Sample records for nitric acid production

  1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  3. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howerton, W.B.; Pruett, D.J.

    1982-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

  4. Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO

  5. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10/sup 3/ (vs approx. 500 for the Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 4/, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10/sup 4/.

  6. How Nitric Acid Overcame Its Fear of Water | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMSL and other facilities, combined with experiments, learned more about the dissociation properties of nitric acid, or HNO3, in water. The molecules build hydrogen bonds that...

  7. Degradation of CYANEX 301 in Contact with Nitric Acid Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippe Marc; Radu Custelcean; Gary S. Groenewold; John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Laetitia H. Delmau

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of the degradation product obtained upon contacting CYANEX 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) with nitric acid has been elucidated and found to be a disulfide derivative. The first step to the degradation of CYANEX 301 in toluene has been studied using 31P{1H} NMR after being contacted with nitric acid media. The spectrum of the degradation product exhibits a complex multiplet around dP = 80 ppm. A succession of purifications of CYANEX 301 has resulted in single crystals of the acidic form and the corresponding ammonium salt. Unlike the original CYANEX 301, which consists of a complex diastereomeric mixture displaying all possible combinations of chiral orientations at the 2-methyl positions, the purified crystals were shown by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to be racemates, containing 50:50 mixtures of the [R;R] and [S;S] diastereomers. The comparison between the 31P {1H} NMR spectra of the degradation products resulting from the diastereomerically pure CYANEX 301 and the original diastereomeric mixture has elucidated the influence of the isomeric composition on the multiplicity of the 31P {1H} NMR peak. These NMR data indicate the initial degradation leads to a disulfide-bridged condensation product displaying multiple resonances due to phosphorus–phosphorus coupling, which is caused by the inequivalence of the two P atoms as a result of their different chirality. A total of nine different NMR resonances, six of which display phosphorus–phosphorus coupling, could be assigned, and the identity of the peaks corresponding to phosphorus atoms coupled to each other was confirmed by 31P {1H} homodecoupled NMR analysis.

  8. aqueous nitric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ahmed, MD. Raquib Uddin 1995-01-01 28 Effect of the TBP and Water on the Complexation of Uranyl Nitrate and the Dissolution of Nitric Acid into Supercritical CO2. A Theoretical...

  9. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  10. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photosynthetic rate responses to ozone in some foliose andof gaseous nitric acid and ozone on lichens. Dissertations &with nitric acid and ozone. Environmental Pollution, In

  11. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  12. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200{degrees}C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air.

  13. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  14. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  15. abandoned nitric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products Engineering Websites Summary: subject headings: Remedial action; Acid mine water; Mines; Coals; Recycling; Maryland; Fly ashRemediation of...

  16. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  17. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

  18. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  19. THE SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES OF THORIUM NITRATE Re-direct Destination: times redirected to final destination ShortURL Code Published Current...

  20. Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Hyuk Jung

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of amino acids and polyamines as well as nitric oxide (NO) and polyamine synthesis in the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetal and associated placental membrane). Ewes ...

  1. Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Hyuk Jung

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of amino acids and polyamines as well as nitric oxide (NO) and polyamine synthesis in the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetal and associated placental membrane). Ewes were hysterectomized...

  2. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  3. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 ± 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 ± 0.20 and averaged 1.18 ± 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

  4. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  5. MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION FOR DWPF NITRIC-GLYCOLIC ACID - LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction. ? For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 ?C. ? For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 ?C). ? For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available. ? For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive species and to verify the performance of materials in the key process vessels as well as downstream vessels and processes such as the evaporator where heating is occurring. The following testing would provide data for establishing the viability of these components. ? Electrochemical testing - evaluate the corrosion rate and susceptibility to localized corrosion within the SRAT, SME, OGCT, Quencher and Evaporator. Testing would be conducted at operational temperatures in simulants with ranges of glycolic acid, iron, chloride, sulfate, mercury, and antifoaming agents. ? Hot-wall testing – evaluate the corrosion under heat transfer conditions to simulate those for heating coils and evaporator coil surfaces. Testing would be at nominal chemistries with concentration of glycolic acid, chloride, sulfate and mercury at high expected concentrations. Some tests would be performed with antifoaming agents. ? Melter coupon testing – evaluate the performance of alloy 690 in melter feeds containing glycolic acid. This testing would be conducted as part of the melter flammability testing. ? Polymer testing – evaluate changes in polymer properties in immersion testing with DWPF simulants to provide product-specific data for service life evaluation and analyze the Hansen solubility parameters for relevant polymers in glycolic vs. formic acid. During this literature review process, the difficulties associated with measuring the liquid level in formic acid tanks were revealed. A test is recommended to resolve this issue prior to the introduction of glycolic acid into the DWPF. This testing would evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonic inspection techniques to determine liquid level and other desirable attributes of glycolic acid in DWPF storage tanks and related equipment.

  6. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  7. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Chiba, Zoher (Moraga, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Norvell (Palo Alto, CA); Steward, G. Anthony (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  8. Oleic AcidDependent Modulation of NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED1 Protein Levels Regulates Nitric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pradeep

    of Agriculture­Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Prosser, Washington 99350 acid, which induces anti-inflammatory effects (Denys et al., 2001). FAs also serve as alarm molecules also regulate salt, drought, and heavy metal tolerance as well as wounding-induced responses

  9. Influence of uranium on corrosion of stainless steel in solutions of fluoride in nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtenov, M.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless steels corrode rapidly in solutions of fluoride in nitric acid; the higher the fluoride ion content, the more intense is the corrosion. The activating effect of the fluoride ions mainly reduces to dissolution of the oxide films. Small amounts somewhat retard the cathodic reduction of HNO/sub 3/. In this report the authors provide the results of an investigation of the influence of uranium ions on the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of stainless steel 12Kh18N10T in solutions of up to 10 moles/liter of HNO/sub 3/, with fluoride ions up to 0.1 mole/liter. The authors conclude that the retardation of corrosion of stainless steel by uranium, zirconium and aluminum ions in solutions of fluorides in nitric acid is mainly due to the formation of strong complexes of these metals with fluorine ions, leading to a reduction of the number of free HF molecules in the solution. The stronger the complex of metal with fluorine, the higher the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in a solution of fluoride in nitric acid.

  10. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  11. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  12. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

  13. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  14. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  15. Corrosion property of 9Cr-ODS steel in nitric acid solution for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, M.; Koizumi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inoue, M.; Koyama, S.I. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion tests of oxide dispersion strengthened with 9% Cr (9Cr-ODS) steel, which is one of the desirable materials for cladding tube of sodium-cooled fast reactors, in pure nitric acid solution, spent FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution were performed to understand the corrosion behavior in a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, the 9Cr-ODS steel with lower effective chromium content was evaluated to understand the corrosion behavior conservatively. As results, the tube-type specimens of the 9Cr-ODS steels suffered severe weight loss owing to active dissolution at the beginning of the immersion test in pure nitric acid solution in the range from 1 to 3.5 M. In contrast, the weight loss was decreased and they showed a stable corrosion in the higher nitric acid concentration, the dissolved FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution by passivation. The corrosion rates of the 9Cr-ODS steel in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and its simulated solution were 1-2 mm/y and showed good agreement with each other. The passivation was caused by the shift of corrosion potential to noble side owing to increase in nitric acid concentration or oxidative ions in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and the simulated spent fuel solution. (authors)

  16. Dose rate dependence of the speciation of neptunium in irradiated solutions of nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Precek, M. [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, Prague 8, 18221 (Czech Republic); Paulenova, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, 116 Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Mezyk, S.P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of radiation on the redox speciation of neptunium are of interest due to their impact on the performance of separation of neptunium from highly radioactive solutions of dissolved used nuclear fuel. In this study, the influence of dose rate change from 0.4 kGy/h to 6 kGy/h was examined during irradiation of solutions of initially hexavalent 2.0-2.5 mM neptunium in nitric acid of two different concentrations (0.5 and 1 M). Results indicate that the immediate radiolytic steady-state concentration of neptunium(V) were depressed and its initial radiolytic yield was up to 2-times lower (in 1 M HNO{sub 3} solutions)during irradiations with the higher dose rate. The finding is explained on the basis of the enhancement of the role of oxidizing radicals during the radiolytic process. (authors)

  17. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  18. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  19. In Silico Modeling of Shear-Stress-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells through Systems Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Andrew

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by vascular endothelial cells is a potent vasodilator and an antiinflammatory mediator. Regulating production of endothelial-derived NO is a complex undertaking, involving multiple signaling and ...

