Sample records for nitrogen oxides control

  1. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27- Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe...

  2. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including issues of technology and cost un- certainties, areon NO x Control Technologies and Cost Effectiveness forand other factors on technology cost trends (hence, the

  3. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  4. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning ...

  5. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNews : AMFAlaskaNewsOxides of Nitrogen

  6. Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinn, Brian Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

  8. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

  9. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  10. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  11. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

  12. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  13. Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

  14. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  15. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides (90%-95%) present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. A practical strategy for nitrogen oxides removal might utilize a solid support that has been impregnated with an active transition metal complex. Some supported transition metals are expected to remove NO/sub x/ by sorption, with regeneration of the sorbent being a necessary property. Others catalyze NO oxidation to the more soluble NO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which has been demonstrated for certain transition metal species. These activated nitrogen oxides can be more efficiently removed along with SO/sub 2/ in conventional scrubbing or spray-drying processes, in which an aqueous slurry of sorbent, such as hydrated lime, is injected into the hot flue gas. We present here preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. This work is the first step in the development of supported metal species for enhanced nitrogen oxides removal.

  16. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  17. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  18. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  19. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  20. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  1. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  2. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  3. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. We present preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. The metal carbonyls took up nitric oxide homogeneously in the gas phase. Iron required uv light for reaction with NO, but the same result is expected with the application of heat. Metal carbonyls also reacted with nitrogen dioxide but produced polynuclear metal species. Oxygen did not attack the carbonyl or nitrosyl complexes. Results indicate high potential for NO/sub x/ removal from stack gases by sorption onto supported metal carbonyl complexes. The solid form allows ease in separation from the flue gas. Regeneration of the sorbent might be achieved by treating with CO to liberate NO/sub x/ by displacement or by heating to decompose and drive off NO/sub x/.

  4. Nitrogen oxidizing in modeling of diesel engine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.; Merker, G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model of diesel engine operation based on the interconnected calculation of diesel fuel spray and the processes in the combustion chamber is extended for the calculation of Nitrogen oxidizing. A number of chemical reactions with O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, N, NO, OH, H, H{sub 2} are included in the model.

  5. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  6. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  7. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  8. nitrogen-oxides | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stricter regulations may require control to levels as low as 3 ppm in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) stack gas. Following is a review of both combustion-based and...

  9. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  10. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  15. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  16. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  17. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  18. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

  19. Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment S. Marsili predictive control; wastewater treatment plant Introduction The problem of improving the nitrogen removal wastewater is too low, full denitrification is difficult to obtain and an additional source of organic carbon

  20. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  1. Method of removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batha, H.D.; Mason, J.H.; Thompson, S.R.

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing nitrogen oxides (NOX) from exhaust gas mixtures is described. The removal of NOX from exhaust gas mixtures is accomplished by exposing the exhaust gas mixture, in a manner that does not substantially impede the gas flow, to a ceramic material containing from about 75% to about 95% by weight silicon carbide and from about 0.3% to about 10.0% silica. A reduction of at least 85% of NOX from the mixture is to be expected and reductions up to 95 to 100% are attainable. Ceramic mixtures containing silicon nitride in amounts between about 10% and about 30% are found to reduce the amount of NOX in exhaust gases at temperatures as low as 200* C.

  2. The defect chemistry of nitrogen in oxides: A review of experimental and theoretical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polfus, Jonathan M.; Norby, Truls [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)] [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Haugsrud, Reidar, E-mail: reidarha@kjemi.uio.no [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)] [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Incorporation of nitrogen into oxides has in recent years received increased attention as a variable for tuning their functional properties. A vast number of reports have been devoted to improving the photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}, p-type charge carrier concentration in ZnO and the ionic transport properties of ZrO{sub 2} by nitrogen doping. In comparison, the fundamentals of the nitrogen related defect chemistry for a wider range of oxides have been less focused upon. In the present contribution, we review experimental and computational investigations of the nitrogen related defect chemistry of insulating and semiconducting oxides. The interaction between nitrogen and protons is important and emphasized. Specifically, the stability of nitrogen defects such as N{sub O}{sup /}, NH{sub O}{sup Multiplication-Sign} and (NH{sub 2}){sub O}{sup Bullet} is evaluated under various conditions and their atomistic and electronic structure is presented. A final discussion is devoted to the role of nitrogen with respect to transport properties and photocatalytic activity of oxides. - Graphical abstract: Experimental and theoretical investigations of the nitrogen related defect chemistry of a range of wide band gap oxides is reviewed. The interaction between nitrogen dopants and protons is emphasized and described through the atomistic and electronic structure as well as defect chemical processes involving NH and NH{sub 2} defects. Consequently, the physical properties of oxides containing such species are discussed with respect to e.g., diffusion and photocatalytic properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and theoretical investigations of the nitrogen and hydrogen related defect chemistry of wide band gap oxides is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between nitrogen dopants and protons is important and emphasized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion and photocatalytic properties of N-doped oxides are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  4. The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Leo Dean

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    toxic effect at the sub-cell- ular level. Nitrogen dioxide is considered the most toxic nitrogen oxide in polluted air. 1he toxicity and biological effects of this pollutant have been extensively studied and may detailed reviews are available (16..., 17, 35, 54, 55, 89). Since atmospheric NO2 primarily affects the lungs, exposure to this pollutant may cause alterations in the ultra- structure, physiology, aud biochemistry of this organ (50). Nitrogen dioxide exerts its toxic effects...

  5. Nitric OxideTriggered Remodeling of Chloroplast Bioenergetics and Thylakoid Proteins upon Nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitric Oxide­Triggered Remodeling of Chloroplast Bioenergetics and Thylakoid Proteins upon Nitrogen droplets, but the accompanying changes in bioenergetics have been little studied so far. Here, we report

  6. LOW ENERGYHIGH FLUX NITROGEN IMPLANTATION OF AN OXIDE-DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED FeAl INTERMETALLIC ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LOW ENERGY­HIGH FLUX NITROGEN IMPLANTATION OF AN OXIDE- DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED Fe countercurrent diffusion of nitrogen and aluminium seems to proceed. As a result, segregation of -Fe is observed alloys, the nitridation of titanium aluminides have received most of the attention concerning

  7. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  8. TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Turfgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1). The effects of drought were also evident in clippings biomass, which was 61 to 70% less in dry28 TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in concentrations of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, and agriculture is considered a significant

  9. Surface oxidation of GaN(0001): Nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning for ultrahigh vacuum applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhashis [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany and Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031 Rajasthan (India); Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: tschmidt@ifp.uni-bremen.de; Kruse, Carsten; Figge, Stephan; Hommel, Detlef; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleaning of metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxial GaN(0001) template layers grown on sapphire has been investigated. Different procedures, performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, including degassing and exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source have been compared. For this purpose, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy have been employed in order to assess chemical as well as structural and morphological surface properties. Initial degassing at 600?°C under ultrahigh vacuum conditions only partially eliminates the surface contaminants. In contrast to plasma assisted nitrogen cleaning at temperatures as low as 300?°C, active-nitrogen exposure at temperatures as high as 700?°C removes the majority of oxide species from the surface. However, extended high-temperature active-nitrogen cleaning leads to severe surface roughening. Optimum results regarding both the removal of surface oxides as well as the surface structural and morphological quality have been achieved for a combination of initial low-temperature plasma-assisted cleaning, followed by a rapid nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning at high temperature.

  10. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction with minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent while minimizing the production of other pollutants. It comprises: determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent comprising an ammonium salt of an organic acid having a carbon to nitrogen ratio of greater than 1:1 into the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; and adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: dilution and introduction rate of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; composition of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; and relative presence of the components of the hydrocarbon treatment agent.

  11. Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations and WRFChem simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    , and economic growth in India and attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers [Garg et al., 2001Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations emission inventory for India for 2005 using an inverse technique and iterative procedure. We used OMI

  12. Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom- up emission inventory (with error and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using

  13. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  14. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  15. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the high nitrogen content (1-2%) of the agricultural wastes, burning of the LCV gas derived from them can result in NO?emissions in excess of 2000 ppm. NO?emissions during combustion of LCV gas derived from gasification of cotton gin trash have been... and the life. In second place, to Luci, Maria Luz, and Jose Manuel for att the love and happiness they have tpven to me, and for all their patience during the time that I was working on this research. Finally, I also dedicate this work to my mother, sisters...

  16. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the staged combustion of the LCV gas, hydrocarbons are oxidized during the Erst stage mto CO, COz, and HtO. A portion of thc CO and Hz gases contained in the LCV gas are converted to CO z and HzO, espctively, daring this Sist stage. The remaining CO and H z...

  17. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) Plan Requirements for high NOx emitters...

  18. No sub x control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  19. Effect of adding nitrogen on the yield of hydrogen cyanide in oxidative ammonolysis of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, G.I.; Trusov, N.V.; Dmitriev, N.M.

    1994-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of an empirical model of the process of oxidative ammonolysis of methane, a study was made of the effect of adding nitrogen to the initial methane-ammonia-air mixture. In the general case, the N{sub 2} introduction was shown to decrease the autothermal temperature of the synthesis, though at small flows of the initial mixture some increase in t{sub conv} is possible. An explanation of this phenomenon was proposed.

  20. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction and minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel while minimizing the production of other pollutants. The process consists of: a. determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; b. effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent into the effluent to treat the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; c. monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; d. adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: (i) dilution and introduction rate of the treatment agent; (ii) components of the treatment agent; and (iii) relative presence of treatment agent components, to effect an adjusted treatment regimen, wherein the adjusted treatment regimen reduces the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the altered effluent condition while minimizing the production of other pollutants.

  1. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction with minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent which is at a temperature below about 1450 {degrees}F while minimizing the production of other pollutants. The process comprising: determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent comprising a hydrocarbon into the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: dilution and introduction rate of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; composition of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; and relative presence of the components of the hydrocarbon treatment agent, to effect an adjusted treatment regimen. Wherein the adjusted treatment regimen operates under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the altered effluent conditions.

  2. KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    clarified the role of aqueous-phase production of strong acids in the atmosphere. Oxidation of dissolvedKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ) are the precursors of the strong acids (i.e., HzS04 and HN03) found in precipitation,! the detailed mechanisms

  3. Catalytic and stoichiometric bromination of aromatic compounds in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheprakov, A.V.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Rodkin, M.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1988-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The mono- and polybromination of benzene, halogenobenzenes, toluene, p-xylene, anisole, biphenyl, benzotrifluoride, benzoic acid, p-nitro- and p-carboxytoluene, p-methoxybenzonitrile, tetralin, and naphthalene were studied in trifluoroacetic acid and its aqueous solutions in systems containing stoichiometric amounts of bromine or alkali-metal bromide and stoichiometric or catalytic (in the presence of oxygen or air) amounts of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent (nitrogen(IV) oxide, alkali-metal nitrate or nitrite). It is suggested that the brominating agent under the investigated conditions is nitryl bromide NO/sub 2/Br. Under the conditions of catalytic bromination anthracene is oxidized to anthraquinone with a preparative yield.

  4. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Biao

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

  6. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  7. Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control CO and hydrocarbon emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion Effectiveness of a...

  8. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal utility boilers using medium- to high-sulfur US coal. The prototype SCR facility, built in and around the ductwork of Plant Crist Unit 5, consisted of three large SCR reactor units (Reactors A, B, and C), each with a design capacity of 5,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of flue gas, and six smaller reactors (Reactors D through J), each with a design capacity of 400 scfm of flue gas. The three large reactors contained commercially available SCR catalysts as offered by SCR catalyst suppliers. These reactors were coupled with small-scale air preheaters to evaluate (1) the long-term effects of SCR reaction chemistry on air preheater deposit formation and (2) the impact of these deposits on the performance of air preheaters. The small reactors were used to test additional varieties of commercially available catalysts. The demonstration project was organized into three phases: (1) Permitting, Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Preparation, and Preliminary Engineering; (2) Detail Design Engineering and Construction; and (3) Operation, Testing, Disposition, and Final Report Preparation. Section 2 discusses the planned and actual EMP monitoring for gaseous, aqueous, and solid streams over the course of the SCR demonstration project; Section 3 summarizes sampling and analytical methods and discusses exceptions from the methods specified in the EMP; Section 4 presents and discusses the gas stream monitoring results; Section 5 presents and discusses the aqueous stream monitoring results; Section 6 presents and discusses the solid stream monitoring results; Section 7 discusses EMP-related quality assurance/quality control activities performed during the demonstration project; Section 8 summarizes compliance monitoring reporting activities; and Section 9 presents conclusions based on the EMP monitoring results.

