biodegradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by aquifer microorganisms using oxygen, nitrate, or nitrous oxide as the terminal electron acceptor.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...I. Mayfield. 1986. Remediation of gasoline-contaminated...Aerobic denitrification as an innovative method for in-situ biological remediation of contaminated sub- surface...underground storage tanks: remediation with emphasis on in situ...

S R Hutchins

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide emissions from flooded rice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of N use in flooded rice is usually low, chiefly due to gaseous losses. Emission of CH4, a gas implicated in global warming, can also be substantial in flooded rice. In a greenhouse study, the nitr...

K. F. Bronson; A. R. Mosier

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

tall tower facility and instrumentation New coNstraiNts oN the Nitrous oxide budget of agricultural ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thick. The FAO classification is Chernozem. The field site has been under cultivation for the past 125. The tall tower source footprint is dominated by agricultural land use. The domi- nant crop types include measured at 100 m using a three dimensional sonic anemometer- thermometer for computation of energy, water

Minnesota, University of

273

Closed-loop control of a SCR system using a NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Closed-loop control of a SCR system using a NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3 A.Bonfils , Y. Creff for an automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, for which the feedback is based on a NOx sensor the variety of en- countered technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is one of the most appealing

274

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

Boyer, Edmond

275

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission Inventories J. David Felix,*, Emily M. Elliott, and Stephanie L. Shaw contributions, prior documentation of 15 N of various NOx emission sources is exceedingly limited

Elliott, Emily M.

276

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

277

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

278

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

279

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not deactivate the catalyst to the extent that these same poisons do in the deliberately wet-impregnated laboratory-prepared samples (1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-9%WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}). At least in this case, the fouling deposits generated by field exposure present little if any chemical deactivation or barrier to mass transfer. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 1000 hours on flue gas. Periodic NO{sub x} reduction measurements were made, showing some decrease in activity relative to fresh catalyst samples. Plans are being made to take the reactor out of service at the Rockport plant and move it to Plant Gadsden. At Gadsden, inlet and outlet ports were installed on Unit 1 for the slipstream reactor during an outage.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M pollution using a model furnace of an industrial boiler utilizing fuel gas. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to the pollutants produced by large boiler furnaces used widely in thermal

Aldajani, Mansour A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Plasma remediation of exhaust from internal combustion engines, and diesel engines in particular of achieving high E/N electric field/ gas number density are promising in this regard.11 Actual diesel exhaust discharge DBD reactors are being investigated for plasma remediation of NOx from the exhaust of internal

Kushner, Mark

282

tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a few sluggish electric vehicles would cause enough traffic slowing that the gasoline- powered fleet Analy- sis article on battery-powered vehicles (Sept. 1996, p. 402A) serves as a useful remindertive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and associated NO.,. emissions

Denver, University of

283

Observation of NOx enhancement and ozone depletion in the Northern and Southern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, and H. Fischer Institut fu¨r Meteorologie und Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, H. Fischer, and C. H. Jackman (2005), Observation of NOx

Jackman, Charles H.

284

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 27792787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings: a 15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abies; Air pollution; Dendroecology; Nitrogen deposition; Stable isotopes; Nitrogen dioxide 1Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 2779­2787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings 2004; accepted 27 February 2004 Abstract Nitrogen isotope analysis (d15 N) of tree rings is potentially

285

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 3 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 4 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul burning, and natural phenomena like lightning, wildfires, and soil microbial activity. NOx play

Park, Rokjin

286

NOx reduction with the use of feedlot biomass as a reburn fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Additional air called overfire air (about 20 % of total air) is injected in order to complete combustion. Typically reburn fuel is natural gas (NG). From previous research at TAMU, it was found that firing feedlot biomass (FB) as reburn fuel lowers the NOx...

Goughnour, Paul Gordon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Latest developments and application of DB Riley's low NOx CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in DB Riley (DBR) low NOx burner technology and the application of this technology in coal fired utility boilers are discussed. Since the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, DBR has sold nearly 1,500 Controlled Combustion Venturi (CCV{reg{underscore}sign}) burners on pulverized coal fired utility boilers reducing NOx emissions 50--70% from uncontrolled levels. This technology has been retrofitted on boiler designs ranging in size and type from 50 MW front wall fired boilers to 1,300 MW opposed fired cell type boilers. In DBR's latest version of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner, a second controlled flow air zone was added to enhance NOx control capability. Other developments included improved burner air flow measurement accuracy and several mechanical design upgrades such as new coal spreader designs for 3 year wear life. Test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner in DBR's 100 million Btu/hr (29 MW) coal burner test facility are presented. In the test program, coals from four utility boiler sites were fired to provide a range of coal properties. A baseline high volatile bituminous coal was also fired to provide a comparison with 1992 test data for the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} single register burner. The tests results showed that the second air zone enhanced NOx reduction capability by an additional 20% over the single register design. Computational fluid dynamic (DFD) modeling results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner are also presented showing near field mixing patterns conducive to low NOx firing. DBR was recently awarded Phase IV of the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program by the US Department of Energy to build a proof of concept facility representing the next major advancement in pulverized coal burning technology. A key part of winning that award were test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner with advanced air staging and coal reburning in a 100 million Btu/hr (20 MW) U-fired slagging combustor test facility. These results showed NOx emissions of less than 0.2 lb/million Btu (0.086 g/MJ) while converting the coal ash into an inert, non-leachable solid. This results is an 80% reduction in NOx emissions from currently operating U-fired slagging boilers.

Penterson, C.; Ake, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Title Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Rosseler, Olivier, Mohamad Sleiman, Nahuel V. Montesinos, Andrey Shavorskiy, Valerie Keller, Nicolas Keller, Marta I. Litter, Hendrik Bluhm, Miquel Salmeron, and Hugo Destaillats Journal J. Phys. Chem. Lett. Volume 4 Start Page 536 Issue 3 Pagination 536-541 Date Published 01/2013 Abstract Self-cleaning surfaces containing TiO2 nanoparticles have been postulated to efficiently remove NOx from the atmosphere. However, UV irradiation of NOx adsorbed on TiO2 also was shown to form harmful gas-phase byproducts such as HONO and N2O that may limit their depolluting potential. Ambient pressure XPS was used to study surface and gas-phase species formed during adsorption of NO2 on TiO2 and subsequent UV irradiation at λ = 365 nm. It is shown here that NO3-, adsorbed on TiO2 as a byproduct of NO2 disproportionation, was quantitatively converted to surface NO2 and other reduced nitrogenated species under UV irradiation in the absence of moisture. When water vapor was present, a faster NO3- conversion occurred, leading to a net loss of surface-bound nitrogenated species. Strongly adsorbed NO3- in the vicinity of coadsorbed K+ cations was stable under UV light, leading to an efficient capture of nitrogenated compounds.

289

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of biomass-derived syngas under various gasification conditions utilizing oxygen-enriched-air and steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the \\{NOx\\} emissions from combustion of syngas derived from gasification of three different biomass feedstock (i.e., pine, maple–oak mixture, and seed corn) at different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions. Three different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions were tested for each feedstock, thus resulting in nine different sets of syngas. The biomass-derived syngas was burned in an industrial burner that was integrated into the gasification system. The gasifier and burner are rated at 800 kW and 879 kW thermal, respectively. For each set of biomass-derived syngas, \\{NOx\\} emissions were measured at different burner operating conditions including various heat rates and equivalence ratios using emission analyzers with chemiluminescence technology. All the combustion test conditions are in the lean mixture ranges in order to avoid the peak temperature limitation of both the burner and combustion chamber. Results show that \\{NOx\\} emissions using syngas obtained from woody feedstock decrease almost linearly as the combustion mixture becomes leaner and the heat rate decreases. When compared to natural gas, syngas from both woody feedstock generates higher \\{NOx\\} emissions even when the heat rates are comparable, indicating that fuel \\{NOx\\} formation is highly important in biomass-derived syngas combustion. In contrast to syngas from woody feedstock, syngas from seed corn results in peak \\{NOx\\} emissions before \\{NOx\\} decreases with leaner conditions. The trend is observed for all fuel flow rates and all oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions of seed corn-derived syngas. Among the three feedstock, seed corn has the highest nitrogen content which yields the highest ammonia concentration in syngas, which, in turn, results in the highest \\{NOx\\} emissions for all test conditions. Overall, the \\{NOx\\} emissions from seed corn-derived syngas combustion are approximately in the range of 450–900 ppm higher compared to those from wood-derived syngas combustion.

