National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nitrogen oxides npdes

  1. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone have a lesser effect on the atmosphere than carbon dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse

  2. SWRCB General NPDES Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPDES PermitsLegal Abstract SWRCB General NPDES Permits, current through August 14, 2014. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation SWRCB General NPDES...

  3. NPDES Questions & Answers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Questions & Answers: SWRCB State NPDES Permit Information, current through August 14, 2014. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation NPDES Questions &...

  4. Idaho NPDES Permits Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPDES Permits Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho NPDES Permits Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an overview of the...

  5. Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

  6. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  7. Oregon NPDES Permits, Forms, and Information | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality provides NPDES forms on its website. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation Oregon NPDES...

  8. Catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2010-04-06

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  9. NPDES Permit Program Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    basic information on the major features and elements of the NPDES permit program. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not Provided DOI...

  10. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES General Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES General Permit...

  11. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES Individual Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES Individual Permit...

  12. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES Construction Stormwater...

  13. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  14. METHOD OF FIXING NITROGEN FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for fixing nitrogen from air by compressing the air, irradiating the compressed air in a nuclear reactor, cooling to remove NO/ sub 2/, compressing the cooled gas, further cooling to remove N/sub 2/O and recirculating the cooled compressed air to the reactor.

  15. NPDES Permit Writers Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Writers Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: NPDES Permit Writers Manual Abstract This website contains the PDF version of the...

  16. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  17. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  18. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) NPDES Best Management Practices (BMP) Guidance Document and Regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-20

    NPDES Best Management Practices (BMP) Guidance Document and regulations are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency. This announcement continues to defer the applicability of the BMP portion of the NPDES regulations until further notice and provides a 45 day comment period (from March 20, 1980) on the guidance document.

  19. Regional Water Board NPDES Program Manager | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Regional Water Board NPDES Program ManagerLegal Abstract Regional Water Board NPDES Program Manager,...

  20. Hawaii NPDES General Permit Notice of Intent Forms Webpage |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hawaii NPDES General Permit Notice of Intent Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii NPDES General Permit Notice of Intent...

  1. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  2. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  3. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  4. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  5. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  6. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): NPDES best management practices (BMP) guidance document and regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-05

    This US Environmental Protection Agency notice extends the review and comment period on the NPDES BMP Guidance Document to 6/19/80, and continues the deferral of the effective date of the BMP requirements.

  7. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  8. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  9. EPA Region 6 NPDES General Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits Abstract Access to NPDES General Permits for EPA Region 6. Author United States Environmental Protection Agency Published EPA, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check...

  10. EPA - NPDES Electronic Notice of Intent webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    contains the electronic Notice of Intent requirements and application for NPDES. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Environmental Protection Agency, 2014 DOI Not...

  11. EPA - NPDES Permit Program webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Program webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - NPDES Permit Program webpage Abstract This is the Environmental Protection...

  12. Vermont Permit and License Information: NPDES Stormwater General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permits for Construction SitesLegal Abstract Permit and licensing information for Clean Water Act 304 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits for...

  13. Hawaii Guidelines for NPDES Notice of General Permit Coverage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract This guideline document provides an overview of the NPDES General Permit process. Author State of Hawaii Department of Health Published State of Hawaii, 92004 DOI...

  14. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  15. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  16. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  17. 300 area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loll, C.M.

    1995-09-05

    This document presents the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan (MP). The MP describes how ongoing monitoring of the TEDF effluent stream for compliance with the NPDES permit will occur. The MP also includes Quality Assurance protocols to be followed.

  18. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-08-19

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  19. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-05-27

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  20. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1980-01-01

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  1. ARM: AOS: Oxides of Nitrogen Analyzer (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hygroscopic growth; Inorganic chemical composition; Methane concentration; Nitrogen; Ozone; Ozone Concentration; Particle number concentration; Particle size distribution; Trace ...

  2. EPA - NPDES Permit Writers Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Writers Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - NPDES Permit Writers Manual Abstract This manual provides an overview of...

  3. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  4. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  5. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  6. OAR 340-045 - Regulations Pertaining to NPDES and WPCF Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Prescribe limitations on discharge of wastes and the requirements and procedures for obtaining NPDES and WPCF permits from the Department of Environmental Quality....

  7. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  8. 300 Area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loll, C.M.

    1994-10-13

    This monitoring plan describes the activities and methods that will be employed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in order to ensure compliance with the National Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Included in this document are a brief description of the project, the specifics of the sampling effort, including the physical location and frequency of sampling, the support required for sampling, and the Quality Assurance (QA) protocols to be followed in the sampling procedures.