  9. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  10. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m˛g?ą), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?ą), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?ą at a current density of 1 A g?ą, and a capacitance of 261 F g?ą was retained at 50 A g?ą, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore »fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  11. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Bak, Seong-Min [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Myeong-Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Jaye, Cherno [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Fischer, Daniel A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lee, Chang-Wook [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roh, Kwang Chul [Korea Inst. of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Kim, Kwang-Bum [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m˛g?ą), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?ą), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?ą at a current density of 1 A g?ą, and a capacitance of 261 F g?ą was retained at 50 A g?ą, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  12. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 7, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations may apply to reciprocating...

  14. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    existing coal-?red plants to install LNBs and other cost-cost for an SCR system ?tted to a new coal-?red power plant.O&M costs at a standard new U.S. coal-?red power plant. “

  15. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    design parameters to a consistent basis, with all of the results adjusted to $2000 using the chemical engineering

  16. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL); Bandaru, Ramarao V. (Greer, SC)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  17. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  18. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  19. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  20. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  1. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  2. Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

  3. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  4. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  5. Novel regulatory cascades controlling expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    in these environments. Moreover, Geobacter species show promise for harvesting electricity from waste organic matterNovel regulatory cascades controlling expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in Geobacter Geobacter species often play an important role in bioremediation of environments contaminated with metals

  6. Diameter-Controlled and Nitrogen-Doped Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Theerapol Thurakitsereea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    controlled and vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized from pure and mixed ethanol/acetonitrile feedstock. With increasing acetonitrile concentration in the feedstock, nitrogen incorporation into the sp2], methane [8], acetylene [9], ethylene [10], or other organic chemical sources [11]. Acetonitrile (CH3CN

  7. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  8. Preparation of nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by oxidation of titanium nitride with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiaosong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} N-doped TiO{sub 2} are prepared by hydrothermally treating TiN with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. {yields} The content of N in TiO{sub 2} can be controlled by the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. {yields} The as-prepared N-TiO{sub 2} shows higher photocatalytic activity under visible light. -- Abstract: Nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by hydrothermally treating TiN with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The results confirmed that the hydrothermal oxidation is an effective method to prepare N-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase. The nitrogen concentration in TiO{sub 2} could be controlled by the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) was carried out under visible light and UV-visible light irradiation, respectively. The as-prepared optimal N-TiO{sub 2} showed higher photocatalytic activity than N-P25 and P25, and exhibited excellent reusability.

  9. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  10. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  11. The chemistry of nitrogen oxides on small size-selected cobalt clusters, Co{sub n}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Marie L.; Lacz, Agnieszka; Drewello, Thomas; Derrick, Peter J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Woodruff, D. Phil [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mackenzie, Stuart R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has been employed to study the reactions of gas-phase cationic cobalt clusters, Co{sub n}{sup +} (n=4-30), with nitric oxide, NO, and nitrous oxide, N{sub 2}O, under single collision conditions. Isolation of the initial cluster permits detailed investigation of fragmentation channels which characterize the reactions of all but the largest clusters studied. In reaction with N{sub 2}O, most clusters generate the monoxides Co{sub n}O{sup +} without fragmentation, cobalt atom loss accompanying only subsequent reactions. By contrast, chemisorption of even a single NO molecule is accompanied by fragmentation of the cluster. The measured rate coefficients for the Co{sub n}{sup +}+N{sub 2}O reaction as a function of cluster size are significantly smaller than those calculated using the surface charge capture model, while for NO the rates are comparable. The reactions have been studied under high coverage conditions by storing clusters for extended periods to permit multiple reactions to occur. This leads to interesting chemistry on the surface of the cluster resulting in the formation of stable oxide clusters and/or the decomposition of nitric oxide on the cluster with the resulting loss of molecular nitrogen.

  12. Control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Utica, MI); Chi, Chen H. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  13. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  14. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  15. On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

  16. Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Stanley Frank

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by fluidized bed gasification at temperatures below the 1090 K (1500 F) ash fusion temperatur es. Subsequent burning of the LCV gas r esulted in the same type of severe slagging, fouling, and cor r osion pr oblems as wer e encounter ed dur ing combustion... concentrations during fuel rich combustion, can also fix N2 to give CN and HCN (Fenimore, 1971), thus contributing to the amount of fixed nitrogen available for the fuel NOx path. NOx formed by this path, suggested by Fenimore (1971), is known as "prompt...

  17. Controllable Tuning Plasmonic Coupling with Nanoscale Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Sigle, Daniel; Zhang, Liwu; Mertens, Jan; de Nijs, Bart; Baumberg, Jeremy

    2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of the NPoM geometry. We note the suitability to extend this work to other families of reactive metals including Ag and Cu. METHODS Preparation of Au NPoM(Al) nanostructures. 50 nm Al films were thermally evaporated onto a clean silicon wafer with e... .; Aizpurua, J.; et al, Controlling Subnanometer Gaps in Plasmonic Dimers Using Graphene. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 5033-5038. (19) Hu, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Marquez, M.; Kik, P. G., Single Particle Spectroscopy Study of Metal- Film-Induced Tuning of Silver...

  18. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

  19. Measurement and Control of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Spins above 600 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Toyli; D. J. Christle; A. Alkauskas; B. B. Buckley; C. G. Van de Walle; D. D. Awschalom

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spin and orbital dynamics of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond between room temperature and 700 K. We find that the ability to optically address and coherently control single spins above room temperature is limited by nonradiative processes that quench the NV center's fluorescence-based spin readout between 550 and 700 K. Combined with electronic structure calculations, our measurements indicate that the energy difference between the 3E and 1A1 electronic states is approximately 0.8 eV. We also demonstrate that the inhomogeneous spin lifetime (T2*) is temperature independent up to at least 625 K, suggesting that single NV centers could be applied as nanoscale thermometers over a broad temperature range.

  20. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples

  1. Model-based Control Design of a Diesel Oxidation Olivier Lepreux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model-based Control Design of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Olivier Lepreux Yann Creff Nicolas.petit @ mines-paristech.fr) Abstract: This paper proposes a control strategy for a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for the propagation of the temperature variations accounts for spatially distributed heat generation (due to oxidation

  2. Electrochemically-Controlled Compositional Oscillations of Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutoro, Eva [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Crumlin, Ethan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Pöpke, Hendrik [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Luerssen, Bjoern [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Amati, Matteo [Sincrotrone Trieste Elettra; Abyaneh, Majid [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Gregoratti, Luca [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Janek, Jürgen [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Shao-Horn, Yang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically and/or ionically conducting, and thus they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface chemistries is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface chemistry changes of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC113), LaSrCoO4 (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 films (LSC113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr was found for the LSC113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites.

  3. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  4. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe Borhan M of Engineering Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (MIMO) Systems Are... fuel

  5. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  6. NO/sub x/ control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1988-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The method described herein provides a technique for removing nitrogen oxides from gas streams, discharged from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. Other objectives include: the removal of NO/sub x/ removal in which a reductant gas is used to further lower the concentration of NO/sub x/ in the effluent stream, and to provide a method wherein unconverted NO/sub x/ is removed from the discharge stream by a regenerable scrubber and recycled to the combustion device for conversion into elemental nitrogen and oxygen. 2 figs.

  7. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-34 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

  8. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

  9. Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozhukh, Julia

    Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

  10. Nanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    made from metal oxides -- work that could lead to a technique for precisely conNanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes Science their diameter and length. Based on metal oxides in combination with silicon and germanium, such single

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season Trading Program (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations may apply to fossil-fuel fired emission units, and describe nitrogen emission allocations that owners of such units must meet. The regulations also contain provisions for...

  12. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  13. Plant and microbial controls on nitrogen retention and loss in a Humid Tropical Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templer, P.; Silver, W.; Pett-Ridge, J.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Humid tropical forests are generally characterized by the lack of nitrogen (N) limitation to net primary productivity, yet paradoxically have high potential for N loss. We conducted an intensive field experiment with {sup 15}NH{sub 4} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3} additions to highly weathered tropical forest soils to determine the relative importance of N retention and loss mechanisms. Over half of all the NH{sub 4}{sup +} produced from gross mineralization was rapidly converted to NO{sub 3}{sup -} during the process of gross nitrification. During the first 24 h plant roots took up 28 % of the N mineralized, dominantly as NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and were a greater sink for N than soil microbial biomass. Soil microbes were not a significant sink for added {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} during the first 24 hr, and only for {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} after 7 d. Patterns of microbial community composition, as determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis, were weakly, but significantly correlated with nitrification and denitrification to N{sub 2}O. Rates of dissimilatory NO{sub 3}{sup -} reduction to NH{sub 4}{sup +} (DNRA) were high in this forest, accounting for up to 25 % of gross mineralization and 35 % of gross nitrification. DNRA was a major sink for NO{sub 3}{sup -} which may have contributed to the lower rates of N{sub 2}O and leaching losses. Despite considerable N conservation via DNRA and plant NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake, the fate of approximately 45% of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} produced and 22% of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} produced were not measured in our fluxes, suggesting that other important pathways for N retention and loss (e.g., denitrification to N{sub 2}) are important in this system. The high proportion of mineralized N that was rapidly nitrified and the fates of that NO{sub 3}{sup -} highlight the key role of gross nitrification as a proximate control on N retention and loss in humid tropical forest soils. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of the coupling between DNRA and plant uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} as a potential N conserving mechanism within tropical forests.

  14. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Nanocomposites for nitrogen oxide emissions control in lean-burn engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitukmanorom, Pemakorn, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) reducing agent than propane in the SCR of NO. Pt-Rh/CuO/A1?O? nanocomposites capable of adsorbing SO? in oxygen-rich environment as metal sulfates and releasing SO? in reducing atmosphere were synthesized with ...

  16. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Policy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology June 2009 ©2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology differentiated regulation for NOx emissions. Such a flexible NOx regulation policy, so-called "smart trading

  17. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered...

  18. Low contact resistivity of metals on nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siah, Sin Cheng

    Forming low-resistivity contacts on cuprous oxide (Cu[subscript 2]O) is an essential step toward demonstrating its suitability as a candidate solar cell material. We measure the contact resistivity of three noble metals ...

  19. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

  20. Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority in the fuel cell anode and (ii) the temperature of the catalytic partial oxidation reactor during transient

  1. ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based on the aluminum foils laminate approach were carried out. During our experiments, it was found that the pores

  2. Compositional Control of Surface Oxides on Metal Alloys using Photons: Dynamic Simulations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.; Sankaranarayanan, S; Ruzmetov, D; Engelhard, M; Kaxiras, E; Ramanathan, S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the ability to modify the structure and composition of ultrathin oxides grown on Ni and Ni-Al alloy surfaces at room temperature utilizing photon illumination. We find that the nickel-oxide formation is enhanced in the case of oxidation under photo-excitation. The enhanced oxidation kinetics of nickel in 5% Ni-Al alloy is corroborated by experimental and simulation studies of natural and photon-assisted oxide growth on pure Ni(100) surfaces. In case of pure Ni substrates, combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and atomic force microscope current mapping support the deterministic role of the structure of nickel passive-oxide films on their nanoscale corrosion resistance. Atomistic simulations involving dynamic charge transfer predict that the applied electric field overcomes the activation-energy barrier for ionic migration, leading to enhanced oxygen incorporation into the oxide, enabling us to tune the mixed-oxide composition at atomic length scales. Atomic scale control of ultrathin oxide structure and morphology in the case of pure substrates as well as compositional tuning of complex oxide in the case of alloys leads to excellent passivity as verified from potentiodynamic polarization experiments.

