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1

NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

2

NITRIC ACID RECOVERY FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solar fuels and chemicals system design study (ammonia/nitric acid production process). Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the Solar Central Receiver Fuels and Chemicals Program, Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation (FWSDC), under contract to Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore (SNLL), developed a conceptual design of a facility to produce ammonia and nitric acid using solar energy as the principal external source of process heat. In the selected process, ammonia is produced in an endothermic reaction within a steam methane (natural gas) reformer. The heat of reaction is provided by molten carbonate salt heated by both a solar central receiver and an exothermic ammonia-fired heater. After absorption by water, the product of the latter reaction is nitric acid.

Not Available

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

Processing nitric-phosphoric acid solutions to nitroammophoska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technology for comprehensive processing of apatite with recovery of all valuable components in the starting material is based on its nitric acid decomposition with crystallization of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. The results of operation on a pilot installation for complex processing of apatite with production of strontium carbonate, calcium fluoride, a rare earth phosphate concentrate, calcium carbonate and a nitric-phosphoric acid solution (NPAS) are given below. The article presents the data of the operation of the experimental unit for production of complex fertilizers of the nitroammophoska type from the NPAS.

Gol'dinov, A.L.; Abramov, O.B.; Afanasenko, B.P.; Baibakov, P.Y.; Kiselevich, P.V.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

Pruett, David J. (Knoxville, TN); Howerton, William B. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

REACTIVITY OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN WITH NITRIC ACID  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material.

King, W; Fernando Fondeur, F; Bill Wilmarth, B; Myra Pettis, M; Shirley Mccollum, S

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

Williamson, B.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

11

ELECTROLYTIC DISINTEGRATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-2 is anodically converted to scaly ZrO/sub 2/ at 60 deg C in 8 M HNO/sub 3/. About 0.5 mole of acid is consumed per faraday, and after saturation of the electrolyte with nitrogen oxides about 0.3 mole of gas is evolved per faraday. The nitric acid is reduced to hydrogen, NO, and N0/sub 2/, with hydrogen predominating if the cathode is Zircaloy and NO if the cathode is platinum. Corrosion specimens of HRT metals were exposed to the electrolysis conditions. From determinations of the decomposition potential of nitric acid it appears that a metal container for the electrolytic process can be protected from stray-current corrosion by holdlng it at a potential --0.5 volt positive to a platinum cathode operating at a current density of 5 to 10 ma/cm/sup 2/. Practical laboratory experiments tended to confirm this conclusion. (auth)

Clark, W.E.; Peterson, S.

1959-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, SRTC recommended two process changes: (1) a final wash of the tetraphenylborate precipitate feed slurry and (2) the use of nitric acid to neutralize the sludge in the SRAT. The first change produced an aqueous hydrolysis product (PHA) with higher formic acid/formate and copper concentration, and reduced the nitrate content in the PHA by an order of magnitude. The second change is to substitute part of formic acid added to the SRAT with nitric acid, and therefore may reduce the hydrogen generated in the SRAT as well as provide nitrate as an oxidant to balance the redox state of the melter feed. The purpose of this report is to determine the pertinent variables that could affect the hydrogen generation rate with these process changes.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

13

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

Christian, Jerry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Philip A. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The susceptibility of zirconium and its common alloys to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitric acid was investigated by slow strain-rate and constant deflection techniques. Cracking occurred at 25/sup 0/C over a wide range of acid concentrations and electrochemical potentials. The crack velocity increased slightly with increasing temperature. The failure mode was transgranular and the morphology was similar to SCC failures of zirconium alloys in other environments. The fracture was very orientation-dependent suggesting that it occurs on a single crystallographic plane in the material. The results of the study are not consistent with a hydrogen mechanism for cracking.

Beavers, J.A.; Griess, J.C.; Boyd, W.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

METHOD OF DISSOLVING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE IN NITRIC ACID USING CERIUM IONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is descnibed for catalyzing the dissolution of plutenium dioxide in nitric acid with small amounts of cerium ions. (AEC)

Wilson, A.S.

1961-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

17

Isothermal heat measurements of TBP-nitric acid solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net heats of reaction were measured in an isothermal calorimeter for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} reacting solutions at temperatures above 100 C. The oxidation rate constant was determined to be 5.4E-4 min{sup {minus}1} at 110 C for an open ``vented`` system as compared to 1.33 E-3 min{sup {minus}1} in the closed system. The heat released per unit material oxidized was also reduced. The oxidation in both phases was found to be first order in nitric acid and pseudo-zero order in butylnitrate and water. The hydrolysis (esterification) rate constant determined by Nichols` (1.33E-3 min{sup {minus}1}) fit the experimental data from this work well. Forced evaporation of the volatile components by the product gases from oxidation resulted in a cooling mechanism which more than balanced the heat from the oxidation reaction in the two-phased systems. Rate expressions were derived and rate constants determined for both the single and two phase systems. An approximating mathematical model was developed to fit the experimental data and to extrapolate beyond the experimental conditions. This model shows that one foot of ``reacting`` 14.3M HNO{sub 3} aqueous phase solution at 121 C will transport sufficient water to the organic phase to replace evaporative losses, maintaining endothermicity, for organic layers up to 12.2 + 6.0 feet deep. If the pressure in a reacting system is allowed to increase due to insufficient venting the temperature of the organic phase would increase in temperature to reach a new equilibrium. The rate of oxidation would increase not only due to the increase in temperature but also from the increased concentration of dissolved HNO{sub 3} reduction products. Another important factor is that the cooling system described in this work becomes less effective as the total pressure increases. These factors probably contributed to the explosion at Tomsk.

Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.

1994-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ZIRCALOY-2 IN NITRIC-HYDROFLUORIC ACID MIXTURES AT REFLUX TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

BS>The initial rate constants were obtained for zirconium and Zircaloy-2 dissolution at reflux temperatures in nltric--hydrofluoric acid mlxtures. Variation of the nitric acid concentration in these solutions had very little effect on the initial dissolution rate, except for the change in the reflux temperature. The nitric acid concentration exhibited an appreciable effect on the average dissolution rate over longer periods of time. An empirical treatment of the rates over extended periods is presented. The maximum attainable rates for zirconium dissolution, adjusted to an initial lM hydrofluoric acid concentration, were determined at lower temperatures. Stability of resultant Zircaloy-2 dissolver solutions is reported for both nitric--hydrofluoric acid mixtures and nitric--oxalic--hydrofluoric acid mixtures. Possible reactions and some analyses of off-gases from these dissolutions are given. (auth)

Vander Wall, E.M.; Whitener, E.M.f Bauer, D.L.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Ground-Based Measurements of Nitric Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) instrument has been developed for high-precision measurements of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) specifically under high- and variable-humidity conditions in the boundary layer. The instrument’s ...

Kazuyuki Kita; Yu Morino; Yutaka Kondo; Yuichi Komazaki; Nobuyuki Takegawa; Yuzo Miyazaki; Jun Hirokawa; Shigeru Tanaka; Thomas L. Thompson; Ru-Shan Gao; David W. Fahey

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nitric Acid–Sea Salt Reactions: Implications for Nitrogen Deposition to Water Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many previous studies have indicated the importance of nitric acid (HNO3) reactions on sea salt particles for flux divergence of HNO3 in the marine surface layer. The potential importance of this reaction in determining the spatial and temporal ...

S. C. Pryor; L. L. Sørensen

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Actinoid sorption from nitric acid onto stainless steel. 1. Plutonium sorption and deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data are given on the sorption of plutonium from nitric acid onto 12Kh18N10T stainless steel. This is determined by the contact time, the temperature, the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations, and the element state. The uptake varies in the following sequence: Pu/sub h/>> Pu/sup (IV)/ > Pu/sup (VI)/ > Pu/sup (III)/. The plutonium deposition on reference specimens has been determined with periodic drying.

Sokhina, L.P.; Goncharuk, L.V.; Rovnyi, S.I.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

Pierce, R.

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

26

PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

Thomas, J.R.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

27

Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide as an extractant for actinides from nitric acid waste  

SciTech Connect

The ability of neutral bifunctional organophosphorus compounds to extract trivalent actinides, specifically Am(III), from nitric acid solution has stimulated investigations into the processing of PUREX high level liquid waste. The authors' work in this area has focused primarily on derivatives of carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). The authors of this paper have found that the best extractant of this type is octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylmethylphosphine oxide (abbrev. O phi D (IB)CMPO). This extractant has a unique combination of substituent groups which impart to the resulting molecule substantially improved ability to extract actinides from acidic nitrate media and to withstand hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation. At the same time good selectivity of Am(III) actinides over fission products and favorable solubility properties on actinide loading are maintained. This paper describes the application of O phi D (IB) CMPO to the extraction of transuranium elements (Np, Pu, and Am) and fission product rare earths (F.P.R.E.) from evaporated highly acidic (5 M HNO/sub 3/) PUREX waste. Additional information on the influence of phenyl substitution in CMPO's and mixed CMPO-TBP extractant solutions on D/sub Am/ is also presented. 3 figures, 2 tables.

Horwitz, E.P.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

Mickalonis, J.

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

Michaels, E.D.

1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

30

Influence of nitric acid treatment in different media on X-ray structural parameters of coal  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of coal with nitric acid in aqueous and non-aqueous media introduces changes in the chemical and spatial structure of the organic mass. Four coals of different rank have been treated with nitric acid in aqueous and glacial acetic acid media for assessing the changes in the structural parameters by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Slow-scan XRD has been performed for the raw and treated coals, and X-ray structural parameters (d002, Lc, and Nc) and aromaticity (fa) have been determined by profile-fitting software. Considerable variation of the structural parameters has been observed with respect to the raw coals. The d002 values have decreased in aqueous medium but increased in acetic acid medium; however, Lc, Nc, and fa values have increased in aqueous medium but decreased in acetic acid medium. It is also observed that considerable oxidation takes place during nitric acid treatment in aqueous medium, but nitration is the predominant phenomenon in acetic acid medium. Disordering of the coal structure increases in acetic acid medium, but a reverse trend is observed in the aqueous medium. As a result, structurally modified coals (SMCs) are derived as new coal-derived substances. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Sudip Maity; Ashim Choudhury [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, FRI, Dhanbad (India)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is the purpose of this invention to provide a continuous optimum process for the dissolution of aluminum, without the use of a mercury catalyst. Ile invention generally stated is: a process for dissolution of aluminum comprising: preparing a mixture of nitric acid`and fluoboric acid in a makeup vessel or individual reagents in separate vessels; placing an aluminum element in a dissolver vessel having an overflow; transferring a portion of the mixture of nitric acid and fluoboric acid to the dissolver vessel from the makeup vessel; heating the dissolver vessel and mixture to a boiling temperature and holding that temperature until a desired concentration of dissolved aluminum is achieved; adding a constant flow influent of the mixture of nitric acid and fluoboric acid to the dissolver vessel; and collecting an effluent from the dissolver vessel overflow, said effluent containing a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid, water, and dissolved fuel components. The variables in the above process can be temperature, effluent flow rate, and concentration of the acids as will be discussed later. For corrosion control, it may be necessary to initiate reaction at a decreased HNO{sub 3} concentration and to increase it after a sufficient concentration of aluminum nitrate has accrued. The process may be adapted to batch processing, as well. Again, acid concentrations may be initially relatively small and, then, gradually increased as reaction proceeds until the desired excess of HNO{sub 3} above stoichiometric quantity has been added. Other objects, advantages, and capabilities of the present invention will become more apparent as the description proceeds.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

CHARACTERIZATION OF H CANYON CONDUCTIVITY METER INDICATIONS WITH ELEVATED URANIUM IN NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Solution conductivity data from the 1CU conductivity meter in H-Canyon shows that uranium concentration in the 0 to 30 gram per liter (g/L) range has no statistically significant effect on the calibration of free nitric acid measurement. Based on these results, no additional actions are needed on the 1CU Conductivity Meter prior to or during the processing of uranium solutions in the 0 to 30 g/L range. A model based only on free nitric acid concentration is shown to be appropriate for explaining the data. Data uncertainties for the free acid measurement of uranium-bearing solutions are 8.5% or less at 95% confidence. The analytical uncertainty for calibrating solutions is an order of magnitude smaller only when uranium is not present, allowing use of a more accurate analytical procedure. Literature work shows that at a free nitric acid level of 0.33 M, uranium concentration of 30 g/L and 25 C, solution conductivity is 96.4% of that of a uranium-free solution. The level of uncertainties in the literature data and its fitting equation do not justify calibration changes based on this small depression in solution conductivity. This work supports preparation of H-Canyon processing of Super Kukla fuel; however, the results will be applicable to the processing of any similar concentration uranium and nitric acid solution. Super Kukla fuel processing will increase the uranium concentration above the nominal zero to 10 g/L level, though not above 30 g/L. This work examined free nitric acid levels ranging from 0.18 to 0.52 molar. Temperature ranged from 27.9 to 28.3 C during conductivity testing. The data indicates that sequential order of measurement is not a significant factor. The conductivity meter was thus flushed effectively between measurements as desired.

Nash, C

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

TRUEX process - a process for the extraction of the transuranic elements from nitric acid wastes utilizing modified PUREX solvent  

SciTech Connect

A generic transuranic (TRU) element extraction/recovery process was developed based on the use of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide, O phi D(iB)CMPO, dissolved in PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate, TBP, in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon, NPH). The process (called TRUEX) is capable of reducing the TRU concentration by many orders of magnitude in waste solutions containing a wide range of nitric acid, salt, and fission product concentrations. A major feature of the process is that it is readily adaptable for waste processing in existing fuel reprocessing facilities.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Schulz, W.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION FOR DWPF NITRIC-GLYCOLIC ACID - LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction. ? For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 ?C. ? For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 ?C). ? For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available. ? For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive species and to verify the performance of materials in the key process vessels as well as downstream vessels and processes such as the evaporator where heating is occurring. The following testing would provide data for establishing the viability of these components. ? Electrochemical testing - evaluate the corrosion rate and susceptibility to localized corrosion within the SRAT, SME, OGCT, Quencher and Evaporator. Testing would be conducted at operational temperatures in simulants with ranges of glycolic acid, iron, chloride, sulfate, mercury, and antifoaming agents. ? Hot-wall testing – evaluate the corrosion under heat transfer conditions to simulate those for heating coils and evaporator coil surfaces. Testing would be at nominal chemistries with concentration of glycolic acid, chloride, sulfate and mercury at high expected concentrations. Some tests would be performed with antifoaming agents. ? Melter coupon testing – evaluate the performance of alloy 690 in melter feeds containing glycolic acid. This testing would be conducted as part of the melter flammability testing. ? Polymer testing – evaluate changes in polymer properties in immersion testing with DWPF simulants to provide product-specific data for service life evaluation and analyze the Hansen solubility parameters for relevant polymers in glycolic vs. formic acid. During this literature review process, the difficulties associated with measuring the liquid level in formic acid tanks were revealed. A test is recommended to resolve this issue prior to the introduction of glycolic acid into the DWPF. This testing would evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonic inspection techniques to determine liquid level and other desirable attributes of glycolic acid in DWPF storage tanks and related equipment.

Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

35

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Chiba, Zoher (Moraga, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Norvell (Palo Alto, CA); Steward, G. Anthony (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Nitric Acid Oxidized ZrO$_2$ as the Tunneling Oxide of Cobalt Silicide Nanocrystal Memory Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, ZrO$_2$ formed by the nitric acid oxidation method is proposed to be the tunneling oxide for nonvolatile memory device applications. The sputtered Zr thin film was oxidized ...

Chih-Wei Hu; Ting-Chang Chang; Chun-Hao Tu; Yang-Dong Chen; Chao-Cheng Lin; Min-Chen Chen; Jian-Yang Lin; Simon M. Sze; Tseung-Yuen Tseng

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Hydrogen generation during IDMS demonstrations of the Late Washing and Nitric Acid flowsheets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, Late Washing (LW) and Nitric Acid (NA) flowsheets, developed respectively for the DWPF at Savannah River Technology Center SPC and CPC, were demonstrated in the one-fifth scale DWPF pilot facilities, PHEF and IDMS. Using the LW flowsheet, four runs in the PHEF produced enough PHA for two runs in the IDMS (denoted by PX4 and PX5). One of the objectives of these IDMS runs was to obtain peak hydrogen generation rates and compare them to the peak hydrogen generation rate design basis obtained from a previous IDMS run, based on the HAN and Formic Acid (HAN-FA) flowsheets.

