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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent changing global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year time series of annual values. A spline function has been fit to the data to provide a continuous time series of

2

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill ... Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N2O emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. ...

Janne Rinne; Mari Pihlatie; Annalea Lohila; Tea Thum; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila; Timo Vesala

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions (GHG) from wastewater treatment plants using closed-loop mass balance and data reconciliation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially, nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using data reconciliation and closed-loop mass balance was estimated. This study is based on a...

JungJin Lim; Boddupalli Sankarrao; TaeSeok Oh…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha?1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants ferti...

Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Verónica Reyes-Varela…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Development of a New Chemiluminescence Detector for Sub-ppm Level Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......atmosphere (15) and sea water (7), sometimes...sub-ppm level atmospheric N2O without any...through a standard gas generator (Model SGGU-72...Lodger, Jr. Atmospheric ni- trious oxide...Measurement of atmospheric nitrous oxide using...oxide in air and water using a 5A molecular......

Shun Araki; Shigetaka Suzuki; Masaaki Yamada; Hiroshi Suzuki; Toshiyuki Hobo

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Title Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Jeong, Seongeun, Chuanfeng Zhao, Arlyn E. Andrews, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 39 Issue 16 Keywords atmospheric transport, inverse modeling, nitrous oxide Abstract We estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Central California for the period of December 2007 through November 2009 by comparing N2O mixing ratios measured at a tall tower (Walnut Grove, WGC) with transport model predictions based on two global a priori N2O emission models (EDGAR32 and EDGAR42). Atmospheric particle trajectories and surface footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Regression analyses show that the slopes of predicted on measured N2O from both emission models are low, suggesting that actual N2O emissions are significantly higher than the EDGAR inventories for all seasons. Bayesian inverse analyses of regional N2O emissions show that posterior annual N2O emissions are larger than both EDGAR inventories by factors of 2.0 ± 0.4 (EDGAR32) and 2.1 ± 0.4 (EDGAR42) with seasonal variation ranging from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 for an influence region of Central California within approximately 150 km of the tower. These results suggest that if the spatial distribution of N2O emissions in California follows the EDGAR emission models, then actual emissions are 2.7 ± 0.5 times greater than the current California emission inventory, and total N2O emissions account for 8.1 ± 1.4% of total greenhouse gas emissions from California.

7

Role of Nitrous Oxide in Ambulatory Anaesthesia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the oldest anaesthetic still in routine use, the continued role of nitrous oxide is frequently questioned. There are a few well-defined situations in which nitrous oxide is contraindicated or undesirable; i...

Sarah Billingham; Ian Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Sensitive detection of methane and nitrous oxide isotopomers using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A continuous wave quantum cascade laser (QCL), operating near 8.1 ?m...4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) stable isotopes. Several rotational transitions of 14N2 16O, 15N14N16O, 14N2 18O,

G. Gagliardi; F. Tamassia; P. De Natale…

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

10

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions Pascal Boeckx negative to positive. We studied the short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions. We site, an intermediately aerated Luvisol in Belgium, were similar. Nitrous oxide and CO2 emissions were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Nitrous Oxide as a Scavenger for Electrons in the Radiolysis of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... (~400 ml.) using a cobalt-60 ¡-ray source. The dose-rate in propane was 5 ´ 1014 eV ml,?1 min?1 (nitrous oxide dosimeter: assuming ... eV2 and using an experimentally determined value of 1.42 for the stopping power of propane relative to N2O). Total doses were 1016?1017 eV ml.?1. The results ...

G. R. A. JOHNSON; J. M. WARMAN

1964-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Physisorption of N2, O2, and CO on Fully Oxidized TiO2(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physisorption of N2, O2 and CO was studied on fully oxidized TiO2(110) using beam reflection and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. Sticking coefficients for all three molecules are nearly equal (0.75 ± 0.05) and approximately independent of coverage suggesting that adsorption occurs via a precursor mediated mechanism. Excluding multilayer coverages, the TPD spectra for all three adsorbates exhibit three distinct coverage regimes that can be interpreted in accord with previous theoretical studies of N2 adsorption. At low coverages (0 to 0.5 N2/Ti4+), N2 molecules bind head-on to five-coordinated Ti4+ ions. The adsorption occurs preferentially on the Ti4+ sites that do not have neighboring adsorbates. This arrangement minimizes the repulsive interactions between the adsorbed molecules along the Ti4+ rows resulting in a relatively small shift of the TPD peak (105 ? 90 K) with increasing coverage. At higher N2 coverages (0 to 1.0 N2/Ti4+) the nearest-neighbor Ti4+ sites become occupied. The close proximity of the adsorbates results in strong repulsion thus giving rise to a significant shift of the TPD leading edges (90 ? 45 K) with increasing coverage. For N2/Ti4+ > 1, an additional low temperature peak (~ 43 K) is present and is ascribed to N2 adsorption on bridge-bonded oxygen rows. The results for O2 and CO are qualitatively similar. The repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions largest for CO, most likely due to aligned CO dipole moments. The coverage dependent binding energies of O2, N2, and CO are determined by inverting TPD profiles.

Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Jooho; Bondarchuk, Oleksander A.; White, J. M.; Kay, Bruce D.

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO ... The 15N and 18O kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide on NiO powder were determined in the temperature range of 625?825 K, and the following temperature dependencies were found:? KIE(15N) = (0.821 ± 0.180) + (1445 ± 128)/T and KIE(18O) = (1.384 ...

Peter Žemva; Antonija Lesar; Ivan Kobal; Marjan Senega?nik

2001-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

15

Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...programs, the US Department of Energy Office of Science (Grant DE-FCO2-07ER64494) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Grant DE-ACO5-76RL01830...Tsukuba 36°02 N 140°12 E 12 Brazil Capivari, San Paolo 22°93...

Iurii Shcherbak; Neville Millar; G. Philip Robertson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selected field studies from the literature where in situ measurements of...and in studies identified in reviews by Bouwman (8), Jungkunst...Dataset S1) when available: literature reference; location...fertilizer. Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 16(1):156 ZZQQhy170...

Iurii Shcherbak; Neville Millar; G. Philip Robertson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Usage of FTIR for Detection of Isotopicaly Labeled N2O Emitted from Soil D. Harush, A. Shaviv, R. Linker and Y. Dubowski*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the emissions of water soluble or gaseous pollutants. Nitrous oxide (N2O), a well-known greenhouse gas. Linker and Y. Dubowski* Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel Nitrogen, is an intermediate nitrogen species of the denitrification process and a by-product of nitrification. The various

Simon, Emmanuel

18

Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1sigma) based on gas-exchange parametrization...upper 500 m of the water column. -The...its effect on solubility. -Our estimates...emissions based on gas-exchange parametrization...load of organic nitrogen. This fertilization...also affect the solubility of N2O. Rising...created by warming water masses after their...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

3, 729764, 2006 Nitrous oxide in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable concentrations: Shallow stations in the10 Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...specific ammonia oxidation rate. Symbols represent...Research Council (ARC) for funding this...correlated to its ammonia oxidation rate. 51 Arp, D...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...2004 Anaerobic oxidation of inorganic nitrogen...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic nitrous oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such concentrations of anesthetics are safe... ), hypoxemia (eg, nitrogen and carbon monoxide), addiction (eg, nitrous oxide), or health effects resulting... from chronic exposure...

23

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

24

Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center

1992-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

Chatterjee, A.

26

Decomposition of nitrous oxide on AlFe-PILC catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two AlFe-PILC catalysts were prepared with different OH/metal...2O) decomposition reactions. The 100% conversion of N2O with NH3into N2and H2O was achieved below 500oC with both applied catalysts. However, the ac...

Ern? E. Kiss; Tatjana J Vuli?…

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A kinetics study of the atmospheric pressure CVD reaction of silane and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanistic study of oxide deposition from silane and nitrous oxide between 495{sup 0}C and 690{sup 0}C was performed in a laminar flow, cool wall reactor. Results indicate the existence of two distinct chemical pathways. At high nitrous oxide concentrations, the deposition reaction is dominated by radical chain chemistry initiated by the decomposition of N/sub 2/O. At lower N/sub 2/O concentrations, the decomposition of silane to form silylene (SiH/sub 2/) initiates the deposition. Studies of the reaction of disilane and nitrous oxide confirmed the role of SiH/sub 2/ in the deposition. Reactions involving SiH/sub 2/ are used to explain the observed growth of sub-stoichiometric oxides under low N/sub 2/O conditions.

Chapple-Sokol, J.D.; Giunta, C.J.; Gordon, R.G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" Primary Investigator: Craig Stow -NOAA GLERL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forecasts require accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emission rates. Currently, there are few measurements Management Research Laboratory Overview Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential ~300 times that of carbon dioxide

29

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

30

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-produced electricity for battery electric vehicles. Already, vehicles powered by compressed natural gas, propane. LIPMAN AND MARK A. DELUCCHI example, promising strategies for powering motor vehicles with reduced GHGEMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

Kammen, Daniel M.

31

Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

Potter, Katherine Ellison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contributors to N2O consumption. Apparently, a large...contributions to N2O consumption will advance understanding...flux models. Fossil fuel combustion, agricultural practices...electron donor, and the vessels were inoculated with...contributing to N 2 O consumption in soils...

Robert A. Sanford; Darlene D. Wagner; Qingzhong Wu; Joanne C. Chee-Sanford; Sara H. Thomas; Claribel Cruz-García; Gina Rodríguez; Arturo Massol-Deyá; Kishore K. Krishnani; Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Silke Nissen; Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis; Frank E. Löffler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 . Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 ....

34

The potential of mean force of nitrous oxide in a 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

specific binding sites. The penetration bar- rier correlates strongly with the action rate penetration and partitioning between lipid and water is an important step toward elucidating the function of N2O as a general anesthetic. After all, N2O has to penetrate through mem- branes before it reaches

35

Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from pelletized and nonpelletized poultry litter incorporated into soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While several studies have shown that the addition of animal manures to soil can increase N2O and CO2 emissions, limited information is available on the effect that manure physical characteristics can have on the...

M. L. Cabrera; S. C. Chiang; W. C. Merka; O. C. Pancorbo; S. A. Thompson

36

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

37

Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of organic nitrogen (eutrophication...m of the water column...affect the solubility of N2O...with other gases CO2, CH4...to yield nitrogen gas, e.g...laughing gas. Water Atmos. 15...2005 Global nitrogen enrichment...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A decoupled approach for NOx–N2O 3-D CFD modeling in CFB plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a 3D CFD model for the formation of \\{NOx\\} and N2O in a lignite fired 1.2 MWth CFB pilot plant is developed. The decoupled approach (decoupled from combustion simulation) is tested for the minimization of computational cost. As combustion simulation is prerequired, this was achieved through a simplified 3-D CFD combustion model. The developed model is then applied to the pilot-scale 1.2 MWth CFB plant and validated against experimental data. As concerns the NOx–N2O model, an extensive literature review is also carried out for the incorporation of the appropriate reactions network and respective reaction rates expressions. Results show that homogenous reactions are favoured on the lower section of the bed, due to the abundance of fuel devolatilization products. On the other hand, on the upper section, heterogeneous reactions govern nitric oxide formation/reduction. It is found that for the lignite examined in this work, HCN is released in negligible amounts during char combustion. The proposed and validated CFD model for \\{NOx\\} and N2O, is capable of examining the effect of different operational parameters and coal properties on the overall nitric oxides emissions from a CFB combustor, with low computational cost and without the additional expenses for pilot-scale experiments.

A. Nikolopoulos; I. Malgarinos; N. Nikolopoulos; P. Grammelis; S. Karrelas; E. Kakaras

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Effect of Thermal Neutron Irradiation on Oxide Catalysts for the Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... alpha-particles which are produced by an (n, a) reaction with lithium-6 or boron-10 atoms. Nickel oxide contains excess oxygen ions as a £-type semiconductor and probably ...

YASUKAZU SAITO; YUKIO YONEDA; SHOJI MAKISHIMA

1959-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

40

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Offsetting the radiative benefit of ocean iron fertilization by enhancing N2O emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the atmospheric CO2 reduction significantly, because N2O is a much more powerful greenhouse gas

Gruber, Nicolas

42

Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic eects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission the remainder. Over 80% of aquatic anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the Northern Hemisphere mid

Seitzinger, Sybil

43

Influence of operating conditions and coal properties on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of subbituminous coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This experimental study is aimed at finding effects of operating conditions in PFBC on nitrogen oxide emissions for subbituminous coals differing in ash content/composition, combustion/gasification reactivities and in particle size distribution. The experiments have been done on a smaller laboratory apparatus with ID=8 cm. The effects of operating pressure (0.1–1 MPa), temperature of the fluidized bed (800–900 °C), freeboard temperature and oxygen concentration (3–10 vol.%) on the nitrogen oxides emissions are relatively complex, coupled with temperature of burning coal particles. The coal ash content/composition (esp. CaO and Fe2O3) and fly ash freeboard concentration play an important role in formation/destruction chemistry of both NO and N2O. The \\{NOx\\} emissions decrease with increasing operating pressure at the same volumetric oxygen concentration and temperature. Temperature, volatile content, reactivities of coals and ash composition are the most important factors for N2O emissions. The N2O emissions are either almost constant or can exhibit a maximum at increasing operating pressure. Influence of increasing oxygen concentration on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions is more pronounced at lower operating pressures, esp. for the less reactive, medium ash coal. The particle size distribution of the coal (influence of coal dust) can cause characteristic changes in \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in PFBC, esp. at lower combustion temperatures (800–840 °C). The emission changes are dependent on ash properties/composition.

Karel Svoboda; Michael Poho?elý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A New High-Resolution N2O Emission Inventory for China in 2008  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Per-capita and per-GDP N2O emissions increase gradually with an increase in the urban population fraction from 0.3 to 0.9 among 2884 counties, and N2O emission density increases with urban expansion. ... (56-58) This decrease of demand would eventually reduce some of the food and energy supplies in these regions. ...

Feng Zhou; Ziyin Shang; Philippe Ciais; Shu Tao; Shilong Piao; Peter Raymond; Canfei He; Bengang Li; Rong Wang; Xuhui Wang; Shushi Peng; Zhenzhong Zeng; Han Chen; Na Ying; Xikang Hou; Peng Xu

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

45

Association of Earthworm-Denitrifier Interactions with Increased Emission of Nitrous Oxide from Soil Mesocosms Amended with Crop Residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mug C kg1, and total mineral N content (extraction...respectively. We used a soda-lime filter during N2O measurements...within 48 h of sampling. Mineral N was extracted using...were also ball milled. Mineral N and MBN was converted...Netherlands) with a SYBR green detection system. Each...