  3. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  4. Biogeochemical controls and isotopic signatures of nitrous oxide production by a marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Caitlin H.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O)[N subscript 2 O] is a trace gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion. The N2O [N subscript 2 O] yield from nitrification (moles N2O-N [N subscript 2 O - N] produced ...

  5. Method for control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Utica, MI); Chi, Chen H. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

  8. Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

  9. CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

  10. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  11. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  12. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  13. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  14. Tailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activity at the surface of implants, mainly by modifying their topography and physicochemical properties, such as its surface chemistry and energy, roughness, and topography [6]. It is generally accepted that roughTailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation Fabio Variola a,b , Ji

  15. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Proceedings: 2000 NOx Controls Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2000 EPRI workshop on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls for utility boilers provided a medium for member utilities to augment their knowledge of recent operating experience and developments on NOx control technologies. The event focused on improving methods of compliance with emission regulations mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 without jeopardizing efficiency and plant performance.

  17. Two-Stage Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Emission Control. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producing nitrogen. Citation: Hoard J, and RG Tonkyn.2003."Two-Stage Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Emission Control."Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies 6(2):158-165....

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  1. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  2. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use.

  3. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.

    1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use. 12 figs.

  4. Mechanistic models of oceanic nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Fanny

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oceanic nitrogen fixation and biogeochemical interactions between the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron cycles have important implications for the control of primary production and carbon storage in the ocean. The biological ...

  5. Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and...

  6. The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

  7. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites XRD and TEM showed MNPs to have a thin ferrite shell. Nanopowders were isochronally annealed and oxidation products in FeCo/ferrite nanocomposite materials and their influence on applications.4 We report

  8. Oxidation reactions on neutral cobalt oxide clusters: experimental and theoretical studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    oxidation,24­41 nitrogen monoxide reduction and oxidation,24,36a,42­44 and Fischer­Tropsch reactions.45

  9. Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films. Abstract: Nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the...

  10. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  11. Controllable nitrogen doping in as deposited TiO{sub 2} film and its effect on post deposition annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Shaoren; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Devulder, Wouter; Dendooven, Jolien; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Detavernier@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verbruggen, Sammy W. [Department of Bio-Engineering Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium and Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lenaerts, Silvia [Department of Bio-Engineering Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Martens, Johan A. [Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van den Berghe, Sven [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to narrow the band gap of TiO{sub 2}, nitrogen doping by combining thermal atomic layer deposition (TALD) of TiO{sub 2} and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of TiN has been implemented. By altering the ratio between TALD TiO{sub 2} and PEALD TiN, the as synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films showed different band gaps (from 1.91?eV to 3.14?eV). In situ x-ray diffraction characterization showed that the crystallization behavior of these films changed after nitrogen doping. After annealing in helium, nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} films crystallized into rutile phase while for the samples annealed in air a preferential growth of the anatase TiO{sub 2} along (001) orientation was observed. Photocatalytic tests of the degradation of stearic acid were done to evaluate the effect of N doping on the photocatalytic activity.

  12. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  13. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust...

  16. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Wubo [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Zongbin, E-mail: zbzhao@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Han [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gogotsi, Yury [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded.

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} using TiO{sub 2}/activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.; Chen, D.H.; Li, K.Y. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes experimental results for a method of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission control. NO{sub x} was oxidized photocatalytically to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) using different titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalysts. The addition of ferric oxide improved the performance of the TiO{sub 2}. Of four adsorbents tested, activated carbon performed best in suppressing NO{sub 2} concentration. Optimum catalyst compositions were determined. Initial results indicated that photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} offers several advantages over other emission control methods.

  18. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinxin [Chinese Academy of Forestry; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A longstanding puzzle in isotopic studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotopic ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotopic ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found that higher nitrogen concentrations in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous concentrations had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotopic ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic heterotrophic difference in carbon isotopic compositions.

  19. Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Eliza

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

  20. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1 Eric M. Fleming Ian A. Hiskens Department-- The paper presents a model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack operating at relatively low pressures. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cells, microgrid dynamics, inverter control. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed

  1. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungsu [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyungtak, E-mail: hseo@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 555 Analysis and Control of Transient Torque Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NO ) in internal combustion engines and thus reduce one of the main and Control of Transient Torque Response in Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation Anna G--Dynamic response, emissions, internal combus- tion engines, poles and zeros, pollution control, modeling, torque

  3. Process control plays quiet but huge role in CAA compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the impact of process optimization on compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The topics of the article include the impact of additional control loops on plant complexity and performance, interaction of pollution control equipment, monitoring the combustion process for nitrogen oxide control, boiler performance, deducing carbon monoxide levels based on oxygen analyzer output signal, multivariable control strategy, and increasing plant heat rate as a bonus of emissions control.

  4. Implementing a Time-and Location-Differentiated Cap-and-Trade Program: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin B.A., Physics Reed College Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin Submitted, this work examines compliance data from coal power plants in 2002 and 2005 to estimate the effectiveness

  5. NO-assisted molecular-beam epitaxial growth of nitrogen substituted EuO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altendorf, S. G.; Caspers, C.; Kierspel, H.; Sutarto, R. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Tjeng, L. H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Damascelli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated a method for substituting oxygen with nitrogen in EuO thin films, which is based on molecular beam epitaxy distillation with NO gas as the oxidizer. By varying the NO gas pressure, we produce crystalline, epitaxial EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} films with good control over the films' nitrogen concentration. In situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that nitrogen substitution is connected to the formation Eu{sup 3+}4f{sup 6} and a corresponding decrease in the number of Eu{sup 2+}4f{sup 7}, indicating that nitrogen is being incorporated in its 3{sup -} oxidation state. While small amounts of Eu{sup 3+} in over-oxidized Eu{sub 1-{delta}}O thin films lead to a drastic suppression of the ferromagnetism, the formation of Eu{sup 3+} in EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} still allows the ferromagnetic phase to exist with an unaffected T{sub c}, thus providing an ideal model system to study the interplay between the magnetic f{sup 7} (J = 7/2) and the non-magnetic f{sup 6} (J = 0) states close to the Fermi level.

  6. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  7. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL); Mensah-Biney, R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases.

  8. Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-Poly(hexyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    #12;Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide: amphiphiles; block copolymers; morphology; nanocomposites; structure-directing agent Introduction The study of amphiphilic block copolymer-derived, organic- inorganic hybrid materials is an emerging research field

  9. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

  10. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, Carlee [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  11. Interface Engineering for Oxide Electronics: Tuning electronic properties by atomically controlled growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    ....................................................... 8 2.3.2 Metal-insulator phenomena in 3d transition-metal oxides ........................ 9 2 image of the pulsed laser deposition process with reflection high-energy electron diffraction monitoring-365-2351-6 Printed by Wöhrmann Print Service, The Netherlands © M. Huijben, 2006 #12;INTERFACE ENGINEERING FOR OXIDE

  12. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  15. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  16. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  17. Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivakumar, Vikram

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  19. aerobic nitrogen fixation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests may be among the highest on earth. However, data supporting this contention are rare Cleveland, Cory 70 Nitrogen Controls on Climate Model Evapotranspiration University...

  20. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  1. New chemistry with gold-nitrogen complexes: synthesis and characterization of tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes. Oxidative-addition to the dinuclear gold(I) amidinate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Hanan Elsayed

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen ligands have been little studied with gold(I) and almost no chemistry has been described using anionic bridging nitrogen ligands. This dissertation concerns the impact of the bridging ligands amidinate, ArNHC(H)NAr, on the chemistry of gold...

  2. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  3. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  5. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  6. Advanced Experimental Analysis of Controls on Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction - Final Report - 09/16/1996 - 03/16/2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2001-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering the broad influence that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction can have on subsurface metal/organic contaminant biogeochemistry, understanding the mechanisms that control this process is critical for predicting the behavior and fate of these contaminants in anaerobic subsurface environments. Knowledge of the factors that influence the rates of growth and activity of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria is critical for predicting (i.e., modeling) the long-term influence of these organisms on the fate of contaminants in the subsurface, and for effectively utilizing Fe(III) oxide reduction and associated geochemical affects for the purpose of subsurface metal/organic contamination bioremediation. This research project will refine existing models for microbiological and geochemical controls on Fe(III) oxide reduction, using laboratory reactor systems that mimic, to varying degrees, the physical and chemical conditions of the subsurface. Novel experimental methods for studying the kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and measuring growth rates of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria will be developed. These new methodologies will be directly applicable to studies on subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction.

  7. Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

  8. Coal-fired power generation: Proven technologies and pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [University of Mah, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the reduction of emissions from coal-fired power generating plants. New technologies include better understanding of the fundamentals of the formation and destruction of criteria pollutants in combustion processes (low nitrogen oxides burners) and improved methods for separating criteria pollutants from stack gases (FGD technology), as well as efficiency improvements in power plants (clean coal technologies). Future demand for more environmentally benign electric power, however, will lead to even more stringent controls of pollutants (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

  9. Controlling emissions from a black liquor fluidized bed evaporator (Copeland reactor) using a regenerative thermal oxidizer and a prefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzanka, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on an intriguing pilot project developed to control air emissions from a pulp mill. Testing is complete, and the results show favorable emissions reductions. Stone Container Corporation, REECO, NCASI, the Ohio DEP, and the US EPA, have all worked together and approved the installation of control equipment, for VOC and HAP emissions under Presumptive MACT, setting the standard for the Copeland Reactor process in a semi chem pulp mill. The equipment, once operational, will reduce VOC and CO emissions by greater than 90%. This installation will be done at one seventh the cost of the significant process modifications required to accomplish the same emission reduction. In addition, increased process operating efficiency will be achieved with the use of an energy recovery system. The process is a black liquor fluidized bed boiler, which is used to generate sodium carbonate from the black liquor. The vapor emissions were high in VOCs, CO and particulate. After much study and testing, a wet electrostatic precipitator was chosen as the filter system for particulate control, followed by a regenerative thermal oxidizer for VOC and HAP control, finally an air-to-air heat exchanger is being used to preheat the combustion air entering the process.

  10. Nitrogen limiation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toccalino, P.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Boone, D.R. (Oregon Graduate Institute of Science Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaking underground storage tanks are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation studies have been conducted in both ground water and topsoil regions, but few studies have been done on the unsaturated zone between these two. This study examines the effects of Nitrogen on propane and butane biodegradiations in an unsaturated sandy soil. Results indicate that nitrogen additions initially stimulated both propane and butane oxidizing organisms in the soil, but that propane-amended soil became N limited whereas butane-amended soil eventually overcame its N limitations by fixing Nitrogen and that nitrogen fixing organisms grew in butane amended but not in propane amended soil. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    control of an aftertreatment system for a conventional spark ignition engine equipped with one or two conversion efficiencies of oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbons. Linear exhaust gas oxygen sensors that is based on the more common switching-type air-fuel ratio sensors. I. Introduction Conventional automotive

  12. Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Jaebum

    Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of ...

  13. Diffusion of nitrogen implanted in titanium nitride (TiN1-x) F. Abautret and P. Eveno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1113 Diffusion of nitrogen implanted in titanium nitride (TiN1- x) F. Abautret and P. Eveno The diffusion of nitrogen 15, implanted in non-stoichiometric titanium nitride single-crystals (03B4 - TiN1-x on i usion m m ri es compared with the oxides. No data are available about nitrogen (or titanium

  14. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Alex; Banta, Larry; Tucker, D.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key issues encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the facility consisting of a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in Transfer Function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H-Infinity robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence.

