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Sample records for nitrous oxide n2o

  1. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    is from the use of nitrogenous fertilizer in the agricultural sector; others include combustion of fossil radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg pulse emission of CO2. The GWP time horizon must also be specified ­ typically it is 100 yr, but IPCC

  2. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    gross N 2 O production and consumption rates). Regressionmeasure gross N 2 O production and consumption rates withoutIII. Nitrous oxide production and consumption in a drained

  3. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    Method Method 15 N tracer 15N tracer 15 N O pool dilution15N2O pool diltion Acetylene inhibition Acetylene inhibitionthe 15 N-nitrous oxide (N 2 O) pool dilution technique in a

  4. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UV­Vis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted

  5. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone J O H N T . W A L K E R , * , C R A I,thoughlargenitrogeninputsanddeoxygenation typical of these systems create the potential for large N2O emissions. We report the first N2O emission measurements from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone (GOMHZ), including an estimate of the emission "pulse

  6. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  7. Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers Dame, Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Denitrification, net oxygen consumption and net nitrous oxide. Denitrification, oxygen consumption and N2O flux were measured based on net changes in dissolved gas

  8. New and Renewal SRMs/RMs NIST SRM 1718 Nitrous Oxide in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New and Renewal SRMs/RMs NIST SRM 1718 Nitrous Oxide in Air (Nominal Amount-of-Substance Fraction 1 amount-of-substance of 1.0 µmol/mol Nitrous Oxide (N2O) in Synthetic Air balance. It is used the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the Automobile Industry

  9. TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    80 TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial). effects of irrigation on N2 O emissions from perennial ryegrass AUTHOR: Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which may affect N2 O emissions

  10. Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide concentrations of Ozone destruction and creation at different altitudes and concentrations of CH4 and N2O #12;Contents levels have varying conditions and are governed by different chemical regimes We will simulate ozone

  11. Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halevy, Itay

    Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon A. L. ROBERSON,1 J. ROADT,2 are possible during this time. The combined greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O could have pro- vided up to 10 at the beginning of the Proterozoic and still 5% dimmer at its end (Gough, 1981). Greenhouse warm- ing by CO2 and H

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  13. The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Caitlin H

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

  14. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  15. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of...

  16. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  17. On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

  18. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  19. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  1. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  2. Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Katherine Ellison

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

  3. Nitrous Oxide as a 1,3-Dipole: A Theoretical Study of Its Cycloaddition Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    of N2O emissions have been identified, including biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, industrial and stratospheric ozone loss, so its level should remain as low as possible, and the N2O emissions should be reduced

  4. N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems Reviews potential contribution to N2O formation of typical diesel exhaust aftertreatment system based on...

  5. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported on silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Tsong-Jen

    1979-01-01

    or indirectly from 02, thus tne difference between the two oxidants becomes less sig- nificant. Both rates of formation for C2H4 and C0 were enhanced in the presence of a very small amount of oxygen in the mixture of C2B& and N 0. A radical mechanism... process because of the large and expanding demand for alkenes and dialkenes which are used in the manufacture of various chemical prod- ucts such as detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber, anc high octane gasoline. One example of this type of reaction...

  6. Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Eliza

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

  7. Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production requires significant inputs of fertilizer N for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Abstract: Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated-textured, well-drained soils where potatoes are commonly grown. Polymer coated controlled-release ureas (PCU

  8. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  9. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    in Microbial Production and Consumption of Green- housesoil denitrification: Production and consumption of nitrouspathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical

  10. O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic. (2007) O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic outputs online #12;O3-N2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Revisiting a diagnostic

  11. Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic eects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission the remainder. Over 80% of aquatic anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the Northern Hemisphere mid

  12. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  13. Shock-Tube Study of Methane Ignition with NO2 and N2O 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pemelton, John

    2012-10-19

    . The experimental pressure range was 1 - 44 atm and the temperature range tested was 1177 – 2095 K. The additives NO2 and N2O were added in concentrations from 831 ppm to 3539 ppm. The results of the mixtures with NO2 have a reduction in ignition delay time across...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  15. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  16. Modeling impacts of farming management alternatives on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions: A case study for water management of rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions about 40%, or 5 Tg CH4 yrÀ1 , roughly 5­10% of total global methane emissions from rice paddies contribution to the net climate impact due to the low radiative potential of CO2. The change in water. Introduction [2] Food production contributes approximately 70% of global atmospheric input of nitrous oxide (N2

  17. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore »with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  18. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 201, Problem 14 Evaluating the importance of Heterogeneous Chemistry of N2O5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    for NOx, because when sunlight returns it will photolyzes to reform NOx (NO + NO2). However, N2O5 can also been destroyed by catalytic reactions with the original NOx. The reactions described above are written

  19. Strong-field control of the dissociative ionization of N2O with near-single-cycle pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kling, Matthias

    Strong-field control of the dissociative ionization of N2O with near-single-cycle pulses M Kübel1.1088/1367-2630/16/6/065017 Abstract The dissociative ionization of N2O by near-single-cycle laser pulses is studied using phase, journal citation and DOI. #12;results demonstrate how few-femtosecond dynamics can drive and steer mole

  20. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John K

    2010-01-01

    ±50 kJ mol -1 . Catalytic oxidation of CO by N 2 O mediated+ O C Scheme 2 – Catalytic oxidation of CO by N 2 O mediatedexhibit such catalytic behavior [14]. Oxidation of CmO + did

  1. Studies of the Excited State Dynamics of N2O2 by Dissociative Photodetachment of N2O2 Runjun Li and Robert E. Continetti*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continetti, Robert E.

    to their potential importance as intermediates in catalytic reduction processes1,2 and as potential energetic materials.3 The weakly bound ground- state dimer of nitric oxide, (NO)2, has been extensively investigated The oxides of nitrogen play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and have received attention owing

  2. Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale in a Mediterranean climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale tillage may increase N2O emissions under certain circumstances, thereby offsetting C sequestration manage- ment accounted for almost 94% of total US N2O emissions from 1990 to 2004 (USEPA, 2006). In 2004

  3. HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the OctoberNovember 2003 solar proton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October­November 2003 solar proton events M. Lo-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions solar proton events. Two distinct HNO3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1­2 ppbv

  4. Catalytic oxidative coupling of methane over Li/MgO using N2O as an oxidant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    be attributed to the C-H bond cleavage. A low selectivity for COv (A e. high ethane and ethylene selectivity), was observed when the CH~/NvO ratio was large. The condition where a small amount of CO~ was observed corresponds to the region in which oxygen... formation over Li/MgO while CH was kepi. at about, 30 kpa. . . 36. The influence of N 0 on the rate of CO~ formation over Li/MgO whde CH was kept at about 10 kPa. . . 37. The influence of CH on the rate of CO~ formation over Li/MgO while NvO was kept...

  5. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O-- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At lower-intermediate exhaust temperatures, N2O is emitted in two peaks. This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions.

  6. Mathematical treatment of isotopologue and isotopomer speciation and fractionation in biochemical kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggi, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    tri?cation: Production and consumption of nitrous oxide,of N 2 O production and consumption from the experiments byreactions of N 2 O production and consumption. To this end,

  7. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains non-steady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggi, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    tri?cation: Production and consumption of nitrous oxide,i rates during N 2 O production and consumption. (c) and (d)? during N 2 O production and consumption. Modeling results

  8. Nighttime NO3y chemistry: In situ Observation of the Various Removal Pathways of NO3 and N2O5 around the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    and synoptic wind suggest air mass originated from the European continent; High aerosol organics in this aged on the left shows a typical scenario when urban emitted NO2 was transported to > 3 km, forming N2O5 which and to falling ice were frequently observed (even though days with forecast precipitation were deliberately

  9. Ambient Measurements of the NOx Reservoir Species N2O5 using Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geidosch, Justine Nicole

    2012-10-19

    to the occurrence of asthma. Ozone is formed through reactions of oxidized volatile organic compounds with nitrogen oxides, and the accurate modeling of the process is necessary for smart and effective regulations. Ambient measurements are important to understanding...

  10. European Journal of Soil Science, December 2010, 61, 903913 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01217.x Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    that of CO2, and an atmospheric lifetime of about 120 years (IPCC, 2007). It also contributes source of N2O. It has been estimated that total anthropogenic emissions are 6.7 Tg N2O-N year-1, 42 Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops J . W . V a n G r o e n i

  11. Experimental and quantum mechanics investigations of early reactions of monomethylhydrazine with mixtures of NO2 and N2O4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    States b Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Hypergolic bipropellants are fuel-oxidizer combinations that ignite spontaneously upon mixing at ambient it important to develop computa- tional fluid dynamics (CFD) models to gain insight into the influ- ence

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual

  13. Auxiliary Ligand-Dependent Assembly of Several Ni/Ni-Cd Compounds with N2O2 Donor Tetradentate Symmetrical Schiff Base Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Ying Ying; Li, Guo-Bi; Fang, Hua-Cai; Zhan, Xu Lin; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Jin Hao; Sun, Feng; Cai, Yue-Peng; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-09-18

    Several low-dimensional Ni/Ni-Cd complexes containing N2O2 donor tetradentate symmetrical Schiff base ligand bis(acetylacetone)ethylene-diamine (sy-H2L2), namely, [Ni(sy-L2)]2?HLa?ClO4 (2), (HLa)2?(ClO4)?(NO3) (3), [Ni(sy-L2)X]2](4,4’-bipy) (where La = 5,7-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-diazepine, X = ClO4 (4), X=NO3 (5), [Ni(sy-L2)Cd(SCN)2]n (6) and [Ni(sy-L2)?Cd(N3)2]n (7) have been synthesized from [Ni(sy-L2)]2?H2O (1). Complex 2, is three component discrete assembly generated from (HLa)+ moiety bridged with [Ni(sy-L2)] unit and ClO4- anion. A solution containing complex 2 and Cd(NO3)2 results in a mixture of 1 and 3. Further re-crystallization of 1 and 3 with various auxiliary ligands, provides coordination complexes 4 – 7 stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds in which 6 and 7 represent the first 1D heteronuclear complexes based on symmetric acacen-base Schiff base ligand.