Lucas D. Nebert; Jaap Bloem; Ingrid M. Lubbers; Jan Willem van Groenigen

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

46

A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...There is a balance between ozone production...because the mass of N 2 O...such as wastewater, are developing...such as wastewater treatment and aquaculture...coal power plants) emit N...how to balance funding...nitric acid plants in the United...

David Kanter; Denise L. Mauzerall; A. R. Ravishankara; John S. Daniel; Robert W. Portmann; Peter M. Grabiel; William R. Moomaw; James N. Galloway

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

External Electric Field Catalyzed N2O Decomposition on Mn-Embedded Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

External Electric Field Catalyzed N2O Decomposition on Mn-Embedded Graphene ... Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China ...

E. H. Song; J. M. Yan; J. S. Lian; Q. Jiang

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

49

Relative importance of organic coatings for the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 during summer in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coatings, formed via gas-to- particle conversion on aqueous aerosols, to N2O5 hydrolysis on localRelative importance of organic coatings for the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 during summer suppress heterogeneous N2O5 hydrolysis. In this study we investigated the relative importance of organic

Riemer, Nicole

50

Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

Jochen Stutz

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

51

New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers and estuaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from rivers and estuaries. We present total global emissions, as well as regional shares. 2New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers and estuaries CAROLIEN KROEZE1 , EGON DUMONT1 rivers and estuaries, using the NEWS-DIN model. NEWS-DIN is a model of the global transport of dissolved

Seitzinger, Sybil

52

Shock-Tube Study of Methane Ignition with NO2 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The experimental pressure range was 1 - 44 atm and the temperature range tested was 1177 – 2095 K. The additives NO2 and N2O were added in concentrations from 831 ppm to 3539 ppm. The results of the mixtures with NO2 have a reduction in ignition delay time across...

Pemelton, John

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

CH4 and N2O emissions from Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis in experimental mesocosms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy CH4 and N2O emissions from Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis emissions from S. alterniflora with those from a native C3 plant, Phragmites australis, by establishing Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Common reed (Phragmites australis); Brackish marsh mesocosms

Chen, Jiquan

54

Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compact multipass gas cell (MGC). This sensor uses a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous wave­8]. A compact mid-infrared absorption spectrometer for N2O and CH4 was developed using thermoelectrically cooled.04 cm-1 ) and N2O (1274.61 cm-1 ) lines at a 1 Hz repetition rate. Wavelength modulation spec- troscopy

55

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 61376149, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6137/2010/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202 The long-lived atmospheric species nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are ozone depleting

Meskhidze, Nicholas

56

Data-based estimates of suboxia, denitrification, and N2O production in the ocean and their sensitivities to dissolved O2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pathways, N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's energy balance and climate. The ocean

57

The role of N2O derived from crop-based biofuels, and from agriculture in general, in Earth's climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The role of N2O derived from crop-based biofuels, and from agriculture in general, in Earth's...factor (EF) of 3-5%, and applied it to biofuel production. For first-generation biofuels, e.g. biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

N2O emission from a combined ex-situ nitrification and in-situ denitrification bioreactor landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A combined process comprised of ex-situ nitrification in an aged refuse bioreactor (designated as A bioreactor) and in-situ denitrification in a fresh refuse bioreactor (designated as F bioreactor) was constructed for investigating N2O emission during the stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW). The results showed that N2O concentration in the F bioreactor varied from undetectable to about 130 ppm, while it was much higher in the A bioreactor with the concentration varying from undetectable to about 900 ppm. The greatly differences of continuous monitoring of N2O emission after leachate cross recirculation in each period were primarily attributed to the stabilization degree of MSW. Moreover, the variation of N2O concentration was closely related to the leachate quality in both bioreactors and it was mainly affected by the COD and COD/TN ratio of leachate from the F bioreactor, as well as the DO, ORP, and NO3?-N of leachate from the A bioreactor.

Ya-nan Wang; Ying-jie Sun; Lei Wang; Xiao-jie Sun; Hao Wu; Rong-xing Bian; Jing-jing Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Catalytic oxidative coupling of methane over Li/MgO using N2O as an oxidant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Mobil and is known as t, he methanol ? to ? gasoline process (MTG), The first commercial plant using th&s process was const. ructed at, Motunui, New Zealand and began operation in 1985 with 14, 000 barrel per day capacity. Off ? shore natural gas... is converted to synthesis gas by steam reforming and the methanol synthesis uses conventional technology. The advent of this technology (MTG process), which synthesizes high octane gasoline from methanol, may be contrasted with the Fischer ? Tropsch process...

Yamamoto, Hiroshi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

DFT Study of Direct Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde by N2O on the [Fe]2+–ZSM-5 Zeolite Cluster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(63) Becke’s three-parameter hybrid method(64, 65) involving the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional B3LYP formalism(66) was utilized to take into account the exchange and correlation. ... The numerical calculations reported in this paper were performed at TUBITAK ULAKBIM, High Performance and Grid Computing Center (TR-Grid e-Infrastructure). ...

Mehmet Ferdi Fellah; Isik Onal

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

European Journal of Soil Science, December 2010, 61, 903913 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01217.x Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops J . W . V a n G r o e n i. Commonly, N2O emissions are expressed as a function of N application rate. This suggests that smaller fertilizer applications always lead to smaller N2O emissions. Here we argue that, because of global demand

van Kessel, Chris

62

Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N2 and N2/O2 gas mixture plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet driven by high frequency alternating current and operating on N2 and N2/O2 gas mixture is investigated. The plasma jet can reach 55?mm in length at a gas flow rate of 2500?l/h. The gas temperature at a distance of 4?mm from the nozzle is close to room temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to investigate the important plasma parameters such as the excited species rotational temperature vibrational temperature and excitation temperature under different discharge conditions. The results show that the plasma source operates under non-equilibrium conditions. The absolute irradiance intensity of the vibrational band N2(C-B) in the active region is measured. Taking into account the irradiance intensity of N2(C-B 0-0) and N2(B-X 0-0) as well as measured current the electron density which is determined by considering direct and step-wise electron impact excitation of nitrogen emission reaches a maximum value of 5.6?×?1020/m3.

Dezhi Xiao; Cheng Cheng; Jie Shen; Yan Lan; Hongbing Xie; Xingsheng Shu; Jiangang Li; Paul K. Chu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Potentials of Silver and Gold Electrodes of ZrO2-Based Cells in N2+ O2+ CO2+ CO Gas Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state electrode potentials in cells with a ZrO2+ 10 mol % Y2O3electrolyte are measured at 400 to 500°C in nonequilibrium N2+ O2+ CO2+ CO gas mixtures containing 0–3 and 0–10 vol % of CO and O2, respectivel...

G. I. Fadeev; I. D. Remez

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Supersaturated N2O in a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake: Molecular and stable isotopic evidence for a biogeochemical relict  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supersaturated N2O in a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake: Molecular and stable isotopic Abstract The east lobe of Lake Bonney, a permanently ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys2O was produced via incomplete nitrification and has undergone virtually no subsequent consumption

Priscu, John C.

65

The retrieval of vertical profiles of chlorine source gases and N2O5 from MIPAS-B-92 limb emission spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) the balloon-borne cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) recorded several sequences of mid-infrared limb emission spectra, which were used for the retrieval of vertical profiles of CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, CF4, and N2O5. These gases are characterized by very dense emission bands of unresolved lines. Results are consistent with the current theories of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry.

Clarmann, T.V.; Linden, A.; Wetzel, G.; Oelhaf, H.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples followed by GC analysis has been used in both laboratory scale reactors and full-scale plants...two laboratory scale reactors. Foley et al. [23...measurements. Combining the analyses of both the microsensor...significantly increases the reliability of data. Similar to...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO2, HNO3, N2O5 and a variety of...also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO(2), HNO(3), N(2)O...

Jonathan D. Raff; Bosiljka Njegic; Wayne L. Chang; Mark S. Gordon; Donald Dabdub; R. Benny Gerber; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Assessing the N2O/CO2 high pressure separation using ionic liquids with the soft-SAFT EoS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capabilities of the soft-SAFT EoS to accurately describe the thermophysical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) and the phase equilibria of their mixtures with greenhouse gases is extended in this work to address the CO2 and the N2O solubilities in [C4mim]+ \\{ILs\\} from different anion families. In addition to the commonly studied [BF4]? and [NTf2]? anions, the solubility of these gases in \\{ILs\\} with the anions [N(CN)2]?, [SCN]? and [Ac]? is also studied and compared among them, searching for the best system for separation purposes. A coarse-grained molecular model is proposed within the soft-SAFT framework for each newly studied IL based on structural information, guidance obtained from quantum calculations and previous work. The most adequate set of molecular parameters are selected from the \\{ILs\\} density description and from the ability to reproduce the N2O/CO2 solubilities in these \\{ILs\\} at the lowest and highest temperatures for which experimental data are available. A discussion about the association molecular parameters values and their relation with the anion nature is also presented. With these molecular models, the description of the high pressure phase equilibria of the binary systems composed of the two gases and the \\{ILs\\} referred above are described with soft-SAFT for the remaining isotherms. For most systems, the equilibria behavior of the mixtures is predicted without using any binary parameter. When good agreement with the experimental data is not achieved, a single temperature independent binary parameter is enough to allow a good description. Finally, Henry's law constants are calculated from soft-SAFT to evaluate the selectivity of those \\{ILs\\} for the CO2/N2O separation.

Luís M.C. Pereira; Mariana B. Oliveira; Felix Llovell; Lourdes F. Vega; João A.P. Coutinho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pulsed quantum cascade laser instrument with compact design for rapid, high sensitivity measurements of trace gases in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a compact instrument for sensitive, rapid and continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results presented here for methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3

J.B. McManus; J.H. Shorter; D.D. Nelson; M.S. Zahniser; D.E. Glenn…

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

71

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

72

Biological and environmental efficiency of high producing dairy systems through application of life cycle analysis   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dairy production systems are an important global contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the role GHG play in climate ...

Ross, Stephen Alexander

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

73

GHG Emissions from Boreal Reservoirs and Natural Aquatic Ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gross fluxes were measured at the air-water interface of 205 aquatic ecosystems in the Canadian boreal region from 1993 to 2003. Fluxes were obtained wi...

Alain Tremblay; Jean Therrien; Bill Hamlin…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. · Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide and solid waste. · Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride

Gottgens, Hans

75

Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V, .=DL ULL LI~C a~ailability 01 ILILKLL~: IIILIU~~I~ LU curn, l~aa, 8011 31LY3 1 27.3 .53 .I447 1 I 1 5: 1250 .I349 ic nitrogen ( 37.P' 1 -59 1 .2195 ru.. nv / 36.6 .57 1 .2086 I -2141 1 .O7b/ I 1. gm. nitrous nitrogen 30.2 1 .64 1 .I933 1... .12 -.01 ' .09 V1 -- I w 01 ---- I ------ el M - 1 --O6 X * ---- ------ U1 $ !z - --- i d $ --- - I -20 2 Y * F - I M 4 M .34 I --- .20 M .14 5 nitrogen --- --- -.02 .14 -.48 -.01 -12 .18 .OS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Nitrous Oxide Production in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the annual freshwater discharge, 98.5% of the annual nitrogen load, and 98% of the annual phosphorus load into the zone most likely to influence hypoxia (Rabalais et al. 2007). Ecosystem responses to hypoxia include diminished biodiversity and altered...

Visser, Lindsey A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

AT A GLANCE Title: Hydrogen, Methane and Nitrous oxide: Trend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to increases in atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) and reductions of fossil fuel burning emissions burning emissions have been calculated with one of the models. MAIN RESULTS Improved methane emissions (from ruminants and waste) is larger. First robust estimates of the uptake of hydrogen by

Haak, Hein

78

Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...82071; e Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge, TN 37831; f Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology...experiments on their lands. We also acknowledge the many workers who helped with the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen experiments...

Jake J. Beaulieu; Jennifer L. Tank; Stephen K. Hamilton; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Robert O. Hall; Jr.; Patrick J. Mulholland; Bruce J. Peterson; Linda R. Ashkenas; Lee W. Cooper; Clifford N. Dahm; Walter K. Dodds; Nancy B. Grimm; Sherri L. Johnson; William H. McDowell; Geoffrey C. Poole; H. Maurice Valett; Clay P. Arango; Melody J. Bernot; Amy J. Burgin; Chelsea L. Crenshaw; Ashley M. Helton; Laura T. Johnson; Jonathan M. O'Brien; Jody D. Potter; Richard W. Sheibley; Daniel J. Sobota; Suzanne M. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...other land use, (v) waste, and (vi) other sources...forestry (LULUCF) and waste are similarly proportioned...8 per cent and manure storage systems for 6 per cent...is reported here from long-term monitoring of greenhouse...are still not enough long-term datasets to provide the...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Methane and nitrous oxide in the ice core record  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...observed changes would lead to other feedbacks in atmospheric chemistry, which need to be included in future coupled Earth system models. The pre-industrial Holocene also shows interesting and significant changes, and a debate still exists about...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ranges from 33 to 170 per cent for fuel combustion processes and 195 per cent for other combustion processes (annex 7 of MacCarthy et al. [11...manure storage and N fertilizers. Combustion processes are the main source of NO x and microbial...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

6, 42734324, 2006 Stratospheric N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussion EGU Abstract A comprehensive set of stratospheric balloon and aircraft samples was analyzed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 88098823, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/8809/2011/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water sol- uble organics, and less soluble in public concern regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants, including gas phase and particulate from livestock include methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrous oxide (N2O

Meskhidze, Nicholas

84

Stochastic Six-Degree-of-Freedom Flight Simulator for Passively Controlled High-Power Rockets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are alternatively powered by hybrid motors using a liquid oxidizer, e.g., nitrous Oxide N2O and a solid fuel, e historical atmospheric data. The core simulation algorithm is a numerical integration of the rocket's equations of motion using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The position of the rocket's center of mass

Bishop, Christopher M.

85

Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Bacteria Associated with the Roots of Freshwater Macrophytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consumption and production of atmospheric carbon monoxide by...the consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by...rapid oxidation of atmospheric CO to CO2 by soils...D. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide...rice fields and biogas generators: CH4, N2O, CO...