Cuong Van Huynh; Song-Charng Kong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

On the Promoting Effect of Water during NOx Removal over Single-Site Copper in Hydrophobic Silica APD-Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reversibility of the Cu2+/Cu+ redox pair was confirmed in the Cu-aerogel during and after wet redox cycling. ... (1) Popular solutions to selective catalytic reduction of NOx include the use of exhaust hydrocarbon residuals (SCR-HC-deNOx) or ammonia added to the exhaust (SCR-NH3-deNOx) as the reductant; the former technology being suitable for light duty passenger vehicles, whereas the latter is applied to medium or heavy duty vehicles. ... During vehicle use, the converter is exposed to heat, which causes the metal particles to agglomerate and grow, and their overall surface area to decrease. ...

Tina Kristiansen; Karina Mathisen

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

292

Spatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchange between gas-phase precursors and variability in reactive nitrogen sources. These findings product of NOx in the atmosphere. Due to its exceptionally high solubility in water, nitrate is rapidly deSpatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic

293

BaO/Al2O3/NiAl(110) Model NOx Storage Materials: the effect of BaO film thickness on the amorphous-to-crystalline Ba(NO3)2 phase transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of NO2 with BaO (0.15 – 2 ML and > 30 ML)/Al2O3(12 ML)/NiAl(110) model NOx storage materials was studied. A thick (~12 ML), ordered Al2O3 film was prepared as the support oxide on a NiAl(110) substrate in order to minimize the effect of the intermixing between the two oxide phases (BaO and Al2O3) on the NOx chemistry of BaO. The growth of a thick alumina film, prepared by atomic oxygen deposition onto NiAl(110), follows a layer-by-layer growth mode and the resulting film is much more stable when exposed to NO2 than the ultra-thin alumina films studied before. The interaction of NO2 with the model NOx storage systems at low coverages of BaO show fundamentally different behaviors from a thick BaO film, as nitrite species form at low exposures of NO2, followed by nitrate formation at high NO2 exposures. In contrast, on the thick BaO layer nitrite-nitrate ion pairs form at 300 K under UHV conditions (PNO2 ~ 1 ? 10-9 Torr). However, at elevated NO2 pressures (? 1 ? 10-5 Torr) the thick BaO film is gradually converted into amorphous Ba(NO3)2 at 300 K. Raising the temperature of the samples with ?BaO > 1 ML after NO2 exposure (in the absence of gas phase NO2) leads to the phase transformation of the amorphous Ba(NO3)2 layer into crystalline Ba(NO3)2 particles in the temperature range of 500 – 600 K. No phase transformation is observed in samples with ?BaO < 1 ML.

Yi, Cheol-Woo W.; Szanyi, Janos

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed. Development of the NOx adsorber technology is discussed. Spectroscopic techniques are applied to understand the underlying chemical reactions over the catalyst surface during NOx trapping and regeneration periods. In-situ surface probes are useful in providing not only thermodynamic and kinetics information required for model development but also a fundamental understanding of storage capacity and degradation mechanisms. The distribution of various nitration/sulfation species is related to surface basicity. Surface displacement reactions of carbonates also play roles in affecting the trapping capability of NOx adsorbers. When ultralow-S fuel is used as a reductant during the regeneration, sulfur induced performance degradation is still observed in an aged catalyst. Other possible sources related to catalyst deactivation include incomplete reduction of surface nitration, coke formation derived from incomplete hydrocarbon burning, and lubricant formulations. Sulfur management and the direction of future work for the successful implementation of such integrated engine and aftertreatment technology are discussed. SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-2889 {copyright} 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

Fang, Howard L.; Huang, Shyan C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

An Analysis of the health impacts from PM and NOx emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009). Estimating PM and NOx Train Emissions in the AlamedaAuthority. Number of Trains Running on the Alameda Corridor.x emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Heavy-duty diesel vehicle Nox? aftertreatment in 2010 : the infrastructure and compliance challenges of urea-SCR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasingly stringent heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations are prompting the use of PM and NOx aftertreatment systems in the US, the EU and Japan. In the US, the EPA Highway Diesel Rule, which will be fully implemented ...

Bodek, Kristian M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles

298

NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 0.0000 0.0500 0.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 To ns - NOx/day (average) Tons - NOX/day (p eak) Apx 2x difference 1:1 2...

Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Winter and summer nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxides fluxes from a seasonally snow-covered subalpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA M. W.Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA D.Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA B. Hall

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Application of Taguchi's orthogonal array in reducing the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this investigation is to reduce the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine with less sacrifice on smoke intensity and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Fuel injection timing, percentage of EGR and fuel injection pressure are chosen as factors influencing the objective. Three levels were chosen in each factor and design of experiments method was employed to design the experiments. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Test results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and ANOVA table was formed for each response variable. From the ANOVA table the most influencing factor and also the significance of each factor affecting the NOx emission, smoke intensity and BTE was found out. Response graph was drawn for each response variable to determine the optimum combination of the factor levels. This optimum combination was confirmed experimentally. [Received: November 14, 2010; Accepted: March 17, 2011

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; R. Ramanujam; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCo) Class F fly ash is the first material to be worked on in this project. A head sample was taken and a screen analysis performed. Each size fraction was evaluated for LOI content. Table 1 shows the distribution of the as-received material by size and LOI content. From the data, 80% of the as-received material is finer than 400 mesh and the LOI content goes from high at coarse fractions and decreases to a low at the finest size fraction. SEM chemical analysis identified the as-received fly ash to mainly consist of silica (46%), aluminum oxide (21%), and iron in various forms (16%). The high iron content presents an extreme case as compared to other fly ash samples we have evaluated previously. Its effect on product testing applications could identify physical and chemical limitations as product testing progresses. Because of the high iron content, it was realized that magnetic separation would be incorporated into the early part of the pilot plant flowsheet to remove magnetic iron and, hopefully, reduce the total iron content. More analytical data will be presented in the next reporting period.

A.M. HEIN; J.Y. HWANG; M.G. MCKIMPSON; R.C. GREENLUND; X. HUANG

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Communication: CO oxidation by silver and gold cluster cations: Identification of different active oxygen species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au{sub 3}{sup +} and Ag{sub 3}{sup +} clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au{sub 3}{sup +} the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag{sub 3}O{sub x}{sup +} (n= 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N{sub 2}O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.

Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

303

Formation of submicron oxide widths on aluminum in the presence of keV electron beams and CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the size of oxide islands or line widths that can be grown as smaller diameter electron beams are used for the oxidation. The implications of the potential lateral resolution available between oxide lines for electronic materials are discussed. The localize dioxide growth on thin Al films occurs in the presence of .5 to 10 keV electron beams and high vacuum level pressures of carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide. Auger electron spectroscopy shows saturation of the O (KLL) signal and depletion of the Al (LMM) signal after an exposure of 5000 l carbon dioxide with a 2 keV beam of 7 A/sq. cm. The oxide is spatially restricted to the beam impact region and is stable for long periods of time in vacuum. The most plausible mechanism for this oxide growth is dissociation of the carbon dioxide or the nitrous oxide by the electron beam in the region of impingement on or near the surface. Oxygen atoms thus formed can then react with the Al, and carbon monoxide or nitrogen desorbs.

Pitts, J.R.; Massopust, T.P.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kazmerski, L.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Development of a control-oriented model to optimise fuel consumption and NOX emissions in a DI Diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes a predictive NOX and consumption model, which is oriented to control and optimisation of DI Diesel engines. The model applies the Response Surface Methodology following a two-step process: firstly, the relationship between engine inputs (intake charge conditions and injection settings) and some combustion parameters (peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure and burn angles) is determined; secondly, engine outputs (NOX and consumption) are predicted from the combustion parameters using NOX and mechanical losses models. Splitting the model into two parts allows using either experimental or modelled combustion parameters, thus enhancing the model flexibility. If experimental in-cylinder pressure is used to obtain combustion parameters, the mean error of predicted NOX and consumption are 2% and 6% respectively, with a calculation time of 5.5 ms. Using modelled parameters reduces the calculation time to 1.5 ms, with a penalty in the accuracy. The model performs well in a multi-objective optimisation, reducing NOX and consumption in different amounts depending on the objective of the optimisation.

S. Molina; C. Guardiola; J. Martín; D. García-Sarmiento

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?CO, and H, O are initially present in exhaust stream [57]. .. . . . 42 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reaction path diagram for RAPRENOx process [63]. .. . Reduction of nitric oxide as a function of temperature, concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water... the influence of carbon monoxide [89]. . . . . . . . . 58 Fig. 28 Effect of residence time on the NOxOUT process as a function of temperature, NO(initial)=125ppm, 0-ratio of 4 [90]. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Fig. 29 Ammonia slip as a function...

Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Correcting injection pressure maladjustments to reduce NOX emissions by marine diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions from the exhausts of marine diesel engines comprises several different gases including NOX. These are currently regulated at the international level under Regulation 13 of ANNEX VI of MARPOL 73/78, but this regulation only applies to new engines and is based on bench tests, for only a single engine designated the “parent engine”. Here, the need to take measurements from across their whole range and once in operation on board a vessel is examined. This would not only improve assessment of new equipment against the current regulation, but would also detect defects in the functioning of the engine.

C. Vanesa Durán Grados; Zigor Uriondo; Manuel Clemente; Francisco J. Jiménez Espadafor; Juan Moreno Gutiérrez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. Patent data are used to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus 'forcing' innovation. It is demonstrated that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to {approximately} 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale. 38 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Sonia Yeh; Edward S. Rubin; Margaret R. Taylor; David A. Hounshell [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development,

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

310

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

Schefer, Robert W. (Alamo, CA); Keller, Jay O (Oakland, CA)

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

314

Advanced Metal-Oxide based SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

SCR with ammonia as reductant is an effective strategy being utilized to reduce NOx emissions to meet regulated levels.

315

Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

N-nitrosamine and N-nitramine Formation from NOx Reactions with Amines during Amine-Based CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capture for Post-combustion Carbon Sequestration Background! Generation of electricity and heat from power- combustion carbon sequestration, the capture and underground storage of CO2 from the exhaust gases of power formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon

Mitch, William A.

317

Nox reduction with CO over supported Pd catalysts under simulated post Euro-IV diesel exhaust conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic reduction of NOx with CO over Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/TiO2/Al2O3 under simulated post Euro-IV diesel exhaust conditions was studied. The catalytic activities obtained...2 loadings and total amounts of reduc...

Yinghua Li; Dae-Won Lee; Young-Chul Ko…

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions- Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

319

Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

Jaramillo, Paulina

320

Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions Lyatt Jaegle´ ,a Linda Steinberger,a Randall V. Martinbc anthropogenic emissions, mostly resulting from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are superimposed-CHEM chemical transport model. Top-down NOx sources are partitioned among fuel combustion (fossil fuel

Lyatt Jaeglé

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season Trading Program (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations may apply to fossil-fuel fired emission units, and describe nitrogen emission allocations that owners of such units must meet. The regulations also contain provisions for...

322

SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the atmosphere. TD-GC-MS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY A thermal desorption (TD) injection device (M. Ezrin, 1991. Valve Spindle 10. Carrier Gas Inlet 11. Inlet Assembly 12. Injection Port Insert PAH standard Solution, 1ppm, 1µL injection Alkanes Standard Solution, 0.1ppm, 1µL injection FUTURE EXPERIMENTS Verify PM

Holmén, Britt A.

323

\\{NOx\\} reduction from a large bore natural gas engine via reformed natural gas prechamber fueling optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lean combustion is a standard approach used to reduce \\{NOx\\} emissions in large bore (35–56 cm) stationary natural gas engines. However, at lean operating points, combustion instabilities and misfires give rise to high total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. To counteract this effect, precombustion chamber (PCC) technology is employed to allow engine operation at an overall lean equivalence ratio while mitigating the rise of THC and CO caused by combustion instability and misfires. A PCC is a small chamber, typically 1–2% of the clearance volume. A separate fuel line supplies gaseous fuel to the PCC and a standard spark plug ignites the slightly rich mixture (equivalence ratio 1.1–1.2) in the PCC. The ignited PCC mixture enters the main combustion chamber as a high energy flame jet, igniting the lean mixture in the main chamber. Typically, natural gas fuels both the main chamber and the PCC. In the current research, a mixture of reformed natural gas (syngas) and natural gas fuels the PCC. Syngas is a broad term that refers to a synthetic gaseous fuel. In this case, syngas specifically denotes a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane generated in a natural gas reformer. Syngas has a faster flame speed and a wider equivalence ratio range of operation than methane. Fueling the PCC with Syngas reduces combustion instabilities and misfires. This extends the overall engine lean limit, enabling further \\{NOx\\} reductions. Research results presented are aimed at quantifying the benefits of syngas PCC fueling. A model is developed to calculate the equivalence ratio in the PCC for different mixtures and flowrates of fuel. An electronic injection valve is used to supply the PCC with syngas. The delivery pressure, injection timing, and flow rate are varied to optimize PCC equivalence ratio. The experimental results show that supplying the PCC with 100% syngas improves combustion stability by 21% compared to natural gas PCC fueling. A comparison at equivalent combustion stability operating points between 100% syngas and natural gas shows an 87% reduction in \\{NOx\\} emissions for 100% syngas PCC fueling compared to natural gas PCC fueling.

Mathew D. Ruter; Daniel B. Olsen; Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The more heavily catalyzed and the hotter the exhaust temperature, the more strongly the aftertreatment will oxidize the exhaust.

325

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming of Diesel Fuel by Nonthermal Arc Discharge for NOx Trap Regeneration Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming of Diesel Fuel by Nonthermal Arc Discharge for NOx Trap Regeneration Application ... It has been demonstrated that low current arc discharges are highly nonhomogenous. ... In the second case, which corresponds to the most favorable one, assuming (i) a 100 kW car engine thermal power (i.e., 40 kW mechanical power), (ii) that the plasma will treat only a small fraction of the exhaust gas (typically 3.5%), (iii) that the plasma will operate under a cycling operating mode, and (iv) an 80% efficiency for the onboard production of electricity from the car engine, one can estimate that the electric power needed to run the plasma will be around 2.2% of the engine power only during 12 s every 11 km (6.8 miles), that is, 12 s every 6 min assuming a 110 km·h?1 (68 mph) average car velocity. ...

Alexandre Lebouvier; Franc?ois Fresnet; Fre?de?ric Fabry; Vale?rie Boch; Vandad Rohani; Franc?ois Cauneau; Laurent Fulcheri

2011-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

New CoO?SiO2-Sol Pillared Clays as Catalysts for NOx Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For this purpose, codoped SiO2 sol PILC (CoSi?PILC) is prepared via an organic template route and the interlayer pillar structure is systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nitrogen adsorption isotherm measurement, along with a preliminary test on the de-NOx catalytic activity. ... The steady-state selective catalytic reduction of NO with CO over CoSi?PILC catalyst was carried out in an isothermal fixed-bed continuous flow quartz reactor (o.d. ... The elemental composition of CoSi?PILC was analyzed to estimate the pillar content of SiO2 and CoO. ...

Jin-Ho Choy; Hyun Jung; Yang-Su Han; Joo-Byoung Yoon; Yong-Gun Shul; Hyun-Jong Kim

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1–3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from ?15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the

Deniz Karman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase under all conditions

334

Pillared smectite modified with carbon and manganese as catalyst for SCR of NOx with NH3. Part I. General characterization and catalyst screening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon- and manganese-modified zirconia-pillared smectites were prepared, characterized (XRD, BET and pore analysis, XPS) and tested in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. Both untreated and acidic pre...

Lucjan Chmielarz; Roman Dziembaj; Teresa Grzybek; Jerzy Klinik…

335

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO under various driving conditions.

337

Denitrifying Alphaproteobacteria from the Arabian Sea That Express nosZ, the Gene Encoding Nitrous Oxide Reductase, in Oxic and Suboxic Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the present study a closely related (99% nucleotide identity...clone BATS14_163), a closely related denitrifier (Fig. 2), were...atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy document 12/05. Royal Society...liberates the climate-changing gas dimethylsulfide in several marine...

Michael Wyman; Sylvia Hodgson; Clare Bird

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

338

Denitrifying Alphaproteobacteria from the Arabian Sea That Express nosZ, the Gene Encoding Nitrous Oxide Reductase, in Oxic and Suboxic Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...United Kingdom under the Marine and Freshwater Microbial...Keith Avery, and the ship's company of RRS Charles...Woodward of Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom...gene-specific PCR primers for detection of denitrifiers and three nosZ genes from marine sediments. FEMS Microbiol...

Michael Wyman; Sylvia Hodgson; Clare Bird

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Optimization of a compact photoacoustic quantum cascade laser spectrometer for atmospheric flux measurements: application to the detection of methane and nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Room temperature (RT) quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are now available even in ... in the 8 ?m range. The first laser had already been used to calibrate the...4...with a 1s integration time per point was demonstrat...