  14. A New Equation of State for CCS Pipeline Transport: Calibration of Mixing Rules for Binary Mixtures of CO2 with N2, O2 and H2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demetriades, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    One of the aspects currently holding back commercial scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an accurate understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of carbon dioxide and relevant impurities during the pipeline transport stage. In this article we develop a general framework for deriving pressure-explicit EoS for impure CO2. This flexible framework facilitates ongoing development of custom EoS in response to new data and computational applications. We use our method to generalise a recent EoS for pure CO2 [Demetriades et al. Proc IMechE Part E, 227 (2013) pp. 117] to binary mixtures with N2, O2 and H2, obtaining model parameters by fitting to experiments made under conditions relevant to CCS-pipeline transport. Our model pertains to pressures up to 16MPa and temperatures between 273K and the critical temperature of pure CO2. In this region, we achieve close agreement with experimental data. When compared to the GERG EoS, our EoS has a comparable level of agreement with CO2 -N2 VLE experiments ...

  15. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowe, D.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J.; Utembe, S.; Ouyang, B.; Aruffo, E.; Le Breton, M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Di Carlo, P.; Percival, C.; Coe, H.; Jones, R.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-02-09

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the oxidative control of the composition of the troposphere, primarily through its established role as a daytime oxidant. However, night-time chemistry, driven primarily by the nitrate radical (NO3), has been increasingly...

  16. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 19531976, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/1953/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    as an important indirect green- house gas as it significantly impacts the OH budget. SCIA- MACHY is among), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and of the ozone precursor gas carbon monox- ide (CO), which also acts

  17. Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EPA 2010b). The GHGs present in the earth's atmosphere include water vapor (H 2 O), ozone (O 3 ), CO 2 , methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and trace amounts of...

  18. Biological and environmental efficiency of high producing dairy systems through application of life cycle analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Stephen Alexander

    2014-11-27

    Dairy production systems are an important global contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the role GHG play in climate ...

  19. The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PCFs inventories · CDM projects must lead to real, measurable and long-term climate change benefits · Eligible CDM

  20. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1063310644, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10633/2013/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling. These measurements were made on a gas chro- matograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and electron capture

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish arable agriculture and the potential for biochar to be used as an agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-30

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Agriculture is a major source of N2O and in the UK approximately 71 % of ...

  2. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  3. Nitrous Oxide Production in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Lindsey A.

    2010-10-12

    The Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone is created by strong persistent water stratification and nutrient loading from the Mississippi River which fuels primary production and bacterial decomposition. The Texas-Louisiana shelf ...

  4. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported by silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Mark Branham

    1977-01-01

    ions. This can be accomplished through the formation and subsequent desorption of HHO as follows: No +-QH + (QH ) s ~ No + HpO(g) + 0 (s) slow (g) The catalytic reaction rate can also be affected by the presence of coke on the active surface sites...

  5. Liquid phase oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid at medium-high temperatures: multiple benefits of CO2-expanded liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Xiaobin; Niu, Fenghui; Snavely, Kirk William; Subramaniam, Bala; Busch, Daryle H.

    2010-02-01

    The Co/Mn/Br catalyzed oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid (TPA) is demonstrated in CO2-expanded solvents at temperatures lower than those of the traditional Mid-Century (MC) process. As compared with the traditional air (N2/O2) oxidation...

  6. Table of Contents Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Eric Sándor

    include nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 ), nitric acid (HNO3 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O, a greenhouse gas.TheHaber-BoschprocessalsosuppliesNH3 for industrial processes. Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen are twice as large as natural terDRAFT - 1 #12;2 - DRAFT Table of Contents Introduction What is Reactive Nitrogen and Why

  7. Quantifying Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from South Asia Through a Targeted Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Philosophy in Climate Physics and Chemistry Abstract Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur in India and are used for measurement- based assessment of emissions. Several features are identified are investigated to better quantify some of the uncertainties associated with this chemical transport model

  8. Oceanflux ESA Support to Science Element Upwelling Theme Scientific and societal issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are important for understanding the global, chemical, biological, atmosphere-ocean interactions, etc.) interact with each other at different spatial organization, typical of fully developed turbulence. The methodology, based on the Microcanonical Multifractal

  9. Submission : 13583 Thesis proposal CSC 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    , the quantity of CO2 released in this case represents only a tiny fraction of the total CO2 in the atmosphereSubmission : 13583 Thesis proposal CSC 2015 Title: Properties of CO2-N2 thermal plasmas with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbon molecules (HFCs

  10. Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing based emission ratio. In effect this technique makes use of CO2, and the other usually minor carbon

  11. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important atmospheric trace gases such as nitric oxide NO , carbon monoxide CO , nitrous ox- ide N2O , formaldehyde H2CO , methane CH4 , and sulfur dioxide SO2 . Applications that require such measurements include- bines high-speed, high-precision, remote sensing capabilities and convenient access to wavelengths

  12. Short-and long-term greenhouse gas and radiative forcing impacts of changing water management in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be a source or sink of carbon dioxide. Changing water management of rice paddies can affect net emissions (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), evaluated as `carbon dioxide equivalent emissions' (Art. 3: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons

  13. A simple method for the removal of dissolved organic matter and N analysis of NO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    ,11] or by the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide gas (N2O) by bacteria[12,13] or by using cadmium or sodium in nitrate (NO3 ­ ) are frequently used to identify nitrate sources and to study nitrogen (N) transformation, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) can interfere with the d15 N signature of nitrate. We therefore have

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    ­ 2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of green fore- gone carbon sequestration of 0.2­0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006

  15. Ocean Tracers! John Bullister (NOAA-PMEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a world leader in the accurate, ultra-low level measurements of these compounds! · CLIVAR I5, I8S/I9S, P16 tetrachloride - CCl4 Sulfur Hexafluoride - SF6 Nitrous Oxide - N2O 2014 PMEL

  16. Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry can be achieved through AF efforts by employing sink strategies, biofuel production or emissions management relative to carbon, methane (CH4) or nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural and forestry participation

  17. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10176 Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osenberg, Craig W.

    , such as microbial activity and water content1,2 . In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change miti- gation potential

  18. Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    affect nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from the agricultural soils in six selected sites for their potential to sequester C in their soil organic pools through management alternatives. For example, replacing but also elevates the soil fertility to optimize the crop production. The C seques- tration issue

  19. Biogeosciences, 1, 111, 2005 www.biogeosciences.net/bg/1/1/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) model was evaluated for its ability to simulate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide global warming potential (GWP) of 130.93­272.83 Tg CO2 equivalent. Intermittent flood- ing of rice fields The production of rice in South Asia, including India, has increased markedly with the introduction

  20. Knowledge Exchange and Technology Extension SFM Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . · Tradable carbon credits related to timber production and forestry operations are calculated by identifying trading initiatives, carbon sequestration is becoming a potential revenue source and an objective ), methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Assessing the carbon balance for Canada's managed forests

  1. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  2. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) trap the outgoing solar radiation that is reflected by the earth by blocking "hard" ultraviolet solar radiation. #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone by using experimental data from e.g. air trapped in polar ice. CO2 concentrations started to rise in ~1800

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution of NOx storage and impact on NH3 and N2O selectivities during lean/rich cycling of a Ba-based lean NOx trap catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Kim, Miyoung [ORNL; Koci, Petr [Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We summarize results from an investigation of the spatiotemporal distribution of NO{sub x} storage and intermediate gas species in determining the performance of a fully formulated, Ba-based, lean NO{sub x} trap catalyst under lean/rich cycling conditions. By experimentally resolving spatiotemporal profiles of gas composition, we found that stored NO{sub x} was significantly redistributed along the monolith axis during the rich phase of the cycle by release and subsequent downstream re-adsorption. Sulfur poisoning of upstream NO{sub x} storage sites caused the active NO{sub x}-storage zone to be displaced downstream. This axial displacement in turn influenced rich-phase NO{sub x} release and re-adsorption. As sulfur poisoning increased, NH3 slip at the catalyst exit also increased due to its formation closer to the catalyst outlet and decreased exposure to downstream oxidation by surface oxygen. N{sub 2}O formation was found to be associated with nitrate reduction rather than oxidation of NH3 by stored oxygen. We propose that the observed evolution of N{sub 2}O selectivity with sulfation can be explained by changes in the spatiotemporal distribution of NO{sub x} storage resulting in either increased or decreased number of precious-metal sites surrounded by nitrates.

  4. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions. deer12bartova.pdf More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal...