  15. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Alex [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Banta, Larry [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Tucker, David [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Gemmen, Randall [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  16. Porous acicular mullite obtained by controlled oxidation of waste molybdenum disilicide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu?evac, Dušan, E-mail: bucevac@vinca.rs [Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia); Dap?evi?, Aleksandra [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Maksimovi?, Vesna [Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Waste MoSi{sub 2} heating elements were used as starting material for fabrication of porous acicular mullite. • Calcined MoSi{sub 2} powder was source of SiO{sub 2} and pore former at the same time. • Porous acicular mullite is promising material for filtration of diesel engine exhaust. • Samples with decent mechanical integrity and porosity of more than 60% were fabricated. - Abstract: Porous acicular mullite was fabricated by using waste MoSi{sub 2} heating element and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Careful calcination of the pulverized heating element led to the formation of a mixture of MoO{sub 3} and amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This mixture was employed as both SiO{sub 2} precursor and pore former. The oxidation of MoSi{sub 2} and mullite formation were studied. The effect of fabrication temperature on phase composition, porosity, grain morphology, and compressive strength of sintered mullite was examined. Pure mullite with porosity of more than 60% and compressive strength of ?20 MPa was obtained at temperature as low as 1300 °C. The microstructure consisted of elongated, rectangular, prism-like grains which are known to be effective in filtration of diesel engine exhaust. The increase in sintering temperature caused the change of grain morphology and reduction in compressive strength.

  17. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  19. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    however, in combustion processes using crude oil, coal andcombustion processes increases with nitrogen content of the fuel, TABLE 1 Typical Nitrogen Content of Fuels Reference Fuel Crude Oil

  20. On the temperature dependence of organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides, ozone production, and the impact of emission controls in San Joaquin Valley, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pusede, S. E.

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the US, frequently exceeding the California 8 h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations ...

  1. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a Ď?-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term â??ring-walkingâ?ť, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

  2. The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Caitlin H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

  3. Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

  4. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  5. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  6. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  7. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 NITROGEN #2NITROGEN #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    fluidised bed combustionbed combustion ·· Nitrogen control (NHNitrogen control (NH33, HCN, ....) for, HCN ·· NOxNOx and Nand N22O chemistry in atmosphericO chemistry in atmospheric fluidisedfluidised bed onEffect of temperature and air factor on NO and NNO and N22O in circulating FBCO in circulating FBC

  8. Prediction of concentrations of reactive nitrogen species in aqueous solutions and cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, ChangHoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in cancer and other diseases, but their intracellular concentrations are largely unknown. To estimate them under steady-state conditions ...

  9. A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced as it passes back through the flame.

  10. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCluskey, M.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tarun, M.C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Iqbal, M. Zafar [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations [Lyons, Janotti, and Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 (2009)] indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. The deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence band relative to the vacuum level.

  11. and-or nitrogen fixative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests may be among the highest on earth. However, data supporting this contention are rare Cleveland, Cory 68 Nitrogen Controls on Climate Model Evapotranspiration University...

  12. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  13. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  14. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  15. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  17. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  18. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  19. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  20. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  1. Acid strength of support materials as a factor controlling oxidation state of palladium catalyst for propane combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazawa, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Hisao; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Komai, Shinichi; Satsuma, Atsushi; Hattori, Tadashi

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The support effect on the low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over palladium catalyst was studied by using a series of metal oxides as support materials: MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-ZrO{sub 2}. The catalytic activity varied with the kind of support materials; a support material with moderate acid strength gave maximum conversion. In order to discuss more details, 5 wt% Pd/ZrO{sub 2}, Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pd/SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were subjected to catalytic testing under the various conditions, and the catalysts after the test were characterized by XRD and XPS. The activity changed with the oxygen concentration, and the concentration providing the maximum activity depended on the support material. The maximum activity was obtained at high concentration on Pd/SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, at moderate concentration on Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and at low concentration on Pd/ZrO{sub 2}. This sequence corresponded to that of acid strength of the support materials measured by Hammett indicators. The relation between the oxidation state of palladium and its catalytic activity under the various mixtures indicated that the catalytic activity on each catalyst depends on the oxidation state of palladium, and that partially oxidized palladium is effective for propane combustion. Moreover, palladium on acidic support kept the metallic state even under high oxygen concentration, indicating that acidic support gives palladium the resistibility against oxidation. These results suggest one guideline for the design of active palladium catalyst; an acidic support must be chosen under the mixture of the higher oxygen concentration and vice versa.

  2. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  3. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  4. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

  5. Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mincy, J. E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Even before the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, regulatory authorities monitored and regulated a number of pollutants: lead, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, ozone and PM-10. The Clean Air Act Amendments increased the focus...

  6. Pilot study of the moving-bed copper oxide process for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, J.S.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Resnik, K.P. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is a dry, regenerable sorbent technique that uses supported copper oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas generated by coal combustion. This process can meet the goals of a Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to develop flue gas control technologies to remove 99% and 95% of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, respectively, at a low cost for emission control. The process can be integrated into the design of advanced power systems, such as the Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) or the High-Performance Power System (HIPPS). This flue gas cleanup technique is currently being evaluated in a life-cycle tea system (LCTS) with a moving-bed flue gas contractor at DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center. An experimental data base being established will be used to verify reported technical and economic advantages, optimize process conditions, provide scaleup information, and validate absorber and regenerator mathematical models. The chemistry of the process is relatively straightforward. In the absorption step, SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with copper oxide, supported on small spheres of alumina, to form copper sulfate. Ammonia is injected into the flue gas before the absorption reactor and a selective catalytic reduction-type reaction occurs that reduces the nitric oxides in the flue gas. In the regeneration step, the copper sulfate is reduced in a regenerator with a reducing agent, such as natural gas, producing a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2}. Another advantage of the process is that the lower pressure drop across the moving-bed configuration as compared to other designs reduces power consumption and thus influences the overall economic costs. LCTS results are discussed from several proms parametric test series (MBCuO-11 through MBCuO-14). The effects of various absorber and regenerator parameters on sorbent performance (e.g., SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal) were investigated.

  7. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  8. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  9. Reprogramming of tRNA modifications controls the oxidative stress response by codon-biased translation of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Clement T. Y.

    Selective translation of survival proteins is an important facet of the cellular stress response. We recently demonstrated that this translational control involves a stress-specific reprogramming of modified ribonucleosides ...

  10. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  11. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

  13. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

  14. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

  15. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the project are to: (1) demonstrate the performance of three combustion NO{sub x} control technologies; (2) determine the short-term NO{sub x} emission trends for each of the operating configurations; (3) determine the dynamic long-term NO{sub x} emission characteristics for each of the operating configurations using sophisticated statistical techniques; (4) evaluate progressive cost-effectiveness (i.e., dollars per ton of NO{sub x} removed) of the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies tested; and (5) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carry-over, particulate characteristics) of applying the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies. (VC)

  16. Response Surfaces for Key Controlled Variables in a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, William G.; Banta, Larry; Gorrell, Megan; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid generation systems have been extensively modeled as a first step toward the development of automatic controls for the system. In most cases, it is impossible to validate mathematical models against real hardware because only a handful of hardware systems exist in the world. Data taken from the existing hardware has demonstrated significant nonlinearity, complex coupling between controlled variables, and sometimes non-intuitive behavior. This work exploits the capability of the HyPer hardware test bed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to generate data from a real recuperated gas turbine coupled with hardware simulations of a fuel cell cathode and appropriate ancillary equipment. Prior work has characterized the system only over a limited range of its operating envelope, due to the inability to manipulate multiple control inputs simultaneously. The work presented here fills the gaps using data from a 34 factorial experiment to generate quasi-continuous response surfaces describing the operating state space of the HyPer system. Polynomial correlation functions have been fitted to the data with excellent agreement. Relationships between the control inputs and critical state variables such as cathode mass flow, cathode temperature, turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures and other key system parameters are presented.

  17. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

  18. Nitric oxide control of steroidogenesis: Endocrine effects of N sup G -nitro-L-arginine and comparisons to alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, M.L.; Nock, B.; Truong, R.; Cicero, T.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may regulate hormone biosynthesis and secretion. This was tested by treating male rats with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and measuring serum and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone and serum corticosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The effect of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (NA), a less-soluble form of the same NO synthase inhibitor, on the reproductive suppressant actions of alcohol was also examined. NAME increased testosterone and corticosterone secretion dose-dependently without affecting LH and PRL secretion. The alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone or LH secretion was not altered by treatment with NA. Although effects of NAME and NA on other systems may be involved, these results indicate that testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis are negatively regulated by endogenous NO and that NO does not regulate LH and PRL secretion or inhibit the testicular steroidogenic pathway in the same way as alcohol.

  19. Hydrogen adsorption and anomalous electronic properties of nitrogen-doped graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: fujimoto@stat.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Saito, Susumu [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); International Research Center for Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate hydrogen adsorption effects on stabilities and electronic properties of nitrogen defects in graphene using first-principles electronic-structure calculations within the density-functional theory. We find that the adsorption of hydrogen atoms on the pyridine-type nitrogen defects in graphene becomes energetically favorable, whereas in the case of the substitutional nitrogen defect the hydrogen adsorption becomes unfavorable. We also find that a transition from p-type to n-type doping properties occurs by hydrogen adsorption on the pyridine-type defects, suggesting that even the carrier type is controllable in nitrogen-doped graphene.

  20. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly progress report, 1992: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO{sub x} emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  1. Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

    2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

  2. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41- Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These...

  3. Oxidation Characteristics of Fe-18Cr-18Mn-stainless alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Rawers

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air oxidation studies of Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steels were conducted at 525°C, 625°C, and 725°C. Alloys were evaluated with respect to changes in oxidation properties as a result of interstitial additions of nitrogen and carbon and of minor solute additions of silicon, molybdenum, and nickel. Interstitial concentrations possibly had a small, positive effect on oxidation resistance. Minor solute additions significantly improved oxidation resistance but could also reduce interstitial solubility resulting in formation of chromium carbides. Loss of solute chromium resulted in a slight reduction in oxidation protection. Oxidation lasting over 500 hours produced a manganese rich, duplex oxide structure: an outer sesquioxide and an inner spinel oxide.

  4. NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Thomas H.

    NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS by Haifeng Zhang DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS Haifeng Zhang Department of Chemical Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Economical NOx control techniques used in pulverized coal furnaces, such as air/fuel staging, promote

  5. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  6. Oxygen minimization effects on nitrogen dioxide generation during oxyacetylene metal cutting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clendenen, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxides lies in the characteristic remission of initial symptoms, such as cough and chest discomfort, for up to several hours prior to onset of acute, potentially lethal pulmonary edema. The generation rate of nitrogen oxides is dependent on many... tract w1th acute severity ranging from a revers1ble irritant coughing to potentially lethal pulmonary edema. ( The danger involved here lies 1n the sudden onset of pulmonary edema occurring an unpredictable length of time after exposure. Very little...

  7. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  8. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of how catalyst composition, redox ability, and structure control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Oxide systems that permit examination of the role of metal oxide cations separately and in pairwise combinations are being developed. Organometallic complexes containing C{sub 3}-allyl, cyclopentadienyl, or carbonyl ligands are exchanged with the hydroxide ligands of silica, alumina, titania, zirconia and magnesia supports. The exchange technique is used to achieve high metal oxide loadings without the formation of supported crystallites over silica. The organometallic route may also lead to oxygen-bridged cations and/or cation pairs over the supports prior to full oxidation. The anchored complex is subsequently oxidized to generate a supported oxide. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharol, S. K.