A. Grossel; V. Zéninari; B. Parvitte; L. Joly; D. Courtois

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Development of a dry low-NOx gas turbine combustor for a natural-gas fueled 2MW co-generation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dry low-NOx gas turbine combustor has been developed for natural-gas fueled co-generation systems in the power range of 1--4MW. The combustor. called the Double Swirler Combustor, uses the lean premixed combustion to reduce NOx emission. The combustor is characterized by two staged lean premixed combustion with two coaxial annular burners and a simple fuel control system without the complex variable geometry. Substantially low NOx level has been achieved to meet the strict NOx regulation to co-generation systems in Japan. High combustion efficiency has been obtained for a wide operating range. In 1994, Tokyo Gas and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries initiated a collaborative program to develop a natural-gas fueled low NOx gas turbine engine for new 2MW class co-generation system, named IM270. The Double Swirler Combustor, originally developed by Tokyo Gas, was introduced into the natural gas fueled version of the IM270. Engine test of the first production unit was successfully conducted to confirm substantially low NOx level of less than 15 ppm (O{sub 2} = 16%) with the output power of more than 2MW. Test for the durability and the reliability of the system is being conducted at Tokyo Gas Negishi LNG Terminal in Kanagawa, Japan and successful results have been so far obtained.

Mori, Masaaki; Sato, Hiroshi

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of the Impacts of Biodiesel and Second Generation Biofuels on NOx Emissions for CARB Diesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

McCormick, R. L.; Graboski, M. S.; Alleman, T. L.; Herring, A. M.; Tyson, K. S.Impact of Biodiesel Source Material and Chemical Structure on Emissions of Criteria Pollutants from a Heavy-Duty Engine Environ. ... McCormick, Robert L.; Graboski, Michael S.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Herring, Andrew M.; Tyson, K. Shaine ... McCormick, R.; Alvarez, J.; Graboski, M.; Tyson, K.Fuel Additive and Blending Approaches to Reducing NOx Emissions from Biodiesel SAE Tech. ...

Maryam Hajbabaei; Kent C. Johnson; Robert A. Okamoto; Alexander Mitchell; Marcie Pullman; Thomas D. Durbin

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

Jost O.L. Wendt

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

NOx diesel exhaust treatment using a pulsed corona discharge: the pulse repetition rate effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pulsed corona offers real promise for degradation of pollutants in gas and water streams. This paper presents a study of NOx removal from diesel exhaust. Special emphasis is laid on the investigation of the dependence of the NO removal rate and efficiency on the pulse repetition rate (PRR). A nanosecond solid state power supply (45?kV, 60?ns, up to 1?kHz) was used for driving the corona reactor. A Mitsubishi 10?kW 3-cylinder diesel-generator engine with a total volume of 1300?cm3 was used as a source of exhaust gas. At an NO removal rate of 35% the NO removal efficiency was 53?g?kW?1h?1 for PRR = 500?Hz and the initial NO concentration was 375?ppm. A semi-empirical expression for the corona reactor removal efficiency related both to PRR and to the residence time is presented. The removal efficiency decreases with increasing PRR at constant flow rate or constant residence time. This expression demonstrates reasonable agreement between the calculation results and the experimental data.

Y Yankelevich; M Wolf; R Baksht; A Pokryvailo; J Vinogradov; B Rivin; E Sher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

348

Calculation of NOx Emission Reduction from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building prototypes, which will be constructed to be representative of the new building construction in Texas. 12 The NAHB characteristics divided the state into east (E), and west (W) divisions: window-to-wall area E=15.28%, W=20.6%, glazing U.... Division (East and West Texas): From NAHB survey data. 17. AFUE (%),SEER and Water Heater Efficiency for 1999 standard and IECC 2000 house are 80%, 11 and 76%, respectively. Table 1: 2002 NOx emissions reductions from implementation of the 2000 IECC...

Turner, W. D.; Yazdani, B.; Im, P.; Verdict, M.; Bryant, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Intergrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Calculation of Integrated NOx Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D., P.E.,Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E., and Bahman Yazdani, P... on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) from the state-wide energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. These programs include: the impact of code-complaint construction, the Texas Public Utility Commission (PUC), the energy efficiency programs managed by the Texas...

Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Impact of the Driving Cycle on the NOx and Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of the Driving Cycle on the NOx and Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Passenger Cars ... The driving cycles used are the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the 11 and 15 modes Japanese cycles, and three U.S. driving cycles: Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75), US06, and Highway. ... In general, we can state that a reduction in compression ratio in combination with an advanced boosting system and a fast response of the EGR system with advanced EGR cooling leads to a reduction of the emission level. ...

Efthimios Zervas; George Bikas

2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

Srinivasan, Ram

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Understanding the Synergistic Catalytic Effect between La2O3 and CaO for the CH4 Lean De-NOx Reaction:? Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry, Heterogeneous Catalysis Laboratory, University of Cyprus, P.O. ... 3-5 Methane is of particular interest as a reductant hydrocarbon species because of the large availability of natural gas, the use of the latter at gas-fired power plants (main stationary NOx polluting source), and the potential to be considered as an alternative to NH3 reductant used in industrial practice (NH3?SCR technology), which faces various problems. ... However, the likelihood for the presence of inactive but exchangeable NOx species with gaseous 15NO cannot be excluded. ...

T. Anastasiadou; L. A. Loukatzikou; C. N. Costa; A. M. Efstathiou

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

Analysis of different control strategies for the simultaneous reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions of a diesel hybrid passenger car  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different control strategies for a diesel parallel hybrid passenger car were evaluated through numerical simulations. Two different control strategies were analysed: the first focused on fuel consumption minimisation, the second on NOx emissions cuts. Each of these goals was addressed through two different methodologies, the first based on a group of heuristic laws, the second focused on the instantaneous minimisation of a cost function that takes into account both the fuel and battery energies. A first assessment of the potential of a diesel hybrid passenger car as far as fuel consumption and NOx emissions reductions are concerned was obtained.

Federico Millo; Carlo V. Ferraro; Luciano Rolando

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Mercury oxidation promoted by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst under simulated Powder River Basin coal combustion conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and trace Hg{sup 0}. Concentrations of Hg{sup 0} and total mercury (Hg) upstream and downstream of the SCR catalyst were measured using a Hg monitor. The effects of HCl concentration, SCR operating temperature, catalyst space velocity, and feed rate of PRB fly ash on Hg0 oxidation were evaluated. It was observed that HCl provides the source of chlorine for Hg{sup 0} oxidation under simulated PRB coal-fired SCR conditions. The decrease in Hg mass balance closure across the catalyst with decreasing HCl concentration suggests that transient Hg capture on the SCR catalyst occurred during the short test exposure periods and that the outlet speciation observed may not be representative of steady-state operation at longer exposure times. Increasing the space velocity and operating temperature of the SCR led to less Hg{sup 0} oxidized. Introduction of PRB coal fly ash resulted in slightly decreased outlet oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) as a percentage of total inlet Hg and correspondingly resulted in an incremental increase in Hg capture. The injection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) for NOx reduction by SCR was found to have a strong effect to decrease Hg oxidation. The observations suggest that Hg{sup 0} oxidation may occur near the exit region of commercial SCR reactors. Passage of flue gas through SCR systems without NH{sub 3} injection, such as during the low-ozone season, may also impact Hg speciation and capture in the flue gas. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Chun W. Lee; Shannon D. Serre; Yongxin Zhao; Sung Jun Lee; Thomas W. Hastings [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Simultaneous Removal of NOx and Mercury in Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a 18-month investigation to advance the development of a novel Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR), for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and mercury (elemental and oxidized) from flue gases in a single unit operation located downstream of the particulate collectors, are reported. In the proposed LTSCAR, NO{sub x} removal is in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The concomitant capture of mercury in the unit is achieved through the incorporation of a novel chelating adsorbent. As conceptualized, the LTSCAR will be located downstream of the particulate collectors (flue gas temperature 140-160 C) and will be similar in structure to a conventional SCR. That is, it will have 3-4 beds that are loaded with catalyst and adsorbent allowing staged replacement of catalyst and adsorbent as required. Various Mn/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to reduce NO at low temperature using CO as the reductant. It has been shown that with a suitably tailored catalyst more than 65% NO conversion with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity can be achieved, even at a high space velocity (SV) of 50,000 h-1 and in the presence of 2 v% H{sub 2}O. Three adsorbents for oxidized mercury were developed in this project with thermal stability in the required range. Based on detailed evaluations of their characteristics, the mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) adsorbent was found to be most promising for the capture of oxidized mercury. This adsorbent has been shown to be thermally stable to 200 C. Fixed-bed evaluations in the targeted temperature range demonstrated effective removal of oxidized mercury from simulated flue gas at very high capacity ({approx}>58 mg Hg/g adsorbent). Extension of the capability of the adsorbent to elemental mercury capture was pursued with two independent approaches: incorporation of a novel nano-layer on the surface of the chelating mercury adsorbent to achieve in situ oxidation on the adsorbent, and the use of a separate titania-supported manganese oxide catalyst upstream of the oxidized mercury adsorbent. Both approaches met with some success. It was demonstrated that the concept of in situ oxidation on the adsorbent is viable, but the future challenge is to raise the operating capacity beyond the achieved limit of 2.7 mg Hg/g adsorbent. With regard to the manganese dioxide catalyst, elemental mercury was very efficiently oxidized in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Adequate resistance to sulfur dioxide must be incorporated for the approach to be feasible in flue gas. A preliminary benefits analysis of the technology suggests significant potential economic and environmental advantages.