  5. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    valve (3) was opened so that air from the jar headspace was transferred inside the canister after passing

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    methods for examination of composting and compost, in: J.Smith (Ed. ), The US Composting Council, US Governmentto the field sites and composting facilities. I am also

  7. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    de Biogeoqu?´mica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear naBiogeoqu?´ mica Ambiental at the Centro de Energia Nuclear

  8. EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    fuel passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. 1. Introduction The use of energy). In most industrialized countries, trans- portation fuel use produces a major fraction of all energy/electric hybrid and fuel cell/electric hybrid drivetrain technologies offers the potential for significant

  9. INVESTIGATING THE MECHANISM FOR THE FORMATION OF NITROUS OXIDE )] IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) ice mixture was irradiated at 10 K with 5 keV electrons to simulate and infrared spectral regions. As these are our primary methods for remotely iden- tifying rotations

  10. A STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND MANAGEMENT DRIVERS OF NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS IN AUSTRALIAN AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Paul

    versus stubble retention, conventional cultivation vs direct drilling and crop rotation to determine

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    2009) Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil.municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effectsmunicipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects

  12. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    N 2 production pathway in terrestrial soils, but I showedimportant terrestrial N 2 production pathways. In marine andonly pathway for N 2 production in terrestrial and aquatic

  13. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    cation processes. Plant and Soil 62:413–430. Matson, P. A. ,C. Cerri, and M. Bernoux. 1995. Soil properties under AmazonBigham, editor. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Microbial

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    conductivity, temperature, soil moisture, and microbialmicroorganisms in soil. Applied and Environmental127, in: A. Bouwman (Ed. ), Soils and the Greenhouse Effect,

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    A. (1996) Secondary desertification due to salinization ofIsraeli experience, Desertification in Developed Countries,Dregne H.E. (1983) Desertification of arid lands Harwood

  16. Atmospheric nitrous oxide during the last 140,000 years Adrian Schilt a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland b Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland c Laboratoire de

  17. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura/University demica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura/at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) of

  18. Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, David Salvador

    2011-01-01

    UV and these absorption bands have been used for HONO measurements.the UV region and is developed for measurements of nitrousUV and visible region and their absorption bands are exploited for measurements

  19. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    from tropical forest soils, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14,2 O source partitioning in soils: recent progress, remaininga temperate grassland soil after fertiliser application,

  20. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    20632, Caracas 1020?A, Venezuela. S. Park, Department ofTierra Nueva,” Guárico State, Venezuela). The statisticallyLaboratory, IVIC, Caracas, Venezuela. Department of Earth

  1. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  2. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  3. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, D; Lopresti, A; Davis, SJ; Bastianoni, S; Caldeira, K

    2014-01-01

    emissions due to production and consumption for the largestemissions from production and consumption of beef, pork anddisconnect of production and consumption represents a

  4. Materials Data on H4N2O3 (SG:59) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Zr4N2O5 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. N2O and CH4 variations during the last glacial epoch: Insight into global processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    provide important insight into the former composition of the atmosphere, its natural variations; accepted 12 December 2003; published 30 January 2004. [1] Greenhouse gas measurements along polar ice cores reconstructed for Greenland. INDEX TERMS: 0325 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution

  7. D) + N2O Reaction: NO Vibrational and Rotational Distributions J. Chen, C. K. Ulrich,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    relative velocity collisions. The former might correspond to an insertion/complex-formation reaction, while the latter might correspond to a stripping reaction. Velocity relaxation of the O(1 D) is argued to compete in low relative velocity reactions because the O(1 D) is not relaxed from its initial velocity before

  8. A comparison of three learning methods to predict N2O fluxes and N leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villa-vialaneix, Nathalie

    Commission, Joint Research Center - Climate Change Unit Via Enrico Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra - Italy Abstract of the data The Homogeneous Spatial Mapping Unit (HSMU) is the minimal geographical unit used for our simulations [15]. The main environmental informations are European soil [13] and daily meteorological data [20

  9. Isotopic variability of N 2 O emissions from tropical forest soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, T.; Trumbore, S. E; Tyler, S. C; Davidson, E. A; Keller, M.; de Camargo, P. B

    2000-01-01

    de Camargo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, AvlSN relative to 4Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura,

  10. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  11. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  12. The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

  13. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO under various driving conditions.

  14. A comparison of eight metamodeling techniques for the simulation of N2O fluxes and N leaching from corn crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villa-vialaneix, Nathalie

    , 1991) and the Water Framework Directive (European Council,23 2000). Initially, however, compliance the environmental im-21 pact of the agriculture sector, particularly the Nitrates Directive (Euro-22 pean Council to these directives was poor (Oenema24 e

  15. Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in soil and water or human activities such as agriculture, fossil fuel combustion, wastewater management (TEC), pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and a multipass gas cell (MGC) with 56 m path length and 0 system based on a pulsed distributed feed- back (DFB) QCL near 7.7 lm and a 215 m path length MGC

  16. Materials Data on TbAg3H6C6(N2O)3 (SG:193) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Direct observations of N2O5 reactivity on ambient aerosol particles Timothy H. Bertram,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aerosol flow reactor coupled to a custom-built chemical ionization mass spectrometer at two urban currently implemented large-scale model parameterizations would predict. Such discrepancies have likely and thus accurate description of the processes that remove NOx radicals is critical for predicting the down-wind

  18. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of commercial Ba-based LNT (CLEERS benchmark catalyst; containing oxygen storage capacity) in a bench flow reactor under fast-cycling conditions, varying reductant type, temperature and sulfation level

  19. The Effect of Copper Loading on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Ammonia Over Cu-SSZ-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Tran, Diana N.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF; Lee, Jong H.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of Cu loading on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 was examined over 20-80% ion-exchanged Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. High NO reduction efficiency (80-95%) was obtained over all catalyst samples between 250 and 500°C, and the gas hourly space velocity of 200,000 h-1. Both NO reduction and NH3 oxidation activities under these conditions were found to increase slightly with increasing Cu loading at low temperatures. However, NO reduction activity was suppressed with increasing Cu loadings at high temperatures (>500oC) due to excess NH3 oxidation. The optimum Cu ion exchange level appears to be ~40-60% as higher than 80% NO reduction efficiency was obtained over 50% Cu ion-exchanged SSZ-13 up to 600oC. The NO oxidation activity of Cu-SSZ-13 was found to be low regardless of Cu loading, although it was somewhat improved with increasing Cu ion exchange level at high temperatures. During the “fast” SCR (i.e., NO/NO2 =1), only a slight improvement in NOx reduction activity was obtained for Cu-SSZ-13. Regardless of Cu loading, near 100% selectivity to N2 was observed; only a very small amount of N2O was produced even in the presence of NO2. Based on the Cu loading, the apparent activation energies for NO oxidation and NO SCR were estimated to be ~58 kJ/mol and ~41 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  1. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  2. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  3. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  4. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  5. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  6. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  7. electronic reprint Acta Crystallographica Section D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fülöp, Vilmos

    catalytic centre; it catalyses the terminal step, reduction of nitrous oxide to nitrogen, of the bacterial nitrogen cycle in which nitrate is reduced via nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to nitrogen gas of nitrous oxide reduction and the presumed role of copper presents an

  8. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  9. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  10. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  11. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  12. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  13. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide catalytic systems.12,13 On the other hand, the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is functionalized graphene Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO

  14. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01

    and storage tanks, where it results in emission of air pollutants-nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia,

  15. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  16. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  17. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  18. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  19. Study of the exposure of British mineworkers to nitrous fumes and the effects on their health. Final report August 77-January 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Collings, P.; Gormley, I.P.; Dodgeon, J.

    1981-06-01

    Shift-average exposures to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide have been found to be well within the recommended safety limits in nine British collieries. Differences in the exposures of miners in different collieries and between different locations and occupations within collieries were observed, with diesel locomotive drivers having consistently higher shift-average exposures than other workers. Possible health effects of oxides of nitrogen were investigated by comparing the respiratory health of men with low past exposure against men with higher past exposure to these gases. No differences in forced expired volumes in one second or in the prevalences of cough, phlegm and breathlessness were found between the two population groups.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  4. Global long-lived chemical modes excited in a 3-D chemistry transport model: Stratospheric N 2 O, NO y , O 3 and CH 4 chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF Atmospheric Chemistry (ATM?0550234) and theeigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,1998), Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Coupled per-

  5. Emissions of CH4 and N2O over the United States and Canada based on a receptor-oriented modeling framework and COBRA-NA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    , contributing nearly as much to radiative forcing (RF) as carbon dioxide (0.977 W mÀ2 compared to 1.626 W mÀ2 reliance on data from remote sites and coarse meteorological resolution (typically 1° Â 1° or larger

  6. Equilibrium and transport properties of CO2+N2O and CO2+NO mixtures. A molecular simulation and equation of state modelling study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    viscosities were determined for CO2+NOx mixtures. Due to the strong similarities between carbon dioxide simulation; Equation of state. 1. Introduction In Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) operations to a pure carbon dioxide. This may have impacts on the different stages of the CCS chain: capture

  7. Global long-lived chemical modes excited in a 3-D chemistry transport model: Stratospheric N 2 O, NO y , O 3 and CH 4 chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF Atmospheric Chemistry (ATM?0550234) and theeigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,scales in atmospheric chemistry: Coupled per- turbations to

  8. Complexes of HNO3 and NO3 - with NO2 and N2O4, and their potential role in atmospheric HONO formation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamboures, Michael A; Raff, Jonathan D; Miller, Yifat; Phillips, Leon F; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J; Gerber, R Benny

    2008-01-01

    enthalpy of 24 kcal mol 1 calculated from the NIST-JANAF thermochemicalenthalpy DH of 14 kcal mol 1 calculated using the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical

  9. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  10. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  11. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  12. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  13. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  14. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  15. Conformations of Organophosphine Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-29

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore »field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. The predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  18. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  19. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.