  9. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  10. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Nitrogen-doped and simultaneously reduced graphene oxide with superior dispersion as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheol-Ho; Yun, Jin-Mun; Lee, Sungho; Jo, Seong Mu; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Eun Ae; Khil, Myung-Seob; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-11-15

    Nitrogen doped graphene oxide (Nr-GO) with properties suitable for electrocatalysts is easily synthesized using phenylhydrazine as a reductant at relatively low temperature. The reducing agent removes various oxygen functional groups bonded to graphene oxide and simultaneously dope the nitrogen atoms bonded with phenyl group all over the basal planes and edge sites of the graphene. The Nr-GO exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the commercial carbon black and graphene oxide due to the electronic modification of the graphene structure. In addition, Nr-GO shows excellent dispersibility in various solvent due to the dopant molecules.

  12. Development of Nitrogen Oxide Closed System in the Future Reprocessing Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaoku, Y.; Hattori, I.; Watanabe, T.; Moriya, N.; Sumida, Y.; Araya, S.; Homma, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Akai, Y.

    2007-07-01

    An aqueous reprocessing for spent fuels generates much wastes mainly including sodium nitrate as secondary waste, which has some kinds of difficulties in disposal. A process with salt-free reagent and complete recycle of nitric acid would resolve the problem, but development for such process is not easy. We propose the treatment system of sodium nitrate waste, which are termed 'Nitrogen Oxide Closed System' (NCS) as mentioned below. The system decomposes nitrate ion, and enables reuse of sodium in sodium nitrate with no generation of sodium nitrate waste. Accordingly, the NCS system allows the use of sodium salt reagents, and generation of excess acid in a reprocessing process. (authors)

  13. City of Irving utilizes high resolution multispectral imagery for NPDES compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monday, H.M.; Urban, J.S.; Mulawa, D.; Benkelman, C.A.

    1994-04-01

    A case history of using high resolution multispectral imagery is described. A statistical clustering method was applied to identify the primary spectral signatures present within the image data. This was for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  14. National pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) NODES best management practices (BMP) guidance document and regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-19

    The US Environmental Protection Agency extends anew the review and comment period on the NPDES BMP Guidance Document to 7/21/80 and continues the deferral of the effective data of the BMP requirements.

  15. O.A.R. 340-045 - Regulations Pertaining to NPDES and WPCF Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: O.A.R. 340-045 - Regulations Pertaining to NPDES and WPCF PermitsLegal Abstract These...

  16. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  17. Comparison of non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-01-11

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in atmospheric-pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Recent laboratory-scale experiments show that the electron beam method is remarkably more energy efficient than competing non-thermal plasma techniques based on pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge plasma. Preliminary cost analysis based on these data also show that the electron beam method may be cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  18. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore » fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  19. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  20. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on secondary organic aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-12-08

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but it can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. Small differences are found for themore » no-aging VBS and 2-product schemes; large increases in SOA production and the SOA-to-OA ratio are found for the aging scheme. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution of US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of 2 compared to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different regions and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9–5.6, 6.4–12.0 and 0.9–2.8 % for global, southeast US and Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to a limited shift in chemical regime, to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  1. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-08-28

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution ofmore » US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of two compared to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different region and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9 to 5.6, 6.4 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 2.8 % for global, the southeast US and the Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  2. Group NPDES stormwater permit application: The Conoco experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holler, J.D. )

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has reported that stormwater runoff is a major cause of pollution and use impairment to waters of the nation. Diffuse pollution sources (stormwater runoff) are increasingly important as controls for industrial process dischargers. On November 16, 1990 the Federal Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) rules governing the discharge of stormwater were published (56 FR 40948). These rules potentially affect every type of business enterprise conducting work associated with industrial activity.'' Dischargers of stormwater associated with industrial activity ar required to either seek coverage under a federal or state general permit using notice of intent, apply for an individual permit, or apply for a permit through a two-part group application process. Conoco, Inc. Supply and Transportation (S and T) elected the latter alternative to attempt to comply with these new evolving complex, broad-ranging permitting requirements. This paper discusses specific details of S and T's strategy, BMP designs, data acquisition activities, monitoring results, as well as economic impacts on the corporation as a result of storm water permit requirements. S and T operates approximately 170 unique wholly and jointly owned petroleum product storage and transport facilities across the nation. Approximately one-third of these facilities were subject to stormwater permit application requirements.