Jeremy J. Rich; G. M. King

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE) Evaluation - ENERBIO Livrable D4.1 : GHG balances of bioenergy pathways Mars 2012 Nathalie GAGNAIRE, Benoît GABRIELLE sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

88

Supporting Information for Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIOXIDE H2O2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE NH3 AMMONIA NIT AEROSOL NITRATE SO2 SULFUR DIOXIDE SO3 SULFUR TRIOXIDE OSD extensions* NO NITRIC OXIDE NO2 NITROGEN DIOXIDE O3 OZONE HONO NITROUS ACID HNO3 NITRIC ACID HNO4 PERNITRIC ACID N2O5 NITROGEN PENTOXIDE NO3 NITRATE RADICAL HO2 HYDROPEROXY RADICAL CO CARBON MONOXIDE CO2 CARBON

Dabdub, Donald

89

Correlations between in situ denitrification activity and nir-gene abundances in pristine and impacted prairie streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010 Accepted 9 July 2010 Keywords: Denitrification Nitrogen-removal nirS nirK Sediment Water-column q hypothesise might be related to gene abundances. Water-column nitrate and soluble-reactive phosphorus levels of nitrate ðNO� 3 � to nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen gas (N2) (Galloway et al., 2003). Unfortunately, what

Dodds, Walter

90

Biogeosciences, 1, 111, 2005 www.biogeosciences.net/bg/1/1/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and upscaling using the DNDC model H. Pathak1,*, C. Li2, and R. Wassmann3 1Unit of Simulation and Informatics) model was evaluated for its ability to simulate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide/climate/land use database. Continuous flooding of rice fields (42.25 million ha) resulted in annual net emissions

91

Environmental costs and benefits of urban forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulation Nutrient regulation Supporting service Regulating service Energy use Water use Pollutant emissions emissions Energy use Water use #12;Carbon dioxide CO2 H2O Nitrous oxide (N2O) Methane (CH4) Energy #12;Question: Should we plant trees to offset greenhouse gas emissions? Hypothesis: tree planting in cities can

Rose, Michael R.

92

Ocean Tracers! John Bullister (NOAA-PMEL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chlorofluorocarbons- CFCs CFC-11 (F-11) - CCl3F CFC-12 (F-12) - CCl2F2 Carbon tetrachloride - CCl4 Sulfur Hexafluoride - SF6 Nitrous Oxide - N2O 2014 PMEL Kha$wala et. al., (2009) Anthropogenic carbon in the ocean #12;Quality · Recognized

93

An Intercomparison of Ground-Based Solar FTIR Measurements of Atmospheric Gases at Eureka, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors report the results of an intercomparison of vertical column amounts of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric acid (HNO3), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) ...

C. Paton-Walsh; R. L. Mittermeier; W. Bell; H. Fast; N. B. Jones; A. Meier

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Applicability of Anaerobic Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation to Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Furthermore, both of the substrates of the NDFO organisms [Fe(II) and nitrate] and the various end products of the metabolism [Fe(III), nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide] all have known anti-souring and sulfide-scouring activities. ... A glass wool pad was placed on the bottom of the bead beds to prevent beads from falling into the inlet tubing. ...

Hongbo Zhu; Han K. Carlson; John D. Coates

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

96

Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase James WA Allen, Stuart J Ferguson and Vilmos Flp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) to nitrogen gas (N2) via the intermediates nitrite (NO2 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O).10-electron reduction of nitrite (NO2 2 ) to nitric oxide (NO); water is the other reaction product.1 In vivo, electrons are donated to cd1 from soluble proteins that include c-type cytochromes and cupredoxins.2 In vitro, cd1 can

Fülöp, Vilmos

97

Unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a Dionex DX-500 ion chromatograph with an EG40 eluent (methane-sulfonic acid) generator and a CS12A column (13). 7 References...BURPS1106A_2115 YP_001066380 Burkholderia pseudomallei 1106a-HHV NC_009076 BURPS1710b_2255 YP_333650 Burkholderia pseudomallei...

Robert A. Sanford; Darlene D. Wagner; Qingzhong Wu; Joanne C. Chee-Sanford; Sara H. Thomas; Claribel Cruz-García; Gina Rodríguez; Arturo Massol-Deyá; Kishore K. Krishnani; Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Silke Nissen; Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis; Frank E. Löffler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Nitrous oxide emissions. Topical report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published N{sub 2}O emissions data for experimental studies examining large numbers of coals are generally scarce at the pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) level, although some data are available at the laboratory scale. The primary objective of this study was to determine the atmospheric contribution of N{sub 2}O derived from coal combustion. Additionally, the goal was to establish a comprehensive engineering model to assist in the prediction of N{sub 2}O emissions based upon operating and design considerations. To meet the overall objectives of determining the overall contribution of N{sub 2}O derived from FBC and developing an engineering model seven tasks were originally proposed. The objective of each task as originally proposed and finally executed is presented in this topical report. The seven tasks were: (1) literature survey; (2) equipment design and test plan development; (3) experimental techniques; (4) pilot-scale determination of the impacts of coal properties and operating conditions on N{sub 2}O emissions; (5) role of coal char on N{sub 2}O formation and destruction; (6) homogeneous versus heterogeneous reactions; and (7) modeling of N{sub 2}O emissions.

Collings, M.E.; Mann, M.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Activation of Pd-Ag Catalyst for Selective Hydrogenation of Acetylene via Nitrous Oxide Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of a large excess of ethylene has been investigated on the Pd-Ag catalyst under 60°C and a space velocity...?1.... It was found that an enhancement in the performance of...

Piyasan Praserthdam; Suphot Phatanasri…

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and lowest in a mixed conifer forest soil from the Blodgettin a northern hardwood-conifer forest. Soil Science Societyfir Yellow pine forest Mixed conifer and hardwood Oak

Yang, Wendy Hui-I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO...

102

Photolysis of Nitrous Oxide Isotopomers Studied by Time-Dependent Hermite Propagation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model agrees with available experimental enrichment factors and stratospheric balloon infrared remote sensing data to within the estimated error. ...

Matthew S. Johnson; Gert Due Billing; Alytis Gruodis; Maurice H. M. Janssen

2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used to produce biodiesel and bioethanol...replacement of the fossil fuel by biofuel. It...cereals include engineering bacteria to recognize...considered was the introduction of the nitrogenase...It provides an introduction and background...microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Resolution of Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide by Gas Solid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1106. R. P. DeGrazio The Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, Golden, Colorado The Resolution of Mixtures...Chromatography* by R. P. DeGrazio, The Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, Golden, Colorado A simple and unique chromato......

R. P. DeGrazio

1965-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Modeling Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide in the Vadose Zone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperature, and soil atmosphere composition were being monitored was specifically...and CEL pools were predominant in the composition of the maize residue and were mainly...also taken into account. agriculture agrochemicals Avignon France Cambisols CANTIS carbon...

P. Cannavo; F. Lafolie; B. Nicolardot; P. Renault

106

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1365-2486.2010.02351.x ) 56 Birch, HF , Friend, MT. 1956 Humus decomposition...covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest. Biogeosciences...review of applications of model-data fusion to studies of terrestrial carbon fluxes...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......equilibrate with atmospheric pressure through...applications involving atmospheric analyses, the instrument...electrolytically from distilled water by a General Electric...Massachusetts) hydrogen generator. The gas is further...the analysis. The water formed by the palladium...737-1-B "clean air generator," a preparative......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reduced by introducing additional fuel hydrogen before the palladium...smaller sample size is that the consumption of standards in long-term...1979 aboard the Research Vessel Wecoma during Leg 9 of the...because of its low rate of consumption of standard gases, but also......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test… (more)

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Determinations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane by Dual Catalyst Flame Ionization Chromatography and Nitrous Oxide by Electron Capture Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......thermistor has a low thermal mass and the circuit...and have longer thermal exchange times will...detectors such as the thermal conductivity detector...equatorial Pacific Ocean during a 24 day...Department of Energy. References Journal...Methanizer" catalytic converter. 5. W.E. Wentworth......

Ray F. Weiss

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Biodegradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by aquifer microorganisms using oxygen, nitrate, or nitrous oxide as the terminal electron acceptor.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...I. Mayfield. 1986. Remediation of gasoline-contaminated...Aerobic denitrification as an innovative method for in-situ biological remediation of contaminated sub- surface...underground storage tanks: remediation with emphasis on in situ...

S R Hutchins

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide emissions from flooded rice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of N use in flooded rice is usually low, chiefly due to gaseous losses. Emission of CH4, a gas implicated in global warming, can also be substantial in flooded rice. In a greenhouse study, the nitr...

K. F. Bronson; A. R. Mosier

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

tall tower facility and instrumentation New coNstraiNts oN the Nitrous oxide budget of agricultural ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thick. The FAO classification is Chernozem. The field site has been under cultivation for the past 125. The tall tower source footprint is dominated by agricultural land use. The domi- nant crop types include measured at 100 m using a three dimensional sonic anemometer- thermometer for computation of energy, water

Minnesota, University of

115

Effects of Humidity and [NO3]/[N2O5] Ratio on the Heterogeneous Reaction of Fluoranthene and Pyrene with N2O5/NO3/NO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

air pollution episode in Claremont, California, in Sept., 1985, and in high-NOx episodes in Torrance, California, in Jan. and Feb., 1986, contributed 1.1-8.4% of the total mutagenicity of the particles. ... matter were detd. in samples collected in polluted ambient air in southern California. ...

Peng Zhang; Wanqi Sun; Nana Li; Youfeng Wang; Jinian Shu; Bo Yang; Liang Dong

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

116

Winter and summer nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxides fluxes from a seasonally snow-covered subalpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA M. W.Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA D.Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA B. Hall

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Communication: CO oxidation by silver and gold cluster cations: Identification of different active oxygen species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au{sub 3}{sup +} and Ag{sub 3}{sup +} clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au{sub 3}{sup +} the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag{sub 3}O{sub x}{sup +} (n= 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N{sub 2}O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.

Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Dataset Summary Description The general mission of the Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species group is to quantify the distributions and magnitudes of sources and sinks for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and halogen containing compounds. HATS utilizes numerous types of platforms, including ground-based stations, towers, ocean vessels, aircraft, and balloons, to accomplish its mission. For a detailed mission statement, consult our FAQ. Tags {"nitrous oxide","sulfur hexaflouride",CFC-11,CFC-12,CFC-113,CCl4,CH3CCl3,CH3Cl,halon-1211,HCFC-22,HCFC-142b,halocarbons,chromatograph,aircraft,balloons,vessels,ships,towers,"natural resources",environment,air,"GHG "}

119

Formation of submicron oxide widths on aluminum in the presence of keV electron beams and CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the size of oxide islands or line widths that can be grown as smaller diameter electron beams are used for the oxidation. The implications of the potential lateral resolution available between oxide lines for electronic materials are discussed. The localize dioxide growth on thin Al films occurs in the presence of .5 to 10 keV electron beams and high vacuum level pressures of carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide. Auger electron spectroscopy shows saturation of the O (KLL) signal and depletion of the Al (LMM) signal after an exposure of 5000 l carbon dioxide with a 2 keV beam of 7 A/sq. cm. The oxide is spatially restricted to the beam impact region and is stable for long periods of time in vacuum. The most plausible mechanism for this oxide growth is dissociation of the carbon dioxide or the nitrous oxide by the electron beam in the region of impingement on or near the surface. Oxygen atoms thus formed can then react with the Al, and carbon monoxide or nitrogen desorbs.

Pitts, J.R.; Massopust, T.P.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kazmerski, L.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

"GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" "(From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP" ,,,"TAR1","AR42" "(1) Carbon Dioxide","CO2","CO2",1,1 "(2) Methane","CH4","CH4",23,25 "(3) Nitrous Oxide","N2O","N2O",296,298 "(4) Hydroflourocarbons" "HFC-23 (trifluoromethane)",15,"CHF3",12000,14800 "HFC-32 (difluoromethane)",16,"CH2F2",550,675 "HFC-41 (monofluoromethane)",43,"CH3F",97,92 "HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane)",17,"CHF2CF3",3400,3500

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fast Processes in a N2O-Modulated Hollow Cathode Discharge:? Excitation and Diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Till now, PECVD has been used mainly with RF and MW discharges, but recently, an increasing growth in papers reporting DC or low-frequency plasmas for PECVD is found,2-5 since particle formation can be largely avoided, even with room-temperature substrates.2 On the other hand, with DC plasmas, larger surfaces can be coated in a simpler way, as needed for example in the conditioning of nuclear fusion vessels6 and in the cleaning and hardening1 of large surfaces. ... In that cases, diffusion effects may be critical in determining the homogeneous distribution of the films, depending on the geometry of the discharge and, specially, when the input of the precursor is localized at a single point and high dissociation rates are present. ... and electron densities were used as inputs to a reactor model. ...

T. de los Arcos; M. Castillo; C. Domingo; V. J. Herrero; M. M. Sanz; I. Tanarro

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

122

Variations in Atmospheric N2O Concentration During Abrupt Climatic Changes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lawdome (+) (3), Byrd (?), Crete (?), Camp Century (?) (4), D57 (?) (5), Dye 3...are from Lawdome (+) (3), Byrd (), Crete (), Camp Century () (4), D57 () (5), Dye 3-() (6), H15...

J. Flückiger; A. Dällenbach; T. Blunier; B. Stauffer; T. F. Stocker; D. Raynaud; J.-M. Barnola

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

123

A comparison of three learning methods to predict N2O fluxes and N leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leaching; the first indicator is a powerful greenhouse gas and the second one is an important source

Boyer, Edmond

124

Photodissociation channels for N2O near 130 nm studied by product imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the experiments of Gilpin and Welge GW 15 and of Stone, Lawrence, and Fairchild SLF .16 In both studies of metastable fragments at an ionizer was recorded. In the SLF study, data for the 130-nm photodissociation

Houston, Paul L.

125

Global trends and uncertainties in terrestrial denitrification and N2O emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...University, , PO Box 800.84, 3508 TB, Utrecht, The Netherlands 7 Alterra, Wageningen...denitrification models [34], the model applied in this paper is simple, computing denitrification...Global model with 0.5 0.5 resolution applied in this study, representing denitrification...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Collisional Dynamic Elements of the Pyrazine - N2O System:Middle and Low J States.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Unimolecular reactions based on the Lindemann - Hinchelwood mechanism are important to understanding combustion and atmospheric processes. The main feature of this mechanism is… (more)

Mix, La Moyne Tyler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

129

Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO under various driving conditions.

132

Denitrifying Alphaproteobacteria from the Arabian Sea That Express nosZ, the Gene Encoding Nitrous Oxide Reductase, in Oxic and Suboxic Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the present study a closely related (99% nucleotide identity...clone BATS14_163), a closely related denitrifier (Fig. 2), were...atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy document 12/05. Royal Society...liberates the climate-changing gas dimethylsulfide in several marine...