    We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

  10. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    the effects of turbulence on the catalytic process in CST, which is relevant for large gas-turbines. Approach: Gas turbine with catalytic combustor. Fig 2: Measured and predicted (using the 2-D steady elliptic for gas-turbine catalytic burners) without heterogeneous reactions and with a fixed wall temperature have

  11. EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrevik, R.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    57) TO EXTRACTION WATER (6276) _________________________ ~~~focus this study on the extraction using water only, with noe followed by water leaching, then extraction for 11 hOl.lr

  12. Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Hsiao, Mark (San Jose, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernie M. (San Ramon, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Ray (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

  13. EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrevik, R.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an air compressor and gas scrubber are not needed. However,estimation. Compressor for Scrubber -- The compressor usedNO x Reaction Silo Off-Gas Scrubber Compressor 15,000 gal. ,

  14. Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like indium oxide: Controllable synthesis and application as H{sub 2}S cataluminescence sensing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Pingyang, E-mail: cpyxx@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Bai, Wei, E-mail: weibaiscu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Zhang, Lichun, E-mail: lichun0203@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Song, Hongjie, E-mail: aurora811005@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Yingying, E-mail: suyinging@scu.edu.cn [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Lv, Yi, E-mail: lvy@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controllable fabricated through a novel and simple hydrothermal process, and the former showed superior cataluminescence sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. Highlights: ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere were prepared via a hydrothermal route. ? The growth process of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere has been investigated. ? The sensor based on prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows good sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: In the present work, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like microstructure were achieved controllably by a hydrothermal process in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) system. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements were used to characterize the as-prepared indium oxide materials and the possible mechanism for the microstructures formation was briefly discussed. The cataluminescence gas sensor based on the as-prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was utilized to detect H{sub 2}S concentrations in flowing air. Comparative gas sensing results revealed that the sensor based on hierarchical hollow microsphere exhibited much higher sensing sensitivity in detecting H{sub 2}S gas than the sensor based on flower-like microstructure. The present gas sensor had a fast response time of 5 s and a recovery time of less than 25 s, furthermore, the cataluminescence intensity vs. H{sub 2}S concentration was linear in range of 2–20 ?g mL{sup ?1} with a detection limit of 0.5 ?g mL{sup ?1}. The present highly sensitive, fast-responding, and low-cost In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gas sensor for H{sub 2}S would have many practical applications.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...

  16. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H. [Hitachi Power Systems America, Basting Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  17. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  18. Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College, originating largely from septic systems and fertilizers, have caused significant eutrophication in freshwater nitrogen and phosphorus grew the highest concentration of phytoplankton, but eutrophic ponds grew a mean

  19. Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen was only 25Y0 of that produced by the nitric nitrogen. Nitrites added to%pots of sterilized soils kept under the same conditions as those in which the plants were grov(rn were partly changed to nitrates and partly disappeared. Corn took up... nitrogen upon growth of corn -._-----....... ..-..-------- 17 Relation of degree of acidity of the solution on the growth of corn, cotton and oats with nitrate and nitrite nitrogen .____ _-_-._._._---- 19 Availability of nitrites as measured by growth...

  20. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was kept in open plastic containers and maintained nearconditions in open plastic containers Biological Nitrogen

  1. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  2. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  3. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    of nitrogen and how it is added to and removed from the soil. Commercial fertilizers used by agricultural produc- ers are a significant source of nitrogen addition to soils. Nitrogen is continuously recycled through plant and animal waste residues and soil... to ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen...

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 3, Appendices O--T. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 3 contains the following appendices: Appendix O, Second Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix P, Third Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix Q, ABB Analysis of Air Preheaters-Final Report; Appendix R, ABB Corrosion Analysis Study; Appendix S, SRI Waste Stream Impacts Study; and Appendix T, Economic Evaluation.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  9. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200{degrees}C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air.

  10. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  11. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  12. Evaluating the origins and transformations of organic matter and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in two contrasting North Sea estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahad, Jason Michael Elias

    In order to delineate the potential sources and to understand the main controls on the biogeochemical cycling of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM, POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) during estuarine ...

  13. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Xiqing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a novel electrode material?nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC)?for vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MC in NH3. NMC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of VO2+/VO2+ is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is significantly enhanced on NMC electrode compared with MC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is greatly improved on NMC (0.61 for NMC vs. 0.34 for graphite). Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. NMC is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  14. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronicCurves |double-beta decay experiments | SciTech ConnectNitrogen

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassham, James A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

  16. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shixiong [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Yang, Xiangjun, E-mail: 573134536@qq.com [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Guo, Hong, E-mail: guohongcom@126.com [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655000, Yunnan (China)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti{sup 3+} doping, the reduced TiO{sub 2} sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core–shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk–shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications. - Graphical abstract: A facile generic strategy is employed to prepare Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. - Highlights: • Yolk–shell TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. • Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide is obtained at low temperature. • It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity.

  17. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  18. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in...

  19. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  20. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  1. Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

  2. Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochem, Frank J.

    Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most important are diatoms, which may form phytoplankton blooms under conditions of sufficient silicate

  3. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

  4. Using Petiole Analysis for Nitrogen Management in Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen; Hickey, M. G.; Stichler, Charles

    1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For cotton growers, maintaining proper nitrogen balance is a major concern. Petiole analysis, the laboratory analysis of the nitrogen content of leaf stems, can be coupled with plant monitoring to form an effective nitrogen management program...

  5. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: ndhoa@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Duy, Nguyen Van [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam)] [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen Van, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Mesoporous WO{sub 3} nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ? Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ? The WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited a high performance to NO{sub 2} gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO{sub 2}. In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO{sub 2} concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  6. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  7. Tuning the work function of graphene by nitrogen plasma treatment with different radio-frequency powers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Jian-Jhou; Lin, Yow-Jon, E-mail: rzr2390@yahoo.com.tw [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method was treated with nitrogen plasma under different radio-frequency (rf) power conditions in order to experimentally study the change in the work function. Control of the rf power could change the work function of graphene from 4.91?eV to 4.37?eV. It is shown that the increased rf power may lead to the increased number of graphitic nitrogen, increasing the electron concentration, and shifting the Fermi level to higher energy. The ability to controllably tune the work function of graphene is essential for optimizing the efficiency of optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  8. alters organic nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 16 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  9. acquire organic nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Universidad 12 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  10. aox total nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998-07-08 46 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  11. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by...

  12. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues Brooke E.and nitrogen apparent enrichment (e*) values ± one standardexplored the apparent enrichment (e*) between bone collagen

  13. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ju Won; Sharma, Ronish; Meduri, Praveen; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Lemmon, John P.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; McGrail, B. Peter; Nune, Satish K.

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical performance of the existing state-of-the art capacitors is not very high, key scientific barrier is that its charge storage mechanism wholly depends on adsorption of electrolyte on electrode. We present a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen -doped porous carbons and address the drawback by precisely controlling composition and surface area. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon was synthesized using a self-sacrificial template technique without any additional nitrogen and carbon sources. They exhibited exceptionally high capacitance (239 Fg-1) due to additional pseudocapacitance originating from doped nitrogen. Cycling tests showed no obvious capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, which meets the requirement of commercial supercapacitors. Our method is simple and highly efficient for the production of large quantities of nitrogen-doped porous carbons.

  14. Anesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide alters protein and amino acid metabolism in dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horber, F.F.; Krayer, S.; Rehder, K.; Haymond, M.W.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General anesthesia in combination with surgery is known to result in negative nitrogen balance. To determine whether general anesthesia without concomitant surgery decreases whole body protein synthesis and/or increases whole body protein breakdown, two groups of dogs were studied: Group 1 (n = 6) in the conscious state and Group 2 (n = 8) during general anesthesia employing halothane (1.5 MAC) in 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. Changes in protein metabolism were estimated by isotope dilution techniques employing simultaneous infusions of (4,53H)leucine and alpha-(1-14C)-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Total leucine carbon flux was unchanged or slightly increased in the anesthetized animals when compared to the conscious controls, indicating only a slight increase in the rate of proteolysis. However, leucine oxidation was increased (P less than 0.001) by more than 80% in the anesthetized animals when compared with their conscious controls, whereas whole body nonoxidative leucine disappearance, an indicator of whole body protein synthesis, was decreased. The ratio of leucine oxidation to the nonoxidative rate of leucine disappearance, which provides an index of the catabolism of at least one essential amino acid in the postabsorptive state, was more than twofold increased (P less than 0.001) in the anesthetized animals regardless of the tracer employed. These studies suggest that the administration of anesthesia alone, without concomitant surgery, is associated with a decreased rate of whole body protein synthesis and increased leucine oxidation, resulting in increased leucine and protein catabolism, which may be underlying or initiating some of the protein wasting known to occur in patients undergoing surgery.

  15. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  16. Nitrogen containing shielding gases for GTAW duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creffield, G.K.; Cole, M.H.; Paciej, R.; Huang, W.; Urmston, S. [BOC Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The duplex stainless steel are alloys characterized as consisting of two phases; austenite and ferrite. As such, they combine the benefits of both phases i.e. good ductility and general corrosion resistance of austenite, but with improved stress corrosion cracking resistance and strength associate with ferrite. Carefully controlled manufacturing techniques are employed to produce this combination in roughly equal proportions to ensure optimum properties. The range of duplex alloys studied in this work covered both the standard grade (2205) and the latest generation of super duplex (2507) alloys; typical compositions are shown in Table 1. Although the standard duplex is the most commonly available and widely used, super duplexes, which are characterized by higher chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen contents, have even better corrosion properties and are finding increasing applications in the offshore industry. To benefit from the superior properties of duplex, it is vital that these alloys can be welded effectively and that the properties of the welded joint match those of the parent weld. The objective of the current investigation was to study the effect of nitrogen, in both the shielding and purge gas, on the weld metal nitrogen content, microstructure and corrosion resistance, with the eventual aim of recommending an effective shielding gas mixture for duplex stainless steels.

  17. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  18. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  19. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  20. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  1. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  2. Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KD gm ....................................... Serond crop KD gm Average all crops KD gm ....................... : .... 5. ..... Nitrogen per million-average all mops ...................... .MI-. 060 Nitrogen . Number of soils... ........................................... ............................................ First crop KD .......................................... Second crop KD Average all crops KD ...................................... Nitrogen per million-average aU mops ....................... .061-. 080 Nitrogen . Number of soils...

  3. Analyzing the status of oxide surface photochemical reactivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photochemical reactivity Released: July 28, 2013 Invited review shows power of scanning tunneling microscopy to understand and control the surface photochemistry of oxide...

  4. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines...

  5. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  6. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  7. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  8. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TREE LEGUME BIOMASS ON CARBON AND NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TREE LEGUME BIOMASS ON CARBON AND NITROGEN IN PARTICLE-to-N ratio of the added plant material seems to control the eects of soil amendment with tree legume biomass to the total quantity of C and N pre- sent. Physical fractionation of SOM can help to identify more active

  9. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Auciello, Orlando H. (Bolingbrook, IL); Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL)

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  10. Nitrogen sparing by 2-ketoisocaproate in parenterally fed rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagi, M.; Matthews, D.E.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In rats receiving total parenteral nutrition with or without sodium 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC; 2.48 g.kg-1.day-1), L-(1-{sup 13}C)leucine and (1-{sup 14}C)KIC were constantly infused for 6 h. CO{sub 2} production, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment, urinary urea nitrogen (N) plus ammonia N and total urinary N were measured. Whole body protein synthesis (S) was calculated in non-KIC-infused rats and also in unfed rats infused with (1-{sup 14}C)leucine from fractional oxidation of labeled leucine (1-F), where F is fractional utilization for protein synthesis, and urea N plus ammonia N excretion (C) as S = C x F/(1-F). Addition of KIC caused a significant reduction in N excretion and a significant improvement in N balance. Fractional oxidation of labeled KIC increased, whereas fractional utilization of labeled KIC for protein synthesis decreased, but the extent of incorporation of infused KIC into newly synthesized protein (as leucine) amounted to at least 40% of the total rate of leucine incorporation into newly synthesized whole body protein. We conclude that addition of KIC spares N in parenterally fed rats and becomes a major source of leucine for protein synthesis.