  3. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  4. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  6. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  7. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  8. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro; Hall, LeRoy; Gow, Andrew J.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 /day, 1 d3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury

  11. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  12. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  13. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  14. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  16. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mitchell R.; Gal, Eli

    1993-01-01

    A process and system for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous The government of the United States of America has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC 23174 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  18. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  19. Demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardman, R.R.; Wilson, S.M. ); Smith, L.L.; Larsen, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrating advanced tangentially fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the performance of four low NO{sub x} combustion technologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 180 MW boiler. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction has been established for the project. Details of the required instrumentation including acoustic pyrometers and continuous emissions and monitoring systems are given. Results from a 1/12 scale model of the demonstration boiler outfitted with the retrofit technology are presented. Finally, preliminary baseline results are presented. 4 figs.

  20. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  1. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J.; Bonk, Donald L.; Dowdy, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  2. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  3. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, John V.

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  4. Constructed Wetlands for Removal of Heavy Metals from NPDES Outfall Effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2002-08-29

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River Technology Center. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, necessitating treatment of nearly one million gallons of water each day plus storm runoff to meet compliance standards. A conceptual design for a constructed treatment wetland was developed as the most cost-effective alternative. A pilot study was conducted using mesocosms to confirm that the design concept would reduce copper to acceptable levels. After treatment in the mesocosms, effluent copper concentrations were routinely below permit limits, even though the influent concentrations varied widely.

  5. AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit Bi-Annual Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit Bi-Annual Update Public Meeting January 22, 2014 5:30-7:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center Pojoaque, New Mexico 5:30 p.m. Poster Session 5:50 p.m. Welcome Steve Veenis 6:00 p.m. Flooding Events Fall 2013 Armand Groffman 6:15 p.m. IP Compliance for 2013 Jeff Walterscheid Kate Lynnes 6:35 p.m. IP Corrective Action Screening Process Thaddeus Kostrubala 6:45 p.m. Permit Renewal Kate Lynnes 7:00 p.m. Communities

  6. Stormwater permitting for a large construction project: NPDES and Boston's Central Artery/Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B. )

    1993-01-01

    The promulgation of EPA's NPDES stormwater discharge regulations occurred during the latter planning stages for Boston's Central Artery/Tunnel Project, making this project, one of the largest single urban highway projects ever built, one of the first to be permitted under new regulations. The Project consists of 128 land miles of new highway, including numerous ramps and interchanges, and a harbor tunnel, with stormwater discharging during construction from at least 38 separate points. Complicating the permitting situation, stormwater is combined with dewatering discharges from excavations in filled and former industrial areas. Working closely with EPA Region 1 and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the Massachusetts Highway Department submitted a permit application combining estimates of dewatering discharge quality derived from groundwater sampling with all the elements of a NPDES application for construction stormwater. The resulting permit contained two separate sets of monitoring requirements for the same discharge points, one for stormwater and one for dewatering. Quarterly monitoring was required for both dewatering and stormwater for metals, suspended solids, TPH, and VOC. Limits of 50 mg/1 TSS and 5 mg/1 TPH were established for dewatering only.

  7. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not

  8. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  9. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore » speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations

  10. Advanced wall-fired boiler combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]): Low NO[sub x] burner test phase results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorge, J.N. ); Baldwin, A.L. ); Smith, L.L. )

    1992-06-02

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide(NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the performance of two low NO[sub x] combustion technologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. A target of achieving 50 percent NO[sub x] reductions has been established for the project. The main focus of this paper is the presentation of the low NO[sub x] burner (LNB) short and long-term tests results.

  11. Advanced wall-fired boiler combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}): Low NO{sub x} burner test phase results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorge, J.N.; Baldwin, A.L.; Smith, L.L.

    1992-06-02

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide(NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the performance of two low NO{sub x} combustion technologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. A target of achieving 50 percent NO{sub x} reductions has been established for the project. The main focus of this paper is the presentation of the low NO{sub x} burner (LNB) short and long-term tests results.

  12. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI

  13. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K.; Novick, Vincent J.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.

    1997-01-01

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  14. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS ?/? mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS ?/? mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS ?/? mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS ?/? mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS ?/? mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ? Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ? RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ? iNOS ?/? mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and altered lung functioning.

  16. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude

  17. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  18. Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.