Michael Wyman; Sylvia Hodgson; Clare Bird

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Denitrifying Alphaproteobacteria from the Arabian Sea That Express nosZ, the Gene Encoding Nitrous Oxide Reductase, in Oxic and Suboxic Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...United Kingdom under the Marine and Freshwater Microbial...Keith Avery, and the ship's company of RRS Charles...Woodward of Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom...gene-specific PCR primers for detection of denitrifiers and three nosZ genes from marine sediments. FEMS Microbiol...

Michael Wyman; Sylvia Hodgson; Clare Bird

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Optimization of a compact photoacoustic quantum cascade laser spectrometer for atmospheric flux measurements: application to the detection of methane and nitrous oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Room temperature (RT) quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are now available even in ... in the 8 ?m range. The first laser had already been used to calibrate the...4...with a 1s integration time per point was demonstrat...

A. Grossel; V. Zéninari; B. Parvitte; L. Joly; D. Courtois

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Why sequence Nitrosomas cryotolerans and Nitrosospira birensis for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrosomas cryotolerans and Nitrosospira birensis for Nitrosomas cryotolerans and Nitrosospira birensis for comparative phylogenomics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria? The process by which ammonia or ammonium is reduced to nitrate or nitrite is known as nitrification. The nitrogen cycle is considered to be one of the most impacted by humans, with factors such as industrially produced fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing crops adding more nitrogen to the terrestrial system than natural sources. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) help mediate the first step of the nitrification process, and in this project researchers focus on the genomes of two of these microbes: Nitrosomonas cryotolerans and Nitrosospira briensis. The role of AOB in the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) remains an important international concern and this sequencing project will improve our ability for

137

Raman scattering studies of the GaAs native oxide interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxide filmsgrown by heat treatment on the 100 and 111 faces of GaAs have been studied by Raman backscattering. A spectrum consisting of the bulk LO and TO lines of GaAs and two additional lines labeled R1 and R2 is observed on all samples prepared at temperatures above 435° C. The additional modes are attributed to an interface region of perhaps several hundred angstroms thickness beneath the oxide film. This structure appears to be made unstable by chemical removal of the film. After the film is removed the spectrum is annealed (returns to that of GaAs) in a matter of weeks at room temperature and in about 1 h at 400° C whether the annealing atmosphere is N2 O2 or forming gas. One of the modes R2 appears to scatter as a scalar i.e. a diagonal Raman matrix element. Spectra by the R1 mode on the other hand appear to be largely unpolarized or possibly slightly nondiagonal in character. Some speculations about the possible nature of the interface region are presented.

J. A. Cape; W. E. Tennant; L. G. Hale

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Trioxide and Mercury Emissions during Oxy-Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustion of Victorian Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates, for the first time, the NOX, N2O, SO3 and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOX emissions and higher N2O ...

Bithi Roy; Luguang Chen; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

139

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

140

Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published The ORNL DAAC is pleased to announce the release of the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1. Data set prepared by J.T. Randerson, G.R. van der Werf, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, and P.S. Kasibhatla. This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for carbon (C), dry matter (DM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), particulate matter 2.5 micron (PM2p5), total particulate matter (TPM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among others. The C4 fraction of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Version 2 Global Fire Emissions Database Available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Global Fire Emissions Database Available Global Fire Emissions Database Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2)." This data set, which supersedes and replaces the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 1 (GFEDv1), consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 - December 2004. For more information or to access this data set, please see the Vegetation

142

QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6­1995 (1997). 5. L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, "Optimization for simultaneous, and H. Fischer, "Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature

143

The Photo-Chemistry of Some Minor Constituents of the Earth's Atmosphere (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Monthly Notices The Photo-Chemistry of Some Minor Constituents...the various forms of combustion taking place on the Earth...date from oil wells and coal mines appears to be less...Monthly Notices THE PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF SOME MINOR CONSTITUENTS...date from oil wells and coal mines appears to be less......

D. R. Bates; Agnes E. Witherspoon

1952-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Photo-Chemistry of Some Minor Constituents of the Earth's Atmosphere (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles The Photo-Chemistry of Some Minor Constituents of the Earth's...is estimated that the various forms of combustion taking place on the Earth would provide...The yield to date from oil wells and coal mines appears to be less than the amount......

D. R. Bates; Agnes E. Witherspoon

1952-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the OctoberNovember 2003 solar proton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigaciones Cienti´ficas, Granada, Spain T. von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, G. Mengistu pronounced. Citation: Lo´pez-Puertas, M., B. Funke, S. Gil-Lo´pez, T. von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho

Jackman, Charles H.

146

The role of N2O derived from crop-based biofuels, and from agriculture in general, in Earth's climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biofuels, and from agriculture in general, in Earth's...life cycle analysis (LCA) models, led to broadly...global emissions from agriculture. Independent modelling...life cycle analysis (LCA) models, led to broadly...global emissions from agriculture. Independent modelling...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Boltzmann Equation Analysis of Electron Transport in a N2O2 Streamer Discharge Sasa Dujko1;2;3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boltzmann Equation Analysis of Electron Transport in a N2­O2 Streamer Discharge Sasa Dujko1;2;3�, P. O. Box 68, Zemun, Belgrade 11080, Serbia 3 ARC Centre for Antimatter­Matter Studies, School of the reduced electric field. The fluid model is coupled with the Monte Carlo model via a model interface

Ebert, Ute

148

The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 {+-} 545 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}), inventories (1299 {+-} 200 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) and inversions (1210 {+-} 405 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 {+-} 72 Tg C yr{sup -1} from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO{sub 2} towards the main GHGs, C-uptake by terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is offset by emissions of non-CO{sub 2} GHGs. As such, the European ecosystems are unlikely to contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change.

Luyassaert, S [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Abril, G [Laboratoire EPOC, CNRS; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Bastviken, D [Linkoping University; Bellassen, V [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Bergamaschi, P [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Bousquet, P [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Chevallier, F [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Corazza, M [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Dechow, R [Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute; Erb, K-H [Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt-Vienna-Graz; Etiope, G [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia; Fortems-Cheiney, A [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Grassi, G [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Hartmann, J [University of Hamburg; Jung, M. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Lathiere, J [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Lohila, A [Finnish Meteorological institute; Mayorga, E [University of Washington; Moosdorf, N [University of Hamburg; Njakou, D [University of Antwerp; Otto, J [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Papale, D. [University of Tuscia; Peters, W [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Peylin, P [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Raymond, Peter A [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Rodenbeck, C [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Saarnio, S [University of Eastern Finland; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Szopa, S [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Thompson, R [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Verkerk, P [European Forest Institute; Vuichard, N [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Wang, R [Peking University; Wattenbach, M [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre For Geosciences; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Boltzmann Equation Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in N2-O2 streamer discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy, drift velocity, diffusion coefficients and rate coefficients are reported. 1. Introduction of electrons and ions in regions of high electric field; (2) drift and diffusion in the local electric field trees [6]. In particular, fluid models and/or fluid parts of hybrid models of streamers often require

Ebert, Ute

150

Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluation of commercial Ba-based LNT (CLEERS benchmark catalyst; containing oxygen storage capacity) in a bench flow reactor under fast-cycling conditions, varying reductant type, temperature and sulfation level

151

Regulation of denitrification at the cellular level: a clue to the understanding of N2O emissions from soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...analysis of the community composition. A common feature of strains...fertilization and use of agrochemicals. These operations should...mean that characterizing the composition of denitrifying communities...found between the community composition and its propensity to emit...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Low-Temperature Desorption of N2O from NO on Rutile TiO2(110...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

decreases rapidly as the initially clean, reduced TiO2(110) surface with 5% oxygen vacancies (VO’s) becomes covered with oxygen adatoms and unreacted NO. The maximum...

153

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complexes between nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous1992) Indoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide: A potential pathwaybed of SiO 2 pellets. Nitrogen dioxide is introduced from a

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High-order harmonic spectroscopy for molecular imaging of polyatomic molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-order harmonic generation is a powerful and sensitive tool for probing atomic and molecular structures, combining in the same measurement an unprecedented attosecond temporal resolution with a high spatial resolution, of the order of the angstrom. Imaging of the outermost molecular orbital by high-order harmonic generation has been limited for a long time to very simple molecules, like nitrogen. Recently we demonstrated a technique that overcame several of the issues that have prevented the extension of molecular orbital tomography to more complex species, showing that molecular imaging can be applied to a triatomic molecule like carbon dioxide. Here we report on the application of such technique to nitrous oxide (N2O) and acetylene (C2H2). This result represents a first step towards the imaging of fragile compounds, a category which includes most of the fundamental biological molecules.

Negro, M; Faccialà, D; De Silvestri, S; Vozzi, C; Stagira, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Diversity, Physiology, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...toxicity of NO and N2O as well as gaseous nitrogen dioxide...have been retrieved from geothermal habitats at up to 97C. Many...chemolithotrophic reactions in two geothermal springs demonstrated that...ancestor of Thaumarchaeota and a geothermal origin of archaeal AO (20...

Roland Hatzenpichler

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

157

The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contains nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide,nitric oxide, while nitrogen dioxide is rapidly formedreadily oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, a pulmonary irritant.

World Health Organization

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

162

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Future of Precipitation: Global and Regional Isidoro Orlanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

destruction of ozone by chlorine; (1985) Farman et al: ozone hole Carbon dioxide methane Nitrous oxide CFCs

164

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ethylene Oxide Explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE occasional occurrence of ethylene oxide explosions during the fumigation of dried fruit has led us to undertake a detailed ... yielded results somewhat like those for acetaldehyde1,2.. Cool flames can be initiated in ethylene oxide – air mixtures in the neighbourhood of 330° C. at atmospheric pressure. ...

J. H. BURGOYNE; F. A. BURDEN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

170

Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Oxidations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) offers many excellent opportunities for conducting oxidation reactions using inexpensive primary oxidants such as oxygen, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, electrooxidation...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

173

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov…

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

175

Infrared spectroscopic studies of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a series of silica-supported copper catalysts in different oxidation states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (358-493 K, 0.1-20 kPa) on four copper-on-silica (2-10 wt% Cu) catalysts prepared by the ion-exchange technique. The measurements are made for each sample in three different states: unreduced (predominantly Cu{sup 2+}), and reduced (Cu{sup 0}), and partially reoxidized in nitrous oxide (Cu{sup +}). On unreduced samples, a major absorption band between 2127 and 2132 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO adsorbed on small CuO particles and a weak band at 2199 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO on isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions incorporated in the silica surface have been identified. The former adsorption obeys a Langmuir isotherm with a heat of adsorption of 29 kJ/mol independent of CuO particle size and surface coverage. After catalyst reduction, the major absorption band lies between 2090 and 2113 cm{sup {minus}1} and arises from CO linearly bound to very small (1- to 5-nm) copper metal clusters. The observed frequency shifts indicate the presence of steps and terraces similar to low index Cu planes in very small particles (1- to 2-nm), and the presence of similar higher index Cu planes on larger clusters (2- to 5-nm). The absorption is described by a Freundlich isotherm with the heat of CO adsorption decreasing with coverage from 50 to 22 kJ/mol on bigger particles but more constant (27 to 22 kJ/mol) on small particles. A surface copper/CO atomic ratio increasing from 5 to 12 is established at equilibrium saturation between 358 and 493 K using extinction coefficients determined in this study. In the reduced catalysts, a weakly adsorbed ({Delta}H{sub a} = {minus}20 kJ/mol) species assigned to CO bound to isolated Cu{sup +} ions is also found and absorbs at 2175 cm{sup {minus}1}. The frequency of this band does not vary with catalyst loading and is not affected by reoxidation of the catalyst in nitrous oxide.

Kohler, M.A.; Wainwright, M.S.; Trimm, D.L.; Cant, N.W. (Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia) Univ. of South Wales (Australia))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ... Optimization of hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) requires consideration of (i) HC gas diffusion into the catalyst layer, (ii) HC gas adsorption and desorption from catalyst sites, and (iii) kinetics of the oxidation reaction. ... Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase ...

Yasushi Tanaka; Takashi Hihara; Makoto Nagata; Naoto Azuma; Akifumi Ueno

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Low-Dissolved-Oxygen Nitrifying Systems Exploit Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria with Unusually High Yields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...AOB clones related to Nitrosomonas...was instead related to Ferribacterium...were closely related to the same...we did not measure N2O here...possibility of reducing energy and operational...as well as greenhouse gas emissions...home/policy/publications...

Micol Bellucci; Irina D. Ofi?eru; David W. Graham; Ian M. Head; Thomas P. Curtis

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

178

Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

levels 10 PSI laboratory test apparatus Computer FIC FIC FIC FIC FIC N 2 O 2 NO NH 3 TIC TIC TI MCT Detector TI TIC N 2 TI IR Source 2 3 4 3 3 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 heated gas line...

179

THE EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE It is the science that studies the whole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by coal, continuing deforestation, and limited or no control of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon of the twenty-first century, a phaseout of CFC emissions, and limitations on agricultural methane and nitrous

Gilbes, Fernando

180

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

185

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Observation of daytime N2O5 in the marine boundary layer during New England Air Quality StudyIntercontinental Transport and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Wallington et al., 1986] and aldehydes [Atkinson, 1991; D'Anna et al., 2001] are efficient pathways

189

Global long-lived chemical modes excited in a 3-D chemistry transport model: Stratospheric N 2 O, NO y , O 3 and CH 4 chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemistry about a climatology of trace?gas composition [as well as the tabulated climatology and partial derivativesteady?state control?run climatology. (c) Mode?1 is scaled

Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale in a Mediterranean climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

County, California, under a Mediterranean climate. We focused on the spatiotemporal variation of GHG in a Mediterranean climate Juhwan Lee a, *, Jan W. Hopmans b , Chris van Kessel a , Amy P. King b , K. Jeannie Evatt of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California

van Kessel, Chris

191

Insights into the Effect of Soil pH on N2O and N2 Emissions and Denitrifier Community Size and Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...33), typically by the application of lime. This method of pH manipulation can take years, with repeated lime applications being required. In the present...Madani, and W. Hart. 2006. Effect of lime, dicyandiamide and soil water content...

Ji?í ?uhel; Miloslav Šimek; Ronnie J. Laughlin; David Bru; Dominique Chèneby; Catherine J. Watson; Laurent Philippot

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

A quantum cascade laser-based optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for the simultaneous measurement of CH4 and N2O in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF CEAS) has been demonstrated with a thermoelectrically cooled continuous wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at wavelengths ...