  11. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the completion of the proposed work, we will have: 1) identified novel alleles in wild sorghum germplasm that is useful to improve both cultivated grain and sweet sorghum; 2) been able to select individuals plants that exhibit high NUE within a breeding population on the basis of these markers; 3) acquired essential information necessary to examine the roles of GS and GOGAT, AlaT, along with impact of transcription factor Dof1, on N assimilation in sweet sorghum; and 4) The information learned will provide new opportunities for improving NUE in sorghum and other cereals.

  12. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate an excellent performance of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (N-MPC) for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MPC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MPC in NH{sub 3}. N-MPC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is significantly enhanced on N-MPC electrode compared with MPC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is greatly improved on N-MPC (0.61 for N-MPC vs. 0.34 for graphite), which is expected to increase the energystorage efficiency of redoxflowbatteries. Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. N-MPC is a promising material for redoxflowbatteries. This also opens up new and wider applications of nitrogen-doped carbon.

  13. Proton-coupled electron transfer at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex controls the rate of ubihydroquinone oxidation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crofts, Antony R.

    1 Proton-coupled electron transfer at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex controls the rate transfer; proton transfer; bc1 complex; Qo-site; Marcus theory; ES-complex Abbreviations: bc1 complex of the transmembrane proton gradient is positive or negative, respectively; PDB#, Protein Data Bank identifier; Q

  14. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  15. Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

  16. Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

  17. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M. [IV. Physikalisches Institut der Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsäss, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut der Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Thakur, S.; Maiti, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials' Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25?eV and a fluence of approximately 5?×?10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6?×?6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  18. A superconducting cavity bus for single Nitrogen Vacancy defect centres in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Twamley; S. D. Barrett

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Circuit-QED has demonstrated very strong coupling between individual microwave photons trapped in a superconducting coplanar resonator and nearby superconducting qubits. In this work we show how, by designing a novel interconnect, one can strongly connect the superconducting resonator, via a magnetic interaction, to a small number (perhaps single), of electronic spins. By choosing the electronic spin to be within a Nitrogen Vacancy centre in diamond one can perform optical readout, polarization and control of this electron spin using microwave and radio frequency irradiation. More importantly, by utilising Nitrogen Vacancy centres with nearby 13C nuclei, using this interconnect, one has the potential build a quantum device where the nuclear spin qubits are connected over centimeter distances via the Nitrogen Vacancy electronic spins interacting through the superconducting bus.

  19. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

  20. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, S.M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees. Photosynthesisloci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. Journal ofNitrogen Assimilation and Recycling Stéphanie M. Bernard 1

  1. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  2. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  3. Optical control of individual nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loncar, Marko

    generation, leading iii #12;Abstract iv to quantum channels, between remote NV centers. Finally we demonstrate optical cooling, real-time measurement and conditional preparation of the nuclear spin environment centers . . 7 1.2.4 All-optical measurement and cooling of the nuclear spin envi- ronment of an NV center

  4. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  5. Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

    2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    together by one of nature?s strongest chemical bonds. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond. Some natural processes that can break dinitrogen apart include lightning and nitrogen...- cultural Engi- neer; Research Technician II; Associate Profes- sor and Exten- sion Agricultural Engineer?Waste Management, The Texas A&M System E-464 02-08 J. K. Upadhyay, B. W. Auvermann, K. J. Bush, and S. Mukhtar* Texas AgriLife Extension...

  6. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, R A [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1989-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  7. Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C., E-mail: Nancy.Giles@afit.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup ?}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633?nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5?K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ?}?=?37.0?MHz and A{sub ?}?=?8.4?MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1}?=?14.5?MHz, A{sub 2}?=?18.3?MHz, and A{sub 3}?=?20.5?MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup Ż}0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

  8. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  9. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  10. air-pollution-control residues leaching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the top of the ore pile. The bioleaching process Seplveda, Mauricio 30 Landscape Controls on Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching across Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  11. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  12. ambient nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy and nitrogen balance. The amounts of alfalfa eaten and the levels of nitrogen. Daylight ratio effect is evident in one case : long daily daylight increases the proportion of...

  13. atmospheric nitrogen deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N2O5, organic nitrates and nitrate deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can cause eutrophication, where the extra nitrogen stimulates rapid 51 CAN THE ESA ADDRESS THE THREATS OF...

  14. atmospherically deposited nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N2O5, organic nitrates and nitrate deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can cause eutrophication, where the extra nitrogen stimulates rapid 51 CAN THE ESA ADDRESS THE THREATS OF...

  15. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  16. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a...

  17. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  18. Involvement of peptides in nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahlgren, Joy Annette

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as increased C in both roots and stems and a concomitant decrease in C per 14 32 unit mass of nodule. Ryle et al. (33) examined both red and white clovers; similar concentrations of C appeared in the terminal meri- 14 stem. In plants fixing nitrogen...

  19. OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

  20. groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer, the Seymour Aquifer has the highest groundwater pollution potential of all the major aqui- fers in Texas drinking water standards. Potential sources of nitrate in groundwater include atmospheric deposi- tion

  1. Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduce kids to liquid nitrogen. Explain that it is a liquid and is very cold (kids will be excited

  2. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    observed in surface soils. NT significantly increased SOC. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC only under NT. Compared to NT or N addition, enhanced cropping intensity only slightly increased SOC. Estimates of C sequestration rates under NT...

  3. NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

  4. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  5. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  6. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results were obtained using an asbestos supported CuO-Cr203 catalyst. Venkataramam and his co-workers (66) studied the catalytic oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by the fluidized bed technique using a static bed of catalyst. Precipitated Ag20... in the air-ethylene ratio to maintain good yields of ethylene oxide. Wan (68) reported the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by use of a silver catalyst in a 5/16 dnch inner diameter stainless steel tube with a catalyst bed up to 30. 3 centimeters...

  7. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

  8. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

  9. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

  10. All-optical high-resolution magnetic resonance using a nitrogen-vacancy spin in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen-Yu Wang; Jian-Ming Cai; Alex Retzker; Martin B. Plenio

    2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an all-optical scheme to prolong the quantum coherence of a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Optical control of the NV spin suppresses energy fluctuations of the $^{3}\\text{A}_{2}$ ground states and forms an energy gap protected subspace. By optical control, the spectral linewidth of magnetic resonance is much narrower and the measurement of the frequencies of magnetic field sources has higher resolution. The optical control also improves the sensitivity of the magnetic field detection and can provide measurement of the directions of signal sources.

  11. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  12. Regulation of Development and Nitrogen Fixation in Anabaena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Golden

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The regulation of development and cellular differentiation is important for all multicellular organisms. The nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (also Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena) provides a model of multicellular microbial development and pattern formation. Anabaena reduces N2 to ammonia in specialized terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. A one-dimensional developmental pattern of single heterocysts regularly spaced along filaments of photosynthetic vegetative cells is established to form a multicellular organism composed of these two interdependent cell types. This multicellular growth pattern, the distinct phylogeny of cyanobacteria, and the suspected antiquity of heterocyst development make this an important model system. Our long-term goal is to understand the regulatory network required for heterocyst development and nitrogen fixation. This project is focused on two key aspects of heterocyst regulation: one, the mechanism by which HetR controls the initiation of differentiation, and two, the cis and trans acting factors required for expression of the nitrogen-fixation (nif) genes. HetR is thought to be a central regulator of heterocyst development but the partners and mechanisms involved in this regulation are unknown. Our recent results indicate that PatS and other signals that regulate heterocyst pattern cannot interact, directly or indirectly, with a R223W mutant of HetR. We plan to use biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that interact with the HetR protein, which will help reveal the mechanisms underlying its regulation of development. Our second goal is to determine how the nif genes are expressed. It is important to understand the mechanisms controlling nif genes since they represent the culmination of the differentiation process and the essence of heterocyst function. The Anabaena genome lacks the genes required for expression of nif genes present in other organisms such as rpoN (sigma 54) and nifA. We will use nifH-gfp reporter fusions to define the upstream sequences that are required for nifH expression and for genetic experiments to identify the trans-acting factors required for nifH regulation.

  13. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks Modeling and Control Mohammad and maintenance of the truck engine. While still in the research phase, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) based APUs

  15. Resolving single molecule structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Kost; Jianming Cai; Martin B. Plenio

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocols based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as efficient quantum sensors of protein structure. Continuous microwave driving fields are used to achieve Hartmann-Hahn resonances between NV spin sensor and proximate nuclei for selective control of nuclear spins and measurement of their polarization. Our protocols take advantage of the strong coupling between the NV sensor and the nuclei, thus facilitating coherence control of nuclear spins and relax the requirement of nuclear spin polarization. We dramatically reduce the experimental effort by employing a singular value thresholding matrix completion algorithm from signal processing to regain the resolution of protein structure based on sub-sampled data from NV based single molecule nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As an illustration, we demonstrate the power of this approach by identifying the nitrogen-Hydrogen interaction peak in an Alanine spectrum based on merely 5% of the sample data.

  16. Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and...

  17. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  18. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

  19. Engineering nuclear spin dynamics with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping Wang; Jiangfeng Du; Wen Yang

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general theory for using an optically pumped diamond nitrogen-vacancy center as a tunable, non-equilibrium bath to control a variety of nuclear spin dynamics (such as dephasing, relaxation, squeezing, polarization, etc.) and the nuclear spin noise. It opens a new avenue towards engineering the dissipative and collective nuclear spin evolution and solves an open problem brought up by the $^{13}$C nuclear spin noise suppression experiment [E. Togan \\textit{et al}., Nature 478, 497 (2011)].

  20. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (?15N, ?18O, and ?17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  1. Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, James Cannon

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1971 Major Subject: Food Technology ENZYMATIC SOLUBILIZATION OF NITROGENOUS CONSTITUENTS OF CARROTS A Thesis by James Cannon Curry Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o ittee) (Head of Department) (Member) ( Member) (Mem r) May... is extended to the Intensified Food Crop Produc- tion Group of the Nuplex Program at Texas ARM University for thei r assistance. Also, appreciation is expressed to Miles Laboratories, Inc. and Rohm and Haas, Inc. for thei r kindness i n providing...

  2. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  3. A study on oxidized glassy carbon sheets for bipolar supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, A.; Baertsch, M.; Geiger, F. [and others

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) for high energy and power density applications, based on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, are being developed in this laboratory. In the context of this project, GC sheets were oxidized and investigated with Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Nitrogen Gas Adsorption (BET). During oxidation on active film with open pores is built on the surface of the GC. Upon oxidation, the internal volumetric surface area of the active film decreases, whereas the volumetric electrochemical double layer capacitance increases. The authors show that this effect is correlated with the opening, the growth and the coalescence of the pores.

  4. On the Use of Thermal NF3 as the Fluorination and Oxidation Agent in Treatment of Used Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for use in a process for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by employing the volatility of many transition metal and actinide fluorides. Nitrogen trifluoride is less chemically and reactively hazardous than the hazardous and aggressive fluorinating agents used to prepare uranium hexafluoride and considered for fluoride volatility based nuclear fuels reprocessing. In addition, nitrogen trifluoride’s less aggressive character may be used to separate the volatile fluorides from used fuel and from themselves based on the fluorination reaction’s temperature sensitivity (thermal tunability) rather than relying on differences in sublimation/boiling temperature and sorbents. Our thermodynamic calculations found that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from candidate oxides and metals. Our simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses found that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium fluorinated but did not form volatile fluorides and that depending on temperature volatile fluorides formed from the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. We also demonstrated near-quantitative removal of uranium from plutonium in a mixed oxide.

  5. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, D. E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

  6. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  7. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  8. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Grula

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

  9. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  10. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  11. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  12. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

  13. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  14. Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle-organolithium intermediates with lead halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jerry Neal

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LEAD HALIDES A Thesis by JERRY HEAL KINNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ot MASTER...) (Mem er) December 1970 ABSTRACT Reactions of Nitrogen Heterocycle-Organollthium intermediates With Lead Halides. (December l970) Jerry Neal Kinney, B. S. , Texas AE, M University Directed by: Dr. Choo-Seng Giam Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle...