  19. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  20. Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. Eighth quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Yin; Lu, Te-Chang; Fan, L.T.; Yashima, Mutsuo

    1995-11-05

    The investigation of this quarter focuses on the rates of NO reactions with chars in various gaseous environments. The results have revealed significant insights into the NO reduction mechanisms on char surface, particularly when the oxidants, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, are introduced into the feed. Indeed, evidences suggest that the formation of stable oxygen complexes is the major cause of differences in NO reactivity on chars of different origins. The oxidants retard the reactivity of char derived fro the bituminous coal more seriously than they affect the char derived from lignite. Furthermore, additions of these oxidants into the reacting stream produce additional yields of CO and CO{sub 2} during NO reaction with lignite char, suggesting gasification of carbon from lignite char. No excess CO and CO{sub 2} were observed when the bituminous coal char was used. These yields of CO and CO{sub 2} also imply that desorption of stable surface oxygen complex is a rate-limiting step which may be catalyzed by the mineral matters during reactions involving lignite char. Surface area evaluated by CO{sub 2} and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation is not a normalization factor of char reactivity during reburning. In the absence of oxidants, the bituminous coal char shows drastic increase in activation energy at about 950 {degrees}C indicating transition of desorption to adsorption controlled mechanisms. When CO{sub 2} is introduced, the transition temperature increases. When oxygen is also added, no such transition is observed up to 1100 {degrees}C. Lignite char reactivity increases smoothly over the temperature range 800 to 1100 {degrees}C. It is also observed that char reactivity decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature which may be caused by closure of pores due to graphitization. The rate of NO reduction on the Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char is then in good accord with that of a West Virginia coal char reported by De Soete (1980).

  1. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  2. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  3. Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. Ninth quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Yin; Lu, Te-Chang; Fan, L.T.; Yashima, Mutsuo

    1996-01-31

    During this quarter, we have investigated rates and product compositions of NO reduction on chars in gases. N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} internal surface areas of chars, selected from runs of various pyrolysis and reaction conditions have been measured to assist in interpreting the experimental results. Implications of Langmuir- Hinshelwood mechanisms and mass transfer limitations were examined. Oxidants suppress NO reduction on bituminous coal char more than on lignite char. Observations suggest that NO adsorption and desorption of stable surface oxygen complexes are potentially important rate- limiting steps and may be catalyzed by mineral matter during reburning with lignite char. Relative inert nature of lignite char to CO{sub 2} presence may have potential value in use of fuel system involving both solid and volatile fuels. Lignite char produced at 950 C and zero holding time has higher reactivity than that produced at 1100 C and 5 min holding time. Bituminous coal chars produced at these two conditions, however, have similar reactivity with NO. Internal surface areas of both type chars vary with pyrolysis conditions and gas composition in the subsequent reaction. When oxidants are introduced in the feed, internal surface areas of these two chars vary in opposite directions.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  5. Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-15

    Oxide is a modular framework for feature extraction and analysis of executable files. Oxide is useful in a variety of reverse engineering and categorization tasks relating to executable content.

  6. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  7. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  8. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  9. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  10. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  12. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) PERMIT LIMITS FOR METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, B

    2009-06-26

    The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained very low metals limits for several outfalls. Copper, lead and zinc limits were as low as seven micrograms per liter (7 ug/l), 1 ug/l, and 100 ug/l, respectively. The permit contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with only three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable outfall compliance. Discharges from a few outfalls were eliminated or routed into other locations relatively inexpensively. However, some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. These innovations included (1) connecting several outfall discharges to the site's Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility (CSWTF), (2) constructing a treatment wetlands and completing a water-effects ratio (WER) on its effluent, (3) installing a stannous chloride feed system to remove mercury in an existing air stripper, and (4) constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and take advantage of biotic ligand modeling to raise effluent limits.

  13. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T.; Ekmann, James M.; Pennline, Henry W.; Drummond, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control | Department of Energy Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust nitrogen

  15. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  16. Using Arc/Info GIS to help implement the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater permit for Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, D.A.; Pace, P.J.; Woods, J.A.; DePoto, W.

    1997-06-01

    One of Los Angeles County Department of Public Works` many responsibilities is to manage non-point pollution that enters the storm drain network within Los Angeles County. The management of this non-point source pollution is mandated by the NPDES guidelines under the Federal Clean Water Act. These guidelines require the County to monitor the drainage network and the storm water and urban runoff flowing through it. The County covers over 3,117 square miles, with the NPDES Permit covering over 3,100 square miles and over 2500 miles of storm drains. A proposed solution to monitor and manage this vast geographic area is centered upon an Arc/Info GIS. Some of the many concerns which need to be addressed include the administration and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMP`s), storm drain inspection for illegal connections and illicit discharges, and pollutant load assessment and modeling. The storm drain network and other coverages will be related to external data bases currently used for facility management and planning. This system would be used for query purposes to perform spatial modeling and {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} scenarios needed to create maps and reports required by the permit and to evaluate various BMP implementation strategies.