D. J. Hamilton; A. J. Orr-Ewing

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst Authors: Sherman, B. D., Pillai, S., Kodis, G., Bergkamp, J., Mallouk, T. E., Gust, D., Moore, T. A., and Moore, A. L....

194

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel for use in solid oxide fuel cells. This cutting edge area of research continues to be important as energy prove useful for solid oxide fuel cells. METHODS Commercial molybdenum dioxide was used for all tests

Collins, Gary S.

195

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

196

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors ... Graphene oxide can be exploited in humidity and temperature sensors with a number of convenient features such as flexibility, transparency and suitability for large-scale manufacturing. ... Here we show that the two-dimensional nature of graphene oxide and its superpermeability to water combine to enable humidity sensors with unprecedented response speed (?30 ms response and recovery times). ...

Stefano Borini; Richard White; Di Wei; Michael Astley; Samiul Haque; Elisabetta Spigone; Nadine Harris; Jani Kivioja; Tapani Ryhänen

2013-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

200

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Abstract: Graphene...

202

Journal of Catalysis 225 (2004) 300306 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown that methanol can be produced by using N2O as the oxidant, rather than O2 [1­3]. More recently framework positions and ex- traframework Fe) can be used to produce methanol from CH4 and N2O. Above 523 KJournal of Catalysis 225 (2004) 300­306 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcat Methanol formation on Fe

Bell, Alexis T.

203

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

204

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Anodic oxidation of zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic polarization of zircaloy-2 in different electrolytic baths has been investigated in order to obtain thick oxide films with properties suitable for wear applications.

A. Conte; A. Borello; A. Cabrini

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible catalyst deactivation problems High capital, low operating Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) Feasible only at high organic concentra- tions High Fast reaction, complete oxidation Severe reaction conditions, canosion problems... of milder reaction conditions and is much less energy intensive. Thus, catalytic wet oxidation would be an alternative to solvent extraction, supercritical water oxidation, homogeneous oxidation, and incineration. It should also be feasible at low...

Thomas, Brook James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

The effect of fertilizer practices on N balance and global warming potential of maize–soybean–wheat rotations in Northeastern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Long-term agronomic studies are useful to determine cropping system nitrogen (N) use efficiency and the fate of applied fertilizers. We used a subtractive fertilizer experiment incorporating N, phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and swine manure to determine long-term changes in grain yield, soil organic carbon (SOC), total soil nitrogen (N), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The experiment was conducted on a 22-year maize–soybean–wheat rotation in Northeastern China. Crop residues were removed for cooking fuel and forage according to local practices. Five fertilizer treatments were applied annually: control (no fertilizer), NK, NP, NPK, and NPKOM (N, P, K and manure). The NPKOM treatment increased SOC and total soil N by 4.59 and 0.45 Mg ha?1, respectively. In contrast, SOC decreased by 10.6 and 6.64 Mg ha?1 in the control and NK treatments, respectively. The NPKOM treatment had an average of 2.9 times more N2O emissions than the other fertilizer treatments. The cropping system balances for N and SOC, together with fuel use for farming practices and manure handling, were used to calculate the global warming potential (GWP) of the different fertilizer treatments. Due to SOC sequestration, the GWP of the NPKOM treatment (6.77 Mg C equivalent ha?1) was significantly lower than that of both the control (14.4 Mg C equivalent ha?1) and the NK treatment (12.8 Mg C equivalent ha?1). The results suggest that in rainfed agricultural systems in Northeastern China, the application of manure supplemented with NPK can simultaneously achieve higher grain yield and lower GWP compared to mineral fertilizers alone.

Yunfa Qiao; Shujie Miao; Xiaozeng Han; Mengyang You; Xia Zhu; William R. Horwath

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ethylene Oxide for Soil Sterilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , this method may be time-consuming, and in view of the physical properties of ethylene oxide (solubility in water and boiling point 12-5 C.) it was considered ... consists of making up an aqueous solution to supply 2 or 4 c.c. of ethylene oxide in a given amount of water, using pre-chilled glassware and water. The ...

R. E. ROSE; R. W. BAILEY

1952-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Climate Change 2001: Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis Get Javascript Other reports in this collection 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases Contents Executive Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Sources of Greenhouse Gases 4.1.2 Atmospheric Chemistry and Feedbacks 4.1.3 Trace Gas Budgets and Trends 4.1.4 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Time-Scales 4.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 4.2.1 Non-CO2 Kyoto Gases 4.2.1.1 Methane (CH4) 4.2.1.2 Nitrous oxide (N2O) 4.2.1.3 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 4.2.1.4 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 4.2.2 Montreal Protocol Gases and Stratospheric Ozone (O3) 4.2.3 Reactive Gases 4.2.3.1 Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) 4.2.3.2 Volatile organic compounds (VOC) 4.2.3.3 Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

214

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% ...

Grenfell, J L; Patzer, B; Rauer, H; Segura, A; Stadelmann, A; Stracke, B; Titz, R; Von Paris, P; Grenfell, John Lee; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Segura, Antigona; Stadelmann, Anja; Stracke, Barbara; Titz, Ruth; Paris, Philip von

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

Myers, Christine Lee

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

218

New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of structural, electronic, and chemical properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces were performed on well-defined interfaces that created by depositing ultra-thin potassium and aluminum films and their oxides onto single crystal TiO[sub 2] and NiO surfaces. Work focused on determining the structure, growth mechanisms, and morphologies of metal and oxide films as they are deposited an single crystal oxide surfaces using RHEED and atomic force microscopy probing electronic structure, bonding and chemical interactions at the interfaces using x-ray and uv photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and understanding factors affecting stability and reactivity of the interface regions including the role of defects and impurities. Results indicate that kinetic effects have an important influence on interface structure and composition, and they also show that defects in the oxide substrate induce new electronic states at the interface which play a major role in cation-anion bonding and interface interactions. The results establish a link between electronic and chemical bonding properties and the interface structure and morphology, which is required to successfully manipulate the interfacial properties of advanced ceramic materials.

Lad, R.J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

222

On-board Measurement of NO and NO2 using Non-dispersive Ultraviolet...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Study of...

223

Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

224

DOE Announces $14 Million Industry Partnership Projects to Increase...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

particulate matter and nitrous oxides sensors suitable to support an exhaust gas recirculation control system in diesel engines. The project will include validation and...

225

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

result except for the case in which methane and nitrous oxide were increased from zero to their 1860 concentration. The smallest differences between the AER broadband and...

226

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

227

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization 35042 Rennes Cedex, France. Abstract A new copper(II) complex Cu(II)-L containing N2O2 donor atoms has of copper acetate monohydrate. It was characterized by spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV­vis, mass

Boyer, Edmond

230

Syngas combustion characteristics of four oxygen carrier particles for chemical-looping combustion in a batch fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Syngas combustion characteristics of oxygen carrier particles have been...2 selectivity, and low CO concentration in the reducer and very low NOx (NO, NO2, N2O) emissions in the oxidizer. Moreover, all particles ...

Ho-Jung Ryu; Dowon Shun; Dal-Hee Bae…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum phosphide pc Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HCP CCP PO phosphorus monoxide molecular oxygen Aluminum oxide H2 H2 O H2 S CSi carbon... isocyanide HCl NaCl NaCN N2 O KCl AlCl aluminum monochloride NH2 amidyl radical*...

232

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Design and Performance of a Sensor System for Detection of Multiple Chemicals Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the performance of a sensor system designed for simultaneous detection of multiple chemicals with both broad and narrow absorption features. The sensor system consists of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), multi-pass Herriott cell, and custom low-noise electronics. The ECQCL features a rapid wavelength tuning rate of 2265 cm 1/s (15660 nm/s) over its tuning range of 1150-1270 cm 1 (7.87-8.70 ?m), which permits detection of molecules with broad absorption features and dynamic concentrations, while the 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution of the ECQCL system allows measurement of small molecules with atmospherically broadened absorption lines. High-speed amplitude modulation and low-noise electronics are used to improve the ECQCL performance for direct absorption measurements. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of Freon-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) at low-ppb concentrations in field measurements of atmospheric chemical releases from a point source.

Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

2010-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained.

C. Buratti; M. Barbanera; F. Fantozzi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Speaker(s): Chandan K. Sen Date: February 17, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Reactive oxygen species represent a common mediator of environmental stress such as during physical exercise, ozone exposure, UV radiation and xenobiotic (pollutant) metabolism. Antioxidant defense systems protect against the ravages of such reactive species. In contrast to the conventional idea that reactive oxygen is mostly a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, now we know that low physiologically relevant concentration of reactive oxygen species can regulate a variety of key molecular mechanisms that may be linked with important processes such as immune response, cell-cell adhesion, cell proliferation, inflammation,

237

Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

Propp, W.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in Water Xiaodong Ye, Yijie Lu, Shilin Liu,*, Guangzhao Zhang, and Chi Wu-induced micellization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic PE10300) triblock

Liu, Shilin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers Studied by Differential Scanning and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), EOnPOmEOn, and the ionic surfactants sodium the aggregates of all three polymers. Introduction Water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)- poly(ethylene

Loh, Watson

242

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

243

Computational Modeling of Graphene Oxide Exfoliation and Lithium Storage Characteristics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Graphene oxide is a two dimensional material obtained by adsorption of oxygen or oxygen-containing groups on graphene. Stacked layers of graphene oxide constitute graphite oxide.… (more)

Mortezaee, Reza

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past six months, we have begun our studies of the fundamental properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide heterogeneous interfaces which are being prepared by epitaxial growth of ultra-thin-films on single crystal TiO{sub 2} and NiO surfaces. A new ultra-high vacuum film growth chamber was assembled and coupled to an existing surface analysis chamber; a sample transfer system, metal deposition sources, and a RHEED systems with microchannel plate detection were constructed and implemented. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize and refine the preparation procedures for the single crystal surfaces. The electronic structure of stoichiometric, oxygen-deficient, and potassium-covered TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces was investigated. Preliminary results on the Al/TiO{sub 2} (110) system have been obtained. Two graduate students have begun thesis research on the project. 6 figs.

Lad, R.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

249

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. • Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. • Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

251

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

252

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely...

253

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High quality oxide films on substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by Manganese Oxides H U I C H U N Z H A N G of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 The antibacterial agents triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4- dichlorophenoxy(-MnO2 andMnOOH)yielding MnII ions. Both the initial reaction rate and adsorption of triclosan to oxide

Huang, Ching-Hua

256

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

257

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Department: Fuel Cells and SolidSolid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Anne Hauch Risø-PhD-37(EN) Risø : Images from transmission electron microscopy investigation of the H2 electrode for the solid oxide cell

258

Photo-oxides of Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are involved in the biological action of carcinogenic hydrocarbons, we have attempted to isolate the photo-oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such ... -oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such photo-oxides would naturally be insoluble in water and hence would represent merely one stage in ...

J. W. COOK; R. MARTIN; E. M. F. ROE

1939-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

259

Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane by bacteria (especially, alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria) that likely participate in the oxidationORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark

Hansell, Dennis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

262

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

264

Semiconductive Properties of Uranium Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES Thomas Meek Materials Science Engineering Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37931 Michael Hu and M. Jonathan Haire Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 August 2000 For the Waste Management 2001 Symposium Tucson, Arizona February 25-March 1, 2001 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________ * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy

265

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Kinetics of Diesel Nanoparticle Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation rates in air of diesel nanoparticles sampled directly from the exhaust stream of a medium-duty diesel engine were measured over the temperature range of 800?1140 °C using online aerosol techniques. ... Particulate emission from diesel engines is currently a topic of great concern from both pollution and public health standpoints. ... In addition, the fundamental carbon-to-hydrogen ratio may be different in diesel particles as compared to the commonly used surrogates (15). ...

Kelly J. Higgins; Heejung Jung; David B. Kittelson; Jeffrey T. Roberts; Michael R. Zachariah

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. ... Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals. ...

L Schmidt; J Elder; J Davis

1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

Cao, Guozhong

270

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

271

Step-Orientation-Dependent Oxidation: From 1D to 2D Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we have studied the initial oxidation of Rh(111) surfaces with two types of straight steps, having {100} and {111} microfacets. The one-dimensional (1D) oxide initially formed at the steps acts as a barrier impeding formation of the 2D oxide on the (111) terrace behind it. We demonstrate that the details of the structure of the 1D oxide govern the rate of 2D oxidation and discuss implications for oxidation of nanoparticles.

J. Klikovits; M. Schmid; L. R. Merte; P. Varga; R. Westerström; A. Resta; J. N. Andersen; J. Gustafson; A. Mikkelsen; E. Lundgren; F. Mittendorfer; G. Kresse

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

272

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

273

Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due to the potential of achieving higher actinide recoveries from refractory materials. In this experiment, nominally 10 g of a graphite-containing residue generated during plutonium casting operations was initially calcined to remove the graphite. Removal of combustible material prior to a large-scale fusion with Na2O2 is needed due to the large amount of heat liberated during oxidation. Two successive fusions using the residue from the calcination and the residue generated from the initial dissolution allowed recovery of 98 percent of the plutonium. The fusion of the residue following the first dissolution was performed at a higher temperature (600 degrees Celsius versus 450 degrees Celsius during the first fusion). The ability to recover most of the remaining plutonium from the residue suggest the oxidation efficiency of the Na2O2 fusion improves with higher temperatures similar to results observed with NpO2 fusion.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,

275

Unfamiliar oxidation states and their stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ferrate formation. Oxidation of copper(II) hydroxide in alkaline solution with sodium hydroperoxide, Na.OOH, apparently gives copper (III) oxide.8 Determination of the voltage-current curve for a silver anode in sodium hydroxide solution gives breaks... of a knowledge of the chemical prop erties of the substance in question is made apparent by the following illustration: a compound containing silver and oxygen in equal atomic proportions may be made by the oxidation of unipositive silver...

Kleinberg, Jacob

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term...

278

Precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results on hydroxycarbonate precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are reinterpreted, taking into account earlier work on these systems.

M.S. Spencer

279

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

280

Double perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkali metal doped double perovskites containing manganese and at least one of cobalt, iron and nickel are useful in the oxidative coupling of alkane to higher hydrocarbons.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Lanthanide doped barium phosphorous oxide scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped barium phosphorous oxide useful for detecting nuclear material.

Borade, Ramesh B; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Denzo, Stephen E

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

282

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oxide Fuel Cells PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Robert Ploessl Corning, Inc. Tim Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Barbara Heydorn SRI International Suresh Baskaran...