  20. Measurement of Nitric Oxide Production from Lymphatic Entothelial Cells Under Mechanical Stimuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafarnejad, Mohammad 1987-

    2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION FROM LYMPHATIC ENDOTHELIAL CELLS UNDER MECHANICAL STIMULI A Thesis by MOHAMMAD JAFARNEJAD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Engineering Copyright 2012 Mohammad Jafarnejad ii ABSTRACT The lymphatic system plays an important role in fluid and protein balance within the interstitial spaces. Its dysfunction could result in a number of debilitating diseases, namely...

  1. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 25, NO. 22, PAGES4185-4188,NOVEMBER 15, 1998 Nitric acid scavengingby mineral and biomassburning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 25, NO. 22, PAGES4185-4188,NOVEMBER 15, 1998 Nitric acid by the American GeophysicalUnion. Paper number 1998GL900062. 0094-8276/98/1998 GL900062505.00 Data Presentation

  2. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Individual Mineral Dust Particles with Nitric Acid. A Combined CCSEM/EDX, ESEM AND ICP-MS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Alexander; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Krueger, Brenda J.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The heterogeneous chemistry of individual dust particles from four authentic dust samples with gas-phase nitric acid was investigated in this study. Morphology and compositional changes of individual particles as they react with nitric acid were observed using conventional scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM/EDX) and computer controlled SEM/EDX. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was utilized to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of mineral dust particles reacted with nitric acid. Differences in the reactivity of mineral dust particles from these four different dust source regions with nitric acid were observed. Mineral dust from source regions containing high levels of calcium, namely China loess dust and Saudi coastal dust, were found to react to the greatest extent.

  3. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

  4. The effect of fluoride and aluminum on the anion exchange of plutonium from nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is a prominent aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure nuclear materials. This process is sensitive to fluoride ion, which complexes plutonium in competition with the anionic nitrato complex that is strongly sorbed on the anion exchange column. Fluoride interference traditionally has been counteracted by adding a masking agent, such as aluminum, that forms competing complexes with fluoride. The interfering effect of fluoride is known to be a function not only of the fluoride-to-aluminum ratio but also of the fluoride-to-plutonium ratio. This report summarizes a Los Alamos study of the effect of 25 fluoride-aluminum-plutonium conmbinations on the anion exchange sorption of plutonium. Five aluminum-to-plutonium ratios ranging from 0.10 to 10 were each evaluated at five fluoride-to-aluminum ratios that ranged from 0 to 6. The fluoride-to-plutonium ratio has a greater influence on plutonium sorption than does the fluoride-to-aluminum ratio. Aluminum was less effective as a masking agent than had been assumed, because measurable fluoride interference occurred at all levels of added aluminum.

  5. Dissolution of plutonium oxide in nitric acid at high hydrofluoric acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Stevens, J.R.

    1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitirc acid (HNO/sub 3/) at high hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations has been investigated. Dissolution rate curves were obtained using 12M HNO/sub 3/ and HF at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 1.0 molar. The dissolution rate increased with HF concentration up to 0.2M and then decreased at higher concentrations. There was very little plutonium dissolved at 0.7 and 1.0M HF because of the formation of insoluble PuF/sub 4/. Various oxidizing agents were added to 12M HNO/sub 3/-1M HF dissolvent to oxidize Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and prevent the formation of PuF/sub 4/. Ceric (Ce(IV)) and silver (Ag(II)) ions were the most effective in dissolving PuO/sub 2/. Although these two oxidants greatly increased the dissolution rate, the rates were not as rapid as those obtained with 12M HNO/sub 3/-0.2M HF.

  6. Succinic acid production by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , succinic acid has been produced commercially by chemical processes. Recently, however, fermentative of bacteria produce succinic acid as a fermentation end product,4 7 few species can produce it as the major 10 Previous studies showed that A. succiniciproducens produces succinic acid and acetic acid

  7. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  8. Comparative evaluation of DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-methylphosphonate) and CMPO (octylphenyl-N,N,-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) as extractants for recovering actinides from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain neutral, bifunctional organophosphorous compounds are of special value to the nuclear industry. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbomoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) are highly selective extractants for removing actinide and lanthanide elements from nitric acid. We obtained these two extractants from newly available commercial sources and evaluated them for recovering Am(III), Pu(IV), and U(VI) from nitric acid waste streams of plutonium processing operations. Variables included the extractant (DHSECMP or CMPO), extractant/tributylphosphate ratio, diluent, nitrate concentration, nitrate salt/nitric acid ratio, fluoride concentration, and contact time. Based on these experimental data, we selected DHDECMP as the perferred extractant for this application. 18 refs., 30 figs.

  9. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

  10. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03-0.05 M KF, 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 2.0-3.5 h. When B was used as the neutron poison, 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.05-0.1 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe, and 1 g/L B resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 0.75-2.0 h. Dissolution rates estimated using data from the flowsheet demonstrations agreed reasonably well with the measured rates; although, a discrepancy was observed in the Gd system. The presence of 1 g/L Gd or B in the dissolving solution had about the same effect on the dissolution rate. The predominant Pu valence in the dissolving solution was Pu(IV). The concentration of Pu(VI) was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy and was estimated to be significantly less than 1 wt %. The offgas generation rates and H{sub 2} concentrations measured in the offgas from experiments performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe and either 1 g/L Gd or B were approximately the same. These data support the conclusion that the presence of either 1 g/L Gd or B had the same general effect on the dissolution rate. The calculated offgas generation during the dissolutions was 0.6 mol offgas/mol of Pu. The H{sub 2} concentration measured in the offgas from the dissolution using Gd as the neutron poison was approximately 0.5 vol %. In the B system, the H{sub 2} ranged from nominally 0.8 to 1 vol % which is about the same as measured in the Gd system within the uncertainty of the analysis. The offgas generation rate for the dissolution performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03 M KF, 0.5 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe was approximately a factor of two less than produced in the other dissolutions; however, the concentration of H{sub 2} measured in the offgas was higher. The adjusted concentration ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 vol % as the dissolution proceeded. Higher concentrations of H{sub 2} occur when the Pu dissolution proceeds by a metal/acid reaction rather than nitrate oxidation. The higher H{sub 2} concentration could be attributed to the reduced activity of the fluoride

  11. Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel Exposed To Nitric Acid -Chloride Environments D.G. Kolman, D.K. Ford, D.P. Butt, and T.O. Nelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel Exposed To Nitric Acid - Chloride Environments D.G. Kolman, D.K. Ford, D.P. Butt, and T.O. Nelson Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory Los AlamosCl, and temperature on the general corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel (SS), electrochemical studies were

  12. Visualization of nitric oxide production in the mouse main olfactory bulb by a cell-trappable copper(II) fluorescent probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, Lindsey E.