Neville G. Pinto; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

Microsoft Word - 41892_Praxair_Low NOx_Factsheet_Rev 0a_01-09-04.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FACT SHEET FACT SHEET Revision 0a Jan. 9, 2004 Page 1 of 4 I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective: The objective of this project is to design a gas turbine combustor system for new and existing turbines with a combination of air flow management control and fuel composition control to achieve 2 ppm NOx emissions. Since most Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) systems consider the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel and there is a large infrastructure of existing natural gas based turbines, it is imperative that the combustor design be amenable to operating on both coal derived fuel gas and natural gas. The specific objectives of each phase of this program are: Phase I: Develop conceptual design of turbine combustor with air flow control and fuel

360

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN COFIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The project goals and detailed plans were presented in two project kickoff meetings; one at NETL in Pittsburgh and one in Birmingham, AL at Southern Research Institute. Progress has been made in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preparations are under way for the initial pilot-scale combustion experiments.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A method to extend flamelet manifolds for prediction of NOx and long time scale species with tabulated chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulation is currently used to help design low NOx devices for aircraft engines. In order to improve the prediction of pollutant species, combustion models based on tabulated chemistry have been commonly used in recent years. However, the short time scales of usual flamelet manifolds can lead to errors concerning the NO prediction in post flame area, as shown in this paper. Thus, a new method is proposed to extend the manifold in order to describe the evolution of species with a long characteristic time. This method is tested in the framework of 0D-1D computations. The use of the extended manifold is shown to be necessary to correctly predict the evolution of NO concentration in burnt gases. As an example, the extended and classical manifolds were compared in the framework of 2D simulations of an industrial-like combustor, showing an evident difference on the NO levels predicted in the outlet section.

Aymeric Boucher; Nicolas Bertier; Francis Dupoirieux

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x} reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.

Johnson, William L [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complexes between nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous1992) Indoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide: A potential pathwaybed of SiO 2 pellets. Nitrogen dioxide is introduced from a

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cross-country urban and rural measurements of NOx and SO2. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total sulfur and oxides of nitrogen measurements, gathered along two long-distance routes across the United States, are presented. Supportive information describing the instrumentation, procedures, moving laboratory, and regional meteorological conditions are provided. Over 300,000 measurements were made. Points consisting of ten-measurement averages have been plotted; they are also presented in a graphic analysis. This analysis consists of frequency distribution plots of segments of the trip, for example, through rural areas and crossing urban developments. These plots provide a means of classification of the degree of pollution present and monitored with this moving laboratory technique. The data were gathered from Denver, Colorado, to Raleigh, North Carolina, in August 1976, and from Los Angeles, California, to Raleigh, North Carolina, in November 1976. In November the laboratory stopped at six rural locations to record time-averaged data, which are also presented.

Langan, L.; Peache, M.A.; Garbarz, J.J.; Baumgardner, R.E.; Stevens, R.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round III, the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System (IDECS), as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). The desire to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO, nitric oxide, and NO{sub 2}, nitrogen dioxide, collectively referred to as NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) by up to 70 percent at a minimum capital expenditure, while limiting waste production to dry solids that can be handled by conventional ash-removal equipment, prompted Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC) to submit the proposal for the IDECS project. In March 1991, PSCC entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. The project was sited at PSCC's Arapahoe Steam Electric Generating Station in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate the reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions by installing a combination of existing and emerging technologies, which were expected to work synergistically to reduce emissions. The technologies were low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBS), overfire air (OFA), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} reduction; and dry sorbent injection (DSI), both with and without flue-gas humidification (FGH), for SO{sub 2} reduction. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $26.2 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contains nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide,nitric oxide, while nitrogen dioxide is rapidly formedreadily oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, a pulmonary irritant.

World Health Organization

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst

368

Mixed-Phase Oxide Catalyst Based on Mn-Mullite (Sm, Gd)Mn2O5 for NO Oxidation in Diesel Exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efficiency than gasoline engines (1). However...devices to reduce the engine-generated nitrogen...NOx to N 2 under fuel-rich regeneration...NOx-based pollutants, diesel engines also generate black...indicating the consumption of surface...

Weichao Wang; Geoffrey McCool; Neeti Kapur; Guang Yuan; Bin Shan; Matt Nguyen; Uschi M. Graham; Burtron H. Davis; Gary Jacobs; Kyeongjae Cho; Xianghong (Kelly) Hao

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

369

Modeling of formaldehyde and nitrogen oxides from a proposed renewable energy biogas facility in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to use the CALPUFF modeling system an effective and reliable atmospheric modeling tool to predict the concentrations of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) released due to the combustion of biogas in the combined heat and power (CHP) engines from the Kawartha renewable energy generation facility at its proposed location in Ontario Canada. In this study HCHO and NOx were selected as the indicator and point source pollutants since they were the most significant products of biogas combustion emitted during the facility's normal operations (production of electricity and heat). The Lambert Conformal Conic projection coordinate system was implemented for the operation of the CALPUFF model. The proposed modeling scheme was coupled with both surface meteorological data (from 00:00 to 23:00) on an hourly basis and 12-h interval-based upper air meteorological data (from 00:00 to 12:00) to simulate the emission of these pollutants for the four seasonal Eastern Time meteorological conditions of winter (January 11–13 2013) spring (April 14–16 2013) summer (July 10–12 2013) and autumn (November 16–18 2013). The results from the CALPUFF dispersion model clearly demonstrated that the maximum 1-h average concentrations of both HCHO and NOx emitted from the combustion of biogas (composed of 60% CH4 and 40% CO2) in five CHP engines (operation load?=?100% maximum electricity generation capacity?=?9.8?MW) were found to be within the limits defined by Ontario Regulation 419/05.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Visualization research on high efficiency and low NOx combustion technology with multiple air?staged and large angle counter flow of fuel?rich jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper a new technique for tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler high efficiency and low NOx combustion technology with multiple air?staged and large angle counter flow of fuel?rich jet (ACCT for short) is proposed. Based on traditional air staged and rich?lean combustion technique a NOx reduction area is introduced through air injection between primary combustion zone and secondary combustion zone. To verify the characters of this technique experiment with a new developed visualization method image processing on smog tracing with fractal dimension is carried out on a cold model of 300 MW furnace designed with this technique. The result shows compared to injection without counter flow the center lines of counter flow injection go deeper into the chamber and form a smaller tangential circle which means the rotating momentum of entire vortex is feebler and the exit gyration is weaker. It also shows that with counter flow the fractal dimensions of boundary between primary jet and front fire side air is bigger which means more intense turbulence and better mix. As a conclusion with fractal dimension image processing on smog tracing method can be a quantificational convenient and effective visualization way without disturbing the flow field and it’s also acknowledged that ACCT has the following superiorities: high burn out rate low NOx emission stable burning slagging preventing and temp?bias reducing.

Y. Y. Li; Y. Li; Z. C. Lin; W. D. Fan; M. C. Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Validation of a zero-dimensional model for prediction of \\{NOx\\} and engine performance for electronically controlled marine two-stroke diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to derive a methodology suitable for energy system analysis for predicting the performance and \\{NOx\\} emissions of marine low speed diesel engines. The paper describes a zero-dimensional model, evaluating the engine performance by means of an energy balance and a two zone combustion model using ideal gas law equations over a complete crank cycle. The combustion process is divided into intervals, and the product composition and flame temperature are calculated in each interval. The \\{NOx\\} emissions are predicted using the extended Zeldovich mechanism. The model is validated using experimental data from two MAN B&W engines; one case being data subject to engine parameter changes corresponding to simulating an electronically controlled engine; the second case providing data covering almost all model input and output parameters. The first case of validation suggests that the model can predict specific fuel oil consumption and \\{NOx\\} emissions within the 95% confidence intervals given by the experimental measurements. The second validation confirms the capability of the model to match measured engine output parameters based on measured engine input parameters with a maximum 5% deviation.