  20. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of ground-based and regional tall tower measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guha, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    or vented sources and cogeneration plants in the oil and gasLa Paloma natural gas cogeneration plant; (c) and (d) CymricPaloma natural gas cogeneration plant, McKittrick; and (3)

  1. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  2. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  3. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Questionnaire EH&S is available to assist with the recognition, evaluation and control of laboratory hazards. This form is to be used to help evaluate possible hazards reported by members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Chloroform Chromium (VI) Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde Isoflurane Lead Mercury Acrylonitrile Crystalline silica Methyl methacrylate Methylene chloride Nitrous oxide Vinyl chloride Other Brief Description

  4. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

  5. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Nonisostructural complex oxide heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Franklin J. Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-07-01

    The authors present an overview of the fundamentals and representative examples of the growth of epitaxial complex oxide thin films on structurally dissimilar substrates. The authors will delineate how the details of particular crystal structures and symmetry of different oxide surfaces can be employed for a rational approach to the synthesis of nonisostructural epitaxial heterostructures. The concept of oxygen eutaxy can be widely applied. Materials combinations will be split into three categories, and in all cases the films and substrates occur in different crystal structures: (1) common translational and rotational symmetry between the film and substrate planes; (2) translational symmetry mismatch between the substrates and films that is distinct from a simple mismatch in lattice parameters; and (3) rotational symmetry mismatch. In case (1), in principle single-crystalline thin films can be attained despite the films and substrates possessing different crystal structures. In case (2), antiphase boundaries will be prevalent in the thin films. In case (3), thin-film rotational variants that are joined by tilt boundaries will be present. Diffraction techniques to determine crystallographic alignment and epitaxial variants are discussed, and transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate extended defects in the thin films will also be reviewed. The authors end with open problems in this field regarding the structure of oxide interfaces that can be topics for future research.

  7. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  8. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  9. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  10. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  11. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  12. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  13. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  14. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home

  15. Roles of Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cr3+ Surface Sites in the Oxidation of NO on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(1 1 1) Surface Termination of an ?-(Fe,Cr)2O3(0 0 0 1) Mixed Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2014-10-01

    The oxidation and photooxidation reactions of nitric oxide were explored on a mixed Fe and Cr mixed oxide surface using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The mixed oxide surface examined initially had a corundum (0001) structure with a nominal cation composition of 75% Fe and 25% Cr, but after sputter/anneal cleaning was transformed into a magnetite-like (111) surface structure enriched with Cr (~40%). TPD studies of nitric oxide on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) surface revealed two main desorption states at 220 and 370 K, along with a third minor desorption state at ~310 K. Similarly, O2 TPD occurred in two main TPD states (100 and 230 K) and a minor state (155 K). The more strongly and weakly bound NO and O2 molecules were assigned to adsorption at Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites, respectively, with the minor desorption states assigned to Cr3+ sites. No thermal decomposition or surface chemistry was detected in TPD for adsorbed NO (e.g., no N2 or N2O formation), whereas ~10% of the adsorbed O2 irreversibly dissociated at Fe2+ sites. These dissociated oxygen species did not react with coadsorbed NO, but instead blocked NO adsorption at the Fe2+ sites, but had no effect on NO adsorption at Fe3+ sites. In contrast, NO reacted with preadsorbed O2 molecules to generate an adsorbed nitrate/nitrite species that decomposed in TPD to liberate NO at 425 K, leaving an O atom on the surface. Coadsorption of 15N18O with 16O2 suggests the oxidized species was a nitrate based on the detected level of oxygen scrambling. Preadsorption of O2 was required for nitrate formation as preadsorbed NO blocked both O2 adsorption and the oxidation reaction. Irradiation of adsorbed NO with 460 nm light at 40 K resulted in rapid photodesorption of NO without generation of any new surface species. Irradiation of the coadsorbed NO+O2 system did not promote additional NO oxidation, but limited the extent of thermal NO oxidation (in subsequent TPD) by photodepleting the surface of adsorbed NO. Preheating the NO+O2 adlayer to 250 K prior to 460 nm light irradiation restored the level of thermal NO oxidation, revealing both that thermal activation is required for NO oxidation on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) surface and that the nitrate product was insensitive to 460 nm light. The author thanks Drs. Sara Chamberlin and Scott Chambers for supplying the film used in this work. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  16. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  17. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into strong oxide–metal interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Liang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-14

    Very active FeOx–Au catalysts for CO oxidation are obtained after depositing nanoparticles of FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 on a Au(111) substrate. Neither FeO nor Fe2O3 is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of CO/O2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed in a bulk phase. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we show a strong oxide–metal interaction (SOMI) between Fe3O4 nanostructures and Au(111), which gives the oxide special properties, allows the formation of an active phase, and provides a unique interface to facilitate a catalytic reaction. This workmore »highlights the important role that the SOMI can play in enhancing the catalytic performance of the oxide component in metal–oxide catalysts.« less

  18. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  19. Arsenite Oxidation by a Poorly Crystalline Manganese-Oxide 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    N J . L A F F E R T Y , * M A T T H E W G I N D E R - V O G E L , A N D D O N A L D L . S P A R KArsenite Oxidation by a Poorly Crystalline Manganese-Oxide 1. Stirred-Flow Experiments B R A N D O

  20. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  1. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  2. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  3. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  4. SOOT-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    and T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon inThe mechanism of catalytic oxidation on activated carbon;of water in the catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonaceous

  5. Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Christine Lee

    2006-04-12

    A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

  6. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  7. Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouyer, Francois

    O O O + + O2 Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone studies. However styrene. The reaction chiefly yielded benzaldehyde, with smaller amounts of styrene oxide and acetophenone

  8. New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

  9. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  11. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  12. Introduction Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    , In3 , Ga3 , and Sn4 ). Four of these form TCOs as single-cation oxides (ZnO, CdO, In2O3, and SnO2 for more than 50 years, pri- marily in the form of doped single-cation oxides such as In2O3 and SnO2) when appro- priately doped, whereas Ga2O3 is a wide- bandgap insulator. There are 10 binary, 10 ternary

  13. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  14. Electronic Transitions in Perovskite Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    perovskite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 i The distorted perovskite . . . . . . . .Basic Aspects of Correlated Perovskite Oxides The Perovskite

  15. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  16. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

  17. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  18. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  19. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason Dalefor Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications Copyright 2007 byFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason Dale

  20. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  1. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  2. Patterning by area selective oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Kamcev, Jovan; Black, Charles T.; Grubbs, Robert

    2015-12-29

    Technologies are described for methods for producing a pattern of a material on a substrate. The methods may comprise receiving a patterned block copolymer on a substrate. The patterned block copolymer may include a first polymer block domain and a second polymer block domain. The method may comprise exposing the patterned block copolymer to a light effective to oxidize the first polymer block domain in the patterned block copolymer. The method may comprise applying a precursor to the block copolymer. The precursor may infuse into the oxidized first polymer block domain and generate the material. The method may comprise applying a removal agent to the block copolymer. The removal agent may be effective to remove the first polymer block domain and the second polymer block domain from the substrate, and may not be effective to remove the material in the oxidized first polymer block domain.

  3. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  6. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    module Gas turbine module (compressor and turbine sub-modules) Combustor module Catalytic oxidizer module, MCFC, PEM, Gas Turbine General Model Assumptions · 1D process flow · Well-stirred within nodal volume Nerst Potential · Ideal operating voltage with respect to partial pressures of cell reactants Steam

  7. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    non-marketed natural gas. g Includes methane emissions related to energy, agriculture, waste management, and industrial processes. h Includes nitrous oxide emissions related...

  8. On-board Measurement of NO and NO2 using Non-dispersive Ultraviolet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling LNT + SCR...

  9. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

  10. Institutionen fr markvetenskap Publikationer 2001 Aktuell 2004-12-09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrous oxide from organic household waste in a compost. 2001. Evalution of growing media containing farmyard manure compost, household waste compost

  11. Air Emissions Operating Permit Regulations for the Purposes of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by including the EPA's Green House Gas Emission standards. Green House Gasses are: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur...

  12. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  13. Biomimetic C-H Oxidation Catalysis in Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djernes, Katherine Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Y. ; Breslow, R. "Catalytic Oxidations of Steroid Substratesapplicable catalytic methods for hydrocarbon oxidation haveof hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts 1.7 and 1.8 The catalytic

  14. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01

    be good catalysts for catalytic oxidation of small organicsolution, indicative of catalytic oxidation of urea presentactive catalytic species for water oxidation. The catalytic

  15. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chourey, Karuna; Nissen, Silke; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Shah, Manesh B; Pffifner, Susan; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Loeffler, Frank E

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  16. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-08

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20?nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P{sub r} of up to 10??C?cm{sup ?2} as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6?×?10{sup 5} cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  19. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  20. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  1. Genomic consequences of DNA oxidation by peroxynitrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, William Louis

    2006-01-01

    The radicals nitric oxide and superoxide are produced endogenously by activated macrophages and neutrophils and combine in a diffusion-limited reaction to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent capable ...

  2. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

    2012-07-17

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  3. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  5. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

  6. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

  7. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W. (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Gao, Yong L. (Henrietta, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  8. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  9. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

    1994-02-01

    A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

  10. Comment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . Obviously, heating Rh in pure oxygen to T ) 230 °C and above will lead to the formation of surface Rh oxideComment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111) under Realistic suggest the importance of a surface oxide phase for high CO2 formation in CO-O2 reactions. However

  11. Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol the pretreatment. KEYWORDS: platinum, methanol oxidation, operando, XAFS, EXAFS, XANES, alumina, nanoparticle, size

  12. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  13. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  14. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  15. Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Södergren, S

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

  16. Electronic structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutar, D. S.; Singh, Gulbagh; Divakar Botcha, V.

    2012-09-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) monolayers obtained by Langmuir Blodgett route and suitably treated to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayers were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon reduction of GO to form RGO C1s x-ray photoelectron spectra showed increase in graphitic carbon content, while ultraviolet photoelectron spectra showed increase in intensity corresponding to C2p-{pi} electrons ({approx}3.5 eV). X-ray excited Auger transitions C(KVV) and plasmon energy loss of C1s photoelectrons have been analyzed to elucidate the valence band structure. The effective number of ({pi}+{sigma}) electrons as obtained from energy loss spectra was found to increase by {approx}28% on reduction of GO.