    We report the visualization of NO production using fluorescence in tissue slices of the mouse main olfactory bulb. This discovery was possible through the use of a novel, cell-trappable probe for intracellular nitric oxide ...

  13. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  14. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  15. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  16. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  17. acid inhibits production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Animals excrete three main nitrogen products, ammonia, urea and uric acid (Fig. 1), as well as some and amino acids. The term ammonia...

  18. Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the Fermentation; accepted 13 July 2000 Abstract: Succinic acid was produced by fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum-product acetic acid. The gram ratio of suc- cinic acid to acetic acid was 25.8:1, which is 6.5 times higher than

  19. acetic acid production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production in Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality* Wine...

  20. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  1. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  2. amino acid production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion Bequette, Brian J. 2 METHODS TO DETERMINE AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY IN CiteSeer...

  3. acid production plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: . - ,, ,,, , -,, . 12;Volatile fatty acids (VIA), produced mainly from fermentation of carbohydrates in the ration of carbohydrates and the production of VFA have not...

  4. Comparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Scott

    and of time. There are two principal energy sources that lead to the production of nitric oxideComparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide C. A. Barth Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado

  5. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80 lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002

  6. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interferon-?. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-?B pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ? Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ? Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for IAE. ? The use of diclofenac sodium (DCF) increases the mortality of IAE. ? DCF enhances the cytokine-induced phagocytosis of microglia, brain immune cells. ? DCF-enhanced activation of microglia may explain the greater mortality rate of IAE.

  7. Improvement of D-glucaric acid production in Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiue, Eric Chun-Jen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D-glucaric acid is a naturally occurring compound which has been explored for a plethora of potential uses, including biopolymer production, cancer and diabetes treatment, cholesterol reduction, and as a replacement for ...

  8. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

  9. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  10. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  12. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  13. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric, 2010 #12;Gas Non-Natural Sources Concentration Nitric oxide NO Internal Combustion (cars) 0.2 ppm

  14. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

  15. Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer, large-scale production of hydrogen. A key step in the process is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide determines the product sulfuric acid concentration, iii affects SO2 crossover rate, and iv serves to hydrate

  16. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Synthetic Wastewater Biotin and glutamic acid are not required for biological hydrogen production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Biological Hydrogen Production Using Synthetic Wastewater Conclusion ·Biotin and glutamic acid are not required for biological hydrogen production. ·MgSO4 .7H2O is a required nutrient, but hydrogen production work should focus on minimizing the lag time in biological hydrogen production, by varying nutrient

  17. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  19. Metabolic Flux Analysis for Succinic Acid Production by Recombinant Escherichia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    some pyruvate and succinic acid were accumulated intracellularly. Therefore, a new flux analysis method was proposed by introducing intra- cellular pyruvate and succinic acid pools. By this new method dehydrogenase (Mdh). Malic acid can also be synthesized from pyruvate by the action of malic enzyme (coded

  20. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  1. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

  2. acid degradation products: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP CiteSeer Summary: This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of different proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic...

  3. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  4. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  5. acid oxidation products: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2171012084 2010-01-01 123 Co-oxidation in supercritical water : methylphosphonic acid-ethanol and ammonia-ethanol model systems MIT - DSpace Summary: Supercritical water...

  6. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  7. Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Richard S. (Wayzata, MN); Flickinger, Michael C. (St. Paul, MN); Schendel, Frederick J. (Falcon Heights, MN); Guettler, Michael V. (Waconia, MN)

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

  8. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  9. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  10. Abstract We had previously shown that succinic acid production in a pfl ldhA double mutant strain of Escheri-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pyruvate (Stols and Donnelly 1997), while normal E. coli strains produce malic acid from phospho- enolAbstract We had previously shown that succinic acid production in a pfl ldhA double mutant strain gene, produced a considerable amount of malic acid along with the desired product, succinic acid

  11. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mark I. (Warrenville, IL); Sanville-Millard, Cynthia (Plainfield, IL); Chatterjee, Ranjini (Park Ridge, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  12. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Vyver, Stijn

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on ...

  13. acid production induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pot Experiments... Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach) 1909-01-01 275 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

  14. affects acid production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of affect. They have posited that choices Gross, James J. 150 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

  15. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  16. acid fermentative production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

  17. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessen, Holly Jean (Chanhassen, MN); Liao, Hans H. (Eden Prairie, MN); Gort, Steven John (Apple Valley, MN); Selifonova, Olga V. (Plymouth, MN)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  18. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  19. Optimization of growth media components for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from organic acids by Ralstonia eutropha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yung-Hun

    We employed systematic mixture analysis to determine optimal levels of acetate, propionate, and butyrate for cell growth and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Ralstonia eutropha H16. Butyrate was the preferred acid ...

  20. A study of the manufacturing and product possibilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Sarah BR

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the manufacturing and product capabilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound was conducted. Fine granulated cork, 1mm in diameter, was compounded with Natureworks' IngeoTM3051D PLA and extruded into pellets. ...

  1. acid production units: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A guide to selected non-timber forest products of the Hayfork Adaptive Management for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is increasing, and growing numbers of people are enhancing...

  2. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  3. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  4. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  5. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  6. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  7. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  8. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  9. acid natural products: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Escherichia coli with Amplified 23 Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites Engineering Websites Summary: Measurements of Methane Emissions at...

  10. acid docosahexaenoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 38 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  11. acid aspartic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 20 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  12. acid caffeic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. acid propionic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 19 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. acid sorbic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. acid benzoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 24 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. acid propanoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. acid methoxyacetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  18. acid eicosapentaenoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 18 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  19. acids eicosapentaenoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 18 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  20. acid acetylsalicylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 10 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. acid dichloroacetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. acid oleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 31 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  3. Prebiotic Metabolism: Production by Mineral Photoelectrochemistry of a-Ketocarboxylic Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    acid (rTCA) cycle could have fixed carbon dioxide as biochemically useful energy- storage molecules- tions in the past (Fig. 3). Ultraviolet light penetrates into the water, interacting with carbon dioxide energies of formation that disfavor their production. We report herein the production of pyruvate from

  4. Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

  5. Current methods used for the production of carboxylic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    harmful waste and by- products, high costs, and intensive purification processes. Therefore companies producing esters wish to switch from petrochemical feedstocks to renewable feedstocks on accountH and the subsequent carboxylate counter-ion is removed by acidification, which is an extremely polluting process

  6. The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Fred; Kuiken, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Alfred); Lyman, Carl M. (Carl Morris)

    1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATlON R. D. LEWIS, Director College Station, Texaa BULLETIN NO. 692 SEPTEMBER 1947 The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products CARL M. LYMAN, KENNETH KUIKEN and FRED HALE... in , flours and commercial protein preparations made from cotton- peanuts and soyl~eans. I'hc following lo amino acids: arginine, inc, isoleucinc, lcucinc, lysinc, nletliionine, phenylalanine, flitic, tryptoplianc and valine werc selected for study on thc...

  7. Production of furfural from cottonseed hulls by acid hydrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, D. Ralph

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '. a offsets of various salts on the hfdrol-ei af xyloae uain; ?hydrochloric cc!. d. ':he ciction of acids on f", rfi". ral resclts in this for, ". ion of huaina an', huaic aci '. lf furf'. ral ia ref la@cd for tao hours in 99 1P. . Q pez cant h... fielded Q&gd per erat furfural. r 1 QjP lTHH AQ 0P, 00 L DXfPJ q 'mM AQ'X3. ', 'R E i IFr F, -g i =, : -I- ?', - ? --4 r WLI ? + -t 1 r r T 1 r ?1 Ij a T ? ~F L 4P E1 L- 1 ' I r t, E ' r & So. ja '0 ? 80-' 10 I=I I ah...