  15. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  16. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  17. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. (Tennessee Valley Authority (US)); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (US)); Cropp, J.W. (Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau, Chattanooga, TN (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  18. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  19. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarshipSpiraling Laser Pulses CouldStanford Nitrogen Group

  20. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp....

  1. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  2. ammonium nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  3. autotrophic nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of...

  4. alter carbon nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen Physics Websites Summary: and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are...

  5. Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Surface Limited Desorption Kinetics in Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model Nanoporous Material: I. Surface Limited Desorption Kinetics in Abstract: The...

  6. Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model Nanoporous Material: II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Abstract:...

  7. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissuesfactor (a) and isotope enrichment values (e), which provideisotope values from different modern primate tissues. Additionally, using these mean apparent enrichment

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Abstract: Chemical doping with foreign...

  9. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogeneous Species in Gas Turbine Exhaust, from Conkle, et82) Percent of Organic Gas Turbine Emissions which containnitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (from the data presented

  10. Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the epicuticular wax composition and ultrastructure ofleaf age, epicuticular wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Cropleaf cuticle and epicuticular wax as described by Oosterhuis

  11. aerobic nitrogen cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanson 2010-10-06 63 Anaerobic aerobic systems evaluation with immobilized biomass for organic material and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using biogas in the...

  12. accessible critical nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase transition. P. Balenzuela; A. Chernomoretz; C. O. Dorso 2002-07-16 167 Galactic Evolution of Nitrogen Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We present detailed spectroscopic...

  13. Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

  14. Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond from the air. Photosynthetic energy in plants and chemical energy in soil microorganisms also can originated from industrial fertilizer production since the early 1900s, when the Nobel Prize-winning German

  15. Toward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Maggie Notopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    amounts of resources including electricity and food to maintain their daily activities. Food purchases of reactive nitrogen (Nr), all nitrogen compounds other than N2, associated with their use. Most of the Nr: Reactive Nitrogen, Nitrogen Footprint, Sustainability, Fertilizer, Nitrogen Uptake Factors, Virtual

  16. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King...

  17. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. acep03rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  18. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  19. Mn(II) Oxidation by an Ascomycete Fungus is Linked to Superoxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Asexual Reproduction. Abstract: Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients,...

  20. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  1. Contributed Paper Eutrophication and Consumer Control of New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertness, Mark D.

    Contributed Paper Eutrophication and Consumer Control of New England Salt Marsh Primary is increasing insect herbivory in these marshes. Experimental nitrogen eutrophication initially increased plant on primary productivity in pristine marshes, but suppressed primary productivity in eutrophic salt marshes

  2. Effect of nitrogen source, rate and time of application on soil nitrogen status and on the characteristics of the plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadik, Mohamed Kamal

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on July Z4. A sumxnary of the analysis of variance on soil nitrogen (NO3 and NH+4) as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application. 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on the dry weight of the plant organs and the yield of seed... cotton as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application, 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on ni- trogen (T. N. , NO3 and NH4) content of the different parts of the plant as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application...

  3. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  4. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.V. [Process Systems International, Inc., Westborough, MA (United States); Maloney, J.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  5. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  6. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  7. Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing the same. As of spring 2008, the price of one ton of urea ammonium nitrate was $420, or $0.67 per lb N

  8. Quantum optics with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiwen Chu; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the electronic level structure of the nitrogen-vacancy in diamond and some common experimental techniques to study its optical properties at low temperatures. We then summarize several recent experiments and advances in using nitrogen-vacancy centers for quantum optics.

  9. How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article

  10. Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I spend many hours introducing me to modeling carbon exchange, thank you. Also thanks to Karina Clemmensen

  12. Nitrogen Dynamics in Sandy Freshwater Sediments (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of added 15NH4 + from lake water passing over dark sediment cores. Sediment-water fluxes of nitrogen at the sediment- water interface is derived from ammonium pro- duced from organic matter mineralization in surface ABSTRACT. Sediment-water nitrogen fluxes and transformations were examined at two sites in Sagi- naw Bay

  13. Ecological Modelling 192 (2006) 143159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    model; Transformation; Transport; Nitrification; Denitrification; RT3D 1. Introduction Nitrogen of this paper are to develop a nitro- gen transport and transformation model for saturated groundwater systemsEcological Modelling 192 (2006) 143­159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling

  14. Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

  15. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMSStaffCerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation

  16. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  17. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  18. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  19. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  1. Nitrogen addition to bcc-Fe by attrition milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawers, J.; Krabbe, R.; Cook, D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the nitrogen solubility in bcc-Fe, iron powder and blends of iron and iron nitride powders were attrition-milled in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the milled microstructure and to characterize the nitrogen distribution. After processing for 150 hours, the infused nitrogen was determined to be interstitial (locally deforming the bcc-Fe lattice to a bct-Fe lattice) and associated with the outer layer of the bcc-Fe nanograin. Nitrogen stabilized the milled grain structure but at elevated temperatures rapidly came to thermodynamical equilibrium, transforming from bcc-Fe(N) to bcc-Fe and Fe{sub 4}N.

  2. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chisholm, Matthew F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  3. Ductility Enhancement of Molybdenum Phase by Nano-sizedd Oxide Dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Kang

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research is focused on ductility enhancement of molybdenum (Mo) alloys by adding nano-sized oxide particles to the alloy system. The research approach includes: (1) determination of microscopic mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic ductility enhancement effects through atomistic modeling of the metal-ceramic interface; (2) subsequent computer simulation-aided optimization of composition and nanoparticle size of the dispersion for improved performance; (3) synthesis and characterization of nanoparticle dispersion following the guidance from atomistic computational modeling analyses (e.g., by processing a small sample of Mo alloy for evaluation); and (4) experimental testing of the mechanical properties to determine optimal ductility enhancement.Through atomistic modeling and electronic structure analysis using full-potential linearized muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) techniques, research to date has been performed on a number of selected chromium (Cr) systems containing nitrogen (N) and/or magnesium oxide (MgO) impurities. The emphasis has been on determining the properties of the valence electrons and the characteristics of the chemical bonds they formed. It was found that the brittle/ductile behavior of this transitional metal system is controlled by the relative population of valence charges: bonds formed by s valence electrons yield metallic, ductile behavior, whereas bonds formed by d valence electrons lead to covalent, brittle behavior. The presence of valence bands from impurities also affects the metal bonding, thereby explaining the detrimental and beneficial effects induced by the inclusion of N impurities and MgO dispersions. These understandings are useful for optimizing ductility enhancement effects on the dispersion materials.

  4. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  5. Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen fertilizers Michael Nicodemus and Douglass F. Jacobs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen INTRODUCTION N fertilization has been shown to positively affect photosynthesis in most studies N fertilization and photosynthesis is largely due to ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO

  6. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High...

  7. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  8. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Turfgrass: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Rates and Types Dale J. Bremer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) inventories are unknown. Our objectives were to: (i) measure the magnitude, seasonal patterns, and annual inventories is unknown (Bouwman et al., 1995; Kroeze, 1999). Turfgrass has historically been excluded from re- gional N2O inventories because of the assumption that urban land area is too small to make significant

  9. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = Au, Pd, and TiO 2 ) with varying counter electrode", Solid= Au, Pd, and TiO 2 ) with varying counter electrode", Solidelectrodes (dense gold wires) Conductive paste (Au-Pd)

  10. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  11. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. ,for heavy-duty diesel truck emissions. J. Air Waste Manage.on-road diesel truck emissions, large weekend reductions in

  12. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosolits role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70. Byun,In United-States Air-Quality Studies. Atmos. Environ. , 27,

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of nitrogen oxide and dioxide using a photoionization detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulycheva, Z.Yu.; Panina, L.I. [Research Center for Testing Automobile Technics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, B.A. [Vernadskii Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, fundamentally new possibilities of detecting NO and NO{sub 2} have been connected with the use of a photoionization detector (PID), which is based on the ionization of analyzed components under vacuum UV radiation. The extensive experimental material on the employment of PID in the gas chromatographic analysis of different samples of organic and inorganic origin is given earlier. However there is no information about the practical use of PIDs for the analysis of NO and NO{sub 2}. The results obtained by using a PID for the gas-chromatographic analysis of a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} are presented in this work. A specific Kuprumsorb sorbent based on a macroporous sulfonated cation-exchange resin in the Cu{sup 2+} form was used.

  14. New strategy to decompose nitrogen oxides from regenerable flue gas cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulated NO/sub x/ recycle tests were recently conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), US Department of Energy, with excellent results. However, the NO/sub x/-recycle technique needs improvement if steady-state removal of 90% of the NO/sub x/ produced from the combustor is required. This paper reports experimental results for two new techniques to improve the destruction of externally injected NO/sub x/ into a combustor. The first technique involves doping the NO/sub x/ gas stream to the combustor with methane (other reductants might also be effective). The second technique is injecting the recycled NO/sub x/ stream at the optimum location (with and without methane doping) for maximum reduction. Test data showed 100% reduction of injected NO/sub x/ is possible with this technique. A third approach is proposed using a low-NO/sub x/ burner in combination with the NO/sub x/ recycle technique to achieve a steady-state 90% NO/sub x/ removal in the flue gas. The projected results of the third process scheme are based on material balance computations and reasonable expectations of the performance of each component of the process.

  15. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace079mukundan2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Robust...

  16. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Allen, “ Pulse CO Laser Drilling of Green Alumina Ceramic”,Susan D. Allen, “Pulse CO Laser Drilling of Green Alumina

  17. Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standridge, Brad Lee

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature band within which reduction is achieved; (3) increase the maximum amount of reduction. It was found that, with the exception of methanol and hydrogen peroxide, these additives had the tendency to shift the reduction "window" toward slightly lower...

  18. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Ragland, Combustion Engineering, (McGraw Hill: Boston,and Kenneth W. Ragland, Combustion Engineering, McGraw-Hill:

  19. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.aerosol in Fresno, CA. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. , 56,

  20. Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Kyung-Eun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.9 ± 0.2 ppm NOx in N 2 , PRAXAIR) was diluted to 3-20 ppb5.4 ppm ± 5% NO in N 2 , PRAXAIR) was diluted with zero air

  1. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel inputs from the EIA survey and emission factors shownFuel tax receipts and EIA survey data are reconciled withuse reported by the EIA survey. To make a weekday modeling

  2. Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    garbage burning (7), incineration of municipal and medicalindustrial settings, incineration fa- cilities (5), biomass

  3. Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the use of a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to obtain both a complete qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reaction products. A urea/water solution was tested in a decomposition study in a temperature range between 800 and 1300 K...

  4. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at several frequencies. EIS is performed as follows: - Applyand Saruhan performed EIS on NO x sensors with sputtered NiOTransformation (Aging) EIS was performed on LSM sensors on

  5. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chou, Steve Dai, Ramesh Koripella, Manny Oliver, Daniel Sadler, PaulChou, Steve Dai, Ramesh Koripella, Manny Oliver, Daniel Sadler, Paul

  6. Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    approximately balancing the IRF associated with aviation CO2 emissions (28 mWm�2 yr (TgNO2)�1 ). The overall climate impact of global aviation is often represented by a simple multiplier for CO2 emissions­3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions [Lee et al., 2009], yet these emissions fall outside the remit

  7. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA l i c e L i pEnergyRobert

  8. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  9. The oxidation behavior of SiC sintered with Al-B-C and improved oxidation resistance via heat treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sixta, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation behavior of high strength and high toughness SiC, sintered with Al, B, and C (ABC-SiC), was examined. Kinetic data were acquired and the parabolic rate constant for oxidation was determined and compared with literature data on various SiC materials. The role of secondary phases on the oxide morphology was explored. ABC-SiC was compared to commercially available SiC, Hexoloy, and SiC sintered with 10% yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). Two-step sintering (pre-coarsening) was employed with holds for 48 hours at 600--1,600 C, prior to the typical hot-pressing conditions of 1,900 C for 1 hour, to change the chemistry and reduce the number of bubbles in the silica scale. The effects on the oxide thickness and integrity was examined as a function of the precoarsening heat treatment temperature. Additionally, the hot-pressed ABC-SiC was subjected to heat treatments (anneals) at 1,800 C for 1 hour in nitrogen, Ar, and vacuum environments, and the effects on subsequent oxidation were evaluated. The Ar and vacuum heat treatments dramatically improved the oxidation resistance of ABC-SiC. Finally, reoxidation experiments were performed to try to alter the surface chemistry of the SiC to improve the oxidation resistance. The four-point bend strengths and two-parameter Weibull plots of the most successful heat treatments were compared with the standard ABC-SiC to ensure that significant degradation did not result from altering the processing of the material.