  17. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    rate, and sec- ondly this oxide layer must remain adherentFormation of a compound oxide layer (11) between scale andof Y- or Hf-rich compound oxide layers at the oxide/alloy

  18. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  19. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    of the oxide and alloy and these lead to spallation of theleads to a uniform distribution of fine internal oxide

  20. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  1. Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1935-01-01

    and' utilized as well as the same amount,^ of nitrates. With somewhat larger amounts of nitrites, the amoount taken up was about 76 OJo of that of nitrates, le plant was only about 25% of that produced by es. Sinc es added to sterilized sand were... mounted in a cork which rested in the mouth of a large fruit jar. The corlr also carried a glass tube reaching to the bottom of the jar, ending in a small funnel mouth and a sinhon to carry off the excess solution. The nutrient solution was fed...

  2. Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides and indoor air. Oxides of nitrogen (NOy) are also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO2, HNO3, N2O5 and a variety of other nitrogen oxides during transport. Deposition

  3. Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

  4. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  5. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2014-08-15

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative to the widely used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties. TCOs are used in devices such as flat screen displays, photovoltaic cells, photochromic windows, chemical sensors, and biosensors....

  6. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  7. Predicting the radiation tolerance of oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickafus, K. (Kurt E.); Grimes, R. W. (Robin W.)

    2001-01-01

    We have used atomistic computer simulations and ion beam irradiations to examine radiation damage accumulation in multicomponent oxides, We have developed contour energy maps via computer simulations to predict the effects of oxide structure and chemical composition on radiation-induced atomic disorder, defect migration, and swelling. Ion irradiation damage experiments have been perfonned on, pyrochlore and fluorite-structured oxide ceramics to test the predictions from computer models.

  8. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

  10. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofare provided to the fuel cell, electrons are constantly

  11. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  12. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  13. Double perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Alkali metal doped double perovskites containing manganese and at least one of cobalt, iron and nickel are useful in the oxidative coupling of alkane to higher hydrocarbons.

  14. Siderite, oxidation, and neutralization potential determination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Elizabeth Brooke

    2001-01-01

    in the soil. However, dissolution of minerals other than FeCO? may increase NP if 0.5 M HCl is for digestion before oxidation....

  15. Lanthanide doped barium phosphorous oxide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borade, Ramesh B; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Denzo, Stephen E

    2013-02-26

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped barium phosphorous oxide useful for detecting nuclear material.

  16. Photochemical Water Oxidation by Crystalline Polymorphs of Manganese Oxides: Structural Requirements for Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    potential (1.23 V vs SHE). Commercial water electrolyzers are typically limited by the oxidation reaction

  17. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  18. Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidheswaran, Meera A.

    2012-01-01

    temperature thermo-catalytic oxidation reactor. Proceedingsarea. Room temperature catalytic oxidation of airborneand their catalytic activity for formaldehyde oxidation.

  19. Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide, chitosan-starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose-starch reinforced with graphene oxide and graphene grafted with keratin were developed. Composites films had been prepared for the casting/solvent evaporation method

  20. Comparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Scott

    and of time. There are two principal energy sources that lead to the production of nitric oxideComparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide C. A. Barth Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado

  1. Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gems, David

    Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis;1.1 Testing the oxidative damage theory of aging in C. elegans The biology of aging remains poorly understood. For example, it remains unclear what sort of biological processes are the primary determinants of aging

  2. IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 011002 (7pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/011002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    2013-01-01

    and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs--methane and nitrous oxide--account for 10 and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead

  3. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  4. Neutron diffraction study at 37 K of sodium triaqua(ethylenediaminetetraacetato)samarate(III) pentahydrate, Na[Sm(C10H12N2O8)(H2O)3].5H2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, D. W.; Takusagawa, Fusao; Koetzle, Thomas F.

    1984-01-01

    Press. JOHNSON, C. K. (1965). ORTEP. Report ORNL-3794. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. KURIHARA, T . , UCHIDA, A . , OHASHI, Y . , SASADA, Y . , O H G O , Y . & BABA, S. (1983). Acta Cryst. B39,431-437. MAIN, P., HULL, S . E . , LESSINGER... the central ion, as evidenced by the first five angles in Table 2 all being reasonably near 72°. The Sm ion is 0-52 (1) A from the mean plane through the four O atoms. This value lies between those for La (0-60 A) and Tb (0-49 A) and Dy (0-48 A...

  5. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  6. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  7. NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION Carl-Fredrik Enell1 Esa Turunen1 Antti Kero1 measurements for a sodium emission experiment. The main purpose of SGO in the NEMI project is in-situ quantification of the auroral production of nitric oxide (NO). The retrieval requires inverse modelling

  8. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  9. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  10. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  11. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  12. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  13. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  14. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using this beamline were able to chart the rate of oxidation of silicon in the gate oxide layer for the first time. Understanding the rate of oxidation in this crucial layer...

  15. Regular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    II of cyanobacteria and plants incorporates the catalytic centre of water oxidation. PoweredRegular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation Juergen Clausen & Wolfgang Key words: intermediate, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, S-state, water oxidation Abstract Photosystem

  16. THE STRUCTURE OF ULTRA-THIN OXIDE ON SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivanek, Ondrej L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-thin (10-lOOA) silicon oxide layers on silicon are ofcrystalline silicon. The oxide layer is seen to be sharplyundulation of the whole oxide layer with ~300A wavelength.

  17. Physiology and Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Torre, José R.

    -oxidizing archaea (AOA), now generally recog- nized to exert primary control over ammonia oxidation in terrestrial, the unusually high affinity of marine and terrestrial AOA for ammonia indicates that this group may determine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Kinetics and Stoichiometry of Ammonia Oxidation

  18. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  20. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  1. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Presentation from the...

  2. Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by underpotential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by underpotential deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by...

  3. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

  4. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method...

  5. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials | OSTI, US...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials Re-direct Destination: Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The...

  6. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  7. Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High-Rate, Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires...

  8. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis...

  9. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  10. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow...

  11. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  12. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling...

  13. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

  14. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  15. Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons...

  16. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel Process Employing Heterometallic Alkoxides A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel...

  17. Something for Nothing: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gururangan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    A. (2001). Materials for fuel cell technologies. Nature,Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in Hydrocarbon-Airin solid-oxide fuel cell. Letters to Nature,404. Retrieved

  18. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  19. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  20. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  1. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  2. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  4. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  5. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01

    nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devicesnanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

  7. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  8. Structure and Reactivity of Surface Oxides on Pt(110) during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.D.; Pedersen, T.M.; Hammer, B.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Bobaru, S.C.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Robach, O.; Quiros, C.

    2005-12-16

    We present the first structure determination by surface x-ray diffraction during the restructuring of a model catalyst under reaction conditions, i.e., at high pressure and high temperature, and correlate the restructuring with a change in catalytic activity. We have analyzed the Pt(110) surface during CO oxidation at pressures up to 0.5 bar and temperatures up to 625 K. Depending on the O{sub 2}/CO pressure ratio, we find three well-defined structures: namely, (i) the bulk-terminated Pt(110) surface, (ii) a thin, commensurate oxide, and (iii) a thin, incommensurate oxide. The commensurate oxide only appears under reaction conditions, i.e., when both O{sub 2} and CO are present and at sufficiently high temperatures. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the commensurate oxide is stabilized by carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Both oxides have a substantially higher catalytic activity than the bulk-terminated Pt surface.

  9. 42 CHOICES 2nd Quarter 2008 23(2) The magazine of food, farm, and resource issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    from additional re- lease of nitrous oxide, which is a powerful greenhouse gas, increased air pollution from emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia, and increased water pollution from release of nitrates

  10. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (CHsub 4), nitrous oxide (Nsub 2O), ammonia (NHsub 3) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and...

  11. Oxidation of methionine residues in protein pharmaceuticals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Jhih-Wei, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) of free methionine. Therefore, the environments surrounding different methionine sites in G-CSF mainly provide spatial restriction to the access to the solvent but do not affect oxidation in a specific manner, ...

  12. Deoxyribose oxidation chemistry and endogenous DNA adducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xinfeng

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous oxidants react with cellular macromolecules to generate a variety of electrophiles that react with DNA produce cytotoxic and mutagenic adducts. One source of such electrophiles is deoxyribose in ...

  13. Photodissociation Dynamics of Halogen Oxide Species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Kristin S.

    2010-07-14

    The focus of this dissertation is the study of the photodissociation dynamics of halogen oxide species (XO, X = Cl, Br, I). These radical species are known to be important in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion ...

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  15. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Min

    2010-07-14

    Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low ...

  17. Mechanical Properties of Monolayer Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for high-temperature process- ing,22 in electrical energy storage systems,23,24 and as discussed in several on silicon carbide,9,10 chemical reduction of graphene oxide (G O) in colloidal suspension,11 13 and plasma

  18. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  19. Control of regioselectivity:oxidation and deprotection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Palladium is a highly versatile metal, capable of catalysing oxidations, reductions and a myriad of organic transformations. The inorganic chemistry of palladium, and the relation of this to the catalytic activity of the metal, is briefly discussed...

  20. Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinn, Brian Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

  1. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  2. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  3. Direct measurement and analysis of cyclohexadienyl oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James Wagner

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of cyclohexadienyl radical (c-C?H?) and similar resonantly stabilized radicals are important in an astonishing array of processes in nature. Cyclohexadienyl radical has been postulated to be significant in a ...