  17. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 2, Overfire air tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P.

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P. )

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  20. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Junhua; Aulich, Ted R; Ignatchenko, Alexey V

    2015-04-14

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia are disclosed. Embodiments include (1) ammonium nitrate produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source: (3) ammonia produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source.

  1. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. H. R. 4177: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from utility plants. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 5, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The tax imposed would begin in 1991 in the amount of 15 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide released and 10 cents per pound nitrogen oxide, and would increase so that the tax in 1997 and thereafter would be 45 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide and 30 cents per pound of nitrogen oxide released. An inflation adjustment is provided for years after 1997. The tax is imposed on emissions which exceed the exemption level for each pollutant, and these levels are specified herein as pounds exempted per million Btu's of fuel burned. No tax is imposed on units less than 75 megawatts, or units providing less than one-third of the electricity produced to a utility power distribution system for sale.

  5. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  6. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  7. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  8. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  9. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2012-04-10

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Nitrogen All gaseous compounds of nitrogen including N2, N2O, and NOx. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  11. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  12. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  13. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Study of fuel-nitrogen reactions in rich, premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of nitrogen-containing species involved in fuel-nitrogen reactions have been studied in atmospheric-pressure fuel-rich hydrogen/oxygen/argon flames. The fuel-nitrogen reaction mechanism was investigated by addition of ammonia, nitric oxide, or hydrogen cyanide alone or with various hydrocarbons to a base flame. Profiles of stable nitrogen species and hydroxyl radical were measured in the post-flame gases. Results show that an initial rapid decay of nitric oxide added to a hydrogen/oxygen/argon flame to approximately 60% of its initial value occurs within 1.0 mm of the burner surface (0.5 msec). The primary reaction for removal of nitric oxide was found to be H + NO + M = HNO + M. The reaction of nitric oxide with various hydrocarbons to form hydrogen cyanide was found to be first order in both the initial hydrocarbon concentration and the initial nitric oxide concentration. A kinetic model was developed that only partially predicts the results obtained. Analysis showed that, by varying the heat of formation of imidogen within the limits of its uncertainty, agreement between the calculations and the data could be improved for nitric oxide and nitrogen. However, the amine, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide profiles were found not to be significantly affected. The significant discrepancy between the measured and calculated ammonia profiles is discussed in terms of the model predictions of both the ammonia formation and decay rates. The reaction: NM + H = N + H/sub 2/ is identified as a key rate-controlling step for removal of amine species in these flames. Evidence from the data and theoretical calculations suggests that the rate of this reaction at the current flame conditions may be as much as a factor of ten slower than the previously reported value.

  15. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tarun, M. C.; Iqbal, M. Zafar; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-04-14

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. Thus the deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence bandmore » relative to the vacuum level.« less

  16. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ... Title: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ...

  17. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Pinnau, Ingo; Segelke, Scott

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  18. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  19. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  20. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The

  1. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  2. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  4. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  5. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF BINARY NITROGEN-FLUORINE COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A process is given for preparing binary nitrogenfluorine compounds, in particular, tetrafluorohydrazine (N/sub 2/F/sub 4/) and difluorodiazine (N/sub 2/ F/sub 2/), The process comprises subjecting gaseous nitrogen trifluoride to the action of an alternating current electrical glow discharge in the presence of mercury vapors. By the action of the electrical discharge, the nitrogen trifluoride is converted into a gaseous product comprising a mixture of tetrafluorohydrazine, the isomers of difluorodiazine, and other impurities including nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, silicon tetrafiuoride, and unreacted nitrogen trifluoride. The gaseous products and impurities are passed into a trap maintained at about - 196 deg C to freeze out the desired products and impurities with the exception of nitregen gas which passes off from the trap and is discarded. Subsequently, the desired products and remaining impurities are warmed to the gaseous state and passed through a silica gel trap maintained at about - 55DEC, wherein the desired tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products are retained while the remaining gaseous impurities pass therethrough. The desired products are volatilized from the silica gel trap by heating and then separated by gas chrounatography means into the respective tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products. (A.e.C)

  6. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  7. Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1983-10-01

    This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

  8. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia

  9. Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Goerz, David A.; Hsiao, Mark; Merritt, Bernard T.; Penetrante, Bernie M.; Reynolds, John G.; Brusasco, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

  10. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. ...

  11. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  12. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  14. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  15. Hawaii National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regulatory GuidanceSupplemental Material Author State of Hawaii Department of Health Published State of Hawaii, 112013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  16. Miami International Airport stormwater NPDES plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, A.I.; Goldman, J.Z.; Schmidt, M.F.; Clark, E.E.