283

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications Operating Principles AEC Development Atmospheric Pressure Systems Pressurized Systems Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems...

284

How to overcome the oxide barrier | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide semiconductor Atomistic diagram for crystalline chromium metal (light blue) on strontium titanate(top), an equation that describes the transport process (middle), and an...

285

Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality doped zinc oxide and mixed transition metal spinel oxide films have been deposited by means of sputter deposition from metal and metal oxide targets, and by spin casting from aqueous or alcoholic precursor solutions. Deposition conditions and post-deposition processing are found to alter cation oxidation states and their distributions in both oxide materials resulting in marked changes to both optical transmission and electrical response. For ZnO, partial reduction of the neat or doped material by hydrogen treatment of the heated film or by electrochemical processing renders the oxide n-type conducting. Continued reduction was found to diminish conductivity. In contrast, oxidation of the infrared transparent p-type spinel conductors typified by NiCo2O4 was found to increase conductivity. The disparate behavior of these two materials is caused in part by the sign of the charge carrier and by the existence of two different charge transport mechanisms that are identified as free carrier conduction and polaron hopping. While much work has been reported concerning structure/property relationships in the free carrier conducting oxides, there is a significantly smaller body of information on transparent polaron conductors. In this paper, we identify key parameters that promote conductivity in mixed metal spinel oxides and compare their behavior with that of the free carrier TCO’s.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Ferris, Kim F.; Owings, Robert R.

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

286

Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis 13 May 2011 Professor Tom Moore, a...

287

Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent...

288

Graphene oxide/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by ?-ray pre-irradiation on graphene oxide surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene oxide/poly(acrylic acid) (GO/PAA)...?...-ray pre-irradiation technique. The functional groups in graphene oxide were modified to peroxide in an...2 environment with ?...-ray radiation. Radical species fr...

Sungyoung Lee; Hoik Lee; Jae Hyun Sim; Daewon Sohn

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steels in Simulated Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cyclic oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels has been studied in the temperature range 700–900°C in atmospheres relevant to solid-oxide fuel-cell operation. The most detriment...

J. E. Hammer; S. J. Laney; R. W. Jackson; K. Coyne; F. S. Pettit…

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene composited as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene (SnO2-TiO2.../G) ternary nanocomposite as high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries was prepared via a simple reflux method. ... The graphite oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene

Shan-Shan Chen; Xue Qin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this process is a limiting factor in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells, which produce electricityCorrelating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol

Kik, Pieter

292

Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide-Ethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide-Ethylene Oxide Block Copolymers in Water Josias R. Lopes and Watson Loh* Instituto de Qui of 15 EO-PO-EO (EO ) ethylene oxide, PO ) propylene oxide) block copolymers by using three different

Loh, Watson

293

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Title Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Holder, Amara L., Brietta J. Carter, Regine Goth-Goldstein, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Atmospheric Pollution Research Volume 3 Start Page 25 Issue 1 Pagination 25-31 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords health effects, ozone, soot, toxicity Abstract Combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere undergo reactions with oxidants, which can change the particles' physiochemical characteristics. In this work, we compare the physical and chemical properties and cellular response of particles fresh from a flame with those oxidized by ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction with ozone and nitrogen dioxide does not significantly modify the physical characteristics of the particles (primary particle size, fractal dimension, and surface area). However, oxidation affects the chemical characteristics of the particles, creating more oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, and increases their hydrophilicity. In addition, oxidized soot generates more reactive oxygen species, as measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Furthermore, oxidized soot is 1.5-2 times more toxic than soot that was not reacted with ozone, but the inflammatory response, measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, is unchanged. These results imply that combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere will have an increased toxicity on or after high ozone days.

294

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

295

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

296

Evaluating Environmental Influences Oxidation Kinetics by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strategies for remediation of As-contaminated waters. In this study, the influence of goethite (R D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, The University of As-Mn systems demonstrate rapid oxidation of AsIII , catalyzed by Mn-oxides, producing less toxic

Sparks, Donald L.

297

The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane J. W. Falconer J. H. Knox Above 400 degrees C propane is oxidized by a two-stage degenerately...of propylene becomes important. While propane still in the main reacts to form propylene...

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

299

Air Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Most relevant emissions into the air are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides ... compounds (VOC).The major cause of all air pollution

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

302

Oxidation of carburized Hastelloy X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), small quantities of impurities such as H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CO, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ are present in the helium coolant. Prolonged exposure to these impurities at high temperature can result in undesirable mechanical properties due to corrosion. Extensive research has been performed on many candidate alloys to study their properties in HTGR helium, and in addition to oxidation, it has been found that carburization is also a possible problem in HTGR. Carbon in the graphite core, carried out by carbon-containing impurities such as CO and CH/sub 4/, can deposit on and diffuse into metallic components and cause carburization. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of carburization on an accelerated test.

Gan, D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Revealing the Nature of Emergent Ferromagnetism at an Oxide Heterointe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of thin-film structures 6-8. LaAlO3 (lanthanum aluminium oxide, LAO) and SrTiO3 (strontium titanium oxide, STO) materials are perovskites, a class of mineral oxides whose...

305

Graphene oxide-based materials : synthesis, characterization and applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this study, the properties and applications of graphene oxide-based materials have been explored. Specifically, graphene oxide, i.e. a single layer of graphite oxide, reduced… (more)

Zhou, Xiaozhu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx...

307

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

308

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

309

Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

310

Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

311

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Abstract: In H2 fuel cells,...

312

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

313

Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

314

Robust control strategies for hybrid solid oxide fuel cell systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems are electrochemical energy conversion devices characterized by the use of solid oxide as the electrolyte. They operate at high… (more)

Mathew, Anju Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent...

316

Graphene/metal Oxide Nanocomposites for Li-ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our work focuses on preparing the graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites by facile methold and exploring the graphene/metal oxide composites with unique structural or compositions for...

Liang, Junfei; Li, Lidong; Guo, Lin

317

Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide...

318

Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels...

319

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

320

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

322

Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...

323

Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Oxidation &...

324

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

325

Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)...

326

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...

327

Taking snapshots of different redox states of the water oxidation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

natural photosynthetic water oxidation mechanism empowers designers of artificial photosynthesis with knowledge to construct better water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel...

328

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% lower CH4 fluxes compared to those studies. Unlike on the Earth, relatively modest changes in these fluxes can lead to larger changes in the concentrations of biomarker and related species on the M-star world. We calculate a CH4 greenhouse heating effect of up to 4K. O3 photochemistry in terms of the smog mechanism and the catalytic loss cycles on the M-star world differs considerably compared with the Earth.

John Lee Grenfell; Jean-Mathias Griessmeier; Beate Patzer; Heike Rauer; Antigona Segura; Anja Stadelmann; Barbara Stracke; Ruth Titz; Philip von Paris

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

Hwang, H.Y.

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

Surface oxidation of Permalloy thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and magnetic structures of oxides on the surface of Permalloy Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} films were investigated as functions of annealing time with x-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry. For annealing times of less than one hour, the oxide consisted of a 1.5-nm-thick layer of NiO on an Fe oxide layer that was in contact with Permalloy. The Fe oxide thickness increases with annealing time with a parabolic rate constant of 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (for an annealing temperature of 373 K). The growth of the oxide layer is limited by the rate at which oxygen appears below the NiO layer. No portion of the oxide region was found to be ferromagnetically ordered for films annealed less than one hour. The growth of the Fe oxide region is well correlated with the measured increase of the second-order magnetic susceptibility for similarly prepared samples.

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Crawford, T. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Silva, T. J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

332

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

333

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen.

334

Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhao, Xingzhong [School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

335

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

336

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

337

Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA); Zilberstein, Vladimir A. (Brookline, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Degenerate cadmium oxide films for electronic devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly conducting and transparent cadmium oxide films have been deposited on Corning 7059 glass substrates by ion-beam sputtering and by spray pyrolysis. The electrical and optical properties of CdO films prep...

T. L. Chu; Shirley S. Chu

339

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Direct measurement and analysis of cyclohexadienyl oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxidation of cyclohexadienyl radical (c-C?H?) and similar resonantly stabilized radicals are important in an astonishing array of processes in nature. Cyclohexadienyl radical has been postulated to be significant in a ...

Taylor, James Wagner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low as 500-600 degrees Celsius...

Lee, Seung Min

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

342

Metallic Materials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Recently, a new type of FeC...

V. Shemet; J. Piron-Abellan; W.J. Quadakkers…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Oxidation of methionine residues in protein pharmaceuticals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) of free methionine. Therefore, the environments surrounding different methionine sites in G-CSF mainly provide spatial restriction to the access to the solvent but do not affect oxidation in a specific manner, ...

Chu, Jhih-Wei, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Bringing oxides into the visible realm | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

visible realm Bringing oxides into the visible realm Reducing the optical band gap of strontium titanate thin films This is a model of the growth process showing one lanthanum and...

346

Oxidized coal in coking: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A literature review shows that the oxidation of coal changes its granulometric composition, packing density, ... clinkering properties, the quality of the resulting coke, and the yield of coking byproducts. On ac...

N. A. Desna; D. V. Miroshnichenko

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Structural Determination of Marine Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fig 2 Figure 2. (A) X-ray diffraction intensity data for bacteriogenic manganese oxides produced in sea water. The bottom pattern is for clean cells. (B) X-ray diffraction...

349

Microsecond Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Alkanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HICKMAN A. D. , PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS BY DIRECT CATALYTIC-OXIDATION OF METHANE...PFEFFERLE D. L. , CATALYSIS IN COMBUSTION , CATALYSIS...a-alu-mina monoliths coated with Rh (for syngas) (1, 2) or with Pt (for olefins...

Duane A. Goetsch; Lanny D. Schmidt

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

Barringer, Eric A. (Waltham, MA); Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce (Waban, MA); Bowen, H. Kent (Belmont, MA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

Wu, Xin D. (Greenbelt, MD); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Espanola, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

358

Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5?nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303?mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

359

Ethylene oxide and Acetaldehyde in hot cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[Abridged] Ethylene oxide and its isomer acetaldehyde are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxid...

Occhiogrosso, A; Herbst, E; Viti, S; Ward, M D; Price, S D; Brown, W A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Conversion of a regenerative oxidizer into catalytic unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of a VOC oxidation catalyst in the existing regenerative thermal oxidizers may greatly reduce fuel consumption and improve the oxidizer performance. This was demonstrated in a commercial 25,000 SCFM unit installed at a printing facility. The paper discusses the principles of the oxidizer retrofit design and test results obtained at various conditions of operation.

Matros, Y.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies, Chesterfield, MO (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Reactivity and Transformation of Antibacterial N-Oxides in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown in Figure 1) represent organic N-oxides that are common in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals

Huang, Ching-Hua

364

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

367

Polymorphous Transformations of Nanometric Iron(III) Oxide: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its polymorphism, iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide, Fe2O3) is one of the most interesting and potentially useful phases of the iron oxides. ... Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven Fe(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ... Films of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by oxidizing Fe films rapidly in air. ...

Libor Machala; Ji?í Tu?ek; Radek Zbo?il

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Method for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions, device for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic process for the oxidation of organic. Oxygen is loaded into a metal foil by heating the foil while in contact with an oxygen-containing fluid. After cooling the oxygen-activated foil to room temperature, oxygen diffuses through the foil and oxidizes reactants exposed to the other side of the foil.

Beuhler, Robert J. (East Moriches, NY); White, Michael G. (Blue Point, NY); Hrbek, Jan (Rocky Point, NY)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...review-article Review articles 1004 30 36 15 Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic...of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good...particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 ºC and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil™ particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure – possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 – 0.04) of the flakes.

J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. Fuel cells are an energy user's dream: an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions that runs almost silently and has few

375

Why Sequence a Methane-Oxidizing Archaean?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Methane-Oxidizing Archaeon? a Methane-Oxidizing Archaeon? Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose atmospheric concentration has increased significantly because of anthropogenic activities and fluctuated naturally over glacial and interglacial cycles. While the importance of methane in Earth's climate dynamics has been well established, the global processes regulating its oceanic cycling remain poorly understood. Although there are high rates of methane production in many marine sedimentary environments (including a number that have been targeted as petroleum reserves), net methane sources from the ocean to the atmosphere appear to be small. This is due in large part to a biogeochemical process known as the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Microbially mediated AOM reduces methane flux from ocean to atmosphere, stimulates subsurface microbial

376

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Method for fluorination of uranium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

In situ oxidation of subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

380

First 20 years of DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition): Model evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mathematical models, such as the DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition) model, are powerful tools that are increasingly being used to examine the potential impacts of management and climate change in agriculture. DNDC can simulate the processes responsible for production, consumption and transport of nitrous oxide (N2O). During the last 20 years DNDC has been modified and adapted by various research groups around the world to suit specific purposes and circumstances. In this paper we review the different versions of the DNDC model including models developed for different ecosystems, e.g. Forest-DNDC, Forest-DNDC-Tropica, regionalised for different areas of the world, e.g. NZ-DNDC, UK-DNDC, modified to suit specific crops, e.g. DNDC-Rice, DNDC-CSW or modularised e.g. Mobile-DNDC, Landscape-DNDC. A ‘family tree’ and chronological history of the DNDC model is presented, outlining the main features of each version. A literature search was conducted and a survey sent out to c. 1500 model users worldwide to obtain information on the use and development of DNDC. Survey results highlight the many strengths of DNDC including the comparative ease with which the DNDC model can be used and the attractiveness of the graphical user interface. Identified weaknesses could be rectified by providing a more comprehensive user manual, version control and increasing model transparency in collaboration with the Global Research Alliance Modelling Platform (GRAMP), which has much to offer the DNDC user community in terms of promoting the use of DNDC and addressing the deficiencies in the present arrangements for the models’ stewardship.

Sarah L. Gilhespy; Steven Anthony; Laura Cardenas; David Chadwick; Agustin del Prado; Changsheng Li; Thomas Misselbrook; Robert M. Rees; William Salas; Alberto Sanz-Cobena; Pete Smith; Emma L. Tilston; Cairistiona F.E. Topp; Sylvia Vetter; Jagadeesh B. Yeluripati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry – Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271 kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

383

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

385

Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Investigation of the Local Structure of Graphene Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the local structure of graphene oxide is presented. Graphene oxide is understood to be partially oxidized graphene. Absorption peaks corresponding to interlayer states suggest the presence of pristine graphitic nanoislands in graphene oxide. Site-projected partial density of states of carbon atoms bonded to oxygen atoms suggests that the broadening of the peak due to interlayer states in the carbon K-edge spectrum of graphene oxide is predominantly due to formation of epoxide linkages. Density functional theory suggests that multilayers of graphene oxide are linked by peroxide-like linkages.