  4. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  5. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  6. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  7. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  8. Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    microstructures called aerogels in the case of supercritical or freeze-drying and ambigels in the case of solvent for intercalated ions.7 When cycled between 4.0 and 1.5 V, vanadium oxide aerogels achieved capaci- ties of 410 mAh/g at C/40.6 Baudrin et al. have used the vanadium oxide aerogel structure to access a metastable phase

  9. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Julia (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA)

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  10. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  11. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  12. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Greenbelt, MD); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

  13. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  14. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  15. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  16. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  17. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  18. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  19. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    metal oxides for solar energy conversion applications. Therenotably those for solar energy conversion devices, have ledphotoactive components of solar energy conversion devices.

  20. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5?nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303?mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  1. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    conceptual framework for the design of solar water oxidationpromising tandem designs for solar hydrogen generation. 1,2conceptual framework for the design of solar water oxidation

  2. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, a lanthanumsystems such Mg doped zirconia [42]. Unfortunately, thesupported yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cells,

  3. Cupric oxide inclusions in cuprous oxide crystals grown by the floating zone method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frazer, Laszlo; Chang, Kelvin B.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Ketterson, John B.

    2015-05-08

    Phase-pure cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals are difficult to grow since cupric oxide can form within the crystal as the crystal is cooled to ambient conditions. Vacancies are the solute which causes precipitation of macroscopic defects. Therefore, even when a mostly phase-pure single crystal is used as a feed rod, cupric oxide inclusions persist in the recrystallized solid. Control of the thermal profile during crystal growth, however, can improve phase-purity; a slow counter-rotation rate of the feed and seed rods results in fewer inclusions. Cupric oxide can be removed by annealing, which produces a factor of 540 ± 70 increase inmore »phase-purity.« less

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  5. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  7. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    oxidation in limestone slurry scrubbing. Introduction Limestone (CaCO3) slurry scrubbing and lime (Ca

  8. Complement receptor type 2conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    ). Cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) and other iron oxide formulations affect T2 primarily and lead+), accelerate T1 relaxation and lead to brighter contrast images. The superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIOComplement receptor type 2­conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles [CR2-Fc-SPIO] Kam

  9. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  10. Domain Transformation Problems in 2-D Oxidation Pavlin B. Entchev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    algorithms for simulating two dimensional oxide layer formation at an internal wedge tip. Two numerical algorithms for computing oxide layer growth are presented. The first algorithm is based on transforming of oxidation it is possible for titanium to diffuse through the oxide layer. However, the physical nature

  11. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

  12. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

    1998-03-03

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

  13. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  14. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D 2.4); similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  15. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D) 2.4; similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  16. Hydrogeologic Controls on Bioactive Zone Development in Biostimulated Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schillig, Peter Curtis

    2012-05-31

    Denitrification refers to the conversion of NO3 - (aq) to N2(aq). It occurs as the cumulative result of nitrate respiration, nitrite respiration combined with nitric oxide reduction, and nitrous oxide respiration carried out by autotrophic (Smith et al. 2001... Denitrification refers to the conversion of NO3 - (aq) to N2(aq). It occurs as the cumulative result of nitrate respiration, nitrite respiration combined with nitric oxide reduction, and nitrous oxide respiration carried out by autotrophic (Smith et al. 2001...

  17. Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPÕGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures 8 December 2003; accepted 20 January 2004 InAIP native oxide/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS of Schottky gates can lead to excessive gate leakage current and also restrict the forward gate bias to only

  18. Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides and isotopic studies showed that C-H bond activation in ethane by surfaces essentially saturated with lattice oxygens is the sole kinetically relevant step in ethane oxidation on Mo-V-NbOx mixed oxides

  19. Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral Phases.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral is thought to generally occur through either biologically or mineral-surface mediated Mn(II) oxidation. These two oxidation pathways result in the formation of nanometer-size Mn(IV) minerals. Compared

  20. ENVR Dionysios Dionysiou Wednesday, August 22, 2012 261 -Arsenic mobilization in the critical zone: Oxidation by manganese oxide minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    with the two most reactive Mn oxides, HMO and acid birnessite. Only higher arsenic concentrations decreased

  1. Epitaxially Aligned Cuprous Oxide Nanowires for All-Oxide, Single-Wire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Materials Science Division, Lawrence,3 Cu2O is of interest for studying excitonic behavior as well as for solar energy conversion

  2. Direct-Coupling O? Bond Forming Pathway in Cobalt Oxide Water Oxidation Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We report a catalytic mechanism for water oxidation in a cobalt oxide cubane model compound, in which the crucial O–O bond formation step takes place by direct coupling between two CoIV(O) metal oxo groups. Our results are ...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    -oxidizing bacteria Karen L. Casciotti *,1 , Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and den- itrifying bacteria-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both b- and c-Proteobacterial ammonia

  4. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide to formaldehyde (HCHO) on MoOx/Al2O3. The reaction intermediates and elementary steps established a redox to alkenes and oxygenates too costly for practical implementation. Oxygenates, such as formaldehyde (HCHO

  6. Method for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions, device for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beuhler, Robert J. (East Moriches, NY); White, Michael G. (Blue Point, NY); Hrbek, Jan (Rocky Point, NY)

    2006-08-15

    A catalytic process for the oxidation of organic. Oxygen is loaded into a metal foil by heating the foil while in contact with an oxygen-containing fluid. After cooling the oxygen-activated foil to room temperature, oxygen diffuses through the foil and oxidizes reactants exposed to the other side of the foil.

  7. Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

  8. Comparative study of metal or oxide capped indiumtin oxide anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1556184 I. INTRODUCTION Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs 1 are challengingComparative study of metal or oxide capped indium­tin oxide anodes for organic light as anodes in organic light-emitting diodes based on N,N -diphenyl-N,N bis 3-methyl-phenyl-1,1 -biphenyl-4

  9. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  10. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  11. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  12. Cr(OH)?(s) Oxidation Induced by Surface Catalyzed Mn(II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Namgung, Seonyi; Kwon, M.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lee, Gie Hyeon

    2014-09-16

    This study examined the feasibility of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation mediated by surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation under common groundwater pH conditions as a potential pathway of natural Cr(VI) contaminations. Dissolved Mn(II) (50 ?M) was reacted with or without synthesized Cr(OH)?(s) (1.0 g/L) at pH 7 – 9 under oxic or anoxic conditions. In the absence of Cr(OH)?(s), homogeneous Mn(II) oxidation by dissolved O? was not observed at pH ? 8.0 for 50 d. At pH 9.0, by contrast, dissolved Mn(II) was completely removed within 8 d and precipitated as hausmannite. When Cr(OH)?(s) was present, this solid was oxidized and released substantial amounts of Cr(VI) as dissolved Mn(II) was added into the suspension at pH ? 8.0 under oxic conditions. Our results suggest that Cr(OH)?(s) was readily oxidized by a newly formed Mn oxide as a result of Mn(II) oxidation catalyzed on Cr(OH)?(s) surface. XANES analysis of the residual solids after the reaction between 1.0 g/L Cr(OH)?(s) and 204 ?M Mn(II) at pH 9.0 for 22 d revealed that the product of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation resembled birnessite. The rate and extent of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation was likely controlled by those of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation as the production of Cr(VI) increased with increasing pH and initial Mn(II) concentrations. This study evokes the potential environmental hazard of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)?(s) that can be a source of Cr(VI) in the presence of dissolved Mn(II).

  13. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  14. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  15. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  16. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  17. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  18. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  19. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  20. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  2. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  3. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Miquel, Philippe F. (Towson, MD)

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  4. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  5. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  6. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  7. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.; Veyo, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    This reports on a solid oxide fuel cell demonstration program in which utilities are provided fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units serve to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

  8. Shot-Peening of Pre-Oxidized Plates of Zirconium: Influence of Residual Stress on Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raceanu, Laura; Montesin, Tony; Montay, Guillaume; Francois, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with oxidation behavior under residual stress of shot-peened plates of "commercially pure" zirconium exposed for 30 min at 650 C. The influence of the shot-peening on a pre-oxidized material is presented. The results have been used to determine the influences of these chemical (preoxidation) and mechanical (shot-peening) treatments on the high temperature oxidation of zirconium. The oxygen profile was revealed using micro-hardness techniques and confirmed by SEM-EDS techniques. After pre-oxidation the samples were first resurfaced then shot-peened in order to introduce residual stress. A significant increase of the hardness of about 400 HV was observed on pre-oxidized shot-peened samples. Thermogravimetric analysis for 30 min at 650 C under 200 mbar O2 showed a significantly slower oxidation rate for shot-peened samples. A comparison with our computations points out the role of the residual stresses on the diffusion and, consequently, on the oxidation.

  9. Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Ya Huei

    2011-01-01

    Chin, Y-H. ; Resasco, D.E. Catalytic Oxidation of methane onreactions in catalytic partial oxidation, reforming, andoccurrence of direct catalytic partial oxidation of methane

  10. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  11. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  12. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    In conclusion, the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a Pt/chemicurrent from catalytic CO oxidation at atmosphericchemicurrent in catalytic hydrogen oxidation on Pt. Hydrogen

  13. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  14. Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byrate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. Thenanocrystals can be rapidly photo-oxidized. This oxidation

  15. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  16. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  17. Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brook James

    1995-01-01

    and pressure conditions which translate into a safe and cost effective process that does not create a new waste stream. The objective of this study was to evaluate catalyst activity and kinetic parameters for the oxidation of phenol to C02 and water with a...