    1994-12-31

    Miami International Airport (MIA) is endeavoring to essentially double its traffic volume by the turn of the century. This is a great challenge since the site is already highly developed. Space, safety and other constraints make it difficult to implement conventional detention/retention stormwater practices. Other practices were evaluated to control stormwater quantity/quality, since some of the downstream bodies of water are flood-prone or environmentally sensitive.

  17. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  18. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  19. Oil recovery by nitrogen flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronde, H.; Hagoort, J.

    1992-03-01

    The general objective of the project is the Establishment of technical and economic design criteria and evaluation tools for oil and condensate recovery by Nitrogen Injection. The main objective has been divided into the following specific objectives: Determination of the effect of oil composition on the oil recovery; Investigation of the pros and cons of slim-tube experiments as a tool for the design and evaluation of nitrogen flooding; Measurement and calculation of the minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) for nitrogen flooding.

  20. Production of nitrogen from air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, C.; Duckett, M.; Limb, D.I.

    1985-01-29

    In the single column process for the recovery of nitrogen from air wherein reflux for the distillation is provided by condensing a first portion of the overhead stream by indirect heat exchange in a reflux condenser with oxygen-rich liquid from the bottom of the column which has been subjected to a first expansion to an intermediate pressure, refrigeration for the process is provided by work expanding evaporated oxygen-rich liquid from the reflux condenser, and prior to said first expansion, the oxygen-rich liquid recovered from the bottom of the column is sub-cooled by indirect heat exchange in a sub-cooler with the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid, nitrogen recovery is increased by work expanding the evaporated oxygen-rich liquid at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser or by first passing it through said sub-cooler at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser and thereafter work-expanding it at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the sub-cooler, and feeding the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid directly to the sub-cooler.

  1. Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 20, 2014, Research Highlights Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic Molecules Various nitrogen containing aromatic base molecules and a descriptive relationship derived to predict their reduction potentials is shown. Scientific Achievement A descriptive relationship is derived for computing reduction potentials of quinoxaline derivatives from the orbital energies of the neutral molecules without

  2. Weldability of nitrogen-enhanced HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, F.C.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy and Charpy-V-Notch (CVN) testing were used to characterize two Ti-V microalloyed steels which contained 130 and 30 ppm of nitrogen with respect to weldability. Particular emphasis has been placed on the understanding of the heat input-microstructure-toughness relationship in the high nitrogen HSLA steel. Within the 1 to 3 kJ/mm heat input range, the high nitrogen steel exhibited coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) toughness superior to that of the low nitrogen steel. The transition temperatures (measured at 50 ft-lb impact energy) were, in average, 15 to 60 C lower than those presented by the low nitrogen steel. Quantitative metallography results showed that high nitrogen steel CGHAZs have smaller austenite grain size and larger amount of grain boundary ferrite. Combining the microstructural information and toughness data, it was concluded that for the high nitrogen steel to exhibit superior properties than the low nitrogen steel, the final HAZ microstructure must contain at least 60% of lathy (bainitic) phases, balanced with ferritic products.

  3. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  4. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  5. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data You are accessing a document from the ...

  6. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for separating nitrogen from methane using ...

  7. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  8. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  9. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  10. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  11. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  12. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  13. Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114

  14. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  15. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  16. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition loadings to the Chesapeake Bay: An initial analysis of the cost effectiveness of control options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to examine whether programs to control regional airborne oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are cost-effective ways to reduce nitrogen loads to the Bay compared with other management scenarios. Regional control programs considered in this analysis include: the Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC), and a 0.15 pounds (lbs) per million British thermal unit (MMBtu) NOx emission limit applied to large fuel combustors in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (OTC) States. The effect of extending the OTR programs to wider areas of the country - whose emissions also influence the Bay - was also examined.

  17. Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Bullock, Sr., Jack C.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    1990-01-01

    A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

  18. Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2013-02-05

    Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

  19. Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Nelson, Josh C; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Graham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

  20. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Prev Next Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Authors: Lee, Shinbuhm ...

  1. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  2. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 The behavior of the core hole...

  3. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  4. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of ...

  5. Evidence for the Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Platinum and Palladium Nitride Nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Baggetto, Loïc; Browning, James F.; Keum, Jong K.; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B.; Goenaga, Gabriel A.; Mullins, David R.; et al

    2013-12-03

    Here, we report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materialsmore » along with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. Moreover, the catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.« less

  6. Evidence for the Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Platinum and Palladium Nitride Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Baggetto, Loïc; Browning, James F.; Keum, Jong K.; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B.; Goenaga, Gabriel A.; Mullins, David R.; Bullock, Steven E.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2013-12-03

    Here, we report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materials along with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. Moreover, the catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.