  8. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  9. Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Abidi, Syed Hussain Imam

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some aspects of this invention relate to methods useful for the conversion of a carbon source to a biofuel or biofuel precursor using engineered microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to the discovery of a key regulator of lipid metabolism in microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to engineered microbes for biofuel or biofuel precursor production.

  10. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*S Received for publication,August 1, 2012 that nickel is localized in the mitochondria of Alyssum murale root epidermal cells. Conclusion

  11. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  12. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  13. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  14. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  15. acidization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. GRP94/gp96 Elicits ERK Activation in Murine Macrophages A ROLE FOR ENDOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN NF-B ACTIVATION AND NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicchitta, Chris

    GRP94/gp96 Elicits ERK Activation in Murine Macrophages A ROLE FOR ENDOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN NF- B signaling and ni- tric oxide production, as well as the MAP kinase p38, JNK, and ERK signaling cascades a marked increase in ERK phosphorylation at protein concentrations as low as 2 g/ml. These results

  18. Suppression of manganese-dependent production of nitric oxide in astrocytes: implications for therapeutic modulation of glial-derived inflammatory mediators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Tyler T.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    induction of the nos2 gene, they had no effect on induction of guanosine tri-phosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH) the rate limiting enzyme for the production of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor essential to the conversion of arginine to NO, Thus...

  19. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  20. acid-dependent ribonucleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 40 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. acid n-glycolylneuraminic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. Controlling acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in metallurgical products with carminic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babenko, N.L.; Blokh, M. Sh.; Guseva, T.D.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the authors, there is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, and rapid methods of determining low levels of vanadium in metallurgical products, and solvent-extraction methods do not meet the requirements. The authors used an anthraquinone dye carminic acid (CA) as a chromophoric organic reagent: 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrahydroxy-2-R-5carboxy-8-methylanthra-9, 10-quinone. The CSA was cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTA. The three-component system was examined in order to devise a reasonably sensitive and rapid method of determining vanadium in metallurgical products. A study is made of the complexing in the system formed by vanadium (IV) with CA and the CSA. The optimum conditions for the formation of the complex have been established together with the spectrophotometric characteristics. A spectrophotometric method has been devised for determining from 0.05 to 5% of vanadium in metallurgical products with a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.04.

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

  5. acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 14 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  6. aminoadipic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  7. aminocaproic acid eaca: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  8. acid hydrazone dpktch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. acids povedenie monatsita: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  10. aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 18 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  11. aminobutyric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 36 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  12. acid controls expression: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. acid permease aap6: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 14 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. asparagic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. acroleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. alkenoic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. acidic meglcua xylotetrasaccharide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  18. acid dicamba dicloran: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 10 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  19. aminolevulinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 12 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  20. acid riboside salvage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 30 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. acid sulfites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 18 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. acid hydroperoxide lyase1: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 25 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  3. anf 4-hydroxyhomocitric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 15 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  4. acid dioxygenase hpd: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 37 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  5. acid ascorbyl palmitate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 27 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  6. amoxicillin clavulanic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 13 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  7. acid dehydratase alad: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 15 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  8. acetoacetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. acetylsalicylic acid aspirin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 29 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  10. acid vliyanie sernoj: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  11. azo barbituric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 35 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  12. acephate cacodylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. acid lna taqman: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 46 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. amygdalic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. acid phytases paphy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 18 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. arachidic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 30 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. acid phenylmethyl eater: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 14 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  18. acid phosphoribosyltransferase 1-deficient: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 19 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  19. acid desaturases fad2: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 35 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  20. adipic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. acid dmsa renography: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. anthranilic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 10 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  3. acid hiryusan hasseigata: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  4. ameliorates subsoil acidity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 32 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  5. aminocaproic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  6. aldehydo acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  7. arundic acid ono-2506: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  8. acid glycosaminoglycan mucopolysaccharide: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 34 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. acidic oligosaccharides paos: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 40 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  10. acid anhydrases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 42 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  11. aminobutyric acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 36 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  12. asparaginic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 17 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. alginic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 33 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. alkanoic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 15 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. arsonic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 10 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. aminosalicylic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. aminobenzoic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 12 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  18. aminosuccinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  19. anthraquinonic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 12 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  20. aristolochic acid nephropathy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 28 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. aminoethanesulfonic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. aspirin acetylsalicylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 29 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  3. adenylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 27 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  4. acetylsalicylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  5. acid decarboxylase hgad65: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 32 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  6. aminoacetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  7. alkylphosphoric acid dehpa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  8. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher total solids content and may be effective at acid stoichiometries below 100%, although no testing was performed below 100% acid stoichiometry. There are several issues related to the development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. First, the measurement of anions using the new glycolate anion procedure likely needs to be optimized to improve the accuracy of the anions important to DWPF processing and REDOX prediction. Second, the existing REDOX equation with an added term for glycolate did not accurately predict the glass REDOX for the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Improvement of the anion measurement or modification of the REDOX methodology or equation may be necessary to improve the REDOX prediction. Last, the glycolic-formic flowsheet dissolves a number of metals, including iron. This leads to a thinner slurries but also dissolves up a portion of the iron, which is currently used for criticality control. It is recommended that DWPF continue to support development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. This flowsheet meets or outperforms the baseline flowsheet in off-gas generation, mercury removal, product rheology and general ease of processing. Additional testing is in progress to demonstrate the effectiveness of the nitric-glycolic-formic flowsheet in processing a wide sludge processing window using the matrix sludge simulants.

  9. The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chessman, Dennis John

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted...

  10. Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N. [St. Petersburg Technological Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

  11. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  12. THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

  13. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  14. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  15. Production of volatile fatty acids as a result of bacterial interactions in the cecum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that the C. butyricum strain fermented lactose and D-lactic acid to butyric and acetic acids, whereas L-lactic acid was not fermented. The V. alcalescens strain did not ferment lactose and fermented L better than D of lactose (up to 20 %) to the diet increases bacterial fermentation in the large intestine and cecum

  16. PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS A COURTE CHAINE AU COURS DE LA DIGESTION CHEZ LE PORC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of fermentation) ; this #12;is also the case for acetic acid in the caecum and colon 3 hours after the meal, when jusqu'à 9 h après la consommation (pH et microflore favorables à ce type de fermentation) ; il en va de acids) ; acetic acid, present in great quantities overall in the digestive tract, becomes predominating

  17. Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Mark R. McCoy, Zheng Yang, Xun Fu,§ Ki Chang Ahn, Shirley J. Gee an alternative method that converts the type II pyrethroids to a common chemical product, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid

  18. MONITORING AND MODELLING OF RADIOLYTIC DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF TBP/n-DODECANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, James M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) solvent system was developed for the separation of plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel. Since the implementation of this process, the degradation chemistry associated with the irradiated solvent system, tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane/nitric acid has been extensively studied as the integrity of the organic solvent is paramount for reproducible performance of the separation flowsheet (extraction/scrub/strip) during multiple cycles. In PUREX-like processes, the extent of decomposition is dependent not only upon the solvent, but also upon the presence of constituents, such as nitric acid, that interact with TBP and increase its susceptibility to radiolytic degradation. The build-up of degradation products in the organic phase alters process flowsheet performance via modification of the metal ions speciation, loss of solvent components, and enhanced water transport into the organic phase. On-line identification and quantification of the solvent degradation products would provide the necessary information for more detailed process control as well as providing the basis for timing solvent washing or replacement. In our research, we are exploring the potential of on-line monitoring for the PUREX solvent radiolytic degradation products. To identify degradation products, TBP/n-dodecane solvent, contacted with aqueous nitric acid solutions of variable concentrations are subjected to various gamma radiation external doses then analyzed by electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). In addition, vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to monitor and quantify major degradation products including dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) and monobutyl phosphoric acid (H2MBP) in TBP/n-dodecane solvent. The compiled spectroscopic databases serve for developing interpretive and predictive chemometric models for the quantification of the PUREX solvent degradation products.