S Saxena; T Tyson; E Negusse

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Catalytic reactions on well-characterized vanadium oxide catalysts. 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide over unsupported and supported vanadium oxide catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of structure sensitivity. The activity of unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ markedly decreased the turnover frequency, while the reduction-oxidation treatment of the fused catalyst increased it. The turnover frequency of V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with low V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content was much smaller than that of the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with high V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content or the unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Such a retarding effect of the TiO/sub 2/ support on the activity of the oxidation of carbon monoxide is in contrast to the known promoting effect of TiO/sub 2/ for the oxidations of various hydrocarbons. From these results coupled with the characterization of the catalysts, it was concluded that the oxidation of carbon monoxide on vanadium oxide catalysts is a structure-sensitive reaction and that the activity of surface defects such as steps, kinks, and vacancies is much higher than that of the surface V=O species in the smooth (010) face of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Mori, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Murakami, Y.

1984-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

388

Cu- and Ag-modified cerium oxide catalysts for methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline doped ceria and Cu- and Ag-modified ceria for the complete oxidation of methane was studied in this work. The catalyst structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and related to the availability of low-temperature oxygen species. Selected samples were also analyzed by STEM/EDX, HRTEM, and XPS. Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) by H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as well as oxygen chemisorption, measurements were used to characterize the different oxygen species present on the catalyst. La and Zr were used as dopants to modify the crystal size and reduction properties of ceria. Enhanced activity for the complete oxidation of methane is discussed in terms of ceria reducibility, crystal size, and formation of oxygen defects at the surface (extrinsic oxygen vacancies). Addition of transition metal oxides (CuO) or transition metals (Ag) improves the low-temperature oxidation activity of cerium oxide. The interaction of ceria with Ag and CuO is a strong function of the crystal size of ceria. In the presence of the transition metal or metal oxide, a small crystal size of ceria favors the formation of highly reducible oxygen species and enhances the methane oxidation activity.

Kundakovic, L.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulis, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Synthesis of Co oxide doped carbon aerogel catalyst and catalytic performance in heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co oxide doped carbon aerogel (Co/CA) was prepared, characterised by several techniques, and tested for heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution using oxone as an oxidant. For a comparison, homogeneous oxidation of phenol in Co2+/oxone was also investigated. It was found that homogeneous oxidation of phenol using Co2+/oxone was more effective than Co2+/H2O2 and homogeneous oxidation was faster than heterogeneous Co/CA–oxone. Heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in Co/CA–oxone system followed first order kinetics and the activation energy of the heterogeneous system was estimated to be 62.9 kJ/mol. Several factors influencing phenol degradation in the heterogeneous oxidation were studied. Co/CA loading played a more important role in phenol degradation than oxone concentration, and the presence of other organics in solution resulted in a lower phenol oxidation.

Yasnessya Hardjono; Hongqi Sun; Huyong Tian; C.E. Buckley; Shaobin Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byrate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. Thenanocrystals can be rapidly photo-oxidized. This oxidation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

392

Anomalous behaviour of magnetic coercivity in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we present the temperature dependence of the magnetic coercivity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We observe an anomalous decrease in coercivity of GO and RGO with decreasing temperature. The observation could be understood by invoking the inherent presence of wrinkles on graphene oxide due to presence of oxygen containing groups. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals high wrinkles in GO than RGO. We observe higher coercivity in RGO than in GO. At room temperature, we observe antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviours in GO and RGO, respectively. Whereas, at low temperatures (below T?=?60–70?K), both materials show paramagnetic behaviour.

Bagani, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Kaur, J.; Rai Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, B.; Banerjee, S., E-mail: sangam.banerjee@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Surface Physics Division, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sardar, M. [Material Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

393

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 76017616, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/7601/2014/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen- containing species. Anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emis- sions react to form nitrogen dioxide. The fate of nitrogen oxide pollution during high-latitude winter is controlled by reactions of dinitrogen. Joyce et al.: NOx fate at high latitudes Figure 1. A nocturnal nitrogen schematic with emphasis on N2O5

Pierce, Jeffrey

394

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Title Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Kong, Fanping, Robert Kostecki, Frank R. McLarnon, and Rolf H. Muller Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 313-314 Pagination 775-780 Keywords effective medium approximation, electrochemical precipitation, inhomogeneous films, nickel hydroxide, spectroscopic ellipsometry Abstract In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the electrochemical precipitation of nickel hydroxide films. By use of optical models for inhomogeneous films it was found that a specific precipitation current density produced the most compact and homogeneous film structures. The density of nickel hydroxide films was derived to be 1.25-1.50 g/cm3. The redox behavior of precipitated nickel hydroxide films was studied with an effective-medium optical model. Incomplete conversion to nickel oxyhydroxide and a reduction in film thickness were found during the oxidation cycle.

395

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

396

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Photo-Sensitized Oxidation of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Photo-Sensitized Oxidation of Ethanol J. L. Bolland H. R. Cooper Certain...photosensitizers of the autoxidation of ethanol. In this quantitative investigation the...mechanism, abstracting hydrogen from the ethanol to give a semi-quinone radical which...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Electrical Properties of Tungsten Oxide Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... appear that the mechanism of electron emission with oxide films is different from that with roughened electrodes. This would be the case for short gaps if the electrons were drawn ... located on the upper surface of the film, as envisaged by Paetov1, while with roughened electrodes it is possible that photo-ionization can take place throughout the gap due to ...

F. LLEWELLYN JONES

1946-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

399

Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O O O + + O2 Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone studies. However, the study by Turner et al.1 seems to be the first to use Au55 in the synthesis of supported gold catalysts a very narrow and reproducible size distribution for the result- ing particles. Traditional catalyst

Rouyer, Francois

400

Oxidative Stress Resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phosphate pathway (683). The energy required for the recovery process...considerable potential interest and sustainable global significance for the...tetrad. FIG. 2. Sources of energy and building blocks in oxidatively...Both can be used as sources of energy, while polyphosphates also...

Dea Slade; Miroslav Radman

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Oxidized messenger RNA induces translation errors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...passed through a QIA shredder (Qiagen) to reduce...bound and the unbound fraction, respectively. Sucrose...and a Foxy Jr. fraction collector (ISCO). Each fraction was resuspended in distilled water...oxidized mRNA. In light of these findings...

Mikiei Tanaka; P. Boon Chock; Earl R. Stadtman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Potential oxidative stress due to Pb exposure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases in oxidation of glutathione in K562 myelogenous leukemia cells at low Pb levels. The approach consisted of incubating K562 cells in solutions of 0, 300, and 700 ppb Pb dissolved in RPMI cell medium for a total of 96 hours. After this period...

Elms, Rene' Davina

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

404

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

407

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies July 23, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling option, please visit: The NETL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program Webpage Solid oxide fuel cells are among the cleanest, most efficient power-generating technologies now being developed. They provide excellent electrical efficiencies and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. And with continued advancements, solid oxide fuel cells can provide clean

409

Tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide as an electron acceptor for Escherichia coli.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Research Article Tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide as an electron acceptor...Schrementi Escherichia coli used tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (THTO) as an electron...source; the THTO was reduced to tetrahydrothiophene. Cell extracts also reduced THTO...

R Meganathan; J Schrementi

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification ... The research results could open avenues for developing low-cost water purification materials for the developing economies. ... water purification; graphite oxide; mercury removal; diazonium chemistry; Rhodamine B; sand coating ...

Wei Gao; Mainak Majumder; Lawrence B. Alemany; Tharangattu N. Narayanan; Miguel A. Ibarra; Bhabendra K. Pradhan; Pulickel M. Ajayan

2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

411

Synthesis Dependent Core Level Binding Energy Shift in the Oxidation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Shift in the Oxidation State ofPlatinum Coated on Ceria–Titania and its Synthesis Dependent Core Level Binding Energy Shift in the Oxidation State ofPlatinum Coated...

412

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers ... The oxidizer is expected to be similar in design to a HRSG duct firing burner (at the inlet of a HRSG). ...

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh; Stephen Jolly; Dilip Patel; David Stauffer

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

413

Functionalization of Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Biosensing and Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in our group about graphene biofunctionalization are discussed. In particular, the functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide, biosensing and bioimaging by using graphene-based nanomaterials, and some fundamental studies of graphene and graphene oxide have been summarized.

Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Du, Dan; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mechanisms of Oxidation-Enhanced Wear in Diesel Exhaust Valves...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of wear oxidation microstructures of alloys Fe-, Ni-, Co-alloys h T h i h v Combined plastic deformation, wear, and oxidation on both valve and seat surfaces 6 Managed by...

415

Oxidation of graphite surface: the role of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on density functional calculations, we demonstrate a significant difference in oxidation patterns between graphene and graphite and the formation of defects after oxidation. Step-by-step modeling demonstrates that oxidation of 80% of the graphite surface is favorable. Oxidation above half of the graphite surface significantly decreases the energy costs of vacancy formation with CO2 production. The presence of water is crucial in the transformation of epoxy groups to hydroxyl, the intercalation with further bundle and exfoliation. In water-rich conditions, water intercalates graphite at the initial stages of oxidation and oxidation, which is similar to the oxidation process of free-standing graphene; in contrast, in water-free conditions, large molecules intercalate graphite only after oxidation occurs on more than half of the surface.

Boukhvalov, D W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Ovarian nitric oxide synthase gene expression during peripubertal development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from L-arginine by different isoforms of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (NOS) and is known to be involved in mediating several biological functions, some of which are associated with reproduction. Much attention...

Jones, Benjamin James

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

418

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Report from Breakout Group 5 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008...

419

Iron oxide nanoparticles as a contrast agent for thermoacoustic tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation. The addition of an exogenous contrast agent improves image quality by more effectively converting microwave energy to heat. The use of iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI applications has been explored but super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles...

Keho, Aaron Lopez

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

420

Role of Ethylene Oxidation in the Mechanism of Ethylene Action  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by ethylene monooxygenase (EM) has been shown to...Mycobacterium paraffinicum...(14, 16, 17, 18, 32), plants (8, 21, 24), and animals (22, 23). In microorga...

F. B. Abeles

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Toward an Improved Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asphalt binder oxidation in pavements has been proven to be an ongoing process throughout a pavement's service life. Understanding the nature of the oxidation process is a critical step toward better pavement design to achieve greater pavement...

Prapaitrakul, Nikornpon

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

422

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a Water-Soluble Nickel-Based Catalyst. Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a...

423

Morphology and Electronic Structure of the Oxide Shell on the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure of the Oxide Shell on the Surface of Iron Nanoparticles. Abstract: A iron nanoparticle exposed to air at room temperature will be instantly covered by an oxide shell of...

424

Neutron field characterisation at mixed oxide fuel plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......plutonium oxide (PuO2) and 70 % depleted uranium oxide (UO2) are blended together...and typical field conditions. Health Phys. (1990) 58(6):691-704...Power Plants Quality Assurance, Health Care Radiation Dosage Radiation......

C. Passmore; M. Million; M. Kirr; J. Bartz; M. S. Akselrod; A. Devita; J. Berard

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ... The effectiveness of sulfated mesoporous niobium oxide (MNO-S) as a catalyst for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from sugar was studied and is reported herein. ...

Ernest Lau Sze Ngee; Yongjun Gao; Xi Chen; Timothy Misso Lee; Zhigang Hu; Dan Zhao; Ning Yan

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nitric oxide inhibition of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298/sup 0/Ktiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitric oxide is observed to inhibit the rate of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298 K. Small amounts of added NO reduce the rates of production of CO/sub 2/ and CO by up to 35%. The authors show experimentally that NO is not reducing the gas phase O atom concentration. Thermal description mass spectrometry is used to measure the small adsorption of NO on the soot; this NO adsorption corresponds to 1.5% of the carbon atoms on the surface of the individual soot spheres. This inhibition is interpreted in terms of a relatively small number of reactive sites on the soot at which soot gasification occurs and which are effectively blocked by NO. When considered together with our previously reported work on oxidation of soot by oxygen atoms at 298 K, these results allow a partial mechanism to be formulated for this soot oxidation process.

Wicke, B.G.; Grady, K.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Metal oxide catalysts for the low temperature selective oxidation of propane to iso-propanol.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A range of Ga203/Mo03 and C03O4 catalysts have been prepared and tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene. The Ga2(VMo03 physical mixture demonstrated… (more)

Davies, Thomas Edward.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

Mohamed El-Genk

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

429

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Re-optimization of the Raman signal shows two broad, strong features in the OCV spectrum indicating large amounts of disordered graphite as evidenced by a broad D band (at 1350 cm-1) accompanying the G band (at 1585 cm-1) (Figure 2, right panel). ... intensities from a nonresonant, bond polarizability model optimized for sp2 carbon are also in qual. ...

Michael B. Pomfret; Jeffrey C. Owrutsky; Robert A. Walker

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov January 2012 Significance * Oxidizes heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury, in gas streams * Uses partially combusted coal ("Thief" carbon) * Yields an inexpensive catalyst * Cheap enough to be a disposable catalyst * Cuts long-term costs * Simultaneously addresses oxidation and adsorption issues Applications * Any process requiring removal of heavy

431

Methane oxidation rates in the anaerobic sediments of Saanich Inlet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

water methane concentration were avail- able. ... water solute concentrations and methane oxidation rates ..... Diffusion of light paraffin hydrocarbons in water.

2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

432

Tungsten oxide nanowire-reduced graphene oxide aerogel for high-efficiency visible light photocatalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A light, 3-D, porous aerogel was fabricated by way of a simple approach from 1-D tungsten oxide nanowires and 2-D reduced graphene oxide sheets. The as-prepared graphene oxide, tungsten oxide nanowires, and tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide (W18O49-RGO) aerogel were characterised. The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared aerogel under visible light irradiation were investigated through the degradation of six different organic dyes including Rhodamine B, reactive black 39, reactive yellow 145, weak acid black BR, methyl orange, and weak acid yellow G. In comparison with the pure W18O49 nanowires, the prepared W18O49-RGO aerogel had significantly improved photocatalytic efficiency. Also, the photocatalysis of W18O49-RGO aerogel maintained its efficiency after 30 cycles for each of the six dyes. The photocatalytic mechanism was studied by adding hole and radical scavengers: the results confirmed that the holes generated in W18O49-RGO aerogel played a key role in the visible light photocatalytic process.