  7. Evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Baggetto, Loic; Browning, Jim; Keum, Jong Kahk; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B; Goenaga Jimenez, Gabriel A; Mullins, David R; et al

    2014-01-01

    We report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materials alongmore » with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. The catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.« less

  8. Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-03-14

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup −}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633 nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5 K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ‖} = 37.0 MHz and A{sub ⊥} = 8.4 MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1} = 14.5 MHz, A{sub 2} = 18.3 MHz, and A{sub 3} = 20.5 MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup ¯}0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

  9. Morphological development and oxidation mechanisms of aluminum nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Xinmei; Yue Changsheng; Kumar Singh, Ankit; Zhang Mei; Chou Kuochih

    2010-04-15

    Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range. In order to investigate its 'oxidation resistance', a series of experiments have been performed. The oxidation behavior was quite different in the experimental temperature range assigned, which can be attributed to the kinetic factor and the morphological development during oxidation process. It was chemical controlled at lower temperature while both chemical reaction and diffusion controlled at medium temperature. Further accelerating of temperature to 1473 K, AlN whiskers was peeled into smaller parts, which increased the oxidation rate and hence showed powder-like oxidation behavior. Our new kinetic theory has been applied to study the oxidation behavior of AlN whiskers. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical ones validates the applicability of the new model. - Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range.

  10. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  11. lithium cobalt oxide cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium cobalt oxide cathode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers lithium cobalt oxide cathode Home...

  12. A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

    2008-12-31

    A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced

  13. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  14. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  15. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsivemore » each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of–5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kgNha–1 to only –2.97 ± 0.18 MgCO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kgNha–1. In conclusion, minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.« less

  16. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  17. Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    This project was directed toward understanding at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels of how photosynthetic organisms adapt to long-term nitrogen-deficiency conditions is quite incomplete even though limitation of this nutrient is the most commonly restricts plant growth and development. For our work on this problem, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was grown in continuous cultures in which steady-state levels of nitrogen can be precisely controlled. N-limited cells exhibit the classical symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient, chlorosis and slow growth rates, and respond to nitrogen provision by rapid greening and chloroplast differentiation. We have addressed three aspects of this problem: (1) the regulation of pigment synthesis; (2) control of expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins; (3) changes in metabolic and electron transport pathways that enable sustained CO{sub 2} fixation even though they cannot be readily converted into amino and nucleic acids. For the last, principle components are: (a) enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity intimately associated with photosynthates, and (b) the occurrence in thylakoids of a supplemental electron transport pathway that facilitates reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Together, these distinguishing features of N-limited cells are likely to enable cell survival, especially under conditions of high irradiance stress.

  18. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  19. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  20. Synthesis and energetic properties of TAGDNAT: a new high-nitrogen material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Bis-(triaminoguanidinium)3,3'-dinitro5,5'-azo-1,2,4-triazolate (TAGDNAT), a novel high-nitrogen molecule that derives its energy release from both a high heat of formation and intramolecular oxidation reactions. TAGDNAT shows promise as a propellant or explosive ingredient not only due to its high nitrogen content (66.35 wt%) but additionally due to its high hydrogen content (4.34 wt%). This new molecule has been characterized with respect to its morphology, sensitivity properties, explosive and combustion performance. The heat of formation of TAGDNAT was also experimentally determined. The results of these studies show that TAGDNAT has one of the gastest low-pressure burning rates (at 1000 PSI) we have yet measured, 6.79 cm/s at 100 p.s.i. (39% faster than triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), a comparable high-nitrogen/high-hydrogen material). Furthermore, its pressure sensitivity is 0.507, a 33% reduction compared to TAGzT.

  1. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup ?6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.

  3. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 610?nm, we measure less than 1 at.% oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  4. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  5. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  6. PROTOSOLAR AMMONIA AS THE UNIQUE SOURCE OF TITAN's NITROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mousis, Olivier; Gautier, Daniel

    2014-06-20

    The origin of Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere is thought to be ammonia ice, but this has not yet been confirmed. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the building blocks of Titan formed within the Saturnian subnebula or in the colder protosolar nebula (PSN). Recent measurements of the nitrogen isotope ratio in cometary ammonia, combined with evolutionary constraints on the nitrogen isotopes in Titan's atmosphere provide firm evidence that the nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere must have originated as ammonia ice formed in the PSN under conditions similar to that of cometary formation. This result has important implications for the projected D/H ratio in cometary methane, nitrogen isotopic fractionation in the PSN and the source of nitrogen for Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Studies on supported metal oxide-oxide support interactions ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 66 PHYSICS; CERIUM OXIDES; SURFACE PROPERTIES; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; COPPER OXIDES; BINDING ENERGY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; INFRARED SPECTRA; VALENCE; ZINC ...