Fabio Scappin; Sigurður H. Stefansson; Fredrik Haglind; Anders Andreasen; Ulrik Larsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Emission reduction of NOx and CO by optimization of the automatic control system in a coal-fired stoker boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date research on NO, and CO emission reduction in stoker-fired boilers has been devoted to combustion modification to the overfire air, diverting air to a selected set of burners, using modified low-NOx, burners, using flue gas recirculation or flue gas treatment with specially controlled catalyst and additives. This study introduces a concept that focuses on the dynamics of the boiler and the automatic control system. The objective of this study was to reduce the NO and CO emissions by restructuring the automatic control system and then tuning the control system with parameters that have been optimized with emission reduction as the objective. Dynamic data were obtained from a step-input test of either the underfire air or the overfire air. These data were used to model the boiler with a transfer function describing the emissions. The analyzer dynamic response was included in the overall model. The control parameters were determined from this overall emissions transfer function by mathematical optimization. These control parameters constituted the initial values in the automatic control system used for the final tests in the boiler. Additional adjustments to reduce the emissions were carried out during boiler operation. A low controller gain and a fast reset time were found to be the most suitable setting for the control system. The NO emissions controlled by the overfire air and CO emissions controlled by the underfire air produced the best results.

Schnelle, K.B.; Laungphairojana, A.; Debelak, K.A. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Inevitability of Engine-Out Nox Emissions from Spark-Ignition and Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines, both spark ignition and Diesel, are dominant types of vehicle power sources and also provide power for other important stationary applications. Overall, these engines are a central part of power generation in modern society. However, these engines, burning hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas to gasoline and Diesel fuel, are also responsible for a great deal of pollutant emissions to the environment, especially oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). In recent years, pollutant species emissions from internal combustion engines have been the object of steadily more stringent limitations from various governmental agencies. Engine designers have responded by developing engines that reduce emissions to accommodate these tighter limitations. However, as these limits become ever more stringent, the ability of engine design modifications to meet those limits must be questioned. Production of NO{sub x} in internal combustion engines is primarily due to the high temperature extended Zeldovich reaction mechanism: (1) O + N{sub 2} = NO + N; (2) N + O{sub 2} = NO + O; and (3) N + OH = NO + H. The rates of these reactions become significant when combustion temperatures reach or exceed about 2000K. This large temperature dependence, characterized by large activation energies for the rates of the reactions listed here, is a direct result of the need to break apart the tightly bonded oxygen and nitrogen molecules. The strongest bond is the triple bond in the N {triple_bond} N molecule, resulting in an activation energy of about 75 kcal/mole for Reaction (1), which is the principal cause for the large temperature dependence of the extended Zeldovich NO{sub x} mechanism. In most engines, NO{sub x} is therefore produced primarily in the high temperature combustion product gases. Using a reliable kinetic model for NO{sub x} production such as the GRI Mechanism [1] or the Miller-Bowman model [2] with hydrocarbon products at temperatures from 1500K through 2500K, the amounts of NO{sub x} produced at a given residence time in an engine can easily be computed, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 depicts how temperatures such as those existing in the combustion zones of heavy-duty engines would produce NO{sub x} emissions. This figure was created assuming that a fuel/air equivalence ratio {phi} of 0.65 was used to heat the combustion air. This equivalence ratio would be similar to that of a heavy-duty lean-burn spark-ignition or diesel engine. At temperatures in the neighborhood of 2000K and residence times between 1-5 milliseconds, which are typical of residence times at these temperatures in engines, the production of NO{sub x} increases dramatically. It is evident from Fig. 1 that product temperatures must remain below approximately 2100K to achieve extremely low NO{sub x} production levels in engines. This conclusion led to a combined experimental and modeling study of product gas temperatures in engine combustion and their influence on emission levels.

Flynn, P F; Hunter, G L; Farrell, L A; Durrett, R P; Akinyemi, O C; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

379

Latest developments and application of DB Riley`s low NOx CCV{reg_sign} burner technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in DB Riley (DBR) low NO{sub x} burner technology and the application of this technology in coal fired utility boilers are discussed. Since the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, DBR has sold nearly 1500 Controlled Combustion Venturi (CCV{reg_sign}) burners on pulverized coal fired utility boilers reducing NOx emissions 50 - 70% from uncontrolled levels. This technology has been retrofitted on boiler designs ranging in size and type from 50 MW front wall fired boilers to 1300 MW opposed fired cell type boilers. In DBR`s latest version of the CCV{reg_sign} burner, a second controlled flow air zone was added to enhance NO{sub x} control capability. Other developments included improved burner air flow measurement accuracy and several mechanical design upgrades such as new coal spreader designs for 3 year wear life. Test results of the CCV{reg_sign} dual air zone burner in DBR`s 100 million Btu/hr (29 MW) coal burner test facility are presented. In the test program, coals from four utility boiler sites were fired to provide a range of coal properties. A baseline high volatile bituminous coal was also fired to provide a comparison with 1992 test data for the CCV{reg_sign} single register burner. The test results showed that the second air zone enhanced NO{sub x} reduction capability by an additional 20% over the single register design. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling results of the CCV{reg_sign} dual air zone burner are also presented showing near field mixing patterns conducive to low NO{sub x} firing.

Penterson, C.; Ake, T. [DB Riley, Inc., Worcester, MA (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Princeton University Princeton University SCC/Advanced Energy Systems Div. FY14-15/ 10/01/13 - 08/31/15 Joseph M. Stoffa Princeton, New Jersey An Experimental and Modeling Study of NOX-CO Formation in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) Fuels Combustion The goal of this project is to improve the turbine community's ability to predict the formation of nitrous oxides (NOX) in next generation high hydrogen turbines. Joseph Stoffa Digitally signed by Joseph Stoffa DN: cn=Joseph Stoffa, o=Department of Energy, ou=National Energy Technology Laboratory, email=joseph.stoffa@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2013.07.18 10:04:20 -04'00' 07 18 2013 Cliff Whyte Digitally signed by Cliff Whyte DN: cn=Cliff Whyte, o=US Dept of Energy, ou=NETL- OPFC, email=Cliff.Whyte@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2013.07.29 07:43:31

382

Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.1 National Legislation  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

8 8 The Clean Air Act 1970 Amendments - - - 1977 Amendments - - - - 1990 Amendments - - - Source(s): Lengthened federal deadlines for meeting pollution reduction, particularly with regards to mobile emissions sources. Established a sulfur dioxide (Sox) and a nitrous oxide (Nox) cap and trade program. Under this program, an emissions cap is set and permits are issued. An emitter of Sox or Nox must have a permit for each unit of pollutant they release These emissions permits may be trade (bought and sold) amongst polluting parties to minimize cost. Mandated the control of 189 hazardous pollutants. Updated and expanded provisions of the NAAQS. The United States Congress, Public Law 108-201, The Clean Air Act as amended through February 24, 2004; EPA, The History of the Clean

383

The Future of Precipitation: Global and Regional Isidoro Orlanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

destruction of ozone by chlorine; (1985) Farman et al: ozone hole Carbon dioxide methane Nitrous oxide CFCs

384

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ambient Temperature Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Using Atmospheric Pressure Nonthermal Plasma Activation of a Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ambient Temperature Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Using Atmospheric Pressure Nonthermal Plasma Activation of a Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst ... This low temperature activity provides the basis for applying nonthermal plasmas to activate emission control catalysts during cold start conditions, which remains an important issue for mobile and stationary applications. ... (14, 15) Therefore, the combination of heterogeneous catalysis with plasmas has attracted interest due to the combined possible advantages of having a fast and low-temperature reaction from atmospheric nonthermal plasma and high product selectivity from heterogeneous catalysis. ...

Cristina E. Stere; Wameedh Adress; Robbie Burch; Sarayute Chansai; Alexandre Goguet; William G. Graham; Fabio De Rosa; Vincenzo Palma; Christopher Hardacre

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 61376149, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6137/2010/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202 The long-lived atmospheric species nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are ozone depleting

Meskhidze, Nicholas

388

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

390

Ethylene Oxide Explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE occasional occurrence of ethylene oxide explosions during the fumigation of dried fruit has led us to undertake a detailed ... yielded results somewhat like those for acetaldehyde1,2.. Cool flames can be initiated in ethylene oxide – air mixtures in the neighbourhood of 330° C. at atmospheric pressure. ...

J. H. BURGOYNE; F. A. BURDEN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

392

NOx Sensor Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

393

NOx Sensor Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

needed to meet emission targets and enable widespread use of diesel vehicles with better fuel economies: We are developing a novel sensor with the potential to meet OEM cost and...