  19. Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

  20. acids syn anti-1-amino-3-2-iodoethenyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 43 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  1. ariab acidic min-influenced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  2. acidic pathogenesis-related pr-1: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 23 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  3. acid nda 22-562: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 17 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  4. acid desaturase sfat-1-transgenic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 34 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  5. acid 3-np-induced neurotoxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 30 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  6. alpha-amino-isobutyric acid aib: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  7. air-spun polyl-lactic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  8. alkylphosphonic acid ehehpa-pc: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. acid ehehpa-pc 88a: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 12 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  10. acid o-methyltransferase activity1: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 39 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  11. alpha-oxo acid decarboxylase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 32 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  12. anti-psoriatic fumaric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 15 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. alpha2-6-linked sialic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 33 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. anti-proliferative acidic meglcua: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 12 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. anorogenic acid volcano-plutonic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 8 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  16. abscisic acid receptor1oa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 44 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  18. The Interplay of nitric oxide and hemoglobin in hemolytic anemia : consequences for parasite and host during malaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobolewski, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of bioavailable nitric oxide lead to experimental severeof bioavailable nitric oxide lead to experimental severe

  19. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    motivated production of renewable, biomass-derived fuels andconversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derivedrenewable energy is the production of these compounds directly from cellulosic plant biomass.

  20. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production. The products were detected in both the pellet andproduction, 1 mL of culture was centrifuged, 30 s, 20,000 x g and the supernatant was separated from the pellet.

  1. NITRO-HYDROLYSIS: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT SOURCE REDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  2. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  3. Ovarian nitric oxide synthase gene expression during peripubertal development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from L-arginine by different isoforms of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (NOS) and is known to be involved in mediating several biological functions, some of which are associated with reproduction. Much attention...

  4. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  5. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Results indicate the extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physiochemical factors than biotic factors; extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments; and ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms.

  6. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  7. The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: results from in situ soil column experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V; Stidson, Ruth T; Matucha, Miroslav; Cape, J Neil

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experiments with radioactively-labelled TCA and with irradiated (sterilised) soil columns. Control in situ forest soil columns showed evidence of net export (i.e. in situ production) of TCA, consistent with a net soil TCA production inferred from forest...

  8. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  9. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  10. Lactic acid production in exercising horses fed N,N-dimethylglycine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, Patricia Ghagan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulate a substantial amount of lactic acid when aerobic conditions cannot be maintained. As concentrations of lactate increase beyond that which can be metabolized in muscle, lactate begins to diffuse out of this tissue and is carried... by the circulatory system to the liver. About one fifth of the lactate can be oxidized to carbon dioxide, in aerobic tissue, while the remainder is converted to glucose and then to glycogen if no immediate demand for glucose exists (White et al. , 1978...

  11. Atomistic Oxidation of a Carbon Nanotube in Nitric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Philip G

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRL 104, 066401 (2010) PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS week endingAmerican Physical Society PRL 104, 066401 (2010) PHYSICALthese conditions, the en- PRL 104, 066401 (2010) PHYSICAL

  12. Lactic acid production in exercising horses fed N,N-dimethylglycine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, Patricia Ghagan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly [P&. 05) lower than period 1 at 20 minutes of exercise and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 60 minutes of recovery. At 30 minutes of exercise period 2 was lower (P&. 06) showing a 32$ decrease from period 1 to period 2. Period 3 mean lactic acid levels... minutes of exercise, and at 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes of recovery. Heart rates were obtained for the entire 90 minutes of the SET using an electronic digital heart rate monitor attached to the horse. The electrodes were placed on the anterior...

  13. Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGrado, Timothy R. [Mayo Clinic] [Mayo Clinic (United States)

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

  14. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nianzhen Li

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca{sup 2+} elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca{sup 2+} elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca{sup 2+} wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca{sup 2+}, possibly through store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca{sup 2+} change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca{sup 2+} using fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca{sup 2+} elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca{sup 2+} wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting that NO modulates glutamate release from astrocytes or glutamate receptor sensitivity of neurons.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  16. Modeling the Distribution of Acidity within Nuclear Fuel (UO{sub 2}) Corrosion Product Deposits and Porous Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, W.J.; Keech, P.G.; Wren, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Qin, Z. [The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for acidity within pores within corrosion products on anodically-dissolving UO{sub 2} was developed using Comsol Multiphysics 3.2 to complement ongoing electrochemical measurements. It was determined that a depression of pH within pores can be maintained if: electrochemically measured dissolution currents used in the calculations are attenuated to reflect very localized pores; corrosion potentials exceed -250 mV (vs. SCE); and pore depths are >1 {mu}m for 300 mV or >100 {mu}m for -50 mV (vs. SCE). Mixed diffusional-chemical equilibria control is suggested through deviations in the shapes between pH-potential and pH-pore depth plots. (authors)

  17. Advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation for fermentation-derived organic acids production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S. P.

    1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lactate esters produced from carbohydrate have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrate. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, eliminates the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

  18. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. However, an irradiation test with a simulated SRAT product supernate containing glycolic acid in an oxygen depleted atmosphere found no evidence of polymerization.

  19. Response of shoot growth and gas exchange of Picea abies clones to rain acidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Response of shoot growth and gas exchange of Picea abies clones to rain acidity and the addition, particularly the effect of acidity and the addition of a realistic ionic mixture to simulated acidic.0 with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids (S02-/NO-weight ratio = 2.4). Ionic concentrations m mg/1were: 4.50 S

  20. Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

    2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

  1. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms. [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. Cellular nucleic acids were labeled in vivo by incubation with ({sup 3}H)thymidine or ({sup 3}H)adenine, and production of extracellular DNA in marine waters, artificial seawater, or minimal salts media was determined by detecting radiolabeled macromolecules in incubation filtrates. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Three of four organisms produced the greatest amounts of extracellular nucleic acids when incubated in low-salinity media (2% artificial seawater) rather than high-salinity media (10 to 50% artificial seawater). The greatest production of extracellular nucleic acids by P. cepacia occurred at pH 7 and 37{degree}C, suggesting that extracellular-DNA production may be a normal physiologic function of the cell. Incubation of labeled P. cepacia cells in water from Bimini Harbor, Bahamas, resulted in labeling of macromolecules of the ambient microbial population. Collectively these results indicate that (i) extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physicochemical factors than biotic factors, (ii) extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments, and (iii) ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms.

  2. THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  3. acute nitric oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS), a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed...

  4. affects nitric oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS), a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed...

  5. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

  6. Nitric oxide reactions of bio-Inspired zinc and cobalt complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozhukh, Julia, 1985-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Bioinorganic Chemistry of Nitric Oxide and of Some of Its Targets The redox-active nature of nitric oxide (NO) regulates the chemistry and roles of NO in biology. The interactions of NO with nitric oxide synthases, ...

  7. Influence de l'quilibre en acides amins de trois protines infuses dans l'intestin grle, sur la production laitire de la vache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Gilles, 35590L'Hermitage, France. Summary. The affect of postruminal infusion of urea, gelatin, isolated soy increased with the amount of essential amino acids infused. Chez des vaches laitières d'un bon niveau de production, la sécrétion des protéines du lait est accrue par l'infusion post-ruminale de caséinates (Clark

  8. Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

  9. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  10. Localization of the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and its conversion to ethylene during the rhythmic production of the gas in Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohil, Hemantkumar Laxmansinh

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were conducted to determine where in the plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is made and converted to ethylene in Sorghum bicolor seedlings producing the gas in circadian rhythms. For the first time, a natural enzyme was used...