  8. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  9. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  10. Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen Doping in LithiumSulfur ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode ...

  11. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of High-Areal-Capacity Sulfur Cathode with Exceptional Cycling Stability for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon ...

  12. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    70. annual meeting of the Federation of American Society for Experimental Biology, St. ... CELLS; GROWTH; NITROGEN MUSTARD; CALCIUM; CELL MEMBRANES; CHOLINE; LIPOSOMES; MICE; ...

  13. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: ...

  14. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  15. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    Development of Models will Help Predict and Control Hydrogen and Nitrogen Levels in Electric Arc Furnace and Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking

  16. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.V.; Maloney, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  17. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  18. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films ...

  19. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Films | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films

  20. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  1. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  2. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  3. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Qiu, Dongming; Dritz, Terence Andrew; Neagle, Paul; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Arora, Ravi; Lamont, Michael Jay; Pagnotto, Kristina M.

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  4. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  6. Conversion of actinide and RE oxides into nitrates and their recovery into fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondin, V.V.; Bychkov, S.I.; Efremov, I.G.; Revenko, Y.A.; Babain, V.A.; Murzin, A.A.; Romanovsky, V.N; Fedorov, Y.S.; Shadrin, A.Y.; Ryabkova, N.V.; Li, E.N.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions for uranium oxides completely convert into uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in nitrogen tetra-oxide media (75 deg. C, 0,5-3,0 MPa, [UO{sub x}]:[H{sub 2}O]:[NO{sub 2}]=1:8:6) were found out. The conversion of Pu contained simulator of oxide spent nuclear fuel of thermal reactors was successfully demonstrated. The possibility of uranium recovery up to 95% from TR SNF without plutonium separation from FP is practically showed, what corresponds with Non-proliferation Treaty. (authors)

  7. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  8. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  9. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  10. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and

  11. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  12. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full ...

  14. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  15. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  16. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    23 (05-92) Ridefinders Application Please submit this application to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Employee Transportation Coordinator, Room 7A-156, Forrestal. U.S. Department of Energy Privacy Act Statement Check all transportation options which interest you: Carpool: Driver Share Driving Rider Vanpool: Driver Share Driving Rider Do you wish to meet your pool in your neighborhood? No (If no, see Alternate Pickup Locations below.) Yes Participation in the Federal Facility Ridesharing

  17. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  18. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  19. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  20. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  1. Superconductive ceramic oxide combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, D.K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Mir, J.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes the combination of a superconductive ceramic oxide which degrades in conductivity upon contact of ambient air with its surface and, interposed between the ceramic oxide surface and ambient air in the amount of at least 1 mg per square meter of surface area of the superconductive ceramic oxide, a passivant polymer selected from the group consisting of a polyester ionomer and an alkyl cellulose.

  2. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  3. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  4. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  5. EPA - State NPDES Program Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    states are authorized to oversee the National Pollutant Discharge Control system. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Environmental Protection Agency, 2014 DOI Not...

  6. Title 40 CFR 122 EPA Administered Permit Programs: NPDES | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Programs: NPDESLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2013 Legal Citation 40 CFR 122 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory NPDES Water Quality Protection Plan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Increases Focus on Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge EM Program Increases Focus on Mercury Cleanup May 7, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner Robert Martineau, left to right, U.S. Sen. Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.), Oak Ridge EM Manager Mark Whitney, EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga and EPA Deputy Regional Administrator for Region 4 Stan Meiburg gathered for the announcement on mercury cleanup. Tennessee Department of Environment and

  8. Vermont NPDES Stormwater Permit Project Risk Evaluation | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the application and permit requirements for the developer's project that must have a 402 Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for storm water...

  9. AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permit Bi-Annual Update Public Meeting January 22, 2014 5:30-7:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center Pojoaque, New Mexico 5:30 p.m. Poster Session 5:50 p.m. Welcome Steve...

  10. Oregon Directive for NPDES Permits and Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CertificationsPermittingRegulatory GuidanceSupplemental Material Abstract Provides methods and direction to be followed by the DEQ for implementing Oregon's Antidegradation...