Ritter, J.A.

1992-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

40

GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oxidative degradation of bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid in nitric acid studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Samples of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex-301) were analyzed using direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Positive ion spectra of standard and stereo-pure acids displayed ions typical of the unmodified compound, cationized monomeric and dimeric cluster ion species. In addition, a significant ions 2 u less than the dimeric clusters were seen, that correspond to an oxidatively coupled species designated Cyx2 that is observed as H- or Na-cationized species in the electrospray analyses. Based on uncorrected ion intensities, Cyx2 is estimated to account for about 20% of the total in the standard materials. When samples that were contacted with 3 M HNO3 were analyzed, the positive ion spectrum consisted nearly entirely of ions derived from the oxidatively coupled product, indicating that the acid promotes coupling. The negative ion spectra of the standard acids consisted nearly entirely of the conjugate base that is formed by deprotonation of the acids, and cluster ions containing multiple acid molecules. The negative spectra of the HNO3-contacted samples also contained the conjugate base of the unmodified acid, but also two other species that correspond to the dioxo- and perthio- derivatives. It is concluded that HNO3 contact causes significant oxidation, forming at least three major products, Cyx2, the perthio-acid, and the dioxo-acid.

G. S. Groenewold; D. R. Peterman

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The effects of nitric acid and silane surface treatments on carbon fibers and carbon/vinyl ester composites before and after seawater exposure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research focuses on carbon fiber treatment by nitric acid and 3- (trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate silane, and how this affects carbon/vinyl ester composites. These composites offer… (more)

Langston, Tye A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of amino acids and polyamines as well as nitric oxide (NO) and polyamine synthesis in the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetal and associated placental membrane). Ewes were hysterectomized on Days 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, or 140 of gestation to obtain allantoic and amniotic fluids, intercotyledonary placenta, placentomes and uterine endometrium for the analyses. Alanine, citrulline plus glutamine accounted for about 80% of total ?-amino acids in allantoic fluid during early gestation. Serine (16.5 mM) contributed about 60% of total ?-amino acids in allantoic fluid on Day 140 of gestation. Maximal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginase activities and highest rates of polyamine and NO synthesis occured in all tissues on Day 40 of gestation. In ovine allantoic and amniotic fluids, polyamines were most abundant during early (Days 40-60) and late (Days 100-140) gestation, respectively. Activity of guanosine 5??-triphosphate-cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH), and concentrations of NOS cofactors, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), peaked on Day 40 of gestation in placental and endometrial tissues. In these tissues, NO synthesis was positively correlated with total NOS activity, GTP-CH activity, and concentrations of BH4 and NADPH. The physiological significance of these changes was manifested by undernutrition-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Maternal undernutrition (50% of National Research Council nutrient requirements) reduced concentrations of total ?-amino acids in fetal plasma and fluids, and retarded fetal growth at both mid (Day 78) and late (Day 135) gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in fetal fluids were lower in underfed ewes than in control-fed ewes. Realimentation of underfed ewes between Days 78 and 135 of gestation increased concentrations of total ?-amino acids and polyamines in fetal plasma and fluids, when compared with non-realimented ewes. Results of these studies demonstrate metabolic coordination among the several integrated pathways to enable high rates of polyamine and NO synthesis in the placenta and endometrium during early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings may have important implications for both IUGR and fetal origins of adult disease.

Kwon, Hyuk Jung

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent: I. Kinetics, extractable species, dependence on nitric acid concentration and stoichiometry  

SciTech Connect

Mercury extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by the TRUEX process solvent (0.2 M CMPO, 1.4 M TBP in n-dodecane) has not extensively been examined. Research at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is currently in progress to evaluate the TRUEX process for actinide removal from several acidic waste streams, including liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW), which contains significant quantities of mercury. Preliminary experiments were performed involving the extraction of Hg{sup 203}, added as HgCl{sub 2}, from 0.01 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions. Mercury distribution coefficients (D{sub Hg}) range between 3 and 60 from 0.01 M to 2 M HNO{sub 3}. At higher nitric acid concentrations, i.e. 5 M HNO{sub 3} or greater, D{sub Hg} significantly decreases to values less than 1. These results indicate mercury is extracted from acidic solutions {<=}{approximately}2 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with nitric acid solutions {>=}{approximately}5 M HNO{sub 3}. Experimental results indicate the extractable species is HgCl{sub 2} from nitrate media, i.e., chloride must be present in the nitrate feed to extract mercury. Extractions from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions indicated substantially reduced distribution ratios, typically D{sub Hg}< 1, for the range of nitric acid concentrations examined (0.01 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}). Extraction of mercury, as HgCl{sub 2}, by the individual components of the TRUEX solvent was also examined from 2 M HNO{sub 3}. The diluent, n-dodecane, does not measurably extract mercury. With a 1.4 M TBP/n-dodecane solvent, D{sub Hg} {approximately}3.4 compared with D{sub Hg} {approximately}7 for the TRUEX solvent. Classical slope analysis techniques were utilized to evaluate the stoichiometric coefficients of Hg extraction independently for both CMPO and TBP.

Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF concentration to 0.175 M, the dissolution of 300 g of Pu metal is expected to be essentially complete in 6 h. The dissolution of larger batch sizes would result in the formation of PuO{sub 2} solids. Incomplete dissolution of the PuO{sub 2} formed from the metal is not a solubility limitation, but can be attributed to a combination of reduced acidity and complexation of fluoride which slows the dissolution kinetics and effectively limits the mass of Pu dissolved.

Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Available Technologies: Enhancing Fatty Acid Production by ...  

Synthetic biology has opened the door to fatty acid production from simple carbon sources through engineering microbes such as E. coil or yeast.

52

Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Comparative evaluation of DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-methylphosphonate) and CMPO (octylphenyl-N,N,-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) as extractants for recovering actinides from nitric acid waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Certain neutral, bifunctional organophosphorous compounds are of special value to the nuclear industry. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbomoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) are highly selective extractants for removing actinide and lanthanide elements from nitric acid. We obtained these two extractants from newly available commercial sources and evaluated them for recovering Am(III), Pu(IV), and U(VI) from nitric acid waste streams of plutonium processing operations. Variables included the extractant (DHSECMP or CMPO), extractant/tributylphosphate ratio, diluent, nitrate concentration, nitrate salt/nitric acid ratio, fluoride concentration, and contact time. Based on these experimental data, we selected DHDECMP as the perferred extractant for this application. 18 refs., 30 figs.

Marsh, S.F.; Yarbro, S.L.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

55

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03-0.05 M KF, 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 2.0-3.5 h. When B was used as the neutron poison, 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.05-0.1 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe, and 1 g/L B resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 0.75-2.0 h. Dissolution rates estimated using data from the flowsheet demonstrations agreed reasonably well with the measured rates; although, a discrepancy was observed in the Gd system. The presence of 1 g/L Gd or B in the dissolving solution had about the same effect on the dissolution rate. The predominant Pu valence in the dissolving solution was Pu(IV). The concentration of Pu(VI) was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy and was estimated to be significantly less than 1 wt %. The offgas generation rates and H{sub 2} concentrations measured in the offgas from experiments performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe and either 1 g/L Gd or B were approximately the same. These data support the conclusion that the presence of either 1 g/L Gd or B had the same general effect on the dissolution rate. The calculated offgas generation during the dissolutions was 0.6 mol offgas/mol of Pu. The H{sub 2} concentration measured in the offgas from the dissolution using Gd as the neutron poison was approximately 0.5 vol %. In the B system, the H{sub 2} ranged from nominally 0.8 to 1 vol % which is about the same as measured in the Gd system within the uncertainty of the analysis. The offgas generation rate for the dissolution performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03 M KF, 0.5 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe was approximately a factor of two less than produced in the other dissolutions; however, the concentration of H{sub 2} measured in the offgas was higher. The adjusted concentration ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 vol % as the dissolution proceeded. Higher concentrations of H{sub 2} occur when the Pu dissolution proceeds by a metal/acid reaction rather than nitrate oxidation. The higher H{sub 2} concentration could be attributed to the reduced activity of the fluoride

Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

56

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03-0.05 M KF, 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 2.0-3.5 h. When B was used as the neutron poison, 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.05-0.1 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe, and 1 g/L B resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 0.75-2.0 h. Dissolution rates estimated using data from the flowsheet demonstrations agreed reasonably well with the measured rates; although, a discrepancy was observed in the Gd system. The presence of 1 g/L Gd or B in the dissolving solution had about the same effect on the dissolution rate. The predominant Pu valence in the dissolving solution was Pu(IV). The concentration of Pu(VI) was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy and was estimated to be significantly less than 1 wt %. The offgas generation rates and H{sub 2} concentrations measured in the offgas from experiments performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe and either 1 g/L Gd or B were approximately the same. These data support the conclusion that the presence of either 1 g/L Gd or B had the same general effect on the dissolution rate. The calculated offgas generation during the dissolutions was 0.6 mol offgas/mol of Pu. The H{sub 2} concentration measured in the offgas from the dissolution using Gd as the neutron poison was approximately 0.5 vol %. In the B system, the H{sub 2} ranged from nominally 0.8 to 1 vol % which is about the same as measured in the Gd system within the uncertainty of the analysis. The offgas generation rate for the dissolution performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03 M KF, 0.5 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe was approximately a factor of two less than produced in the other dissolutions; however, the concentration of H{sub 2} measured in the offgas was higher. The adjusted concentration ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 vol % as the dissolution proceeded. Higher concentrations of H{sub 2} occur when the Pu dissolution proceeds by a metal/acid reaction rather than nitrate oxidation. The higher H{sub 2} concentration could be attributed to the reduced activity of the fluoride

Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

57

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}-}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 {mu}g/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC ({beta} = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes ({beta} = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} had a significant positive association with DMA ({beta} = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} showed a statistical and positive association with iAs ({beta} = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA ({beta} = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA ({beta} = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs ({beta} = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production with iAs and its metabolites in stimulated monocytes, supporting previous data that suggests that these cells, and particularly the O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} activation pathway, are relevant targets for As toxicity.

Luna, Ana L.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Conde, Patricia; Vera, Eunice; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Bastida, Mariana [Coordinacion de Investigacion de la Secretaria de Salud del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Calderon-Aranda, Emma S., E-mail: scalder@cinvestav.m [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Characteristics and utilization of wastes from nitric acidsulfate conversion of phosphate ores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These authors study the composition and properties of phosphogypsum and carbonate sludge, the two waste products from nitric acid conversion of phosphate ores. A series of tables presents data gathered on the chemical composition of waste products from various sites, comparison of composition of phosphogypsum samples subjected to decomposition by application of nitric acid sulfate and sulfuric acid respectively, characteristics of lime obtained by heat treatment of wastes, and conversion characteristics and chemical composition of calcium carbonate sludges. The authors conclude that solid waste products from nitric acid sulfate conversion of phosphate ores can be utilized completely, with regeneration of sulfuric acid and production of lime or calcium carbonate for industrial needs or for liming acid soils in agriculture.

Veskimyae, K.I.; Kuusik, R.O.; Veiderma, M.A.

1985-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Late Wash/Nitric Acid flowsheet hydrogen generation bases for simulation of a deflagration/detonation in the DWPF CPC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen generation data obtained from IDMS runs PX4 and PX5 will be used to determine a bases for a deflagration/detonation simulation in the DWPF CPC. This simulation is necessary due to the new chemistry associated with the Late Wash/ Nitric Acid flowsheet and process modifications associated with the presence of H{sub 2} in the offgas. The simulation will be performed by Professor Van Brunt from the University of South Carolina. The scenario which leads up to the deflagration/detonation simulation will be chosen such that the following conditions apply. The SRAT is filled to its maximum operating level with 9,600 gal of sludge, which corresponds to the minimum vapor space above the sludge. The SRAT is at the boiling point, producing H{sub 2} at a very low rate (about 10 % of the peak) and 15 scfm of air inleakage is entering the SRAT. Then, the H{sub 2} generation rate will be allowed to increase exponentially (catalyst activation) until it readies the peak H{sub 2} generation rate of the IDMS run, after which the H{sub 2} generation rate will be allowed to decay exponentially (catalyst deactivation) until the total amount of H2 produced is between 85 and 100% of that produced during the IDMS run.

Ritter, J.A.

1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of a Nitric/Formic Acid process to reduce hydrogen emissions during sludge treatment in the DWPF  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new Nitric/Formic Acid (N/FA) flowsheet was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for use in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The flowsheet was successfully demonstrated with simulated sludge using a 2 L bench-scale experimental system and a one-fifth scale (4000 L) pilot facility, and with actual radioactive waste using a 0.1 L apparatus in one of the SRTC shielded cells. Overall, the new N/FA flowsheet compared to the original formic add flowsheet reduced the peak H{sub 2} generation rate by more than a factor of two and resulted in a more gradual rise in the H{sub 2} evolution. Therefore, implementation of the new N/FA flowsheet in the DWPF CPC would result in an increased margin of safety and possibly a reduction in the scope and cost of modifying the DWPF CPC vessel vent system. Also, the new N/FA flowsheet would be compatible with Tank Farm processes and other DWPF flowsheets, and with the implementation of the new Late Wash flowsheet in the DWPF, it would be key to maintaining a proper redox balance of the melter feed.

Hsu, C.W.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Ha, B.C.; Ritter, J.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Selected alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides as extractants for Am(III) from nitric acid media  

SciTech Connect

A new series of neutral bifunctional extractants, alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, has been prepared and studied as extractants for Am(III) from nitric acid media. Two types of alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkyl CMPO compounds were prepared, one containing N,N-diethyl groups and the other containing N,N-diisobutyl groups. The N,N-diethyl series contained hexyl(phenyl) and 6-methylheptyl(phenyl) derivatives, abbreviated H phi DECMPO and 6-MH phi DECMPO, respectively. The N,N-diisobutyl series contained the n-octyl(phenyl), 6-methylheptyl(phenyl), and the 2-ethylhexyl(phenyl) derivatives, abbreviated O phi D(IB)CMPO, 6-MH phi D(IB)CMPO, and 2-EH phi D(IB)CMPO, respectively. Third power extractant dependencies for the extraction of Am(III) from 0.5 and 3 M HNO/sub 3/ were obtained at low (< 0.25 M) concentrations of extractant, but higher power dependencies were obtained above 0.25 M extractant from 3 M HNO/sub 3/. The H phi DECMPO, 6-MH phi DECMPO, 6-MH phi D(IB)CMPO, and O phi D(IB)CMPO (all 0.5 M in diethylbenzene (DEB)) are significantly better extractants than DHDECMPO for Am(III) from 1 to 6 M HNO/sub 3/. These same extractants have lower D/sub Am/ values than DHDECMPO at low acidities. H phi DECMPO and O phi D(IB)CMPO also have better selectivity for Am(III) over Fe(III) than DHDECMPO. H phi DECMPO in DEB has a strong tendency toward the formation of a second liquid organic phase on extracting macroconcentrations of Nd(III) and U(VI) from 3 M HNO/sub 3/; however, this behavior is substantially diminished with the O phi D(IB)CMPO and 6-MH phi D(IB)CMPO compounds.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.; Diamond, H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

Nghiem, Nhuan Phu (Knoxville, TN); Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

71

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide-tri-n-butyl phosphate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxides, O0D(IB)CMPO, in the presence of tributylphosphate, TBP, has been studied using diethylbenzene, decalin, and normal aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Relative to O0D(IB)CMPO alone, mixtures of TBP and O0D(IB)CMPO show a slight enhancement in the extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid solution above 2 M and a moderate decrease in extraction for lower acid concentrations. The net effect of TBP addition to O0D(IB)CMPO (as well as other selected carbamoylmethylphosphoryl extractants) is a relative insensitivity of the distribution ratio of Am(III) to HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the range of 0.5 M to 6 M and facilitated stripping of Am(III) with dilute acid. Since a continuous variation study of Am(III) extraction using mixtures of O0D(IB)CMPO and TBP at a fixed total concentration revealed no evidence of a mixed complex, the TBP appears to be behaving primarily as a phase modifier. The most significant benefit gained from addition of TBP to O0D(IB)CMPO is the increased metal ion loading capacity and extractant compatibility with alicyclic and aliphatic diluents. The use of TBP to overcome phase compatibility with other bifunctional extractants of the carbamoylmethylphosphoryl type and the use of other phase modifiers with O0D(IB)CMPO have also been investigated. 15 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

74

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Final Report Work Performed Under: Contract No.: DE-F-G02-00ER86106 For: U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown, WV By David Ramey Environmental Energy Inc. 1253 N. Waggoner Road P.O. Box 15 Blacklick, Ohio 43004 And Shang-Tian Yang Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19 th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 - 2004 - Table of Contents Page Proposal Face Page ..........................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................2 Executive Summary

75

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

77

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

Holladay, Jonathan E. (Kennewick, WA)

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

79

SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM, PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY PEROXIDE DISSOLUTION METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating U/sup 233/ from thorium and fission products. The separation is effected by forming a thorium-nitric acid solution of about 3 pH, adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium and thorium peroxide, treating the peroxides with sodium hydroxide to selectively precipitate the uranium peroxide, and reacting the separated solution with nitric acid to re- precipitate the uranium peroxide.

Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Recovery of Phosphoric Acid in Waste Acid Mixtures Discharged ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... In order to separate impurity acids from the phosphoric acid, trioctyl phosphate ( TOP) is used as an extractant. TOP can extract acetic and nitric ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

83

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric, 2010 #12;Gas Non-Natural Sources Concentration Nitric oxide NO Internal Combustion (cars) 0.2 ppm

Toohey, Darin W.

85

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils Processing eChapters Processing 3A8AC1E4581BC1F55CC42D200EF43697 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

86

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nickel and Nitric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... based on nitric and nitrates, to the needs and opportunities in laterite nickel processing. ... Alternative Coolants and Cooling System Designs for Safer Freeze Lined ... Studies on Refining Cobalt Salt Solution by Extraction Chromatography to ...

91

Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid ...  

Jay Keasling and Eric Steen of Berkeley Lab have invented what may be the most efficient metabolic pathway for producing fatty acids, and their ...

92

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust gases. The urea was injected into the gases as a urea-water solution. The decomposition processes of the urea-water solutions and urea powder were examined. For both the nitric oxide removal and the urea decomposition experiments, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The products from the decomposition were examined every 50 K from 500 K to 800 K. The dominant products were ammonia (NH3), isocyanuric acid (HNCO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In case of urea-water solution decomposition, for gas temperatures between 550 and 650 K, the highest concentrations were for NH3 and HNCO. On the other hand, the concentrations of CO2 were highest for gas temperatures of about 500 - 550 K. For temperatures above about 650 K, the amount of these three dominant prod-ucts slightly decreased as temperature increased. ivFor the nitric oxide removal (SNCR) experiments, the gas mixture was heated to temperatures between 800 K and 1350 K. Depending on the temperature, gas composition, residence time, and urea feed rate, removal levels of up to 95% were obtained. Other by-products such as N2O were detected and quantified. The effects of the urea/NO (beta) ratio were determined by varying the urea concentration for a constant NO con-centration of 330 ppm. The effects of the levels of oxygen (O2) in the exhaust gases and the residence time also were investigated. Increasing the urea/NO ratio and residence time resulted in higher NO removal and increased the temperature window of the nitric oxide removal.

Park, Yong Hun

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

96

The Esterification of Naphthenic Acids for Methyl Ester Production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The remediation of tailings water, a by-product of bitumen extraction, is of utmost importance to the Athabasca oil sands industry due to its toxicity to… (more)

Dastjerdi, Zahra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30--December 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicate that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ were observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate. Work is continuing to improve the yield of acetic acid from marine algae. Marine algae have been found to be rather low in carbon, but the carbon appears to be readily available for fermentation. It, therefore, lends itself to the production of higher value chemicals in relatively expensive equipment, where the rapid conversion rate is particularly cost effective. Fixed packed bed fermenters appear to be desirable for the production of liquid products which are inhibitory to the fermentation from coarse substrates. The inhibitory products may be removed from the fermentation by extraction during recirculation. This technique lends itself to either conventional processing or low capital processing of substrates which require long retention times.

Not Available

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A study of the manufacturing and product possibilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the manufacturing and product capabilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound was conducted. Fine granulated cork, 1mm in diameter, was compounded with Natureworks' IngeoTM3051D PLA and extruded into pellets. ...

Reed, Sarah BR

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radiolytic hydrogen production from process vessels in HB line - production rates compared to evolution rates and discussion of LASL reviews  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production from radiolysis of aqueous solutions can create a safety hazard since hydrogen is flammable. At times this production can be significant, especially in HB line where nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of Pu-238, an intense alpha emitter, are processed. The hydrogen production rates from these solutions are necessary for safety analyses of these process systems. The methods and conclusions of hydrogen production rate tests are provided in this report.

Bibler, N.E.

1992-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

107

Succinic Acid-A Model Building Block for Chemical Production from Renewable Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the major considerations for the development of new technologies that can be utilized in a corn wet mill for the production of new chemical products is the concept of platform building blocks. This concept is based on the fact that a single building block has the potential to create a significant number of final products. Succinic acid represents a building block that can be used as a starting material for producing a large number of commodity and specialty chemicals.

Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, John G.; Holladay, John E.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s). The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF) and its receptor (fatB) were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

Kimtrele M. Williams; William E. Martin; Justin Smith; Baraka S. Williams; Bianca L. Garner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)  

SciTech Connect

A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Acid-sludge characterization and remediation improve well productivity and save costs in the Permian Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many oil wells in the Permian Basin have reported sludging problems associated with acid stimulations. The acid sludge is similar among wells and was identified as a viscous emulsion stabilized by asphaltene-rich organic solids. The sludging tendency of the oil increased with the concentrations of asphaltenes and resins, base number of the oil, and ferric ion content in the acid. Only three out of nine commercial acid systems tested were effective in preventing acid-sludge formation; they all use the same novel iron control technology, i.e., catalytic reduction of ferric ions. Several commercial and generic solvent systems were effective in dissolving acid sludge, including mixtures of an aromatic solvent (e.g., xylene) with either isopropyl alcohol (2:1 volume ratio), or ethylene glycol-monobutylether (EGMBE) (2:1 to 3:1 volume ratios). Selection of acid formulations and solvent systems was based on cost effectiveness and operation safety. Field implementation proved successful. If the results of this study had been implemented earlier in the lives of some of the Permian Basin properties, the recovery of 574 BOPD of lost or deferred production from 99 wells could have been realized. This would have resulted in an estimated increased revenue of over US $3 million in 1 year.

Wong, T.C. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Hwang, R.J.; Beaty, D.W. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Dolan, J.D.; McCarty, R.A.; Franzen, A.L. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Midland, TX (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Photoperiod Sensitvie Sorghum for Ethanol Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoperiod sensitive (PS) sorghum, with high soluble sugar content, high mass yield and high drought tolerance in dryland environments, has great potential for bioethanol production. The effect of diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Hydrolysis efficiency increased from 78.9 to 94.4% as the acid concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.5%. However, the highest total glucose yield (80.3%) occurred at the 1.0% acid condition because of the significant cellulose degradation at the 1.5% concentration. Synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study changes of the degree of crystallinity. With comparison of cellulosic crystallinity and adjusted cellulosic crystallinity, the crystalline cellulose decreased after low acidic concentration (0.5%) applied, but did not change significantly, as the acid concentration increased. Scanning electron microscopy was also employed to understand how the morphological structure of PS sorghum changed after pretreatment. Under current processing conditions, the total ethanol yield is 74.5% (about 0.2 g ethanol from 1 g PS sorghum). A detail mass balance was also provided.

F Xu; Y Shi; X Wu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids. [For use in tumor and pancreatic imaging  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period.

Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Butler, T.A.; Callahan, A.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 11 CLA in Functional Food: Enrichment of Animal Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 11 CLA in Functional Food: Enrichment of Animal Products Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pdf of Cha

118

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

119

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south of the former waste treatment plant. The plant was situated on a mesa that forms the south rim of Acid Canyon. Acid Canyon is a small tributary near the head

120

New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

Russell, Richard C.

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

FORMIC ACID FREE FLOWSHEET DEVELOPMENT TO ELIMINATE CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF’s chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Fellinger, T.; Bricker, J.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Site Description and History The Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south

125

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Layne, Joseph [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 2 Detection of Partial ß-Oxidation Products of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Their Metabolites in Animals andHumans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 2 Detection of Partial ß-Oxidation Products of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Their Metabolites in Animals andHumans Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - N

127

Method for the production of electrodes for lead--acid storage batteries. [drying by inert gas at high temperature  

SciTech Connect

A method for the production of lead--acid storage batteries having a grid of lead alloy filled with active materials consisting of lead oxides, lead powder, sulfuric acid, and water is described. The electrodes are subjected to a jet of an inert gas at a high temperature and velocity for several seconds to dry the surface of the electrodes while leaving the interior thereof moist.

Nikolaou, P.

1978-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

128

Controlling acid rain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

Finzel, T.G.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nitric oxide reburning with methane  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with initial findings from the ongoing, three-year DOE program that began on 02/01/1995. The program involves computer simulation studies to aid in planning and conducting a series of experiments that will extend the knowledge of reburning process. The objective of this work is to find nitric oxide reduction effectiveness for various reburning fuels and identify both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction mechanisms characterizing NO reduction.

Kumpaty, S.K. [Rust Coll., Holly Springs, MS (United States); Subramanian, K. [Subramanian (Kannikeswaran), Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analysis of Lipid OxidationChapter 11 Analysis of Interaction Products of Oxidized Lipids with Amino Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Lipid Oxidation Chapter 11 Analysis of Interaction Products of Oxidized Lipids with Amino Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books 84DC9CA8678DDD7511E2D38554DB222B AOCS Pre

133

Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

134

PROCESS FOR SEGREGATING URANIUM FROM PLUTONIUM AND FISSION-PRODUCT CONTAMINATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aqueous nitric acid solution containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values is contacted with an organic extractant comprised of a trialkyl phosphate and an organic diluent. The relative amounts of trialkyl phosphate and uranium values are controlled to achieve a concentration of uranium values in the organic extractant of at least 0.35 moles uranium per mole of trialkyl phosphate, thereby preferentially extracting uranium values into the organic extractant.

Ellison, C.V.; Runion, T.C.

1961-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

135

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

EXTRACTION OF HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS WITH ETHYL SULFIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting Pu>s6/sup > /om an aqueous ammonium nitrate-containing nitric acid solution with ethyl sulfide.

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher total solids content and may be effective at acid stoichiometries below 100%, although no testing was performed below 100% acid stoichiometry. There are several issues related to the development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. First, the measurement of anions using the new glycolate anion procedure likely needs to be optimized to improve the accuracy of the anions important to DWPF processing and REDOX prediction. Second, the existing REDOX equation with an added term for glycolate did not accurately predict the glass REDOX for the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Improvement of the anion measurement or modification of the REDOX methodology or equation may be necessary to improve the REDOX prediction. Last, the glycolic-formic flowsheet dissolves a number of metals, including iron. This leads to a thinner slurries but also dissolves up a portion of the iron, which is currently used for criticality control. It is recommended that DWPF continue to support development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. This flowsheet meets or outperforms the baseline flowsheet in off-gas generation, mercury removal, product rheology and general ease of processing. Additional testing is in progress to demonstrate the effectiveness of the nitric-glycolic-formic flowsheet in processing a wide sludge processing window using the matrix sludge simulants.

Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Chromatographic extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid for production and purification of promethium-147  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing and purifying promethium-147 including the steps of: irradiating a target material including neodymium-146 with neutrons to produce promethium-147 within the irradiated target material; dissolving the irradiated target material to form an acidic solution; loading the acidic solution onto a chromatographic separation apparatus containing HDEHP; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the promethium-147 from the neodymium-146.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F (Oak Ridge, TN); Boll, Rose A (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 1, July 1--September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in research designed to develop an economically competitive process for producing acetic acid from biomass for the purpose of sparing petroleum for other uses, to evaluate marine algae as a potential source of biomass, and to document the feasibility of running fermentations in fixed packed bed fermenters. It was demonstrated that marine algae can be fermented to acetic acid. Initial rates of up to 168 meq/1 day were observed. These rates are substantially in excess of the 47 meq/1 day used in the economic projections. Also, when using marine algae as a substrate, acid levels were generated equivalent to the highest reported with other substrates. It was also demonstrated that a 4-foot fixed packet bed fermenter may be operated with marine algae as a substrate at 20 percent solids or 200 meq/1.

Sanderson, J.E.; Augenstein, D.C.; Wise, D.L.

1977-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canola is a cool-season, oilseed crop grown throughout Europe, Canada, and the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The expansion of canola production into new growing regions, such as the Southern Plains region, has resulted in new production challenges. The Southern Plains region cultivates canola as a winter annual compared to a spring annual for the Northern Great Plains and Canada. Given the difference in climate and weed spectrum, region-specific weed management systems need to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty acid composition, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate a broad spectrum of herbicides for potential use in South Texas canola production with respect to crop injury, effects on canola seed oil content, fatty acid composition, weed control, biomass yield, and forage quality. Visual crop injury at 42 DAE was unacceptable for saflufenacil at both 0.12 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1 and ethalfluralin at 1.05 kg ai ha-1. Trifluralin at 1.12 and 0.56 kg ai ha-1, S-metolachlor at 2.14 and 1.07 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone at 0.24 and 0.12 kg ai ha-1, and pendimethalin at 0.8 kg ai ha-1 had lowest visual injury of all treatments. Fluroxypyr applied EPOST caused severe injury at both 0.21 and 0.11 kg ae ha-1. All other EPOST treatments did not cause any visible injury. Seed oil content was not affected by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor herbicides, such as carfentrazone-ethyl and saflufenacil, negatively affect canola oil quality. Biomass yield was improved for all herbicide treatments except pendimethalin PRE when compared to the untreated plots. Crude protein content of canola forage was not affected by herbicide treatment. Digestible dry matter appeared to be reduced by treatments that included an EPOST application of sethoxydim. The research shows that pendimethalin and S-metolachlor may be suitable for canola production in South Texas based on low crop injury and effective weed control. Neither pendimethalin nor S-metolachlor is currently labeled for use in canola. The herbicides trifluralin, ethalfluralin, quizalofop P-ethyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, sethoxydim, glyphosate, clethodim, and clopyralid are currently labeled for use in canola and were confirmed suitable for canola production in South Texas. Carfentrazone-ethyl is currently labeled for use in canola but the effects on oil quality should be considered.

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to evaluate the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted that used 0, 5, and 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum only. Field studies were concluded 41 and 45 months after treatment application at the two locations. No effect of material on alfalfa yield or tissue mineral concentration was observed. Also, rate did not affect yield. However, there were differences in plant tissue mineral concentration in several harvests that were related to rate. Soil was sampled periodically to 120 cm and indicated movement of Ca and S into the soil profile to depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. Subsoil pHH2O and pHCaCl2 were not affected by treatment. Extractable and exchangeable Al were not reduced by movement of Ca and S into the soil. In the glasshouse study, alfalfa yields and root growth were not affected by gypsum rate. As gypsum rate increased, plant tissue S increased, but K and Mg decreased. Alfalfa roots did not grow below 60 cm, even though there was indication of material movement to 90 cm in the soil. Although sulfur moved to 75 cm, no effect on soil Al was observed. Leachate collected from the bottoms of columns indicated that soil cations were leached as a result of gypsum application. Gypsum and the flue gas desulfurization by-product did not significantly affect the acid soils used in these studies or improve alfalfa growth.

Chessman, Dennis John

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and UtilizationChapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization Chapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing Soybeans eChapters Food Science &

144

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 8 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Using Heterotrophically Grown Microalgae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 8 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Using Heterotrophically Grown Microalgae Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press D

145

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters D

146

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 5 Arachidonic Acid: Fermentative Production by Mortierella Fungiroduction by Mortierella Fungi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 5 Arachidonic Acid: Fermentative Production by Mortierella Fungi roduction by Mortierella Fungi Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press

147

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 4 Development of a Docosahexaenoic Acid Production Technology Using Schizochytrium: Historical Perspective and Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 4 Development of a Docosahexaenoic Acid Production Technology Using Schizochytrium: Historical Perspective and Update Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioprodu

148

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 7 Alternative Carbon Sources for Heterotrophic Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid by the Marine Alga Crypthecodinium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 7 Alternative Carbon Sources for Heterotrophic Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid by the Marine Alga Crypthecodinium Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproduc

149

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downlo

150

Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products,… (more)

Wang, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Methods and materials for the production of L-lactic acid in yeast  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Recombinant yeast are provided having, in one aspect, multiple exogenous LDH genes integrated into the genome, while leaving native PDC genes intact. In a second aspect, recombinant yeast are provided having an exogenous LDH gene integrated into its genome at the locus of a native PDC gene, with deletion of the native PDC gene. The recombinant yeast are useful in fermentation process for producing lactic acid.