  11. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Christopher

    be as efficient as bioethanol production, which reaches commercial viability through anaerobic, high

  12. Fission product solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  13. Generation, Translocation, and Action of Nitric Oxide in Living Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennyson, Andrew G.

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous diatomic radical that is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions in biology. Conceptually, the biochemistry of NO can be separated into three stages: generation ...

  14. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production of citric acid by fermentation, recovery of theof Citric Acid from Aqueous Fermentation Solutions byof citric acid was 1.1.1 Lactic Acid Currently, fermentation

  15. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    and to lead to additional ozone production in regions where isoprene oxidation chemistry is dominant Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide Hong Yuan Hsin and Matthew J. Elrod- and chloroalkylperoxy radicals, derived from the OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone

  16. Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Arnab; DuBois, Daniel L.; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site has led to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives, [Ni(PCy2NAmino acid2)2]2+ (CyAA), of [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes. It is shown that these CyAA derivatives can catalyze fully reversible H2 production/oxidation, a feature reminiscent of enzymes. The reversibility is achieved in acidic aqueous solutions, 0.25% H2/Ar, and elevated temperatures (tested up to 348 K) for the glycine (CyGly), arginine (CyArg), and arginine methyl ester (CyArgOMe) derivatives. As expected for a reversible process, the activity is dependent upon H2 and proton concentration. CyArg is significantly faster in both directions than the other two derivatives (~300 s-1 H2 production and 20 s-1 H2 oxidation; pH=1, 348 K). The significantly slower rates for CyArgOMe (35 s-1 production and 7 s-1 oxidation) compared to CyArg suggests an important role for the COOH group during catalysis. That CyArg is faster than CyGly (3 s-1 production and 4 s-1 oxidation under the same conditions) suggests that the additional structural features imparted by the guanidinium groups facilitate fast and reversible H2 addition/release. These observations demonstrate that appended, outer coordination sphere amino acids work in synergy with the active site and can play an equally important role for synthetic molecular electrocatalysts as the protein scaffold does for redox active enzymes. This work was funded by the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US DOE, BES (AD, WJS), and the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, BES (DLD, JASR). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  17. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  18. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  19. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

  20. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction.

  1. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  2. Active Phosphoric Acid and Its Relation to the Needs of the Soil for Phosphoric Acid in Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insecticides, 1907-OS. Winter Bur Clover. Alfalfa. Steer Feeding Experiments. Texas Fever. Nature and Use of Commercial Fertilizers. Spray Calendar. Composition of White Lead ancl Paints. Fertilizer Test with Onions. Commercial Feeding Stuffs in 1907... of Fixing Power of Soil to Absorption from Fifth-Normal ................. ............................ . Nitric Acid :: 23 ........................ Importancc of Fixation in Soil Analysis 25 ............................. Successive Extractions of Natural...

  3. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  4. Cellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    in astrocytes lead to the Ca2 -dependent synthesis of nitric oxide. This in turn stimulates a Ca2 influx pathwayCellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide, Modulates the Refilling in astrocytes, we imaged the formation of nitric oxide in cultured murine cortical astrocytes using DAF-FM (4

  5. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  6. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  7. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled: Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3?0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  8. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  9. NON-RACEMIC AMINO ACID PRODUCTION BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION OF ACHIRAL INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS WITH CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Marcellus, Pierre; Nuevo, Michel; Danger, Gregoire; Deboffle, Dominique; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis [Univ Paris-Sud, 'Astrochimie et Origines', Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes, UMR 6001, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.'s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.'s of up to 1.34% for ({sup 13}C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL photons per deposited molecule. This result, directly comparable with some L excesses measured in meteorites, supports a scenario in which exogenous delivery of organics displaying a slight L excess, produced in an extraterrestrial environment by an asymmetric astrophysical process, is at the origin of biomolecular asymmetry on Earth. As a consequence, a fraction of the meteoritic organic material consisting of non-racemic compounds may well have been formed outside the solar system. Finally, following this hypothesis, we support the idea that the protosolar nebula has indeed been formed in a region of massive star formation, regions where UV-CPL of the same helicity is actually observed over large spatial areas.

  10. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  11. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. Digestibility of amino acids and energy in three soybean products measured at the end of the small intestine and over the entire track of growing-finishing swine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph, Bryan Charles

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and feces by the method of Kimura and Miller (1957) and lanthanides by the method of Conner (1977). Amino acids were measured by ion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis using a modified Beckman 120C amino acid auto- analyzer (Spackman st al...

  14. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  15. [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2(CH3CN)]2+ as an Electrocatalyst for H2 Production: Dependence on Acid Strength and Isomer Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.; Pool, Douglas H.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Yang, Jenny Y.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [Ni(PPh2NBz2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ (where PPh2NBz2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) has been studied as an electrocatalyst for the production of hydrogen in acetonitrile. Using strong acids, such as p cyanoanilinium, Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ has been shown to be protonated under catalytic conditions prior to reduction, with an effective pKa of 6.7±0.4. Through multinuclear NMR spectroscopy studies, the nickel(II) complex was found to be doubly protonated without any observed singly protonated species. In the doubly protonated complex, both protons are positioned exo with respect to the metal center and are stabilized by an N-H-N hydrogen bond. The formation of exo protonated isomers is proposed to limit the rate of hydrogen production because the protons are unable to gain suitable proximity to the reduced metal center to generate dihydrogen. Pre-protonation of Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ has been found to shift the catalytic operating potential to more positive potentials by up to 440 mV, depending upon the conditions. The catalytic rate was found to increase by an order of magnitude by increasing the solution pH or through the addition of water. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  17. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Endoglin potentiates nitric oxide synthesis to enhance definitive hematopoiesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasrallah, Rabab; Knezevic, Kathy; Thai, Thuan; Thomas, Shane R.; Göttgens, Berthold; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie; Pimanda, John E.

    2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    potential. We also show using an ES cell line engineered to over-express ENG under Doxycycline (Dox) control that ENG drives the acceleration of hemogenic commitment of FLK1+ cells and definitive hematopoiesis and that it does so by increasing nitric... (Kyba et al., 2002) in which ENG is linked to GFP via a 2A peptide to facilitate monitoring (Fig. S7). The addition of Dox at day 0 of ES cell differentiation resulted in the induction of GFP and sustained surface expression of ENG (Fig. S8A (i) - (ii...