394

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Oxidations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) offers many excellent opportunities for conducting oxidation reactions using inexpensive primary oxidants such as oxygen, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, electrooxidation...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

397

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

398

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov…

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas Donghyun Rim, Jeffrey Siegel, Jarett Spinhirne, Alba Webb, Elena McDonald-Buller*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons, including formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1

Siegel, Jeffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Infrared spectroscopic studies of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a series of silica-supported copper catalysts in different oxidation states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (358-493 K, 0.1-20 kPa) on four copper-on-silica (2-10 wt% Cu) catalysts prepared by the ion-exchange technique. The measurements are made for each sample in three different states: unreduced (predominantly Cu{sup 2+}), and reduced (Cu{sup 0}), and partially reoxidized in nitrous oxide (Cu{sup +}). On unreduced samples, a major absorption band between 2127 and 2132 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO adsorbed on small CuO particles and a weak band at 2199 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO on isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions incorporated in the silica surface have been identified. The former adsorption obeys a Langmuir isotherm with a heat of adsorption of 29 kJ/mol independent of CuO particle size and surface coverage. After catalyst reduction, the major absorption band lies between 2090 and 2113 cm{sup {minus}1} and arises from CO linearly bound to very small (1- to 5-nm) copper metal clusters. The observed frequency shifts indicate the presence of steps and terraces similar to low index Cu planes in very small particles (1- to 2-nm), and the presence of similar higher index Cu planes on larger clusters (2- to 5-nm). The absorption is described by a Freundlich isotherm with the heat of CO adsorption decreasing with coverage from 50 to 22 kJ/mol on bigger particles but more constant (27 to 22 kJ/mol) on small particles. A surface copper/CO atomic ratio increasing from 5 to 12 is established at equilibrium saturation between 358 and 493 K using extinction coefficients determined in this study. In the reduced catalysts, a weakly adsorbed ({Delta}H{sub a} = {minus}20 kJ/mol) species assigned to CO bound to isolated Cu{sup +} ions is also found and absorbs at 2175 cm{sup {minus}1}. The frequency of this band does not vary with catalyst loading and is not affected by reoxidation of the catalyst in nitrous oxide.

Kohler, M.A.; Wainwright, M.S.; Trimm, D.L.; Cant, N.W. (Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia) Univ. of South Wales (Australia))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ... Optimization of hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) requires consideration of (i) HC gas diffusion into the catalyst layer, (ii) HC gas adsorption and desorption from catalyst sites, and (iii) kinetics of the oxidation reaction. ... Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase ...

Yasushi Tanaka; Takashi Hihara; Makoto Nagata; Naoto Azuma; Akifumi Ueno

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

403

NOx, SOx and CO2 Emissions Reduction from Continuous Commissioning® (CC®) Measures at the Rent-A-Car Facility in the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and CO2) reduction for year 1999 and the projected ones for 2007 and corresponding OSD periods are presented next. Potential Emissions Reductions for 1999 Potential Emissions Reductions for 2007 Emissions Annual (Tons/yr) OSD (Tons/day) Annual... (Tons/yr) OSD (Tons/day) NOX 3.710320 0.012782 1.64387 0.00554 SO2 N/A N/A 1.11594 0.00362 CO2 N/A N/A 1316.468 4.62669 The potential emissions reduction of SO2 and CO2 for the year 1999 was not evaluated because eGRID tables for that year were...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

THE EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE It is the science that studies the whole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by coal, continuing deforestation, and limited or no control of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon of the twenty-first century, a phaseout of CFC emissions, and limitations on agricultural methane and nitrous

Gilbes, Fernando

405

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

407

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

408

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

411

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

412

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

413

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst Authors: Sherman, B. D., Pillai, S., Kodis, G., Bergkamp, J., Mallouk, T. E., Gust, D., Moore, T. A., and Moore, A. L....

415

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel for use in solid oxide fuel cells. This cutting edge area of research continues to be important as energy prove useful for solid oxide fuel cells. METHODS Commercial molybdenum dioxide was used for all tests

Collins, Gary S.

416

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

417

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

420

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors ... Graphene oxide can be exploited in humidity and temperature sensors with a number of convenient features such as flexibility, transparency and suitability for large-scale manufacturing. ... Here we show that the two-dimensional nature of graphene oxide and its superpermeability to water combine to enable humidity sensors with unprecedented response speed (?30 ms response and recovery times). ...

Stefano Borini; Richard White; Di Wei; Michael Astley; Samiul Haque; Elisabetta Spigone; Nadine Harris; Jani Kivioja; Tapani Ryhänen

2013-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Abstract: Graphene...

423

Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published The ORNL DAAC is pleased to announce the release of the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1. Data set prepared by J.T. Randerson, G.R. van der Werf, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, and P.S. Kasibhatla. This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for carbon (C), dry matter (DM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), particulate matter 2.5 micron (PM2p5), total particulate matter (TPM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among others. The C4 fraction of

424

Version 2 Global Fire Emissions Database Available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Global Fire Emissions Database Available Global Fire Emissions Database Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2)." This data set, which supersedes and replaces the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 1 (GFEDv1), consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 - December 2004. For more information or to access this data set, please see the Vegetation

425

Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

428

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Anodic oxidation of zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic polarization of zircaloy-2 in different electrolytic baths has been investigated in order to obtain thick oxide films with properties suitable for wear applications.

A. Conte; A. Borello; A. Cabrini

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

431

Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible catalyst deactivation problems High capital, low operating Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) Feasible only at high organic concentra- tions High Fast reaction, complete oxidation Severe reaction conditions, canosion problems... of milder reaction conditions and is much less energy intensive. Thus, catalytic wet oxidation would be an alternative to solvent extraction, supercritical water oxidation, homogeneous oxidation, and incineration. It should also be feasible at low...

Thomas, Brook James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ethylene Oxide for Soil Sterilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , this method may be time-consuming, and in view of the physical properties of ethylene oxide (solubility in water and boiling point 12-5 C.) it was considered ... consists of making up an aqueous solution to supply 2 or 4 c.c. of ethylene oxide in a given amount of water, using pre-chilled glassware and water. The ...

R. E. ROSE; R. W. BAILEY

1952-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Selective production of hydrogen for fuel cells via oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell powered vehicles using hydrogen (H2) as a fuel are currently being developed in an effort to mitigate the emissions of green house gases such as CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The H2 fuel is extracted from methanol onboard a vehicle by steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reaction. A considerable amount of CO is produced as a by-product, which is a poison to the Pt anode of the fuel cell. Very recently, we have demonstrated that a combined SRM and partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which we labeled as “oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM)” reaction is more efficient for the selective production of H2 relatively at a lower temperature of around 230°C over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts derived from hydroxycarbonate precursors containing hydrotalcite (HT)-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/aurichalcite phases. There are several operating parameters such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios and methanol injection rate that are need to be optimized in order to produce H2 suitable for fuelling a fuel cell. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of these variable parameters on the catalytic performance over a series of CuZnAl- and CuZnAlZr-oxide catalysts. Our study indicated that among the CuZn-based catalysts, those containing Zr were the most active. The optimum O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios should be in the ranges 0.20–0.30 and 1.3–1.6, respectively, in order to achieve a better catalytic performance. Studies of the effect of methanol contact time on the catalytic performance over a Zr-containing catalyst revealed that the OSRM reaction proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde intermediate. CO was produced as a secondary product by the decomposition of formaldehyde and it is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction.

S Velu; K Suzuki; M.P Kapoor; F Ohashi; T Osaki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

Myers, Christine Lee

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

439

Non-Catalytic Production of Hydrogen via Reforming of Diesel, Hexadecane and Bio-Diesel for Nitrogen Oxides Remediation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? After-treatment technologies are required for diesel engines to meet the current and future stringent emissions regulations. Lean NOx traps and SCR catalysts represent the… (more)

Hernandez-Gonzalez, Sergio Manuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Atmospheric Pollutant Removal by Non?Thermal Plasmas: Basic Data Needs for Understanding and Optimization of the Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since fifteen years an increasing interest has been devoted to removal of atmospheric pollutant by non?thermal plasmas achieved using e?beams or pulsed discharges for the nitrous oxides the so?called de?NOx process or for Volatils Organic Compounds the so?called de?VOC process. However the physical and chemical mechanisms involved are not easy to understand: molecules or gas mixtures are quite complex and the transient plasma created by the type of discharge often used dielectric barrier or corona ones is non homogeneous in space. In this paper is discussed some data needs for understanding of the NO?removal process and the destruction of some selected VOC molecules TCE and TCA by pulsed discharge plasmas. Some experimental studies performed to get insight into the discharge plasma kinetic involved in the pollutant removal are presented in particular about the hydroxyl radical OH which play an important role in this kinetic.