  18. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianco, Robert (Cleveland, OH); Buckman, Jr., R. William (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (a) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (b) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (c) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (d) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (e) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (f) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method. A preferred Mo--Re-ODS alloy contains 7-14 weight % rhenium and 2-4 volume % lanthanum oxide.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  20. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  1. Research Articles Potential for Microbial Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Clark M.

    research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial that may have served or may serve as energy sources for chemolithotrophic microbial activity. This specResearch Articles Potential for Microbial Oxidation of Ferrous Iron in Basaltic Glass Mai Yia Xiong

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  3. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-01-18

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  4. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  6. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  7. Pd-Catalyzed Cyclizations Direct Oxidative Heck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    events: 1) halogenation of an aryl or vinyl precursor and 2) palladium(0)-catalyzed CÀC bond formation to develop palladium(ii)-catalyzed dehydrogenation as a general oxidation method,[6,7] we recently described with subsequent olefin insertion and b-hydrogen elimina- tion.[9] Importantly, this mechanism is analogous

  8. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  9. Manganese Oxidation In A Natural Marine Environment- San Antonio Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyin, Rosemary Ogheneochuko

    2013-04-12

    the San Antonio Bay. In this study area, the formaldoxime assay was utilized to determine that manganese oxidation is catalyzed via multiple pathways utilizing various catalysts and proximal oxidants. The contribution of catalysts such as colloidal matter...

  10. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  11. Characterization and production metrology of thin transistor gate oxide lms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Review Characterization and production metrology of thin transistor gate oxide ®lms Alain C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4. XRR and NR characterization of thin oxide ®lms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.2. Optical models of thin gate ®lms

  12. Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C) Basic User Manual 1st Edition Jan 2013 NR #12;Logon Oxidation Tube Furnace on FOM System Sign Log Book #12;Example Program: Room temperature to 1100C

  13. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 range (1-2...

  14. Ovarian nitric oxide synthase gene expression during peripubertal development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from L-arginine by different isoforms of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (NOS) and is known to be involved in mediating several biological functions, some of which are associated with ...

  15. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  16. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  17. Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williama, Pamela Louise

    2011-01-01

    barium, cobalt. and rare earth metal oxides, which exhibitthat the barium and rare earth metals concentrate into small2 o , Ti0 2 and even rare earth metal oxides Pr 2 o and La 2

  19. In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abia, Thomas Sunday

    2012-02-14

    Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil...

  20. Manganese Based Oxidative Technologies For Water/Wastewater Treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2013-08-27

    is yet to be fully developed. This research work explores the reactivity of manganese oxide to degrade OP in aqueous systems. The rate equation has been determined by conducting experiments at various conditions of oxide and organic loading as well...

  1. ORNL researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell (hi-res image) Amit Goyal and his team of research scientists are using copper oxide to redesign the face of solar power....

  2. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of COO2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed...

  3. Complex catalytic behaviors of CuTiOx mixed-oxide during CO oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reactivity, and selectivity. Here, the activity and stability of the CuTiOx monolayer film supported on Cu(111), CuTiOxCu(111), during CO oxidation was explored using density...

  4. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    of high-surface-area SnO 2 aerogels, Kucheyev et al. 39previously in SnO 2 aerogels 39 and nanoribbons. 41 It isstudy of titanium oxide aerogels, and through comparisons

  5. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  6. Method for producing high quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W. (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Gao, Yong L. (Henrietta, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  7. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  8. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-04-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stressmore »signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.« less

  9. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Hafnium-Praseodymium-Indium Oxide System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.L.; Griffin, C.W.; Weber, W.J.

    1988-06-01

    The HfO/sub 2/-PrO/sub 1.83/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system has been studied at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop alternative, highly electrically conducting oxides as electrode and interconnection materials for solid oxide fuel cells. A coprecipitation process was developed for synthesizing single-phase, mixed oxide powders necessary to fabricate powders and dense oxides. A ternary phase diagram was developed, and the phases and structures were related to electrical transport properties. Two new phases, an orthorhombic PrInO/sub 3/ and a rhombohedral Hf/sub 2/In/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase, were identified. The highest electronic conductivity is related to the presence of a bcc, In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution (ss) containing HfO/sub 2/ and PrO/sub 1.83/. Compositions containing more than 35 mol % of the In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ss have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup /minus/1/ (ohm-cm)/sup /minus/1/, and the two or three phase structures that contain this phase appear to exhibit mixed electronic-ionic conduction. The high electrical conductivities and structures similar to the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/(HfO/sub 2/) electrolyte give these oxides potential for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells. 21 refs.

  10. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{ So-Hye Cho, Nolan D. Walther, the catalytic membrane reactor configuration confers a significant advantage to oxidation reactions--the use of a catalytic membrane can provide a reactive interface for the oxidation to take place while avoiding long

  11. Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134 Trinuclear Pd3O2 Intermediate in Aerobic* Abstract: The activation of O2 is a key step in selective catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The formation and catalytic activity of the trinuclear Pd3O2 species

  12. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    size, surface area, and solubility of the mineral. Such variations lead to a continuum of Fe(III) oxideFe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical Reduction E R I C E . R O D E N of synthetic Fe(III) oxides with a broad range of crystallinity and specific surface area were examined

  13. Characterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    characteristic oxide structures lead to protective behavior and a lower corrosion rate. A review is presentedCharacterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water A.T.Motta1 , J of the protective oxide formed, such that small alloying content differences cause significant differences

  14. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  15. Materials Selection for Oxide-based Resistive Random Access Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-12-05

    and interstitials in four key oxides used for RRAM; HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5 and Al2O3, so as to understand which properties are critical for memory operation. An oxide-based RRAM consists of an oxide layer between two electrodes and with a thin metal layer next...

  16. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  17. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

  18. Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Components manufacturingReview article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells F. Tietz *, H.-P. Buchkremer, D

  19. Metal oxide/organic interface investigations for photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachoumi, Olympia

    2014-10-07

    the performance and stability of interfacial charge extraction layers for organic solar cells. Two novel ternary metal oxides, zinc-strontrium- oxide (ZnSrO) and zinc-barium-oxide (ZnBaO), were fabricated and their use as electron extraction layers in inverted...

  20. Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

  1. "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    Publishing "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for over 40 years, but only now we have: Surface Studies of Gas Sensing Metal Oxides 21 February 2007 1. Could you explain the significance of your article to the non-specialist? Metal oxide-gas sensors are practical devices used in a variety of every

  2. A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Biao

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

  4. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  5. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, Allegheny County, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  6. Doped tantalum oxide high K dielectric thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Joseph Patrick

    2000-01-01

    , it was doped with varying amounts of titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The composite oxide films were deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) cc-sputtering of two targets in a variety of oxygen and argon feed gas mixtures. The targets used...

  7. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  8. Zinc Adsorption Effects on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Zinc Adsorption Effects on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics at the Birnessite-Water Interface L A U R(III) oxidation. Accordingly, the effects of adsorbed and nonadsorbed Zn on arsenite (As(III)) oxidation kinetics Arsenic often occurs in aquatic/terrestrial environments because of anthropogenic inputs (e.g., use

  9. Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozzoli, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

  10. Ultrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality in metal-oxide solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heo, Jaeyeong

    We demonstrate a tunable electron-blocking layer to enhance the performance of an Earth-abundant metal-oxide solar-cell material. A 5 nm thick amorphous ternary metal-oxide buffer layer reduces interface recombination, ...

  11. The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Leo Dean

    1979-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN ~IAN IUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN MAMMALIAN LUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Approved as to style and content by...

  12. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Yongkoo

    2008-01-01

    condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton’s reactionchelates for catalytic hydrogen peroxide oxidation of 2,4-D

  13. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures

  14. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-01

    Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Tal Z.SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can significantly

  15. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

  16. Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christopherson, Craig John (Grafton, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Scudiere, John (Bolton, MA)

    2002-01-01

    A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.

  17. Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-03-01

    Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

  18. Mechanism and Site Requirements for Ethanol Oxidation on Vanadium Oxide Domains Beata Kilos, Alexis T. Bell,* and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    to formaldehyde,7 ammoxidation of aromatic com- pounds,8 and selective NOx reduction.9 There have been a number reduction-oxidation catalytic sequences. Turnover rates ultimately decreased at higher surface densities are present at near saturation coverages on fully oxidized VOx domains that undergo reduction-oxidation cycles

  19. Ethane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Pathways on Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Morris D. Argyle, Kaidong Chen, Alexis T. Bell,* and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Ethane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Pathways on Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Morris D. Argyle, Kaidong to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx or C2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane

  20. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal Accepted 14 April 2009 Available online 17 May 2009 Keywords: Oxidative dehydrogenation Ethane Ethylene of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene

  1. May 19-21, 2003 Ris International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 19-21, 2003 Risø International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel #12;May 19-21, 2003 Risø International Energy Conference No 3 IntroductionIntroduction · "Fuel cells few moving parts" · "Solid oxide technology may prove to be the most reliable of fuel cell power

  2. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  3. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  4. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL); Bandaru, Ramarao V. (Greer, SC)

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  5. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  6. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  7. The Interplay of nitric oxide and hemoglobin in hemolytic anemia : consequences for parasite and host during malaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobolewski, Peter

    2006-01-01

    of bioavailable nitric oxide lead to experimental severeof bioavailable nitric oxide lead to experimental severe

  8. Polaron absorption in amorphous tungsten oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Lars; Azens, Andris; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2001-08-15

    Amorphous thin films of tungsten oxide were deposited by sputtering onto glass substrates covered by conductive indium--tin oxide. The density and stoichiometry were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Lithium ions were intercalated electrochemically into the films. The optical reflectance and transmittance were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m, at a number of intercalation levels. The polaron absorption peak becomes more symmetric and shifts to higher energies until an intercalation level of 0.25 to 0.3 Li{sup +}/W, where a saturation occurs. The shape of the polaron peak is in very good agreement with the theory of Bryksin [Fiz. Tverd. Tela 24, 1110 (1982)]. Within this model, the shift of the absorption peak is interpreted as an increase in the Fermi level of the material as more Li ions are inserted. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  10. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  11. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  12. Nanocrystalline Complex Oxides Prepared by Mechanochemical Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepelak, V. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); On leave from the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, 04353 Kosice (Slovakia); Bergmann, I. [VOLKSWAGEN AG, 38436 Wolfsburg (Germany); Indris, S. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Subrt, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Heitjans, P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3A, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Becker, K.-D. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Braunschweig University of Technology, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-13

    The preparation of complex oxides by the conventional solid-state (ceramic) route requires a number of stages, including homogenization of the powder precursors, compaction of the reactants, and finally prolonged heat treatment at considerably elevated temperatures under controlled oxygen fugacity. One goal of modern materials research and development has been to identify simpler processing schemes that do not rely upon high-temperature treatments for inducing solid-state reactions. At present, mechanochemical methods become widely used for the preparation of nanocrystalline materials due to their relative simplicity and availability. In this work, selected examples of the preparation of nanoscale complex oxides via single-step mechanochemical routes are presented. Nuclear spectroscopic methods are employed to follow the mechanically induced formation of nanooxides and to characterize the nonequilibrium structural state of the resulting nanophases at the atomic level.