Hause, Ben (Jordan, MN); Rajgarhia, Vineet (Minnetonka, MN); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.  

SciTech Connect

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation for fermentation-derived organic acids production.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lactate esters produced from carbohydrate have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrate. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, eliminates the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

Tsai, S. P.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

154

Hyponitrite Radical, a Stable Adduct of Nitric Oxide and Nitroxyl  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications: Sergei V. Lymar Publications: Sergei V. Lymar Hyponitrite Radical, a Stable Adduct of Nitric Oxide and Nitroxyl G. A. Poskrebyshev, V. Shafirovich and S. V. Lymar J. Am. Chem. Soc., ASAP Article Rate of ON-OO- Bond Homolysis and the Gibbs Energy of Formation of Peroxynitrite S. V. Lymar and G. A. Poskrebyshev J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 7991-7996 (2003) Spin-Forbidden Deprotonation of Aqueous Nitroxyl (HNO) V. Shafirovich and S. V. Lymar J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 6547-6552 (2003) Hydroxyl Radical Formation by O-O Bond Homolysis in Peroxynitrous Acid S. V. Lymar, R. F. Khairutdinov and J. K. Hurst Inorg. Chem., 42, 5259-5266 (2003) Reactions of the Dihydroxylamine (HNO2-.) and Hydronitrite (NO22-.) Radical Ions S. V. Lymar, H. A. Schwarz and G. Czapski J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 7245-7250 (2002)

155

Production of hydrobromic acid from bromine, methane and steam for hydrogen production. 1997 annual report, December 15, 1996--January 31, 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar-driven reaction between bromine and steam was studied. The goal was to make hydrobromic acid for hydrogen production and energy storage use via a reversible, high efficiency hydrogen/bromine fuel cell. While the reaction was technically successful and was demonstrated at NREL, it was determined to be uneconomical in today`s economy due to present high capital costs of the solar hardware. In an effort to provide for an interim process that can be utilized to produce hydrogen and store energy until the cost of solar hardware decreases, SRT`s process was modified to include the addition of methane. The new concept entails (i) reaction of bromine with methane and steam to produce hydrogen bromide and carbon dioxide and (ii) electrolysis of the stored hydrogen bromide for production of H{sub 2(g)} and recovery of Br{sub 2(1)}. Electrolyzers are available today for the electrolysis of HBr. In addition, a vendor for a reversible H{sub 2}-Br{sub 2} fuel has been identified. Most components of the envisioned system are commercially available. At present, the reactor needs the most development. In the SRT process, the electrical power required to split water is reduced effectively in half by the production of hydrogen bromide. The SRT concept is very attractive from an economic viewpoint as well. A reversible electrolytic fuel cell employed in the SRT process is capitalized via its use in load leveling by the utility. Thus, the price of SRT-produced hydrogen reflects only the cost of methane, reactor system capital costs and off-peak electrical power.

NONE

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Uranium control in phosphogypsum. [In wet-process phosphoric acid production  

SciTech Connect

In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes.

Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge  

SciTech Connect

This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Localization of the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and its conversion to ethylene during the rhythmic production of the gas in Sorghum bicolor seedlings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies were conducted to determine where in the plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is made and converted to ethylene in Sorghum bicolor seedlings producing the gas in circadian rhythms. For the first time, a natural enzyme was used to convert ACC to ethylene for assay by gas chromatography. Parameters like Km and Vmax of ACC oxidase in the standard assay were well complemented in more rigorous Eddie Hofstee and Lineweaver-Burk plots. A conversion formula was derived allowing use of constants and variable product to calculate the unknown ACC concentration. The new method proved far simpler and efficient than the NaOCl and Hg?² method by eliminating slow purification steps and interference. Measuring rates of ethylene production, free and conjugated ACC contents from detached as well as intact plant organs tested the role of roots in rhythmic ethylene synthesis. Variation in ethylene synthesis in the phytochrome B mutant and its wild-type cultivar under different light regimes suggested that phytochrome regulates ethylene synthesis. Occurrence of rhythmic phenomena in detached shoots made it clear that regulation of ethylene synthesis takes place in shoots. Pulses of ethylene may be signaling the plant as the "hands" of the biological clock and may have some role in the phenotype of the mutant cultivar. Detachment did not create a significant difference in ACC levels between intact and detached shoots of either cultivar. Especially, ACC levels did not decrease in detached shoots as would be expected if their ACC originated to a major degree in roots. Similar results were found in roots, suggesting that adequate amounts of ACC to convert into ethylene are present in detached shoots. Ethylene rhythms may be controlled by a self-inhibitory mechanism taking place at the time of ACC synthesis. Conjugation of ACC (MACC) may be indirectly regulating ethylene synthesis by preventing excessive accumulation of ACC in roots and shoots. Probing of mRNA isolated during a time course with be353050 transcript gave two putative ACC synthase genes, tentatively named sbACS2 and sbACS3. Flooding and injury treatments did not induce statement of either of the transcripts. sbACS3 is expressed constitutively whereas sbACS2 is diurnally expressed. The combined effect of both the transcripts may have resulted in diurnal but weak rhythms of ACC in shoots.

Gohil, Hemantkumar Laxmansinh

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Author's personal copy Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commonly can complex aluminum in acid streams (e.g., Nordstrom and May 1996; Lindsay and Walthall 1996L sample was filtered (0.45 m) and acidified with 3 drops of trace metal grade nitric acid (FA flowpaths in fractured rock, pH can drop, and the acid dissolution of kaolinite can release Al to streams

Kirby, Carl S.

163

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

SciTech Connect

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

164

Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are serious concerns about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy and nutrient and water use efficiency of large-scale, first generation bio-energy feedstocks currently in use. A major question is whether biofuels obtained from these feedstocks are effective in combating climate change and what impact they will have on soil and water resources. Another fundamental issue relates to the magnitude and nature of their impact on food prices and ultimately on the livelihoods of the poor. A possible solution to overcome the current potentially large negative effects of large-scale biofuel production is developing second and third generation conversion techniques from agricultural residues and wastes and step up the scientific research efforts to achieve sustainable biofuel production practices. Until such sustainable techniques are available governments should scale back their support for and promotion of biofuels. Multipurpose feedstocks should be investigated making use of the bio-refinery concept (bio-based economy). At the same time, the further development of non-commercial, small scale

Science Council Secretariat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

Quick, E.E.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Further evaluation of a nitric oxide model  

SciTech Connect

Further verification of a predictive model for nitric oxide formation during turbulent combustion of coal containing fuels has been conducted. Computations for pulverized coal combustion in CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ mixtures of various percents have been completed. The predictions NO concentrations compare favorably with experimental measurements. Simulations were also completed for entrained-flow gasification in a laboratory-scale combustor. Again, reasonable agreement is demonstrated by comparing laboratory NO maps to predicted NO concentrations. The effects of pressure on NO concentrations were reliably predicted. Calculations were also completed for air-staged combustion in a one-dimensional, laboratory-scale reactor. In general, the trend of decreasing primary zone stoichiometric ratio and variation in staging air location were correctly predicted. The simplified global mechanism expressions of the NO model appear to sufficiently account for the formation and competing destruction of NO in both fuel-lean and fuel-rich environments for different reactor systems and conditions.

Boardman, R.D.; Smoot, L.D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Prediction of nitric oxide concentrations during inflammation and carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric oxide is a biological messenger which is synthesized enzymatically throughout the body and which has numerous physiological functions, including roles in blood pressure control, regulation of clotting, and ...

Chin, Melanie Pei-Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Structural Studies of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Complexes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from artery and vein is nitric oxide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 9265-9269 (1987). Khan, M.T. & Furchgott, R. Additional evidence that endothelium-derived relaxing factor is...

173

Reduction of Pertechnetate By Acetohydroxamic Acid: Formation of [tc**II(NO)(AHA)(2)(H(2)O)]**+ And Implications for the UREX Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry and the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but it may be augmented by some products of the reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}, 1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent: potentiometric-spectrophotometric titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The potential formation of 1 during reprocessing may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

Gong, C.-M.S.; Lukens, W.W.; Poineau, F.; Czerwinski, K.R.

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reduction of pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid: Formation of [TcNO(AHA)2(H2O)]+ and implications for the UREX process.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a the d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but may be augmented by products of reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex (1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent; titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4.5 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The formation of 1 may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

1Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-4006; Gong, Cynthia-May S; Poineau, Frederic; Lukens, Wayne W; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

175

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Incinerator ash dissolution model for the system: Plutonium, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research accomplished two goals. The first was to develop a computer program to simulate a cascade dissolver system. This program would be used to predict the bulk rate of dissolution in incinerator ash. The other goal was to verify the model in a single-stage dissolver system using Dy/sub 2/O/sub 3/. PuO/sub 2/ (and all of the species in the incinerator ash) was assumed to exist as spherical particles. A model was used to calculate the bulk rate of plutonium oxide dissolution using fluoride as a catalyst. Once the bulk rate of PuO/sub 2/ dissolution and the dissolution rate of all soluble species were calculated, mass and energy balances were written. A computer program simulating the cascade dissolver system was then developed. Tests were conducted on a single-stage dissolver. A simulated incinerator ash mixture was made and added to the dissolver. CaF/sub 2/ was added to the mixture as a catalyst. A 9M HNO/sub 3/ solution was pumped into the dissolver system. Samples of the dissolver effluent were analyzed for dissolved and F concentrations. The computer program proved satisfactory in predicting the F concentrations in the dissolver effluent. The experimental sparge air flow rate was predicted to within 5.5%. The experimental percentage of solids dissolved (51.34%) compared favorably to the percentage of incinerator ash dissolved (47%) in previous work. No general conclusions on model verification could be reached. 56 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

Brown, E V

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of sugar, starch, and cellulose, but are expected to perform poorly with respect to climate stabilization about crops yields [34] and conversion efficiencies [35], we estimate that these scenarios would potential bioethanol production from wasted crops and crop residues. Biomass Bioenerg 26: 361­375. 36

Arnold, Frances H.

178

Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

179

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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181

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

1960-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

182

Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

Lim, Mi Hee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

PRODUCTION OF METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zirconium nitrate can be separated from hafnium nitrate by mixing the nitrates with ethyl cellulose pulp, eluting the mass with diethyl ether containing nitric acid, and passing the eluent through a column of cellulose pulp the outflow of which is substantially free of hafnium.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Davies, G.R.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

184

NON-RACEMIC AMINO ACID PRODUCTION BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION OF ACHIRAL INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS WITH CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.'s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.'s of up to 1.34% for ({sup 13}C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL photons per deposited molecule. This result, directly comparable with some L excesses measured in meteorites, supports a scenario in which exogenous delivery of organics displaying a slight L excess, produced in an extraterrestrial environment by an asymmetric astrophysical process, is at the origin of biomolecular asymmetry on Earth. As a consequence, a fraction of the meteoritic organic material consisting of non-racemic compounds may well have been formed outside the solar system. Finally, following this hypothesis, we support the idea that the protosolar nebula has indeed been formed in a region of massive star formation, regions where UV-CPL of the same helicity is actually observed over large spatial areas.

De Marcellus, Pierre; Nuevo, Michel; Danger, Gregoire; Deboffle, Dominique; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis [Univ Paris-Sud, 'Astrochimie et Origines', Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes, UMR 6001, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

IMPLICATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ORGANIC ACID MOIETIES FOR BASALT WEATHERING OVER GEOLOGICAL TIME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in explaining paleosol chemistry. Although data are available on the effects of organic acids on dissolution with aluminum foil to prevent photoreductive dissolution of Fe-containing minerals by the organics (Cornell with nitric acid. Concentrations of aqueous FeII in the solutions were determined using the Ferrozine® method

Chorover, Jon

187

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

188

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

189

Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Kato, N. (2002) Wax ester production from n-alkanes bycoli engineered for fuel production. Microbiology 152: 2529-Increased fatty acid production in potato by engineering of

Lykidis, Athanasios

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - PNNL: Available ...  

Acrylic acid is commonly used in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component ...

191

Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for isobutanol production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K (eds) The microbial production of amino acids. Halsted,K (eds) The microbial production of amino acids. Halsted,with valine and lysine production titers reaching ?100 g/L (

Smith, Kevin Michael; Cho, Kwang-Myung; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Prediction of nitric oxide in advanced combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer model to predict nitric oxide (NO) concentrations has been applied to advanced-concept pulverized coal systems and evaluated by comparing model predictions with experimental data. Specifically, the effects of pressure, stoichiometric ratio, air stage location, temperature, and inert gas type on NO concentrations were predicted by the model and compared to experimental data. This work is a continuation of previous model evaluations, which found favorable prediction of NO concentrations for variation of stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, coal moisture content, particle size, and swirling and nonswirling diffusion flames.

Boardman, R.D.; Smoot, L.D.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The Relative Importance of Oxidation Pathways and Clouds to Atmospheric Ambient Sulfate Production as Predicted by the Regional Acid Deposition Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and use of a version of the Regional Acid Deposition Model/Engineering Model (RADM/FM) called the Comprehensive Sulfate Tracking Model (COMSTM) is reported. The COMSTM is used to diagnose the relative contributions of each sulfate ...

John N. McHenry; Robin L. Dennis

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Acid effects on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. Small pre-reduction peaks associated with the instability of mercury were observed in solutions containing less than or equal to 12.5, tuna using both of these approaches to overcome the interference problem proved to be successful.

Adeloju, S.B.; Mann, T.F.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

2006 SRS ES&H.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process is accomplished by introducing prepared and assayed scrap into vessels containing nitric acid, heating and treating the acid for complete product dissolution, fi ltering...

197

SRNL - News Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the UREX scrub stream contacts nitric acid, the compound begins to decompose, forming acetic acid and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The HAN easily decomposes to gaseous products...

198

Wintertime Nitric Acid Chemistry: Implications from Three-Dimensional Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional simulation of the evolution of HNO3 has been run for the winter of 1979. Winds and temperatures are taken from a stratospheric data assimilation analysis, and the chemistry is based on Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere ...

Richard B. Rood; Jack A. Kaye; Anne R. Douglass; Dale J. Allen; Stephen Steenrod; Edmund M. Larson

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Biochemistry of mobile zinc and nitric oxide revealed by fluorescent sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation ...

Pluth, Michael D.

203

Progress in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production. [Oxide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid cycles; bromide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid-sulfur cycles; hybrid cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production is based on attempts to develop criteria required of an ideal process and to search for types of thermochemical cycles that approximate these criteria. The advantages of reactions with large entropy changes have been demonstrated. The necessity for experimental verification of conceptual cycles has become apparent from the program. This necessity has been stressed in the paper. It should be emphasized that any comparison of conceptual cycles or of engineering or cost analyses must eventually be based on real, rather than assumed, data. (auth)

Bowman, M.G.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Both surfaces were cleaned prior to braz- ing with nitric acid and/ or acetone. When used, flux oxidation of a powdered dilute cop- per-aluminum alloy. The oxidized alloy is then placed in a pure copper one, the interlayer melts. Stage two in- volves erosion and dissolution of part of the base metal

Kirby, Carl S.

205

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent Application

207

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Other products include carbon dioxide and organic acids.acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In its absence formiclactic and succinic acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Both

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Transport of Nitric Oxide by the Mean Circulation and Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of the zonal mean circulation and planetary-wave winds on the distribution of nitric oxide in the 55–120 km height region is investigated. A time-dependent numerical model is used to investigate the interaction between planetary waves ...

G. A. Jones; S. K. Avery

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Production of levulinic acid in urban biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy security of the United States depends, most experts agree, on the development of substitute sources of energy for the transportation sector, which accounts for over 93% of the nation's petroleum consumption. ...