S. Pasquiers; M. Cormier; O. Motret

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The viscosity and density of CJO (crude Jatropha oil) were reduced by heating it using the heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine with an appropriately designed helical coil heat exchanger. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and \\{NOx\\} (nitrous oxide) emissions were observed for PJO along with increased CO (carbon monoxide) emission as compared to those of HSD.

Priyabrata Pradhan; Hifjur Raheman; Debasish Padhee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Focus Area: Low Carbon Communities Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.icleiusa.org/tools/cacp-2009/cacp-software-2009/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/clean-air-and-climate-protection-soft CACP 2009 is a one-stop emissions management tool that calculates and tracks emissions and reductions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and criteria air pollutants (NOx, SOx, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, PM10, PM 2.5) associated with electricity, fuel use, and waste disposal. References Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Clean_Air_and_Climate_Protection_Software_2009&oldid=51434

444

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of structural, electronic, and chemical properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces were performed on well-defined interfaces that created by depositing ultra-thin potassium and aluminum films and their oxides onto single crystal TiO[sub 2] and NiO surfaces. Work focused on determining the structure, growth mechanisms, and morphologies of metal and oxide films as they are deposited an single crystal oxide surfaces using RHEED and atomic force microscopy probing electronic structure, bonding and chemical interactions at the interfaces using x-ray and uv photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and understanding factors affecting stability and reactivity of the interface regions including the role of defects and impurities. Results indicate that kinetic effects have an important influence on interface structure and composition, and they also show that defects in the oxide substrate induce new electronic states at the interface which play a major role in cation-anion bonding and interface interactions. The results establish a link between electronic and chemical bonding properties and the interface structure and morphology, which is required to successfully manipulate the interfacial properties of advanced ceramic materials.

Lad, R.J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

447

On-board Measurement of NO and NO2 using Non-dispersive Ultraviolet...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Study of...

448

Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

449

DOE Announces $14 Million Industry Partnership Projects to Increase...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

particulate matter and nitrous oxides sensors suitable to support an exhaust gas recirculation control system in diesel engines. The project will include validation and...

450

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

result except for the case in which methane and nitrous oxide were increased from zero to their 1860 concentration. The smallest differences between the AER broadband and...

451

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

453

Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...leading technology (90% open market) for producing cumene is the UOP Catalytic...methanol. However, the methanol market is too small for the available...powders in the Japanese laundry market grew to >90%. In the U...NOx ) emitted from lean-burn diesel engines. Many catalyst developers...

John D. Sherman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

455

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

456

Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Trioxide and Mercury Emissions during Oxy-Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustion of Victorian Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates, for the first time, the NOX, N2O, SO3 and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOX emissions and higher N2O ...

Bithi Roy; Luguang Chen; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

457

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Speaker(s): Chandan K. Sen Date: February 17, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Reactive oxygen species represent a common mediator of environmental stress such as during physical exercise, ozone exposure, UV radiation and xenobiotic (pollutant) metabolism. Antioxidant defense systems protect against the ravages of such reactive species. In contrast to the conventional idea that reactive oxygen is mostly a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, now we know that low physiologically relevant concentration of reactive oxygen species can regulate a variety of key molecular mechanisms that may be linked with important processes such as immune response, cell-cell adhesion, cell proliferation, inflammation,

459

Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

Propp, W.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Designing of SCR systems for reducing nitrogen oxide in diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SCR technology is the main strategy being pursued in order to comply with future NOx limits on the European, US and Japanese passenger car markets. Apart from a sound base of experience, the optimum design of SCR...

Rolf Kaiser; Klaus Rusch

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components.

462

Mapping of air quality and human exposure along motorways Steen Solvang JENSEN*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nitrogen oxides (NOx) encompassing hourly data on nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were

463

Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in Water Xiaodong Ye, Yijie Lu, Shilin Liu,*, Guangzhao Zhang, and Chi Wu-induced micellization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic PE10300) triblock

Liu, Shilin

466

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers Studied by Differential Scanning and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), EOnPOmEOn, and the ionic surfactants sodium the aggregates of all three polymers. Introduction Water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)- poly(ethylene

Loh, Watson

467

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

468

Computational Modeling of Graphene Oxide Exfoliation and Lithium Storage Characteristics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Graphene oxide is a two dimensional material obtained by adsorption of oxygen or oxygen-containing groups on graphene. Stacked layers of graphene oxide constitute graphite oxide.… (more)

Mortezaee, Reza

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past six months, we have begun our studies of the fundamental properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide heterogeneous interfaces which are being prepared by epitaxial growth of ultra-thin-films on single crystal TiO{sub 2} and NiO surfaces. A new ultra-high vacuum film growth chamber was assembled and coupled to an existing surface analysis chamber; a sample transfer system, metal deposition sources, and a RHEED systems with microchannel plate detection were constructed and implemented. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize and refine the preparation procedures for the single crystal surfaces. The electronic structure of stoichiometric, oxygen-deficient, and potassium-covered TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces was investigated. Preliminary results on the Al/TiO{sub 2} (110) system have been obtained. Two graduate students have begun thesis research on the project. 6 figs.

Lad, R.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

473

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

474

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. • Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. • Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

476

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

477

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely...

478

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

High quality oxide films on substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by Manganese Oxides H U I C H U N Z H A N G of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 The antibacterial agents triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4- dichlorophenoxy(-MnO2 andMnOOH)yielding MnII ions. Both the initial reaction rate and adsorption of triclosan to oxide

Huang, Ching-Hua

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide nox" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

482

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Department: Fuel Cells and SolidSolid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Anne Hauch Risø-PhD-37(EN) Risø : Images from transmission electron microscopy investigation of the H2 electrode for the solid oxide cell

483

Photo-oxides of Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are involved in the biological action of carcinogenic hydrocarbons, we have attempted to isolate the photo-oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such ... -oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such photo-oxides would naturally be insoluble in water and hence would represent merely one stage in ...

J. W. COOK; R. MARTIN; E. M. F. ROE

1939-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

484

Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane by bacteria (especially, alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria) that likely participate in the oxidationORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark

Hansell, Dennis

486

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

487

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

489

Semiconductive Properties of Uranium Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES Thomas Meek Materials Science Engineering Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37931 Michael Hu and M. Jonathan Haire Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 August 2000 For the Waste Management 2001 Symposium Tucson, Arizona February 25-March 1, 2001 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________ * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy

490

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Kinetics of Diesel Nanoparticle Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation rates in air of diesel nanoparticles sampled directly from the exhaust stream of a medium-duty diesel engine were measured over the temperature range of 800?1140 °C using online aerosol techniques. ... Particulate emission from diesel engines is currently a topic of great concern from both pollution and public health standpoints. ... In addition, the fundamental carbon-to-hydrogen ratio may be different in diesel particles as compared to the commonly used surrogates (15). ...

Kelly J. Higgins; Heejung Jung; David B. Kittelson; Jeffrey T. Roberts; Michael R. Zachariah

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

492

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. ... Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals. ...

L Schmidt; J Elder; J Davis

1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

Cao, Guozhong

495

Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. · Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide and solid waste. · Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride

Gottgens, Hans

496

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

497

Step-Orientation-Dependent Oxidation: From 1D to 2D Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we have studied the initial oxidation of Rh(111) surfaces with two types of straight steps, having {100} and {111} microfacets. The one-dimensional (1D) oxide initially formed at the steps acts as a barrier impeding formation of the 2D oxide on the (111) terrace behind it. We demonstrate that the details of the structure of the 1D oxide govern the rate of 2D oxidation and discuss implications for oxidation of nanoparticles.

J. Klikovits; M. Schmid; L. R. Merte; P. Varga; R. Westerström; A. Resta; J. N. Andersen; J. Gustafson; A. Mikkelsen; E. Lundgren; F. Mittendorfer; G. Kresse

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

498

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

499

Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due to the potential of achieving higher actinide recoveries from refractory materials. In this experiment, nominally 10 g of a graphite-containing residue generated during plutonium casting operations was initially calcined to remove the graphite. Removal of combustible material prior to a large-scale fusion with Na2O2 is needed due to the large amount of heat liberated during oxidation. Two successive fusions using the residue from the calcination and the residue generated from the initial dissolution allowed recovery of 98 percent of the plutonium. The fusion of the residue following the first dissolution was performed at a higher temperature (600 degrees Celsius versus 450 degrees Celsius during the first fusion). The ability to recover most of the remaining plutonium from the residue suggest the oxidation efficiency of the Na2O2 fusion improves with higher temperatures similar to results observed with NpO2 fusion.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,