  13. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  14. Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

  15. Stabilizing Nanocrystalline Grains in Ceramic-Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides are prone to grain growth rendering their highly attractive properties practically unusable. Using atomistic simulations ofon ceria as a model material system, we elucidate a framework to design dopant-pinned grain boundaries that prevent this grain growth. While in metallic systems it has been shown that a large mismatch between host and dopant atomic size prevents grain growth, in ceramic-oxides we find that this concept is not applicable. Instead, we find that dopant-oxygen vacancy interaction, i.e., dopant migration energy in the presence of oxygen vacancy, and dopant-oxygen vacancy binding energy are the controlling factors in grain growth. Our prediction agrees with and explains previous experimental observations.

  16. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  17. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  18. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V., E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Vijayalakshmi, L. [Annai Veilankanni's College for Women (Arts and Science), Saidapet, Chennai 600015 (India); Stephen, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  19. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

  20. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.R.

    1990-11-20

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

  1. Evaluating Environmental Influences Oxidation Kinetics by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    -Oxide S A N J A I J . P A R I K H , * , B R A N D O N J . L A F F E R T Y , T E R R Y G . M E A D E , A N D D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, The University strategies for remediation of As-contaminated waters. In this study, the influence of goethite (R

  2. Versatile Applications of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Li

    2014-05-29

    of nanopar- ticles becomes broader, an onion type morphology was observed, particles larger than RPEO segregate out, forming a silica-rich core surrounded by a lamellar or lamel- lar/hexagonal structure. This can be understood by the entropic contributions... , acids or bases, metal salts, enzymes, radical initia- tors and solvents. Heterogeneous catalysts typically are solids that do not dissolve. For example, supported metals, transition metal oxides and sulfides, solid acids and bases, immobilized enzymes...

  3. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  4. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  5. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  6. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  7. Structural features of dielectric oxide laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Taranov, A V; Khazanov, E N; Akchurin, M Sh

    2012-10-31

    The relation between the transport characteristics of subterahertz thermal phonons and the structural features of singlephase dielectric crystalline laser ceramics based on cubic oxides synthesised in different technological regimes is studied. The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of the grain structure and intergrain layers (boundaries), as well as on the thermophysical, acoustic, optical, and laser characteristics of the materials is analysed. (active media)

  8. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  9. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  10. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  12. Super critical water oxidation on energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative process for the destruction of hazardous wastes that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. In this paper we present results for the oxidation of simple organic wastes and the destruction of explosives. We have tested a 50 gal./day mobile tubular reactor using both acetone and hexane as surrogate aqueous wastes in reaction with excess oxygen. For acetone, our results indicate that the fuel and oxidant can be conveniently premixed before heating and the acetone effectively destroyed (>99.999%). By contrast, hexane, and likely other insoluble flammable organics must be separately preheated to above the critical temperature of water to avoid detonation. With regards to the treatment of explosives, we have demonstrated detection-sensitivity-limited destruction (typically >99.9%) of five explosives, HMX, RDX, TNT, NQ, and PETN, in a smaller scale SCWO reactor. Two alternative methods of increasing processing throughput for explosives, which have very low solubility in water at room temperature, were also investigated. They are the use of slurries and the SCWO postprocessing of the products of explosives hydrolyzed in low-temperature, basic solutions.

  13. Super critical water oxidation on energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative process for the destruction of hazardous wastes that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. In this paper we present results for the oxidation of simple organic wastes and the destruction of explosives. We have tested a 50 gal./day mobile tubular reactor using both acetone and hexane as surrogate aqueous wastes in reaction with excess oxygen. For acetone, our results indicate that the fuel and oxidant can be conveniently premixed before heating and the acetone effectively destroyed (>99.999%). By contrast, hexane, and likely other insoluble flammable organics must be separately preheated to above the critical temperature of water to avoid detonation. With regards to the treatment of explosives, we have demonstrated detection-sensitivity-limited destruction (typically >99.9%) of five explosives, HMX, RDX, TNT, NQ, and PETN, in a smaller scale SCWO reactor. Two alternative methods of increasing processing throughput for explosives, which have very low solubility in water at room temperature, were also investigated. They are the use of slurries and the SCWO postprocessing of the products of explosives hydrolyzed in low-temperature, basic solutions.

  14. Lamins as mediators of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sieprath, Tom; Darwiche, Rabih; De Vos, Winnok H.

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear lamina defines structural and functional properties of the cell nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamina dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of laminopathies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent data is reviewed connecting laminopathies to oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A framework is proposed to explain interactions between lamins and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The nuclear lamina defines both structural and functional properties of the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins, lead to a broad spectrum of diseases termed laminopathies. While different hypotheses have been postulated to explain disease development, there is still no unified view on the mechanistic basis of laminopathies. Recent observations indicate that laminopathies are often accompanied by altered levels of reactive oxygen species and a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress at the cellular level. In this review, we highlight the role of reactive oxygen species for cell function and disease development in the context of laminopathies and present a framework of non-exclusive mechanisms to explain the reciprocal interactions between a dysfunctional lamina and altered redox homeostasis.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.; Piner, R.; Dommett, G.; Evmenenko, G.; Nguyen, S.; Ruoff, R.

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  16. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  17. Evaluating tantalum oxide stoichiometry and oxidation states for optimal memristor performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumbach, Michael T., E-mail: mtbrumb@sandia.gov; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew J.; Mirabal, Alex J.; Kalan, Michael A.; Stevens, James E.; Marinella, Matthew J. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tantalum oxide has shown promising electrical switching characteristics for memristor devices. Consequently, a number of reports have investigated the electrical behavior of TaO{sub x} thin films. Some effort has been made to characterize the composition of the TaO{sub x} films and it is known that there must be an optimal stoichiometry of TaO{sub x} where forming and switching behavior are optimized. However, many previous reports lack details on the methodology used for identifying the chemistry of the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been the most commonly used technique; however, peak fitting routines vary widely among reports and a native surface oxide of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} often confounds the analysis. In this report a series of large area TaO{sub x} films were deposited via sputtering with controlled O{sub 2} partial pressures in the sputtering gas, resulting in tunable oxide compositions. Spectra from numerous samples from each wafer spanning a range of oxide stoichiometries were used to develop a highly constrained peak fitting routine. This procedure allowed for the composition of the TaO{sub x} films to be identified with greater detail than elemental ratios alone. Additionally, the peak fitting routine was used to evaluate uniformity of deposition across individual wafers. The appearance of a greater contribution of Ta{sup 4+} oxidation states in the oxygen starved films are believed to relate to films with optimal forming characteristics.

  18. Enhanced ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto; Varela del Arco, Maria; Sefrioui, Z.; Iborra, Enrique; Leon, C.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Santamaria, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices used to generate energy out of hydrogen. In a fuel cell, two conducting electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that is permeable to ions (either hydrogen or oxygen, depending on the fuel-cell category) but not to electrons. An electrode catalytic process yields the ionic species, which are transported through the electrolyte, while electrons blocked by the electrolyte pass through the external circuit. Polymeric membrane (PEMFC) or phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operating at low temperatures are the preferred option for transportation because of their quite large efficiencies (50%), compared with gasoline combustion engines (25%). Other uses are also being considered, such as battery replacements for personal electronics and stationary or portable emergency power. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), operating at high temperatures, are a better option for stationary power generation because of their scalability. Here O{sup 2-} ions are the mobile species that travel at elevated temperatures (800-1000 C) through a solid electrolyte material to react with H{sup +} ions in the anode to produce water (Fig. 1). The high operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells are a major impediment to their widespread use in power generation. Thus, reducing this operating temperature is currently a major materials research goal, involving the search for novel electrolytes as well as active catalysts for electrode kinetics (oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation). Among oxide-ion conductors, those of anion-deficient fluorite structures such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), xY{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(1-x) ZrO{sub 2}, are extensively used as electrolytes in SOFCs. Doping with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure of ZrO{sub 2} and to supply the oxygen vacancies responsible for the ionic conduction. These materials are characterized by a large number of mobile oxygen vacancies, which are randomly distributed in the structure, and thus give rise to a completely disordered anion (oxygen) sublattice. Traditionally, the main strategy to reduce the operating temperature has been to search for novel electrolyte materials with larger oxide-ion conductivity values. Only recently has the use of artificial nanostructures appeared as a promising new direction for dramatically improved properties.

  19. INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

  20. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.