Sheldon-Coulson, Garth Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russia). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion gases. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The major products were nitric oxide (NO), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The aim was to delineate the effect of various parameters including reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, NH3-to-NO ratio, space velocity, heating area, catalyst arrangement, and vanadium coating on the removal of nitric oxide. The investigation showed that the change of the parameters significantly affected the removals of NO and NH3 species, the residual NH3 concentration (or NH3 slip), the temperature of the maximum NO reduction, and the temperature of complete NH3 conversion. The reaction temperature was increased from the ambient temperature (25°C) to 450 °C. For both catalysts, high NO and NH3 removals were obtained in the presence of a small amount of oxygen, but no significant influence was observed from 0.1 to 3.0% O2. An increase in NH3-to-NO ratio increased NO reduction but decreased NH3 conversions. For V2O5-WO3/TiO2, the decrease of space velocity increased NO and NH3 removals and broadened the active temperature window (based on NO > 88% and NH3 > 87%) about 50°C. An increase in heating area decreased the reaction temperature of the maximum NO reduction from 350 to 300°C, and caused the active reaction temperature window (between 250 and 400°C) to shift toward 50°C lower reaction temperatures (between 200 and 350°C). The change of catalyst arrangements resulted slight improvement for NO and NH3 removals, therefore, the change might contribute to more gas removals. The catalyst with extra vanadium coating showed higher NO reductions and NH3 conversions than the catalyst without the extra vanadium coating.

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

216

EXTRACTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING SAME  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for separating plutonium from the fission products present in masses of neutron irradiated uranium are reported. The neutron irradiated uranium is first dissolved in an aqueous solution of nitric acid. The plutonium in this solution is present as plutonous nitrate. The aqueous solution is then agitated with an organic solvent, which is not miscible with water, such as diethyl ether. The ether extracts 90% of the uraryl nitrate leaving, substantially all of the plutonium in the aqueous phase. The aqueous solution of plutonous nitrate is then oxidized to the hexavalent state, and agitated with diethyl ether again. In the ether phase there is then obtained 90% of plutonium as a solution of plutonyl nitrate. The ether solution of plutonyl nitrate is then agitated with water containing a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide, and the plutonium dissolves in the water and is reduced to the plutonous state. The uranyl nitrate remains in the ether. The plutonous nitrate in the water may be recovered by precipitation.

Seaborg, G.T.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radioactive startup of two new SRS processing facilities, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side-Solvent-Extraction Unit (MCU) will add two new waste streams to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The ARP will remove actinides from the 5.6 M salt solution resulting in a sludge-like product that is roughly half monosodium titanate (MST) insoluble solids and half sludge insoluble solids. The ARP product will be added to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) at boiling and dewatered prior to pulling a SRAT receipt sample. The cesium rich MCU stream will be added to the SRAT at boiling after both formic and nitric acid have been added and the SRAT contents concentrated to the appropriate endpoint. A concern was raised by an external hydrogen review panel that the actinide loaded MST could act as a catalyst for hydrogen generation (Mar 15, 2007 report, Recommendation 9). Hydrogen generation, and it's potential to form a flammable mixture in the off-gas, under SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing conditions has been a concern since the discovery that noble metals catalyze the decomposition of formic acid. Radiolysis of water also generates hydrogen, but the radiolysis rate is orders of magnitude lower than the noble metal catalyzed generation. As a result of the concern raised by the external hydrogen review panel, hydrogen generation was a prime consideration in this experiment. Testing was designed to determine whether the presence of the irradiated ARP simulant containing MST caused uncontrolled or unexpected hydrogen production during experiments simulating the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) due to activation of titanium. A Shielded Cells experiment, SC-5, was completed using SB4 sludge from Tank 405 combined with an ARP product produced from simulants by SRNL researchers. The blend of sludge and MST was designed to be prototypic of planned DWPF SRAT and SME cycles. As glass quality was not an objective in this experiment, no vitrification of the SME product was completed. The results from this experiment were compared to the results from experiment SC-1, a similar experiment with SB4 sludge without added ARP product. This report documents: (1) The preparation and subsequent composition of the ARP product. (2) The preparation and subsequent compositional characterization of the SRAT Receipt sample. Additional details will be presented concerning the noble metal concentration of the ARP product and the SRAT receipt sample. Also, calculations related to the amount of formic and nitric acid added during SRAT processing will be presented as excess formic acid will lead to additional hydrogen generation. (3) Highlights from processing during the SRAT cycle and SME cycle (CPC processing). Hydrogen generation will be discussed since this was the prime objective for this experiment. (4) A comparison of CPC processing between SC-1 (without ARP simulant) and SC-5. This work was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP)6, and analyses were guided by an Analytical Sample Support Matrix (ASSM)7. This Research and Development (R&D) was completed to support operation of DWPF.

Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

218

Glass Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

Shortland, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Production Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hall (2005), “Prices, Production, and Inventories over theProduction Targets ? Guillermo Caruana CEMFI caruana@cem?.esthe theory using monthly production targets of the Big Three

Caruana, Guillermo; Einav, Liran

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pottery Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paul T. Nicholson. ) Pottery Production, Nicholson, UEE 2009Short Citation: Nicholson 2009, Pottery Production. UEE.Paul T. , 2009, Pottery Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Nicholson, Paul T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cordage Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

294: fig. 15-3). Cordage Production, Veldmeijer, UEE 2009Short Citation: Veldmeijer, 2009, Cordage Production. UEE.André J. , 2009, Cordage Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Veldmeijer, André J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Complexation of lanthanides and actinides by acetohydroxamic acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a suitable reagent for the complexant-based, as opposed to reductive, stripping of plutonium and neptunium ions from the tributylphosphate solvent phase in advanced PUREX or UREX processes designed for future nuclear-fuel reprocessing. Stripping is achieved by the formation of strong hydrophilic complexes with the tetravalent actinides in nitric acid solutions. To underpin such applications, knowledge of the complexation constants of AHA with all relevant actinide (5f) and lanthanide (4f) ions is therefore important. This paper reports the determination of stability constants of AHA with the heavier lanthanide ions (Dy-Yb) and also U(IV) and Th(IV) ions. Comparisons with our previously published AHA stability-constant data for 4f and 5f ions are made. (authors)

Taylor, R.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Sinkov, S.I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent. Patent Number: 7,049,446: Issued: May 23, 2006:

224

Chloride Leaching of Spent Lead-Acid Battery Paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In this study leaching of spent lead acid-battery paste in sodium ... Cost, Energy, Emissions, and Resource Assessment of the Production of ...

225

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distiller’s grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

227

A CHEMICAL METHOD OF TREATING FISSIONABLE MATERIAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One step of a process for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products is presented. A nitric acid solution containing these constituents is treated with formic acid to reduce simultaneously the plutonium to a valence state of not greater than +4 and destroy and eliminate the excess nitric acid.

Olson, C.M.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Marine Products and Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile to test Fatty Acid Composition with AOCS methods Ce 1b-89 or Ce 1i-07. Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Prog

232

Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55°C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases, in Climate Biosphere Interaction: Biogenic Emissions and the Environmental Effects of Climate Change, edited by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the

Joel S. Levine

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

239

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to invert the conventional scale of values for products of coal utilization processes by making coal chars (carbons) that, because of their unique properties, are the most valuable materials in the product slate. A unique type of coal-derived carbon studied in this project is oxidized activated coal char having both adsorptive and catalyst properties. Major program elements were (a) preparation and characterization of materials (b) characterization of carbons and catalyst testing (c) completion of diesel engine testing of low-ash coal and (d) initiation of a two-year adsorption study. Materials prepared were (a) two low-ash coal samples one via ChemCoal processing of IBC-109 and the other by acid dissolution of IBC-109`s mineral matter, (b) coal char (MG char), (c) activated low-ash carbon (AC), (d) oxidized activated carbon (OAC). Amoco continued its support with state-of-the art analytical capabilities and development of catalyst testing procedures. Diesel engine tests were made with low ash coal dispersed in diesel fuel at solid loadings of 20% and 35%. The slurry was successfully burned in cylinder 2 of a two-cylinder diesel engine, after modifications of the engine`s fuel injection system. The higher speed proved to be more favorable but the slurry burned with a slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency at both speeds with respect to diesel fuel alone. Adsorption studies included preparation of seven base-line carbon samples and their characterization, including their N{sub 2} BET surface areas and apparent densities. Paranitrophenol (PNP) adsorption isotherms were determined for the six controls. Oxidation of carbon with nitric acid decreases activated carbon`s PNP adsorption capacity while air oxidation increases adsorption capacity.

Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis; Syrimis, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana (United States); Fatemi, S.M. [Amoco, Naperville, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

APPLICATION OF FORMOHYDROXAMIC ACID IN NUCLEAR PROCESSING: SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXATION WITH TECHNETIUM-99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is an organic ligand planned for use in the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process. It reduces neptunium and plutonium, and the resultant hydrophilic complexes are separated from uranium by extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent. AHA undergoes hydrolysis to acetic acid which will impede the recycling of nitric acid. During recent discussions of the UREX process, it has been proposed to replace AHA by formohydroxamic acid (FHA). FHA will undergo hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. The reported reduction potentials of AHA and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) indicated that it may be possible for AHA to reduce technetium, altering its fate in the fuel cycle. At UNLV, it has been demonstrated that TcO{sub 4}{sup -} undergoes reductive nitrosylation by AHA under a variety of conditions. The resulting divalent technetium is complexed by AHA to form the pseudo-octahedral trans-aquonitrosyl (diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}). In this paper, we are reporting the synthesis of FHA and its complex formation with technetium along with the characterization of FHA crystals achieved by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the complexation of FHA with Tc and the results were compared with previous data on AHA. The first experiment involved the elution of Tc from a Reillex HP anion exchange resin, and the second one monitored the complexation of technetium with FHA by UV-visible spectrophotometry.

Amber Wright; Edward Mausolf; Keri Campbell; Frederic Poineau; P. Paviet-Hartmann

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

RMOTC - Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production RMOTC Pumpjack in action During the process of the sale of NPR-3, RMOTC will focus on maximizing the value of the NPR-3 site and will continue with its Production Optimization Projects. NPR-3 includes 9,481 acres with more than 400 oil-producing wells. Current oil production is at approximately 240 barrels of oil per day. In July 2013, RMOTC began working on a number of Production Optimization Projects within the NPR-3 field, with the goal to optimize and improve flow and efficiency. Production Optimization Projects include repairing and replacing existing infrastructure with new infrastructure in order to optimize current wells and bring additional wells online. These Production Optimization Projects will continue throughout 2013 and are focused on improving current production and creating revenue for the America tax payer.

242

Antihydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too.

Rizzini, Evandro Lodi; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l'Ingegneria e per i Materiali, Universita di Brescia, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Brescia, 25133 Brescia (Italy)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

243

Tin Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...descending order, Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Bolivia, and Australia. These countries supply more than 85% of total world production....

244

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

245

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH(i)-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded with ammonia in the fuel stream. We have performed numerical simulations with detailed chemistry as well as laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements for a range of ammonia injection rates. For comparison with the experimental data, synthetic LIF images are calculated based on the numerical data accounting for temperature and fluorescence quenching effects. We demonstrate good agreement between measurements and computations. The LIF corrections inferred from the simulation are then used to calculate absolute NO mole fractions from the measured signal.The NO formation in both doped and undoped flames occurs in the flame sheet. In the undoped flame, four different mechanisms including thermal and prompt NO appear to contribute to NO formation. As the NH3 seeding level increases, fuel-NO becomes the dominant mechanism and N2 shifts from being a net reactant to being a net product. Nitric oxide in the undoped flame as well as in the core region of the doped flames are underpredicted by the model; we attribute this mainly to inaccuracies in the NO recycling chemistry on the fuel-rich side of the flame sheet.

Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Christof; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker D.

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Marine Products and Marine Oil samples to test Anisidine Value, Free Fatty Acid, Iodine Value, Insoluble Impurities, Moisture, Peroxide Value. Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Labo

247

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

Davies, T.H.

1961-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

249

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. June 25, 2013 Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells. U.S. Patent No.: 7,645,902 (DOE S-104,909) Patent Application Filing Date: June 22, 2006

251

Acrylic Acid from 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid - Energy Innovation ...  

Technology Marketing Summary. 3-hydroxypropionic acid is readily converted to acrylic acid by conversion to the acid salt followed by treatment with a solid oxide ...

252

Production of chemical feedstocks from biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glucose and xylose, produced from biomass by hydrolysis with mineral acids can be fermented to produce a variety of chemical feedstocks including ethanol, organic acids, butanol and acetone. Acid rather than enzyme hydrolysis is preferred. In acid hydrolysis reaction temperature and acid concentration were found to be the major variables affecting sugar yield and kinetics. Low reaction temperatures and high acid concentrations are preferred to maximise sugar yields and minimise degradation product formation. Using corn stover residue nearly complete conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose to sugars was obtained. Prehydrolysis of corn stover was found to be faster than paper and peat, and the hydrolysis reaction somewhat slower than prehydrolysis. Acid hydrolyzates using the University of Arkansas process can be fermented to ethanol without pretreatment. Yeast extract is necessary for this process.

Shah, R.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Topic: Productivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... General Information: 301-975-5020 mfg@nist ... competitive in the global market, companies need to ... become more efficient in energy, production and ...

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

Silicon Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... An Investigation into the Electrochemical Production of Si by the FFC Cambridge Process: Emre Ergül1; ?shak Karakaya2; Metehan Erdo?an2; ...

255

OIL PRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OIL PRODUCTION Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term applied to methods used for recovering oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that recoverable by primary and secondary methods....

256

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

257

An experimental investigation of the urea-water decomposition and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides with urea using V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two flow reactor studies, using an electrically heated laminar flow reactor over Vanadia based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) honeycomb catalyst, were performed at 1 atm pressure and various temperatures. The experiments were conducted using simulated exhaust gas compositions for different exhaust gases. A quartz tube was used in order to establish inert conditions inside the reactor. The experiments utilized a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in order to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reaction products. Urea-water solution decomposition was investigated over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst over the entire SCR temperature range using the temperature controlled flow reactor. The solution was preheated and then injected into pure nitrogen (N2) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major products of decomposition along with other products such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with urea-water solution over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated. Urea-water solution was injected at a temperature higher than the vaporization temperature of water and the flow reactor temperature was varied from 127oC to 477oC. A FTIR spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The major products of SCR reduction were NH3, NO and CO2 along with the presence of other minor products NO2 and N2O. NO removal of up to 87% was observed. The aim of the urea-water decomposition experiments was to study the decomposition process as close to the SCR configuration as possible. The aim of the SCR experiments was to delineate the effect of various parameters including reaction temperature and O2 concentration on the reduction process. The SCR investigation showed that changing parameter values significantly affected the NO removal, the residual NH3 concentration, the temperature of the maximum NO reduction, and the temperature of complete NH3 conversion. In the presence of O2, the reaction temperature for maximum NO reduction was 377?C for ratio of 1.0.

Johar, Jasmeet Singh

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

259

ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE  

SciTech Connect

Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

Weaver, P.F.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Effect of Electrode Composition and Microstructure on Impedancemetric Nitric Oxide Sensors based on YSZ Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The role of metal (Au, Pt, and Ag) electrodes in YSZ electrolyte-based impedancemetric nitric oxide (NO) sensors is investigated using impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuit analysis. The test cell consists of a rectangular block of porous YSZ with two metal wire loop electrodes, both exposed to the same atmosphere. Of the electrode materials, only Au was sensitive to changes in NO concentration. The impedance behavior of porous Au electrodes in a slightly different configuration was compared with dense Au electrodes and was also insensitive to NO. Ag showed no sensitivity to either O{sub 2} or NO, and the measured impedances occurred at frequencies > 10 kHz, which are typically associated with ionic conduction in YSZ. Pt and porous Au showed sensitivity to O{sub 2}, which was quantified using power-law exponents that suggest electrochemical rate-determining mechanisms occurring at the triple phase boundary. The behavior of the dense Au suggests different rate-determining processes (e.g., diffusion or adsorption) for the O{sub 2} reaction. Although the exact mechanism is not determined, the composition and microstructure of the metal electrode seem to alter the rate-limiting step of the interfering O{sub 2} reaction. Impedance behavior of the O{sub 2} reaction that is limited by processes occurring away from the triple phase boundary may be crucial for impedancemetric NO sensing.

Woo, L Y; Martin, L P; Glass, R S; Wang, W; Jung, S; Gorte, R J; Murray, E P; Novak, R F; Visser, J H

2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Comparison of Three Bed Packings for the Biological Removal of Nitric Oxide from Gas Streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental and health issues coupled with increasingly stringent nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission standards indicates a need for the development of alternative low-cost technologies for the removal of NOx from gas streams. Biological NOx conversion offers promise as a novel treatment method. Thermophilic denitrifying bacteria indigenous to composts and soils are capable of converting NOx to environmentally benign nitrogen via a dissimilatory reductive pathway. The present study compares the performance of three bioreactor packing materials (compost, perlite, and biofoam) for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) from a simulated wet-scrubbed combustion gas. Although all three materials performed well (>85% NO removal) at residence times of 70-80 seconds, the compost performed better than the other materials at shorter residence times (13-44 seconds). The perlite and biofoam materials, however, both offer long-term thermal stability and lower pressure drop compared with compost. The feasibility of biological NOx conversion processes will depend on the combined factors of NOx removal ability and pressure drop. The results presented here suggest that the compost, perlite and biofoam systems, subject to further optimization, offer potential for the biological removal of NOx from gas streams.