  20. Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs HYE-WON SHIN1 AND STEVEN C. GEORGE1, Hye-Won, and Steven C. George. Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs. J Appl of the lungs, but neglects axial diffusion. We incorporated axial diffusion into a one-dimensional trumpet

  1. Redox potential evolution of nitric species and plutonium in HNO{sub 3}-HNO{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larabi-Gruet, N.; Gwinner, B.; Robin, R.; Fauvet, P. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Lab Etud Corros Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Buravand, E. [CEA, DEN, DRCP, SE2A, Laboratoire d'Etudes de dissolution, F-30207 Bagnol/Ceze, (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In France, the reprocessing process of spent fuel is carried out using the Purex process. The first chemical step of this process is the dissolution of the spent fuel in aqueous concentrated nitric acid. This dissolution solution is composed of many oxidizing species and it is necessary to understand the chemistry of these species to apprehend the behavior of structural materials. The redox potential is a useful discriminate variable to differentiate the effect of each species. In this framework, only the effect of NO{sub 3}{sup -}/HNO{sub 2} couple and PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Pu{sup 4+} couple were investigated. These species were chosen because one is the main couple of medium and the other has a high standard potential. Their influence was investigated from the Nernst's equation. (authors)

  2. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  3. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  4. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  5. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro, E-mail: soovro@yahoo.ca

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widely used chemotherapeutic breast cancer drugs such as Tamoxifen citrate (TC), Capecitabine (CP) and Epirubicin (EP) are known to cause various cardiovascular side-effects among long term cancer survivors. Vascular modulation warrants nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction, which targets the vascular endothelium. We hypothesize that TC, CP and EP interference with the nitric oxide downstream signaling specifically, could lead to cardiovascular dysfunctions. The results demonstrate that while all three drugs attenuate NO and cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) production in endothelial cells, they caused elevated levels of NO in the plasma and RBC. However, PBMC and platelets did not show any significant changes under treatment. This implies that the drug effects are specific to the endothelium. Altered eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) localization patterns in endothelial cells were observed following drug treatments. Similarly, the expression of phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) protein was decreased under the treatment of drugs. Altered actin polymerization was also observed following drug treatment, while addition of SpNO and 8Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Incubation with the drugs decreased endothelial cell migration whereas addition of YC-1, SC and 8Br-cGMP recovered the effect. Additionally molecular docking studies showed that all three drugs exhibited a strong binding affinity with the catalytic domain of human sGC. In conclusion, results indicate that TC, CP and EP cause endothelial dysfunctions via the NO–sGC–cGMP pathway and these effects could be recovered using pharmaceutical agonists of NO signaling pathway. Further, the study proposes a combination therapy of chemotherapeutic drugs and cGMP analogs, which would confer protection against chemotherapy mediated vascular dysfunctions in cancer patients. - Highlights: • NO production is reduced in endothelial cells under breast cancer drug treatment. • Cellular cGMP level is decreased under the treatments of breast cancer drugs. • Breast cancer drugs induce vasoconstriction by interfering with NO pathway. • NO donors, cGMP analogs rescue breast cancer drug induced endothelial dysfunctions.

  6. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 2, Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume consists of two appendices: public comments and DOE responses, and public comments not requiring responses.

  7. 6/5/2013 Page 1 of 8 Nitric Acid SOP Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    (68 °F) Flash point: no data available Lower explosion limit: no data available Upper explosion limit: no data available Odor: no data available #12 statement(s) H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer. H314 Causes severe

  8. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  9. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  10. acetic acid fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production in Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality* Wine...

  11. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust ...

  12. Exercise training reverses age-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Wook

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The risk of injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress increases in skeletal muscle with aging. It has been postulated that pro-oxidant signaling, including upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributes ...

  13. The development and application of a diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas Nathan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development of a new type of sensor for nitric oxide (NO) that can be used in a variety of combustion diagnostics and control applications. The sensor utilizes the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) ...

  14. Nitric OxideTriggered Remodeling of Chloroplast Bioenergetics and Thylakoid Proteins upon Nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitric Oxide­Triggered Remodeling of Chloroplast Bioenergetics and Thylakoid Proteins upon Nitrogen droplets, but the accompanying changes in bioenergetics have been little studied so far. Here, we report

  15. Nitric oxide activation of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in human colon carcinoma cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wogan, Gerald N.

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates expression of genes that protect cells from oxidative damage. Here, we characterized nitric oxide (•NO)-induced Nrf2–Kelch-like ECH-associated protein ...

  16. Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

  17. The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

  18. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in As induced VaD.

  19. Products and Mechanisms of the Reaction of Oleic Acid with Ozone and Nitrate Radical Hui-Ming Hung, Yasmine Katrib, and Scot T. Martin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the addition of ozone to the double bond of oleic acid, which yields a primary ozonide (molozonide).21 The high-energy chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) are used, and -NO2 are observed in the infrared spectra, and high molecular weight molecules are formed

  20. The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oates, Margaret Deron

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Jack H. Lunsford The catalytic activity of tetraamminecopper(II) complexes in aque- ous solution in the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia nas been in- vestigated. Kinetic data for the nitric oxide reduction reaction were determined in a closed... circulating system. Electron paramagnetic reso- spectroscopy was used to determine the zelative quantity of copper in the +2 oxidation state at different temperatures. A reaction mechanism is proposed from these experimental investigations in order...

  1. By studying the mechanisms of wax and oil production in plants and genetically manipulating their fatty acids chains, Ljerka Kunst hopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karczmarek, Joanna

    By studying the mechanisms of wax and oil production in plants and genetically manipulating, locally- produced seed oils for industrial applications. All land plants produce a thin wax coating and altering the complex array of enzy- matic reactions involved in wax production is an integral part of plant

  2. Acidic dissolution behavior of U containing ZrO2–MgO ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiel Holliday; Nicholas Smith; Thomas Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Ken Czerwinski

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the possibility of dissolving zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel containing uranium oxide as a fissile material and plutonium homolog and erbium oxide as a burnable poison with nitric and sulfuric acid as a potential first step in a reprocessing scheme. The progress of the dissolution is followed by monitoring the amount of material in solution by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, assessing the speciation of the material by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy, and determining and quantifying the crystalline phases present in the remaining residue by X-ray diffraction. This study has shown a linear incongruent dissolution of the cubic zirconia phase in concentrated nitric acid under certain chemical compositions, while the magnesium oxide phase is completely soluble. In sulfuric acid uranium, erbium, and magnesium are soluble to different extents while zirconium forms a colloidal suspension that conglomerates and settles out of solution. The feasibility of the dissolution of zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel with nitric and sulfuric acid for reprocessing is discussed.

  3. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentationand fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic and other acids.

  4. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

  5. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts continued towards the synthesis of new pillared clay catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia. The possibility of utilizing hydrocarbons was also investigated.

  6. Chemical Additive Selection in Matrix Acidizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jason 1981-

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    critical detail of weak acid chemistry. One concern when using any acid in oilfield operations is the corrosion of well tubulars. Thus operators often choose to pump corrosion inhibitor, a chemical additive electrostatically attracted... to the negative charge of the well casing or production tubing, to decrease the rate at which the acid accesses well tubular surfaces (Crowe and Minor 1985). A typical working concentration of corrosion inhibitor is 1-2 wt% of injected acid (Smith et al. 1978...

  7. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated and installed in the single cell electrolyzer (60 cm{sup 2} active cell area). Shakedown testing was conducted, and several modifications were made to the test facility equipment. Seven different MEAs were used during testing. Beginning on May 20, 2013, SRNL was able to test the SDE continuously for 1200 hours, including 1000 hours under power to generate hydrogen at an average rate of 10.8 liters per hour. The SDE was not removed or repaired during the 50-day test and was successfully restarted after each shutdown. The test was intentionally stopped after 1200 hours (1000 hours of hydrogen production) due to funding constraints. Post-test examination of the MEA using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDAX) showed no elemental sulfur deposits or sulfur layer inside the cell, thus successfully achieving the test goals. The results demonstrated that the SDE could be operated for extended periods without major performance degradation or the buildup of sulfur inside the MEA. Air Products conducted an assessment of the economic viability of the SDE based on the “as tested” design. The results indicated that the SDE faces significant economic obstacles in its current state. Further development and scale-up are necessary before the SDE is ready for commercialization.