  10. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  11. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  12. Mapping the location and configuration of nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, A. S.; Sternberg, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Oxford

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how impurities such as nitrogen are included in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain approximately 2-3% nitrogen, but it is difficult to determine experimentally whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration and potential energy surface of substitutional nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles, directly comparing results of different sizes, shapes and surface chemistry. The results predict that nitrogen is metastable within the core of both hydrogenated and dehydrogenated particles, but that the binding energy, coordination and preferred location is dependent upon the structure of the nanoparticle as a whole.

  13. The nitrogen specific uptake of three strains of Prochlorococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Eli

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nitrogen uptake of Prochlorococcus under a range of light conditions was investigated. Strains of Prochlorococcus isolated from three locations were used: Mediterranean Sea (CCMP 1378), Sargasso Sea (CCMP 1375), and Pacific Ocean (H36-16). Cultures grown...

  14. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  15. Prochlorococcus genetic transformation and genomics of nitrogen metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolonen, Andrew Carl

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prochlorococcus, a unicellular cyanobacterium, is the most abundant phytoplankton in the oligotrophic, oceanic gyres where major plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are at nanomolar concentrations. ...

  16. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  17. The nitrogen cycle and ecohydrology of seasonally dry grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parolari, Anthony Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the coupling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and, specifically, the organization of ecosystem traits with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Observations from a factorial irrigation- ...

  18. Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

    We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 1–10 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

  19. Variable energy positron measurements at nitrogen ion bombarded steel surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, G.; Kolitsch, A. [Research Centre Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schut, H.; Veen, A. van [TU Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen ion bombardment of steel samples has been studied by utilizing the Delft variable energy positron beam facility. The energy of the beam was varied between 250 eV and 25 keV and a line-shape parameter S describing the annihilation radiation has been measured. By use of the VEPFIT fitting program, up to five different layers, each having different densities, could be identified and characterized. The results show that carbon layers deposited during nitrogen implantation can be observed. A relation between the measured depth profiles of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and the results of positron annihilation is given and discussed. The wear and friction properties of the steel surfaces before and after nitrogen implantation are presented.

  20. The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

  1. atomic nitrogen doping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chris Greene 3:30 - 3:50 Nick Brewer, Wisconsin, Left-handed electromagnetic waves in rare-earth doped Kemner, Ken 154 4, 26412665, 2007 Nitrogen retention Physics Websites...

  2. anthropogenous nitrogen deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

  3. anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

  4. Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside Small) (PET) capillary tubes of different shapes and lengths and decontamination of flow tubes, both for several years at the Orsay Plasma Lab. Its biological decontamination efficiency has been demonstrated

  5. A Search for Nitrogen Enriched Quasars in the Sloan EDR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, M C; Bentz, Misty C.; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for nitrogen-rich quasars in the Sloan EDR catalog has yielded 16 candidates, including four with very prominent emission, but no cases with nitrogen emission as strong as in Q0353-383. The quasar Q0353-383 has long been known to have extremely strong nitrogen intercombination lines at lambda 1486 and lambda 1750 Angstroms, implying an anomalously high nitrogen abundance of about 15 times solar. It is still the only one of its kind known. A preliminary search through the EDR using the observed property of the weak C IV emission seen in Q0353-383 resulted in a sample of 23 objects with unusual emission or absorption-line properties, including one very luminous redshift 2.5 star-forming galaxy. We present descriptions, preliminary emission-line measurements, and spectra for all the objects discussed here.

  6. Tropical Pacific nutrient dynamics in the modern and pleistocene ocean : insights from the nitrogen isotope system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafter, Patrick Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen isotopes, an enrichment that is conventionallyisotopes upon denitrification also imparts a strong isotopic enrichment

  7. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. The effort in this quarter has concentrated on installing the CFBC Facility and for conducting cold fluidization operations tests in the CFBC facility. The assembly of the ash recirculation pipe duct from the cyclones back to the bed area of the combustor, including the upper and lower loop seals was completed. The electric bed pre-heater was installed to heat the fluidizing air as it enters the wind box. The induced draft fan along with its machine base and power supply was received and installed. The flue gas duct from secondary cyclone outlet to induced draft fan inlet was received and installed, as well as the induced fan flue gas discharge duct. Pressure testing from the forced draft fan to the outlet of the induced fan was completed. In related research a pilot-scale halogen addition test was conducted in the empty slipstream reactor (without (Selective Catalytic Reduction) SCR catalyst loading) and the SCR slipstream reactor with two commercial SCR catalysts. The greatest benefits of conducting slipstream tests can be flexible control and isolation of specific factors. This facility is currently used in full-scale utility and will be combined into 0.6MW CFBC in the future. This work attempts to first investigate performance of the SCR catalyst in the flue gas atmosphere when burning Powder River Basin (PRB), including the impact of PRB coal flue gas composition on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) under SCR conditions. Secondly, the impacts of hydrogen halogens (Hydrogen fluoride (HF), Hydrogen chloride (HCl), Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) and Hydrogen Iodine (HI)) on Hg(0) oxidation and their mechanisms can be explored.

  8. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  9. Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Shengmu; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; VanNostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Jianshe; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

  10. Nitrogen isotope effects on glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The nitrogen isotope effect on the decarboxylation of glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli has been measured by comparison of the isotopic composition of the amino nitrogen of the product ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid isolated after 10-20% reaction with that of the starting glutamic acid. At pH 4.7, 37 /sup 0/C, the isotope effect is k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9855 +/- 0.0006 when compared to unprotonated glutamic acid. Interpretation of this result requires knowledge of the equilibrium nitrogen isotope effect for Schiff base formation. This equilibrium isotope effect is K/sup 14//K/sup 15/ - 0.9824 for the formation of the unprotonated Schiff base between unprotonated valine and salicylaldehyde. Analysis of the nitrogen isotope effect on decarboxylation of glutamic acid and of the previously measured carbon isotope effect on this same reaction shows that decarboxylation and Schiff base formation are jointly rate limiting. The enzyme-bound Schiff base between glutamate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate partitions approximately 2:1 between decarboxylation and return to the starting state. The nitrogen isotope effect also reveals that the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated in this intermediate.

  11. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  12. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Miller, Michael A. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  13. Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Band gap engineering at a semiconductor - crystalline oxide interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moghadam, Jahangir-Moghadam; Shen, Xuan; Chrysler, Matthew; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Su, Dong; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO? and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore »structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO?-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.« less

  15. Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Kenneth Phanon

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

  16. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfate of either sodium, potassium, lithium, rubidium or cesium. The active agent was prepared in the form of a slurry which was deposited on the carrier by agitating the two materials together. The carrier was alumina or silicon carbide. Oxidation... welded on each end. On the bottom of the tank was a drain connection which was closed; the tank also contained a thermometer well. The tank was connected to the vent system through a needle valve and also through a safety valve which was set...

  17. Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

  18. Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING, In situ Biological Degradation, Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons, PAH, Field Trial, Groundwater Circulation Wells (GCW), Hydrogen Peroxide Introduction Heterocyclic hydrocarbons (NSO-HET) containing nitrogen (N

  19. Oxidation induced stress-rupture of fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, E.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxidation on the stress-rupture behavior of fiber bundles was modeled. It is shown that oxidation-induced fiber strength degradation results in the delayed failure of the associated fiber bundle and that the fiber bundle strength decreases with time as t{sup {minus}1/4}. It is also shown that the temperature dependence of the bundle loss of strength reflects the thermal dependence of the mechanism controlling the oxidation of the fibers. The effect of gauge length on the fiber bundle strength was also analyzed. Numerical examples are presented for the special case of Nicalon{trademark} fibers.

  20. Kinetics of the reactions of hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kossaya, A.M.; Belyakov, B.P.; Kuchma, Z.V.; Sandrozd, M.K.; Vasil'eva, V.G.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the kinetics of interaction of gaseous hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide at temperatures 300-700 degrees. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory adsorption apparatus modified and adapted for work with corrosive hydrogen fluoride. Calcium oxide samples in granulated form and deposited on gamma-alumina were used in the experiments. Kinetic curves representing variations of the degree of conversion of the solid samples with time are shown. The influence of retardation dure to diffusion was observed in the experiments. The influence of diffusion control on the reaction rate was also observed in a study of the reaction kinetics on supported layers of calcium oxide.

  1. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherly, T. R., E-mail: trsherly@gmail.com [Post Graduate Department of Physics, Sanathana Dharma College, Alappuzha, Kerala (India); Raveendran, R. [Nanoscience Research Laboratory, Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala 691001 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  2. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  3. Biological Oxidation of Fe(II) in Reduced Nontronite Coupled with Nitrate Reduction by Pseudogulbenkiania sp. Strain 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Agrawal, A.; Liu, Deng; Zhang, Jing; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate contamination in soils, sediments, and water bodies is a significant issue. Although much is known about nitrate degradation in these environments, especially via microbial pathways, a complete understanding of all degradation processes, especially in clay mineral-rich soils, is still lacking. The objective of this study was to study the potential of removing nitrate contaminant using structural Fe(II) in clay mineral nontronite. Specifically, the coupled processes of microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in microbially reduced nontronite (NAu-2) and nitrate reduction by Pseudogulbenkiania species strain 2002 was investigated. Bio-oxidation experiments were conducted in bicarbonate-buffered medium under both growth and nongrowth conditions. The extents of Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction were measured by wet chemical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to observe mineralogical changes associated with Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) oxidation in nontronite. The bio-oxidation extent under growth and nongrowth conditions reached 93% and 57%, respectively. Over the same time period, nitrate was completely reduced under both conditions to nitrogen gas (N2), via an intermediate product nitrite. Magnetite was a mineral product of nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation, as evidenced by XRD data and TEM diffraction patterns. The results of this study highlight the importance of iron-bearing clay minerals in the global nitrogen cycle with potential applications in nitrate removal in soils.

  4. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Art J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Roussel, Paul [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  5. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

  6. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  7. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  8. Compositional Tuning of Ultrathin Surface Oxides on Metal and Alloy Substrates Using Photons: Dynamic Simulations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide synthesis with controlled functional properties is desirable for a plethora of applications but is elusive due to oxide growth kinetics. Here, we report on the ability to modify the structure and composition of ultra-thin oxides grown on Ni-Al alloy surfaces at room temperature utilizing photon illumination. Atomistic simulations that take into account dynamic charge transfer predict that the electric field produced across an oxide film in photon-assisted synthesis overcomes the activation energy barrier for ionic migration, leading to enhanced oxidation kinetics and oxygen incorporation into the oxide, enabling us to control the oxide composition at atomic length scales. Experiments (near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) indicate that the native oxide on 5%Ni-Al alloy is primarily composed of aluminum oxide with no nickel oxide whereas the photon-assisted oxide comprises of both aluminum oxide and nickel oxide. The ability to tune the composition at the atomic scale of the ultra-thin oxide films leads to excellent passivity as verified from polarization experiments.

  9. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  10. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  11. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

  12. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

  13. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  18. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  19. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  20. Optically transparent yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnett, T.; Greenberg, M.; Gentilman, R.L.

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A body is described comprising at least 99.9% yttrium oxide having a density of at least 99% of theoretically density, a sample of the body having a in-line transmission of at least 73%, over a wavelength range of 2-5 microns with the sample having a thickness of 0.375 inches.