Lee, Brady Douglas; Flanagan, W. P.; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Barrett, Karen B.; Zaccardi, Larry Bryan; Apel, William Arnold

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well stimulation is the treatment remedy when oil/gas productivity decreases to unacceptable economical limits. Well stimulation can be carried out through either "Matrix Acidizing" or fracturing with both "Hydraulic Fracturing" and "Acid Fracturing" techniques. "Matrix Acidizing" and "Acid Fracturing" applications involve injecting an acid to react with the formation and dissolve some of the minerals present and recover or increase the permeability. The permeability enhancement is achieved by creating conductive channels "wormholes" in case of "Matrix Acidizing" or creating uneven etching pattern in case of "Acid Fracturing" treatments. In both cases, and to design a treatment successfully, it is necessary to determine the distance that the live acid will be able to penetrate inside the formation, which in turn, determines the volume of the acid needed to carry out the treatment. This distance can be obtained through lab experiments, if formation cores are available, or estimated by modeling the treatment. The successful model will depend on several chemical and physical processes that take place including: the acid transport to the surface of the rock, the speed of the reaction of the acid with the rock, which is often referred to as "Reaction Rate", and the acid leak-off. The parameters describing these processes such as acid diffusion coefficient and reaction kinetics have to be determined experimentally to ensure accurate and reliable modeling. Hydrochloric acid and simple organic acids such as acetic and citric acids have been used extensively for stimulation treatments. The diffusion and reaction kinetics of these acids, in a straight form, were investigated thoroughly in literature. However, solely these acids are used in a simple form in the field. Acid systems such as gelled, crosslinked gelled, surfactant-based, foam-based, or emulsified acids are used to either retard the reaction rate or to enhance acid diversion. Literature review shows that additional work is needed to understand the reaction and report the diffusion and kinetics of these systems with carbonate. In addition, a new chelating agent (GLDA) was recently introduced as a stand-alone stimulating fluid. The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of this acid were not studied before. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the reaction of different acid systems with calcite and dolomite and report the mass transport and kinetic data experimentally. Lactic acid, a chelating agent (GLDA), and in-situ gelled HCl-formic acids were investigated in this study. In some cases, rheology measurements and core flood experiments were conducted. The data were combined with the reaction study to understand the behavior of these acids and examine their efficiency if injected in the formation.

Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Specific features of sulfuric acid leaching-out of lanthanides from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition, wet products washed with water to re- move phosphoric acid in a hermetically sealed vessel for 1 month were mixed either with phosphogypsum.

269

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

272

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

Crystal Structures of the Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Complexes of Horse Heart Myoglobin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nitrite is an important species in the global nitrogen cycle, and the nitrite reductase enzymes convert nitrite to nitric oxide (NO). Recently, it has been shown that hemoglobin and myoglobin catalyze the reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions. We have determined the 1.20 Angstroms resolution crystal structure of the nitrite adduct of ferric horse heart myoglobin (hh Mb). The ligand is bound to iron in the nitrito form, and the complex is formulated as Mb{sup III}(ONO{sup -}). The Fe-ONO bond length is 1.94 Angstroms, and the O-N-O angle is 113 degrees. In addition, the nitrite ligand is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with the distal His64 residue. We have also determined the 1.30 Angstroms resolution crystal structures of hh Mb{sup II}NO. When hh Mb{sup II}NO is prepared from the reaction of metMb{sup III} with nitrite/dithionite, the FeNO angle is 144 degrees with a Fe-NO bond length of 1.87 Angstroms. However, when prepared from the reaction of NO with reduced Mb{sup II}, the FeNO angle is 120 degrees with a Fe-NO bond length of 2.13 Angstroms. This difference in FeNO conformations as a function of preparative method is reproducible, and suggests a role of the distal pocket in hh Mb{sup II}NO in stabilizing local FeNO conformational minima.

Copeland,D.; Soares, A.; West, A.; Richter-Addo, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

278

Product Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1 Wrought alloy products and tempers...or cold-finished Rivets Forgings and forging stock Foil Fin stock Drawn Extruded Rod Bar Wire 1050 . . . . . . . . . H112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060 O, H12, H14, H16, H18 O, H12, H14, H112 O, H12, H14, H18, H113 O, H112 . . . .

279

ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

Lofthouse, E.

1954-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

RAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA -NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nature of phosphate fertilizer produced by sulfuric acid attack and the nature of phosphogypsum samples used in the production of phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum are given in Table 1. Table 1. Radio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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281

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a commercial carbonate product by mineral carbonation could allow for higher process costs than what the CO2 a commercial calcium carbonate product should contain as little impurities as possible. Solution temperatureC Carbonation at 30 ºC (XCa = 68 %) Thickener Condenser Acetic acid 5.2 kg Gel residue 1.1 kg NaOH, 2.6 kg

Zevenhoven, Ron

282

Method for the continuous production of hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

Getty, John Paul (Knoxville, TN); Orr, Mark T. (Kingsport, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Production Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Figure 1 shows the sequence of shapes in the production of a hollow handle for a table knife formed and coined in a 410 kg (900 lb) pneumatic drop hammer. The work metal was 0.81 mm (0.032 in.) thick copper alloy C75700 (nickel silver, 65â??12) annealed to a hardness of 35 to 45 HRB; blank size was 25 by...

284

Mixture Preparation and Nitric Oxide Formation in a GDI Engine studied by Combined Laser Diagnostics and Numerical Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Through the combination of advanced imaging laser diagnostics with multi-dimensional computer models, a new understanding of the performance of direct-injection gasoline engines is pursuit. The work focuses on the fuel injection process, the breakup of the liquid into a fine spray and the mixing of the fuel with the in-cylinder gases. Non-intrusive laser diagnostics will be used to measure the spatial distribution of droplets and vaporized fuel with very high temporal resolution. These data along with temperature measurements will be used to validate a new spray breakup model for gasoline direct-injection. Experimental data on near wall fuel distributions will be used for comparison with a model that predicts the spray-wall interaction and the dynamics of the liquid film on the surface. Quantitative measurements of local nitric oxide concentrations inside the combustion chamber will provide a critical test for a numerical simulation of the nitric oxide formation process. This model is based on a modified flamelet approach and will be used to study the effects of exhaust gas recirculation.

Volker Sick; Dennis N. Assanis

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

285

Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Hiroshi Sakuragi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society. 1.

Hiroshi Sakuragi; Kouichi Kuroda; Mitsuyoshi Ueda

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid ...  

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a ...

287

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

Grinstead, R.R.

1962-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Nucleic Acid Softwars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Software Nucleic Acid Software FR3D, a software for finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. Sarver, M., Zirbel, C.L., Stombaugh, J., Mokdad, A. and Leontis, N.B. (2008) FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. J Math Biol, 56, 215-252. RNAView, a program for quickly generating a display of RNA/DNA secondary structures with tertiary interactions. Yang, H., Jossinet, F., Leontis, N., Chen, L., Westbrook, J., Berman, H.M. and Westhof, E. (2003) Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs. Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3450-3460. RNAMLview, a program to display and/or edit RNAView 2-dimensional diagrams. 3DNA, a software package for the analysis, rebuilding and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic acid structures.

289

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

290

Chlorophyll and acid rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorophyll and acid rain Chlorophyll and acid rain Name: beachbum Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: A while ago I read an article that stated that after a plant received acid rain, there seemed to be less of chlorophyll a and b in the plant. I was wondering where does the chlorophyll go and what is the actual process (cell structure affected?). Replies: I think that less chlorophyll being present would be more likely a result of less being produced. Plant cell constantly turn over cell material, it will also constantly produce more. So if one compares a plant not exposed to acid rain (presumably producing a normal amount of chlorophyll and the exposed plant then one sees that the exposed plant has less chlorophyll than the unexposed plant. I do not think I can answer the rest of your question.

291

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

292

FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

Moore, R.H.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief primer on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat, and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. References for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper.

Singh, S.P.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief review on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. Because the subject is vast and the space is limited, references for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper. 24 references.

Singh, S.P.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing has been carried out with mud acid which combines hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid at various ratios. The application of mud acid in sandstone formations has presented quite a large number of difficulties like corrosion, precipitation of reaction products, matrix deconsolidation, decomposition of clays by HCl, and fast spending of the acids. There has been a recent trend to use chelating agents for stimulation in place of mud acid which are used in oil industry widely for iron control operations. In this study, two chelates, L-glutamic-N, N-diacetic acid (GLDA) and hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) have been studied as an alternative to mud acid for acidizing. In order to analyze their performance in the application of acidizing, coreflood tests were performed on Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. Another disadvantage of mud acid has been the fast spending at clay mineral surfaces leading to depletion of acid strength, migration of fines, and formation of colloidal silica gel residue. Hence, compatibility of chelates with clay minerals was investigated through the static solubility tests. GLDA and HEDTA were analyzed for their permeability enhancement properties in Berea and Bandera cores. In the coreflood experiments conducted, it was found out that chelating agents can successfully stimulate sandstone formations. The final permeability of the Berea and Bandera cores were enhanced significantly. GLDA performed better than HEDTA in all applications. The substitution of seawater in place of deionized water for mixing purposes also led to an increased conductivity of the core implying GLDA is compatible with seawater. In the static solubility tests, chelates were mixed with HF acid at various concentrations. GLDA fluids kept more amounts of minerals in the solution when compared with HEDTA fluids. Sodium-based chelates when mixed with HF acid showed inhibited performance due to the formation of sodium fluorosilicates precipitates which are insoluble damage creating compounds. The application of ammonium-based chelate with HF acid was able to bring a large amount of aluminosilciates into the solution. The study recommends the use of ammonium-based GLDA in acidizing operations involving HF acid and sodium-based GLDA in the absence of the acid.

George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Production Of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids In Genetically Modified Plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular wire harness for use in drill pipe comprising two rings interconnected by one or more insulated conductors. The rings are positioned within annular grooves located within the tool joints and the conductors are fixed within grooves along the bore wall of the pipe. The rings may be recessed within annular grooves in order to permit refacing of the tool joint. The rings are provided with means for coupling a power and data signal from an adjacent pipe to the conductors in such a fashion that the signal may be transmitted along the drill pipe and along an entire drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

297

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

298

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially ...  

Patent Number: 6,660,506: Issued: December 9, 2003: Official Filing: View the Complete Patent at the US Patent & Trademark Office: Lab: National Renewable Energy ...

299

The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore pressure and fracture pressure. A hydrochloric acid solution is used in carbonate reservoirs, which actually dissolves the calcite rock matrix in the form of conductive channels called wormholes. These wormholes propagate from the wellbore out into the reservoir, bypassing the damaged zone. In matrix acidizing of carbonates, there are four parameters that affect performance: the concentration of calcite present, injection rate of the acid, reaction type, and heterogeneity. Of these parameters, this paper will focus on how rock heterogeneity affects performance. To do this, a coreflood and acidizing apparatus was used to acidize heterogeneous limestone core samples. Rock characterizations and volumetric measurements were considered with the results from these experiments, which made it possible to correlate and quantify the results with rock and volume parameters. It was found that the core samples with more and larger heterogeneities generally required less acid (measured in pore volumes) to achieve breakthrough, that is, a wormhole created axially from one end of the core to the other. This value for pore volumes to breakthrough was one to two orders of magnitude less than more homogeneous samples. The general procedure and best practices for acidizing the core samples is also detailed in this thesis. This procedure was followed for preparation, coreflooding, and acidizing for all core samples.

Keys, Ryan S.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

Environmental Site Assessment Dakota County, Minnesota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or TCLP regulated chemicals, i.e. nitric acid (oxidizer) or chromic acid (chromium)). Corrosive Organics

Netoff, Theoden

303

Section B -5 UNO WASTE REQUIRING SPECIAL PROCESSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or TCLP regulated chemicals, i.e. nitric acid (oxidizer) or chromic acid (chromium)). Corrosive Organics

Lu, Guoiqng

304

Sugar Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sugar Production Sugar Production Name: Lauren Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: This is the experiment I did: our class took 6 sugars, placed them in test tubes and put three drops of yeast in each test tube. we then placed them in the incubator for one day and the next day looked at our results. the purpose was to find out with sugar would produce the most carbon dioxide. two of the sugars that we tested were LACTOSE and STARCH. my question is, why are lactose and starch the only sugars who didn't produce any, or very very little, carbon dioxide? and how is this process related to glycolysis? Replies: Bacteria and yeast are very efficient with their enzyme systems. They don't make enzymes they can't use. Yeast don't have the enzymes necessary to metabolize lactose. Starch is a complex sugar and yeast needs certain enzymes to break starch down into sugar. Every chemical reaction needs its own enzyme.

305

Soil–Atmosphere Exchange of Nitrous Oxide, Nitric Oxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Logged and Undisturbed Forest in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective logging is an extensive land use in the Brazilian Amazon region. The soil–atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are studied on two soil types (clay Oxisol and sandy loam ...

Michael Keller; Ruth Varner; Jadson D. Dias; Hudson Silva; Patrick Crill; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Jr.; Gregory P. Asner

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effective and low-cost treatment of acid mine drainage using chitin as a fractional amendment to compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents the suitability of a mixture of two abundant, sustainable waste products of industry to support the remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD),… (more)

Newcombe, Caroline

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Production Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Welcome Welcome The Production Services site contains links to each of the division's groups with descriptions of their services. Our goal is to update this website frequently to reflect ongoing service upgrades which, by planning and design, are added so that we can continue to meet your needs in a constantly changing work environment. Note: The Graphic Design Studio has been relocated to the second floor in the north wing of the Research Support Building 400. The telephone number remains the same, X7288. If you have any questions, please call supervisor, Rick Backofen, X6183. Photography Photography services are available at no charge to BNL and Guest users. See a list of the complete range of photography services available. Video Video services are available at no charge to BNL and Guest users. See a list of the complete range of video services available.

308

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Near-quantitative recovery of actinides from nitric acid waste streams by solvent extraction using DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate)  

SciTech Connect

The more-than-adequate extraction of actinides from high nitrate solutions and of efficient back-extraction from low nitrate solutions make DHDECMP the preferred extractant for this application. Isopar-diluted DHDECMP extraction data are presented herein. Comparative extraction data for Am(III) Pu(IV), and U(VI) are also presented. The behavior of these three actinides can be assumed to represent the general behavior of other actinides in their trivalent, tetravalent, and hexavalent oxidation states. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Marsh, S.F.; Yarbro, S.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products  

SciTech Connect

This project is investigating techniques involving ionic liquids (IL) and supercritical (SC) fluids for dissolution and separation of lanthanides, actinides, and fission products. The research project consists of the following tasks: Study direct dissolution of lanthanide oxides, uranium dioxide and other actinide oxides in [bmin][Tf{sub 2}N] with TBP(HNO{sub 3}){sub 1.8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.6} and similar types of Lewis acid-Lewis base complexing agents; Measure distributions of dissolved metal species between the IL and the sc-CO{sub 2} phases under various temperature and pressure conditions; Investigate the chemistry of the dissolved metal species in both IL and sc-CO{sub 2} phases using spectroscopic and chemical methods; Evaluate potential applications of the new extraction techniques for nuclear waste management and for other projects. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) and ionic liquids are considered green solvents for chemical reactions and separations. Above the critical point, CO{sub 2} has both gas- and liquid-like properties, making it capable of penetrating small pores of solids and dissolving organic compounds in the solid matrix. One application of sc-CO{sub 2} extraction technology is nuclear waste management. Ionic liquids are low-melting salts composed of an organic cation and an anion of various forms, with unique properties making them attractive replacements for the volatile organic solvents traditionally used in liquid-liquid extraction processes. One type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [bmin] with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [Tf{sub 2}N] is of particular interest for extraction of metal ions due to its water stability, relative low viscosity, high conductivity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. Recent studies indicate that a coupled IL sc-CO{sub 2} extraction system can effectively transfer trivalent lanthanide and uranyl ions from nitric acid solutions. Advantages of this technique include operation at ambient temperature and pressure, selective extraction due to tunable sc-CO{sub 2} solvation strength, no IL loss during back-extraction, and no organic solvent introduced into the IL phase.

Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Bruce Mincher

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Comparing the biodiesel and biogasoil production from different natural triglycerides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regarding the sustainable mobility, product quality and environmental aspects fatty acids methyl esters and biogasoils were compared. They were produced by the transesterification and special hydrocracking (including the isomerization, as well) of triglycerides, ... Keywords: biodiesel, biogasoil, feedstock supply, quality comparison

Jenö Hancsók; Zoltán Varga; Sándor Kovács; Tamás Kasza

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nucleic Acid Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Tools Nucleic Acid Tools RNA 3D Motif Atlas, a representative collection of RNA 3D internal and hairpin loop motifs. Petrov, A.I., Zirbel, C.L., Leontis, N.B. (2013) Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D motif atlas. RNA. Non-redundant List of RNA-containing 3D structures. Leontis, N.B., & Zirbel, C.L. (2012) In Leontis, N. B., Westhof. E. (ed.), RNA 3D structure analysis and prediction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg Vol. 27, pp. 281-298. RNA Base Triple Atlas, a collection of motifs consisting of two RNA basepairs. Abu Almakarem, A.S., Petrov, A.I., Stombaugh, J., Zirbel, C.L. and Leontis, N.B. (2012) Comprehensive survey and geometric classification of base triples in RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res, 40, 1407-1423. R3D Align, an application for detailed nucleotide to nucleotide

315

Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth of the biodiesel fuel. In general, NOx formation is dominated by flame temperature. Interestingly, soot can play a role as a heat sink as well as a heat transfer media to high temperature gases. Thus, the cooling effect of soot may change the flame temperature and therefore, NOx emissions. In this study, emphasis is placed on the relationship between soot and NO (Nitric oxide) formation. For the experimental study, a metallic fuel additive is used since barium is known to be effective to suppress soot formation during combustion. The barium additive is applied to #2D (Number 2 diesel fuel) by volume basis: 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 %-v, and to the palm olein oil by 0.25 %-v. All the tests are carried out in a four-cylinder medium duty diesel engine, 4045 DI diesel engine, manufactured by John Deere. For the analysis, an analytical model is used to estimate combustion temperature, NO concentration and soot emissivity. The results show that NO concentration does not have the expected trade-off relation with soot. Rather, NO concentration is found to be more strongly affected by ambient temperature and combustion characteristics than by soot. The results of the analytical model show the reasonable NO estimation and the improvement on temperature calculation. However, the model is not able to explain the detailed changes of soot emissivity by the different fuels since the emissivity correlation is developed empirically for diesel fuel.

Song, Hoseok

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermochemical production of hydrogen: reality, not myth  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis of the hybrid sulfuric acid cycle shows that a specific thermochemical process for hydrogen production from water can compete successfully with conventional and advanced electrolytic processes. A generalization to the contrary, based on computer-generated thermochemical cycles, is misleading and erroneous.

Cox, K.E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Stone Tool Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the author. ) Stone Tool Production, Hikade, UEE 2010Short Citation: Hikade 2010, Stone Tool Production. UEE.Thomas, 2010, Stone Tool Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Hikade, Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

319

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid placement and subsequent wormhole distribution and penetration depths are uncertain. This study has modeled the acid jetting process using a comprehensive model of acid placement and wormhole propagation in a horizontal well. It is presumed that the acid jetting tool removes the drilling mud filter cake, so that no filter cake exists between the end of the drill pipe and the toe of the well. Correspondingly, the model also assumes that there is an intact, low-permeability filter cake on the borehole wall between the end of the drill pipe and the heel of the well. The drill pipe is modeled as being withdrawn from the well during the acid jetting treatment, as is done in practice. The acidizing simulator predicts the distribution of acid and the depths of wormholes formed as functions of time and position during the acid jetting treatment. The model shows that the acid jetting process as typically applied in these wells preferentially stimulates the toe region of the horizontal well. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with published data for acid jetting treatments in such wells showed good general agreement. Based on the simulation study, this study presents recommendations for improved acid jetting treatment procedures to improve the distribution of acid injected into the formation.

Sasongko, Hari

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Petroleum - Exploration & Production - EIA  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity. ... Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf.

323

Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream  

SciTech Connect

The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, {sup 203}Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl{sub 2} from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides.

Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage of aliphatic carbon, associated with polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, and has characteristics close to those of aquatic humic acids. On the other hand, humic acids from manure and worm compost are similar to the humic acids originating from soil.

Deiana, S.; Gessa, C.; Manunza, B.; Seeber, R. (Universita di Sassari (Italy)); Rausa, R. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

327

A model for matrix acidizing of long horizontal well in carbonate reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells are drilled to achieve improved reservoir coverage, high production rates, and to overcome water coning problems, etc. Many of these wells often produce at rates much below the expected production rates. Low productivity of horizontal wells is attributed to various factors such as drilling induced formation damage, high completion skins, and variable formation properties along the length of the wellbore as in the case of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Matrix acidizing is used to overcome the formation damage by injecting the acid into the carbonate rock to improve well performance. Designing the matrix acidizing treatments for horizontal wells is a challenging task because of the complex process. The estimation of acid distribution along wellbore is required to analyze that the zones needing stimulation are receiving enough acid. It is even more important in cases where the reservoir properties are varying along the length of the wellbore. A model is developed in this study to simulate the placement of injected acid in a long horizontal well and to predict the subsequent effect of the acid in creating wormholes, overcoming damage effects, and stimulating productivity. The model tracks the interface between the acid and the completion fluid in the wellbore, models transient flow in the reservoir during acid injection, considers frictional effects in the tubulars, and predicts the depth of penetration of acid as a function of the acid volume and injection rate at all locations along the completion. A computer program is developed implementing the developed model. The program is used to simulate hypothetical examples of acid placement in a long horizontal section. A real field example of using the model to history match actual treatment data from a North Sea chalk well is demonstrated. The model will help to optimize acid stimulation in horizontal wells.

Mishra, Varun

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Lubrication with boric acid additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Products and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...lead consumed in the United States is used for battery applications. A lead-acid battery consists of a

330

Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Quantification of Intergranular Corrosion Susceptibility Dependence ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mass loss after exposure to nitric acid (the nitric acid mass loss test, NAMLT). ... Cathodic Dissolution of Pure Aluminum, Aluminum Alloy AA6061 and ...

332

Topsoe`s Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process: An alternative technology for recovering refinery sulfur  

SciTech Connect

The Topsoe Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process is a catalytic process which produces concentrated sulfuric acid from refinery streams containing sulfur compounds such as H{sub 2}S (Claus plant feed), Claus plant tail gas, SO{sub 2} (FCC off-gas, power plants), and spent sulfuric acid (alkylation acid). The WSA process recovers up to 99.97% of the sulfur value in the stream as concentrated sulfuric acid (93--98.5 wt%). No solid waste products or waste water is produced and no chemicals are consumed in the process. The simple process layout provides low capital cost and attractive operating economy. Twenty four commercial WSA plants have been licensed. The WSA process is explained in detail and comparisons with alternative sulfur management technology are presented. Environmental regulations applying to SO{sub x} abatement and sulfuric acid production plants are explained in the context of WSA plant operation.

Ward, J.W. [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

334

Omega-3 fatty acids: $13 billion global market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Awareness of omega-3 fatty acids as being among the most important nutrients for physical and mental health has reached critical mass, according to a new report on “Omega-3: Global Product Trends and Opportunities” from Packaged Facts, a division of Market

335

Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant is patented. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1985-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

336

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

Stephens, Frances Helen (Santa Fe, NM); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

337

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to NFDC to promote acceptance of this technology by the fertilizer production industry. The PCR uses the heat of reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid to replace fossil fuel heat used in granulating and drying fertilizer. The device has been installed in about 30 fertilizer plants across the U.S.A. resulting in current annual energy savings equivalent to approximately 11 million gallons of fuel oil. In six years of cooperation with the TVA, the DOE spent about one million dollars on the PCR technology transfer effort. This TVA project is a notable success based upon demonstrated energy savings and industry acceptance of the technology. The technology is applicable to producing NPKS, DAP and MAP types of fertilizer. This paper discusses the technology with emphasis on the technology transfer work conducted by TVA and supported by DOE-DIP.

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A. (San Carlos, CA); Kim, Steve (San Francisco, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Basic Chemistry of Gas Recombination in Lead-Acid Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... commercially viable recombinant lead-acid products came on the market in the .... has taken place in the cell, electrical energy will have been converted to heat. ..... For more information, contact Robert Nelson, Recombination Technologies ...

340

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

342

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Non-Lead/Acid Battery Recyclers:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in H2O solution such as Citric Acid, Acetic Acid, Acetates or ... MnO2 is soluble in sulfuric acid only at ... cells were treated by alkali followed by acids. ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

WEB RESOURCES: Magnesium Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... Mg Production(Australia).pdf 49.21 KB MgProduction_Australia.mht 81.47 KB Mg Production(Brazil Israel Congo Malaysia).pdf 50.48 KB

345

Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal  

SciTech Connect

The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

1962-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL DAAC MODIS Land Product Subsets MODIS Collection 5 Global Subsetting and Visualization Tool Create subset for user selected site, area, product, and time period. Data for...

348

Production Project Accounts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Project Accounts Production Project Accounts Overview Most NERSC login accounts are associated with specific individuals and must not be shared. Sometimes it is...

349

from Isotope Production Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium - 2 - 2:32 Isotope cancer...

350

Century Model Product Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Century Model Available The ORNL DAAC announces the availability of a new model product. The model product "CENTURY: Modeling Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change, Version 4...

351

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Nuclear > Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report Data for: 2005 Release Date: May 15, 2006 Next Release: May 15, 2007

352

Comparison of Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Appendix B Comparison of Productive Capacity Comparisons of base case productive capacities for this and all previous studies were made (Figure B1).

353

2. Gas Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2. Gas Productive Capacity Gas Capacity to Meet Lower 48 States Requirements The United States has sufficient dry gas productive capacity at the wellhead to meet ...

354

Appendix E-6 Ancillary StudiesE-6.1 Appendix E -6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include measures to affect vehicle miles traveled (such as mass transit improvements), technological, and natural gas vehicles). In the industrial sector, nitrous oxide emissions are a by-product in the production of adipic and nitric acid. Ninety percent of all adipic acid manufactured in the U.S. is used

355

Formic acid oxidation in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: A real-time mass-spectrometry study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-oxidation of formic acid was studied in a direct-oxidation polymer-electrolyte fuel cell at 170 C using real-time mass spectrometry. The results are compared with those obtained for methanol oxidation under the same conditions. Formic acid was electrochemically more active than methanol on both Pt-black and Pt-Ru catalysts. The polarization potential of formic acid oxidation was ca. 90 to 100 mV lower than that of methanol. The oxidation of formic acid was dependent on the water/formic acid mole ratio. The best anode performance was obtained using a water/formic acid mole ratio of {approximately}2. In addition, Pt/Ru catalyst was more active than Pt-black for formic acid oxidation. The mass spectrometric results showed that CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product of formic acid oxidation. The results are discussed in terms of possible formic acid oxidation mechanisms.

Weber, M.; Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fatty Acid Methods and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mixtures are analyzed by either gas chromatography with ... for fatty acids, including various oils and biodiesel ... Material 3276 Carrot Extract in Oil," Anal ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

359

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

360

Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

362

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rising price of oil is hurting consumers all over the world. There is growing interest in producing biofuels from non-food crops, such as sugarcane trash. Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane trash) is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process was used to convert sugarcane trash to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions. Lime-treated sugarcane trash (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was used as the feedstock in rotary 1-L fermentors. Ammonium bicarbonate buffer was used to mitigate the effects of product (carboxylic acid) inhibition. Marine inoculum was used because of the high adaptability of the mixed culture of microorganisms present. Iodoform solution was added to inhibit methanogenesis. Preliminary batch studies over a 20-day period produced 19.7 g/L of carboxylic acids. Sugarcane trash had the highest average yield (0.31 g total acid/g VS fed) and highest average conversion (0.70 g VS digested/g VS fed) among the three substrates compared. Countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.40 g/(L?d) was at a total acid concentration of 29.9 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.64 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.36 g total acid/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict acid concentration at various VSLR and LRT. The average error in between the predicted and experimental acid concentration and conversion were 4.62% and 1.42%, respectively. The effectiveness of several pretreatment methods was evaluated using the CPDM method. The best-performing method was short-term, no-wash, oxidative lime pretreatment with ball milling. At an industrial-scale solids loading of 300 g VS/L liquid, the CPDM ?map? predicts a total acid concentration of 64.0 g/L at LRT of 30 days, VSLR of 7 g/(L?d), and conversion of 57%. Also high conversion of 76% and high acid concentration of 52 g/L are achieved at a VSLR of 4 g/(L?d) and LRT of 30 days.

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Illinois coal production pushes Illinois Basin production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal production in the Illinois Basin during the first half of 2012 (64.4 million short tons) was 13% higher than the same period in 2011. This ...

364

Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

365

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as sodium bicarbonate, soda ash, trona, or nahcalite (ICF Northwest, 1988). By-products generated

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

366

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, together with a reversible inhibition due to competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} with NO on the catalyst. In an effort to minimize the deactivating effect of SO{sub 2} on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, two synthetic approaches were briefly examined. These consisted of (1) the incorporation of highly dispersed Co(II) ions in silica, as a non-sulfating matrix, via the sol-gel preparation of CoO-SiO{sub 2}; and (2) the sol-gel preparation of a mixed metal oxide, CoO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2}, with the aim of exploiting the acidity of the niobium oxide to minimize SO2 adsorption. While both catalysts showed almost no activity for NO oxidation in the absence of SO{sub 2}, when SO{sub 2} was present low activity was observed, indicating that SO{sub 2} acts as a promoter for NO oxidation over these materials. The kinetics of NO oxidation over Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} were also examined. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} was found to exhibit a higher apparent activation energy for NO oxidation than the Pt catalysts, while the combined reaction order in NO and O{sub 2} for the three catalysts was very close to one. CO{sub 2} was found to have no effect on the kinetics of NO oxidation over these catalysts. The presence of H{sub 2}O caused a decrease in NO conversion for both Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, while no effect was observed for Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The inhibiting effect of water was reversible and is attributed to competitive adsorption with the reactants. In sum, this study has shown that a variety of base metal catalysts are very active for NO oxidation. However, all of the catalysts studied are strongly deactivated in the presence of 2800 ppm SO{sub 2} at typical flue gas temperatures; consequently improving catalyst resistance to SO{sub x} will be a pre-requisite if the fast SCR concept is to be applied to coal-fired flue gas conditions.

Mark Crocker

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

368

Synthesis and Metabolism of Carbonyl-C14 Pyruvic andHydroxypyruvic Acids in Algae  

SciTech Connect

1. Pyruvic and hydroxypyruvic acids a r e metabolized by Scenedesmus. 2. The products of metabolism of pyruvic -2 -C{sup 14} and hydroxypyruvic-2 -C{sup 14} acids a r e essentially identical to those of C{sup 14}-O fixations. 3. Lipids a r e rapidly formed i n the light from both substrates. In the dark the major products a r e intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. 4. Zt does not appear likely that f r e e hydroxypyruvic acid is a photosynthetic intermediate, 5 . Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates a r e formed from exogenous pyruvate a s fast in the light a s in the dark.

Milhaud, Gerhard; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, M.

1955-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid J. E. Roberts, J. F. Wishart, L. Martinez, C. F. Chignell Photochem.Photobiol. 72, 467-471 (2000) Abstract: The tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid has been isolated from aged human cataractous lenses. The photophysical properties of xanthurenic acid were examined to determine if it is a potential chromophore for age-related cataractogenesis. We found that xanthurenic acid produces singlet oxygen (F*= 0.17; CD3OD) with the same efficiency as the lenticular chromophore N-formyl kynurenine and quenches singlet oxygen at a rate similar to other tryptophan metabolites (2.1 x 107 M-1 s-1; CD3OD) found in the eye. As the mechanisms of induction of cataracts may also involve redox reactions, the interactions of hydrated electrons (e-aq), the azide radical

370

Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae Ren-Wang Jiang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including vegetable oils, meat, milk, and soy products (Jacobsen, 2004), fulfilling important physiological formation of 5-HETE, a 5-lipoxygenase product important to prostate cancer cells (Ghosh and Myers, 1998 metastases of cancers to lung tissue (Cesano et al., 1998). These fatty acids were also reported to block

Hay, Mark

371

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

Bruce, F.R.