Xiubing Li; Siwei Yang; Jing Sun; Peng He; Xuguang Xu; Guqiao Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

434

P0301-Mogensen Performance of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC) mode1 P0301-Mogensen Performance of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells: A Review Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State

435

Semiconducting chalcogenide buffer layer for oxide heteroepitaxy on Si,,001...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controlled laminar growth of a crystalline transition metal oxide on Si 001 without SiOx or silicide/or silicides at the Si/oxide interface. Subnanometer buffer layers can prevent interface reac- tions while, also enables flexible strain relief. We observe nei- ther oxide nor silicide formation at the buried Si

Olmstead, Marjorie

436

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

437

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms at 800oC with humidified hydrogen (3% H2O) as the fuel and air as the oxidant. The cells were also tested

Lin, Xi

439

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED;ABSTRACT Autotrophic ammonia oxidation has been documented for the first time in deep- sea hydrothermal autotrophic ammonia oxidation at ~ 91 nM d-1 , and potentially produces de novo organic carbon at a rate (0

Luther, Douglas S.

440

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety-in sheet to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is used during hospital REQUIREMENTS Because of the severe potential health effects of Ethylene Oxide (EtO) all Cornell members

Pawlowski, Wojtek

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide D.M. Saylor 1 , A distribution, magnesium oxide. Abstract. We have developed a technique that allows the geometry of polycrystalline magnesium oxide. Using these data, we have specified the distribution of grain boundaries within

Rohrer, Gregory S.

442

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

Belanger, David P.

443

Glass Based on the oxides of Molybdenum, Tungsten and Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN previous publications from this Laboratory, attention has been directed to glasses of unusual composition based on the oxides of tellurium and vanadium1-4. This article ... the oxides of tellurium and vanadium1-4. This article describes the development of further unusual glasses based on the oxides of molybdenum, tungsten and uranium.

P. L. BAYNTON; H. RAWSON; J. E. STANWORTH

1956-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS OXIDIZERS ON THE OVERALL PERFORMACE OF A DIRECT FLAME SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The power output of a direct-flame solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was studied using hydrogen (H2) as the fuel for the flame and various oxidizers,… (more)

Donadio, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheet: A novel glucose sensor based on nickel-graphene oxide composite film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were produced by ... IR). An electrochemical sensor based on Ni/graphene (GR) composite film was developed by...2+ into the graphene oxide film modified glassy carbon electrode ...

Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate comprehensive studies on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based saturable absorbers (SA) for mode-locking of Er-doped fiber lasers. The...

Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Jagiello, Joanna; Kozinski, Rafal; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Holdynski, Marcin; Paletko, Piotr; Boguslawski, Jakub; Lipinska, Ludwika; Abramski, Krzysztof M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction at the Ni/YSZ Anode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from First Principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of ab initio simulations we here provide a comprehensive scenario for hydrogen oxidation reactions at the Ni/zirconia anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The simulations have also revealed that in the presence of water chemisorbed at the oxide surface, the active region for H oxidation actually extends beyond the metal/zirconia interface unraveling the role of water partial pressure in the decrease of the polarization resistance observed experimentally.

Clotilde S. Cucinotta; Marco Bernasconi; Michele Parrinello

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

449

Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.

Christopherson, Craig John (Grafton, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Scudiere, John (Bolton, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Estimation of Nitric and Nitrous Nitrogen in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, were found to check as well as could be expected with the zinc ferrous-sulphate methods, which include both nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. Some of the results obtained in the course of the investigation out- lined are here presented, together with a... in Series 1 mas 1.0 part per million on 7.7 parts per million, or about 12 per cect: the average difference of the 11 was 0.1 on 7.5 parts per million, or a little over one per cent. In Series 2, the maximum clifference was 3.3 parts per million on 25...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures

452

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Talinfiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Synthesis and Oxidation Behavior of Nanocrystalline MCrA1Y Bond Coats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spraying gun passes can be critical for the oxidation behavior because of the inter-pass oxidation presence in HVOF

Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Tang, Feng; Picas, Josep; Kim, Geoge E.; Provenzano, Virgil; Schoenung, Julie M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

EFFECT OF MECHANICAL DISCONTINUITIES ON THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE S. Wallace ofThe variables and number of aluminum oxide (almnina). size~

Wallace, J.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation held Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calcium oxide Water Carbon (activated) Calcium... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ,...

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation defects-remaining Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calcium oxide Water Carbon (activated) Calcium... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ,...

457

Unveiling and controlling the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor surfaces: Crystalline oxidized InSb(100)(1 × 2)-O  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exothermic nature of oxidation causes nearly all semiconductor applications in various fields like electronics, medicine, photonics, and sensor technology to acquire an oxidized semiconductor surface part during the application manufacturing. The significance of understanding and controlling the atomic scale properties of oxidized semiconductor surfaces is expected to increase even further with the development of nanoscale semiconductor crystals. The nature of oxidized semiconductor layers is, however, hard to predict and characterize as they are usually buried and amorphous. To shed light on these issues, we pursue a different approach based on oxidized III-V semiconductor layers that are crystalline. We present a comprehensive characterization of oxidized crystalline InSb(100)(1×2)-O layers by ab initio calculations, photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and spectroscopy, and demonstrate the electronic band structures of different oxidized phases of the semiconductor, which elucidate the previous contradictory semiconductor-oxidation effects. At 0.5 monolayer (ML) oxidation, oxygen atoms tend to occupy subsurface Sb sites, leading to metallic states in the semiconductor band gap, which arise from top dimers. When the oxidation is increased to the 1.0–2.0 ML concentration, oxygen occupies also interstitial sites, and the insulating band structure without gap states is stabilized with unusual occupied In dangling bonds. In contrast, the 2.5–3.0 ML oxide phases undergo significant changes toward a less ordered structure. The findings suggest a methodology for manipulating the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor layers.

J. J. K. Lång; M. P. J. Punkkinen; M. Tuominen; H.-P. Hedman; M. Vähä-Heikkilä; V. Polojärvi; J. Salmi; V.-M. Korpijärvi; K. Schulte; M. Kuzmin; R. Punkkinen; P. Laukkanen; M. Guina; K. Kokko

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

458

Mechanistic Studies of Water Electrolysis and Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation on High Temperature Ceria-Based Solid Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion devices with multicomponent materials (e.g., solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers-Based Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Chunjuan Zhang,,# Yi Yu,,# Michael E. Grass,,# Catherine Dejoie spectroscopy (APXPS) and a single-sided solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), we have studied the mechanism

Li, Weixue

459

Hibiscus Protocatechuic Acid or Esculetin Can Inhibit Oxidative LDL Induced by Either Copper Ion or Nitric Oxide Donor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hibiscus Protocatechuic Acid or Esculetin Can Inhibit Oxidative LDL Induced by Either Copper Ion or Nitric Oxide Donor ... Several groups using different flavonoids, such as quercetin, catechin, morin, rutin, fisetin, and gossypetin, also showed that flavonoids could inhibit copper-catalyzed and macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation (13?16). ... morin and fisetin 1 ?M; quercetin and gossypetin 2 ?M). ...

Miao-Jane Lee; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ming-Hsun Hsieh; Ming-Cheng Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

2002-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

460

Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 selected Pt nanoparticles2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), which produce electricity from11 liquid fuel without1 Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 * Corresponding author: roldan@ucf.edu9 Keywords: platinum; methanol oxidation; operando; XAS; EXAFS; alumina

Kik, Pieter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Manganese Oxidation In A Natural Marine Environment- San Antonio Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and can be oxidized to any higher oxidation state, but Mn4+ is the most stable form first achieved (Stumm and Morgan 1996; Armstrong 2008). Mn3+ is a transitional/ metastable state that persists in nature before being further oxidized to the stable form... of Mn4+, which has also been described as a thermodynamic sink (Hem and Lind 1983; Stumm and Morgan 1996; Armstrong 2008). Mn oxides are found in the geologic record associated with other metal oxides such as iron (Fe) and cerium (Ce) (Braun et al...

Neyin, Rosemary Ogheneochuko

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

463

Oxidation of boron silicide and materials based on it  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron silicide and compounds based on its containing titanium, chromium, nickel, and yttrium and scandium oxides are studied for their oxidation in air from room temperature to 1300{degrees}C. It is shown that chromium boride markedly improves the heat resistance of B{sub 4}Si over a wide temperature range (700-1300{degrees}C) probably as a result chromium-oxide dissolution in borosilicate glass and alteration of its structure. A favorable effect of yttrium and scandium oxides as well of nickel silicide appears at above 1000{degrees}C as a result of forming complex oxide compounds in the scale.

Golovko, E.I.; Makarenko, G.N.; Voitovich, R.F.; Fedorus, V.B. [Institute of Materials Science, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Fundamental kinetics of methane oxidation in supercritical water. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental understanding of the oxidation of compounds in supercritical water is essential for the design, development and operation of a supercritical water oxidation unit. Previous work in our group determined the oxidation kinetics of carbon monoxide and ethanol in supercritical water for temperatures ranging from 400 to 540 C. Oxidation studies of methane up to 700 C have recently been completed and are presented in this report. Theoretical studies of fundamental kinetics and mechanistic pathways for the oxidation of methane in supercritical water are discussed. Application of current gas phase elementary reaction models are briefly presented and their limitations discussed.

Webley, P.A.; Tester, J.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1989-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

466

Preliminary GHG Emissions Inventory for the Slovak Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results of a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the Slovak Republic. The key gases included are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons are excluded ...

Katarína Mare?kova; Pavol Bielek; Stanislav Kucirek…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

CX-010281: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Low Temperature Nitrous Oxide Storage and Reduction Using Engineered Materials CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05/14/2013 Location(s): Kentucky Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

468

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography—1965 November 1, 1964 to November 1, 1965  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY OF NITROUS OXIDE IN WATER BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY...OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN ON MODIFIED...English) 813 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY...DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY OF NITROGEN IN WATER AND EXTRACTED...Kenneth G., J. Gas Chromatog......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Mignon Gill

1965-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Denitrification Rates in the Low-Oxygen Waters of the Stratified Baltic Proper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...F. 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and sea water. Deep-Sea Res...tion of dissolved nitrogen, oxygen, argon...inorganic carbon by gas chromatography...Nitrous oxide solubility in water and sea water...

Ulf Rönner; Fred Sörensson

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Homoeologous shuffling and chromosome compensation maintain genome balance in resynthesized allopolyploid Brassica napus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Biological Sciences, University of Missouri , Columbia, MO 65211 Polyploidy...Biological Sciences, University of Missouri...were treated with nitrous oxide gas for 1 h. Treated buds were fixed...with a 60× plan apochromat oil immersion lens, and digital...

Zhiyong Xiong; Robert T. Gaeta; J. Chris Pires

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

2006 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in annual energy costs, but will also save 650,000 gallons of diesel fuel and reduce air pollution by 26 tons of sulfur dioxide and 15 tons of nitrous oxide. With the wind...

473

Proceedings of the TAPPI 1986 environmental conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings collect papers given at a conference on the environment. Topics include the paper industry; solid electrolytes; combustion products; scrubbers and gaseous wastes including nitrous oxides and sulfur dioxide.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

CX-010282: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Low Temperature Nitrous Oxide Storage and Reduction Using Engineered Materials CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/14/2013 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

475

Spectrum of hot methane in astronomical objects using a comprehensive computed line list  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2004 ) Standards development of global warming gas species: Methane, nitrous oxide...measurement of toxic gases produced during firefighting...Marran D ( 2001 ) Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using...by the Science and Technology Research Council...

Sergei N. Yurchenko; Jonathan Tennyson; Jeremy Bailey; Morgan D. J. Hollis; Giovanna Tinetti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NF?B Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 ?g/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NF?B inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France) [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

477

ENS'07 Paris, France, 3-4 December 2007 NANOSTRUCTURES DEFINED BY THE LOCAL OXIDATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53 Praha 6, Czech Republic ABSTRACT The results of Local Anodic Oxidation (LAO) on the thin Ga in monitoring substrate tip water oxide substrate tip water oxide Fig. 1 Local anodic oxidation by the AFM tip for pattern transfer, local anodic oxidation and subsequent use of the oxide as the etch mask, and maskless

Boyer, Edmond

478

Why sequence carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? Many microbes that use carbon monoxide as an energy source are found in high temperature environments such as geothermal areas. Researchers think that these carboxydotrophs may be involved in reducing potentially toxic carbon monoxide hotspots by combine with water to form hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which are in turn used for thermophilic energy conservation and carbon sequestration mechanisms. The project focuses on sequencing two closely related microbes, one of which is Carboxydothermus hydrogenformans. A strain of C. hydrogenformans has been grown in hydrogen-enriched synthesis gas (syngas), which contains a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Researchers are interested in sequencing both microbial strains to track the genome's evolution and

479

Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitrous oxide n2o" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

482

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

484

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

485

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

488

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

Jensen, R.R.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

491

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

492

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

493

Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

Cooper, J.F., LLNL

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

495

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

Hohorst, Frederick A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate over La-Co and La-Cu oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lanthanum-containing mixed oxides (La-Co and La-Cu) were synthesized by several methods: exotemplating, evaporation, glycine-nitrate and glycine-nitrate-exotemplating. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, N2 adsorption, temperature programmed reduction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The materials obtained were tested as catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation, as a model volatile organic compound. La-Cu samples showed poor catalytic performance, but La-Co materials were much more active than the individual components. Catalytic activity seems to be mainly determined by the easiness of reduction of the catalysts, which is related to the availability of oxygen from the lattice. Catalysts containing Co or Cu in excess of La (on a molar base) were more active than the corresponding mixed oxides consisting of equal amounts of La and the transition metal. Samples prepared by the evaporation method were more active than those prepared by exotemplating, for the same molar ratio. Samples prepared by evaporation and glycine-nitrate methods calcined at 600 °C had a better performance than the corresponding oxides calcined at 300 °C. The most active sample found in this study was the La-Co mixed oxide prepared by the glycine nitrate method and calcined at 600 °C, 100% conversion of ethyl acetate to H2O and CO2 being achieved at 230 °C.

X. Chen; S.A.C. Carabineiro; P.B. Tavares; J.J.M. Órfão; M.F.R. Pereira; J.L. Figueiredo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nucleation and growth of Cu{sub 2}O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

Yang, J. C.; Li, Z. Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G. W.; Eastman, J. A.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Baldo, P. M.; Rehn, L. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Materials Science Division; Univ.of Pittsburgh; State Univ. of New York at Binghamton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z