1962-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles, but most hydrogen is generated from nonrenewable fossil fuels such as natural gas. Here, the authors show that efficient and sustainable hydrogen production is possible from any type of biodegradable organic matter by electrohydrogenesis. In this process, protons and electrons released by exoelectrogenic bateria in specially designed reactors (based on modifying microbial fuel cells) are catalyzed to form hydrogen gas through the addition of a small voltage to the circuit. By improving the materials and reactor architecture, hydrogen gas was produced at yields of 2.01-3.95 mol/mol (50-99% of the theoretical maximum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall energy efficiency of the process was 288% based solely on electricity applied, and 82% when the heat of combusion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} per cubic meter of reactor per day. Direct high-yield hydrogen gas production was further demonstrated by using glucose, several volatile acids (acetic, butyric, lactic, propionic, and valeric), and cellulose at maximum stoichiometric yields of 54-91% and overall energy efficiencies of 64-82%. This electrohydrogenic process thus provides a highly efficient route for producting hydrogen gas from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass resources.

Cheng, S.; Logan, B.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Synergistic Hydrogen Production in a Biorefinery via Bioelectrochemical Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial electrolysis cells are devices that use biocatalysis and electrolysis for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Biorefinery process streams contain fermentation by products and inhibitors which accumulate in the process stream if the water is recycled. These molecules also affect biomass to biofuel yields if not removed from the recycle water. The presence of sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furfural, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde has been shown to reduce fermentation yields. In this work, we calculate the potential for hydrogen production using microbial electrolysis cells from these molecules as substrates. Conversion of these substrates to electricity is demonstrated in microbial fuel cells and will also be presented.

Borole, A. P.; Hamilton, C. Y.; Schell, D. J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

377

Effect of leavening acids on wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivities of four leavening adds were evaluated during processing of wheat flour tortillas. These were: sodium aluminum phosphate (SAlP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP-28). Each leavening acid was first evaluated in combination with sodium bicarbonate at different levels, controlling dough temperature at 38'C. Individual leavening acids did not yield optimum dough properties and had pH higher than 6.0, except for MCP treatments. Higher amounts of MCP and SAPP-28 were required to produce opaque tortillas compared to those treatments containing SAIP and SAS. Ionic interactions apparently affected elastic and viscous behaviours of doughs. The second study inculded fumaric acid along with each leavening acid at 380C. Fumaric acid effectively reduced resting times and pH of tortillas, except for doughs containing MCP. Addition of fumaric tortillas over time. To evaluate the effect of temperature 34 and 38'C were selected . At 38'C additional leavening was required, except for doughs containing SAS. At 380C dough properties tended to improve. Increasing temperature increased pH for SAIP and MCP treatments. SAIP and SAS treatments produced opaque tortillas. Increased dough temperature improved storage stability of tortillas for SALP and SAS treatments; no significant effect was observed for MCP and SAPP-28 treatments. Combination of MCP:SAIP (1:5) produced target dough and tortilla properties. Combination of MCP:SAS (1:2) produced acceptable dough properties and tortillas with diameters smaller than 17.0 cm. MCP, a fast reacting leavening acid, improved nucleation during mixing, giving the final product a better texture. Hence, to produce tortillas with desirable characteristics, leavening acids that dissolve and react during mixing and baking are required.

Cepeda, Minerva

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Specialty Cellular Glass Products and Their Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellular glass products are composed of hermetically-sealed cells containing gases which exhibit no extracellular diffusion. As such, these products are impermeable to liquids and gases. FOAMGLAS® blocks have long been used as fireproof thermal insulation, especially in low temperature applications where condensation and subsequent ice formation in insulation can cause significant reduction in insulating value. Recently, specialty compositions have been developed in the borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate fields which exhibit a high degree of resistance to corrosion by aggressive chemicals as well. One product, sold as PENNGUARDTM block by Pennwalt Corporation, is used as a liner for chimneys where acid corrosion had previously caused substantial maintenance problems. The product is also used as an insulative, acid-resistant liner in numerous chemical processes. A more refractory foam called FOAMSID®12 insulation has been developed for use in extremely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. One such field of application, the Alcoa Smelting Process, involves the use of molten salts which tend to impregnate materials which are porous to either salt vapors or to the liquid phase. Such impregnation of ordinary insulating materials causes a significant increase in heat transfer rates. FOAMSID®-12 blocks, with their unique properties of light weight, high strength, impermeability, and low thermal conductivity offer an opportunity for industrial energy conservation which did not previously exist.

Rostoker, D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technology to convert biomass to chemical building blocks provides an opportunity to displace fossil fuels and increase the economic viability of bio-refineries. Coupling fermentation capability with aqueous phase catalysis provides novel routes to monomers and chemicals, including those not accessible from petrochemical routes. Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds through thermochemical approaches including, hydrogentation, cyclyization, decarboxylation and deamination. Hydrogenation of amino acids also provides access into chiral compounds with high enantio-purity. This paper details aqueous phase hydrogenation reactions we have developed that lead to valuable chemical intermediates from glutamic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Werpy, Todd A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MODIS ASCII Subset Products - FTP Access MODIS ASCII Subset Products - FTP Access All of the MODIS ASCII Subsets are available from the ORNL DAAC's ftp site. The directory structure of the ftp site is based on the abbreviated names for the MODIS Products. Terra MODIS products are abbreviated "MOD", Aqua MODIS products are abbreviated "MYD" and combined Terra and Aqua MODIS products are abbreviated "MCD". The abbreviated names also include the version number (also known as collection). For specific products, please refer to the following table: Product Acronym Spatial Resolution Temporal Frequency Terra V005 SIN Aqua V005 SIN Terra/Aqua Combined V005 SIN Surface Reflectance SREF 500 m 8 day composites MOD09A1 MYD09A1 ---------- Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity TEMP 1 km 8 day composites MOD11A2 MYD11A2 ----------

382

MODIS Land Product Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation > MODIS Land Subsets Validation > MODIS Land Subsets MODIS Land Product Subsets Overview Earth, Western Hemisphere The goal of the MODIS Land Product Subsets project is to provide summaries of selected MODIS Land Products for the community to use for validation of models and remote-sensing products and to characterize field sites. Output files contain pixel values of MODIS land products in text format and in GeoTIFF format. In addition, data visualizations (time series plots and grids showing single composite periods) are available. MODIS Land Product Subsets Resources The following MODIS Land Product Subsets resources are maintained by the ORNL DAAC: MODIS Land Products Offered Background Citation Policy Methods and formats MODIS Sinusoidal Grid - Google Earth KMZ Classroom Exercises

383

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

384

Industrial Oil Products Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A forum for professionals involved in research, development, engineering, marketing, and testing of industrial products and co-products from fats and oils, including fuels, lubricants, coatings, polymers, paints, inks, cosmetics, dielectric fluids, and ad

385

The Product Creation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Product Creation Process is described in its context. A phased model is shown, as many organisations use such a model as blueprint. The operational organisation of the product creation process is discussed, especially the role of the operational leader.

Gerrit Muller

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Casthouse Productivity and Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... Cast Shop for Aluminum Production: Casthouse Productivity and ... performance indicator called Specific Energy Consumption [SEC] ... Improved Monolithic Materials for Lining Aluminum Holding and Melting Furnaces: Andy ...

387

Bio-Based Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often...

388

Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher nitric oxide (NO) emissions for biodiesel, however, are of primary concern in biodiesel-fueled engines. Search for an in-cylinder technique to reduce NO emissions for biodiesel has motivated studies to gain an improved understanding of fundamental factors that drive increase in NO emissions with biodiesel. Potential factors include fuel-bound oxygen, fuel-bound nitrogen and post-flame gas temperature. The role of fuel-bound oxygen however is debated in the literature. The research objective of this study is to computationally determine if biodiesel and petroleum diesel yield equivalent concentrations of NO with the same oxygen equivalence ratio in a 0-D homogeneous reactor, to explain the role of fuel-bound oxygen in biodiesel on increases in NO emissions with biodiesel. The results from this study indicate that the biodiesel surrogate yields higher NO emissions than the n-heptane because of its lower oxygen consumption efficiency. The lower oxygen consumption efficiency for biodiesel is likely because of the slower decomposition of the individual components and the blending ratios of the biodiesel surrogate blend. The relative differences in combustion efficiency of individual components of the biodiesel blend suggest this conclusion. The more efficient burning of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuel’s combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance of NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms during biodiesel combustion however explain the high NO emissions for the biodiesel surrogate relative to the n-heptane. The biodiesel may yield lower NO emissions than the petroleum diesel if the blending ratios for the biodiesel are adjusted such that combustion efficiency of biodiesel and petroleum diesel is same or the NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms are suppressed during biodiesel combustion.

Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Topic: Product Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic: Product Data. Event. Model-Based Enterprise Summit. TDP Standards Development Summit. Group. Life Cycle Engineering Group. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

390

CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% Sawnwood 13% Panels 9% RW & primary 5% Windows & doors 5% Pulp & paper 5% DIY products 6% Trade & retailers

391

Soy Protein Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book will provide an overview of the key benefits of soy protein products in an easily understood format. ...

392

Table 3. Product Applications  

of all hazardous metals, low -level radioactive waste, fission products and transuranics • Macroencapsulation of contaminated debris, metal and ...

393

MSID Products, Tools, & Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SID Products, Tools, & Services. XML Testbed - collection of XML-Related Tools; Express Engine - STEP (ISO 10303) development ...

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

394

IEEE 1588 Products & Implementations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Facsimile. 100 Bureau Drive, M/S 8220 Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8220. IEEE 1588 Products & Implementations. This page ...

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

Seamless Steel Tubular Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...). The tank also contained the search units.Fig. 6 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubular products were

396

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

398

Strangeness Production at COSY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper gives an overview of strangeness-production experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Results on kaon-pair and phi meson production in pp, pd and dd collisions, hyperon-production experiments and Lambda p final-state interaction studies are presented.

Frank Hinterberger; Hartmut Machner; Regina Siudak

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

399

Coal production 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

400

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells Speaker(s): Dave Sopchak Date: May 1, 2013 - 3:00pm - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Max Wei The PBI...

403

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition. A series of spectral simulations was performed using the HITRAN code to investigate the potential sensitivity of absorption measurements of ammonia in different spectral regions. It was concluded that ammonia absorption features in the 3000-nm spectral region would be hard to measure due to water vapor interferences. We will concentrate on the spectral region near 1530 nm, where other researchers have had some success in measuring ammonia.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. A series of spectral simulations was performed using the HITRAN code to investigate the potential sensitivity of absorption measurements of ammonia in different spectral regions. It was concluded that ammonia absorption features in the 3000-nm spectral region would be hard to measure due to water vapor interferences.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

Well development with acid wool  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a unique method to prevent the lost circulation of drilling fluids in fractured bedrock aquifers. The method utilizes acid wool to bridge fractures and prevent the migration of these fluids in to the reservoir. This wool material collects the mud on its surface and allows it to be removed during development. The wool is produced from melted silic-carbonate rock and is dissolved using hydrochloric acid. The timing and methodology of installation is provided.

Hanna, T.M. (Hydrologic Consultants Inc., Lakewood, CO (USA)); Rothauge, F. (Quality Drilling Fluids Engineering Inc., Longmont, CO (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

408

Ultra-Deep Strong Acidizing and Sour Gas Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two acidizing environments that were studied included 10% acetic acid and a mixture of 10% acetic acid and 10% hydrochloric acid with 15 psia hydrogen ...

409

Lighting Up Enzymes for Solar Hydrogen Production (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have combined quantum dots, which are spherical nanoparticles that possess unique size-tunable photophysical properties, with the high substrate selectivity and fast turnover of hydrogenase enzymes to achieve light-driven hydrogen (H2) production. They found that quantum dots of cadmium telluride coated in carboxylic acids easily formed highly stable complexes with the hydrogenase and that these hybrid assemblies functioned to catalyze H2 production using the energy of sunlight.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ni-Si Alloys for the S-I Reactor-Hydrogen Production Process Interface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop Ni-Si alloys for use in vessels to contain hot, pressurized sulfuric acid. The application was to be in the decomposition loop of the thermochemical cycle for production of hydrogen.

Joseph W. Newkirk; Richard K. Brow

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Different Protonation Equilibria of 4-Methylimidazole and Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4- methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonated, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound, however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidazole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water- 4-methylimidazole chain is always localized on one of the two 4- methylimidazoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules.

Gu, Wei; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

417

Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Misc. Products - Fuel Use Misc. Products - Nonfuel...

418

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Detailed procedure and results for the separation and identification of labeled carboxylic acids and phosphate esters, formed during photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2}; the first observed product of CO{sub 2} assimilation during photosynthesis was isolated and shown to be phosphoglyceric acid; tracer use of P{sup 32} and C{sup 14}.

Benson, A. A.; Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, M.; Goodale, T. C.; Haas, V. A.; Stepka, W.

1949-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

Preparation of oxygen-containing organic products from bed-oxidized brown coal by ozonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of modifying the functional composition of humic acids by gas-phase ozonation of bed-oxidized brown coal was examined. About 90% of the organic matter of brown coal was converted to low-molecular weight soluble oxygen-containing products by stepwise liquid-phase ozonation (in chloroform and acetic acid).

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.; Batina, M.V. [National Academy of Science Belarus, Minsk (Byelarus)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Bioethanol Production Based on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of wheat straw as raw materials for ethanol production was investigated. Ethanol cooking at 190 ? for 60 min was adopted as pretreatment method for dilute sulfuric acid impregnated wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was used ... Keywords: dilute sulfuric acid catalysis, ethanol cooking pretreatment, wheat straw, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ethanol

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nitric acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Gasoline inventories indicate how tight the gasoline product market is in any one region. When the gasoline market is tight, it affects the portion of gasoline price is the spread between spot product price and crude oil price. Note that in late 1998-and early 1999 spreads were very small when inventories were quite high. Contrast summers of 1998 or 1999 with summer 2000. Last summer's tight markets, resulting low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline -- particularly in the Midwest. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories stayed well below average and the spread during the

422

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

423

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

424

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products Sowmya Bulusu1 ; Ahmet H. Aydilek that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which subject headings: Remedial action; Acid mine water; Mines; Coals; Recycling; Maryland; Fly ash

Aydilek, Ahmet

425

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electronics - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Different leaching acid reagents (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and ... of both nitric acid and aqua regia are capable of dissolving most of the metals content of PWBs. ... base metals such as copper, lead, tin, zinc and aluminum.

427

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report"...

429

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shaaf, and the FLUXNET validation communities to choose sites and to identify the land products needed for validation. We also worked with MODAPS on subsetting the Land...

430

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Citation When using subsets of MODIS Land Products from the ORNL DAAC, please use the citation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). 2011....

431

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction The goal of the MODIS Land Product Subsets project is to provide summaries of selected MODIS Land Products for the community to use for validation of models and remote-sensing products, and to characterize field sites. The MODIS Land Product Subsets are derived from MODIS products that were generated with Collection 4 or later algorithms. Please be advised that these products are subject to continual review and revision. The MODIS land product subsets are provided in ASCII and GeoTIFF format. The subsets are stored as individual text(ASCII) files, each file represents one field site and one MODIS product.The ASCII data covers 7x7 km of the field site. These ASCII files contain comma-delimited rows of parameter values (image bands) for each pixel in the selected area. Each row in the file will contain data from one 8-day, 16-day, or annual period (depending on the temporal frequency of the data product represented).

432

Coal Combustion Products: Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products: Challenges and Opportunities American Coal Ash Association Conference St. Petersburg, FL January 27-30, 2003 Carl O. Bauer National Energy Technology Laboratory...

433

CONSOLIDATED CERAMIC PRODUCTS, INC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For 40 years, Consolidated Ceramic Products, Inc. has been of service to the aluminum industries worldwide. An innovative manufacturer and marketer of ...

434

Hydrology Group - Technologies & Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies & Products Systems & Sensors Water Fluxmeter Software & Models Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS ) FRAMES 1.x ReActive Flow and Transport of Groundwater...

435

LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and venting products for the specialty retail, residential new construction and industrial markets. LHP, based in Nashville, TN, is a business unit of Lennox...

436

Organic dairy production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to gain further knowledge about the performance of cows in organic dairy production and their ability to adapt to… (more)

Ahlman, Therese

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coalbed Methane Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2006 2007 2008 2009...