  8. Endothelial-constitutive nitric oxide synthase exists in airways and diesel exhaust particles inhibit the effect of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muto, Emiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Yamada, Kazuyoshi [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others] [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important cause of air pollution and are thought to be responsible for some respiratory ailments, but the exact mechanism is not known. We evaluated whether DEP inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in bronchi as No is present in the exhaled air and has a physiological role in the respiratory tract. Aortic rings were also examined for comparison. We observed that acetylcholine (ACh) induced contraction of the bronchi was partially attenuated by the simultaneous release of NO. When bronchial rings were incubated either with N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA): an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) or with DEP, the contraction to ACh was abolished. The source of the NOS was the bronchial epithelium and this endothelial-constitutive NOS was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. DEP like L-NMA inhibited the ACh induced endothelium dependent relaxation in the aortic rings. The inhibition of NO release by DEP and L-NMA from bronchial and aortic rings was also confirmed by a selective NO electrode. We conclude that inhibition of NO availability by DEP may in part be responsible for the adverse respiratory effects seen by inhalation of these particles in polluted air. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  10. Bridging the Gap: Studying Sequence to Product Correlation among Fungal Polyketide Synthases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabala, Angelica Obusan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citric and gluconic acid production from fig by Aspergillus niger using solid-state fermentation."industrial fermentation for the production of citric acid,

  11. Chemical Degradation Studies on a Series of Dithiophosphinic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiderich, Melissa E [ORNL] [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL] [ORNL; Peterman, D. R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marc, Philippe L [ORNL] [ORNL; Klaehn, John D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study a significant increase in the stability of a series of dithiophosphinic acids (DPAHs) under oxidizing acidic conditions was achieved. The degradation behavior of a series of DPAHs, designed for lanthanide/actinide separation, was examined. The stability of the DPAHs, when contacted with varying nitric acid concentrations, was tested and monitored using 31P {1H} NMR. Changes in the functional groups of the DPAHs resulted in substantial increases in the stability. However, all the DPAHs eventually showed signs of degradation when placed in contact with 2 M HNO3. The addition of a radical scavenger, hydrazine, inhibited the degradation of the DPAHs. With small amounts of hydrazine, five of the DPAHs remained stable for over a month in direct contact with 2 M HNO3.

  12. Chemical Degradation Studies on a Series of Dithiophosphinic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa E. Freiderich; Dean R. Peterman; John R. Klaehn; Philippe Marc; Laetitia H. Delmau

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the stability of a series of dithiophosphinic acids (DPAHs) under oxidizing acidic conditions was achieved. The degradation behavior of a series of DPAHs, designed for lanthanide/actinide separation, was examined. The stability of the DPAHs, when contacted with varying nitric acid concentrations, was tested and monitored using 31P {1H} NMR. Changes in the functional groups of the DPAHs resulted in substantial increases in the stability. However, when placed in contact with 2 M HNO3 all the DPAHs eventually showed signs of degradation. The addition of a radical scavenger, hydrazine, inhibited the degradation of the DPAHs. In the presence of a small concentration of hydrazine, five of the DPAHs remained stable for over a month in direct contact with 2 M HNO3.

  13. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A; Thompson, Stephanie R; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.

  14. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  15. Success Story Production of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Success Story Production of Chemicals from Biologically Derived Succinic Acid (BDSA) The BDSA, automobile bumpers, and an array of other industrial and consumer products. Known as the BDSA (Biologically it as a platform chemical to produce 1,4-butanediol (BDO) and related products, tetrahydrofuran and - butyrolactone

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen and hypoxia alter production of nitric oxide by J774 murine macrophages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burden, Kyland Irle

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (no HBO), within each experiment. Control cells, incubated in P02 20mmHg or 40mmHg, produced significantly (P < 0.0001) less NO, ([] respectively), than did cells exposed to 95% room air (RA), 5% C02-Cells incubated in P02 = 20mmHg or 40mm...

  17. Development and testing of an advanced acid fracture conductivity apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, ChunLei

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    wells. Acid fracturing is a standard practice to increase the production rate and to improve ultimate recovery in carbonate reservoirs. There have been successful cases in most carbonate reservoirs around the world. However acid fracture performance...

  18. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore ...

  19. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust gases. The urea...

  20. A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    -compartment model of the lungs in an effort to explain several fundamental experimental observa- tions. The model representing the alveolar region of the lungs. Each compartment is surrounded by a layer of tissue OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) in the physiology of lung function has steadily increased in the past decade

  1. Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere, 2 Charles A. Barth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Scott

    Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere, 2 Charles A. Barth1 Received 14 April 2010, gravity waves propagate from the polar regions toward the equator heating the thermosphere at 140 km and higher. These gravity waves are produced by Joule heating that occurs at latitudes of 60° and higher

  2. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

  3. [Ni(PPh2NC6H4X2)2]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Effect of Substituents, Acids, and Water on Catalytic Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgore, Uriah J.; Roberts, John A.; Pool, Douglas H.; Appel, Aaron M.; Stewart, Michael P.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of mononuclear nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes [Ni(PPh2NPhX2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NPhX2 = 1,5-di(para¬-X-phenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; X = OMe, Me, CH2P(O)(OEt)2, Br, and CF3) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that [Ni(PPh2NPhMe2)2](BF4)2 and [Ni(PPh2NPhOMe2)2](BF4)2 are tetracoordinate with distorted square planar geometries. The Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) redox couples of each complex are electrochemically reversible in acetonitrile (0.2 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate) with potentials that are increasingly cathodic as the electron-donating character of X is increased. All of these complexes are efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen production, with rates generally increasing as the electron-donating character of X is decreased. Catalytic studies using 2,6-dichloroanilinium triflate (2,6-Cl2AnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 5.0) 4-cyanoanilinium tetrafluoroborate (4-CNAnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 7.0) and protonated dimethylformamide ([(DMF)H]+OTf , pKaMeCN = 6.1) reveal that turnover frequencies do not correlate with substrate acid pKa values, but are highly dependent on the acid structure, with this effect being related to substrate size. Addition of water is shown to dramatically increase catalytic rates for all catalysts. With [Ni(PPh2NPhCH2P(O)(OEt)22)2](BF4)2 using [(DMF)H]+OTf as acid and with added water, a turnover frequency of 1850 s-1 was obtained. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  4. Ab-initio simulations of chemical stability indicators of the bis-DGA-type molecule and its radiation degradation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koubsky, T.; Kalvoda, L.; Drab, M. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Dept. of Solid State Engineering, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For hydrometallurgical treatment of the high level liquid waste (HLLW) in the DIAMEX and SANEX processes, organic compounds of the bis-DGA family are used as cation extractants in apolar solvents. For the compound of m-xylylene-bis-diglycolamide high distribution coefficients for Eu and Am were found. Since the environment of the process is highly radioactive and acidic (nitric acid), it is necessary to ensure the stability of the extractants. In order to analyse the process theoretically, the molecule of m-xylylene-bis- diglycolamide and two of its degradation products were simulated by the DFT computational methods (PBE, RPBE, BLYP, B3LYP) available within the simulation environment DMol{sup 3} 6.1 and Gaussian 09 software. The local chemical stability of some locations of the molecule was assessed from the calculated stability indicators (electrostatic potential, Fukui function, HOMO localization). In connection with the chemical treatment, especially the stability against an electrophilic attack was tested. The results of calculated bond orders and spatial distribution of electrostatic potential and HOMO were are successfully correlated with the local and general stability determined by the experiment. These results should be helpful for the further development of the separation process. (authors)

  5. amino acid limitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion Bequette, Brian J. 3 Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino...

  6. acidic soil isolates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil pH indicates its alkalinity or acidity. This property influences soil chemistry and crop production. A low maintenance ROSS Ultra Triodeguarantees accurate measurement of...

  7. The East Penn process for recycling sulfuric acid from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, R.; Bricker, M. [East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc., Lyon Station, PA (United States); Spitz, R. [Spitz (R.), Holbrook, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to March 1992, the only component of the lead-acid battery that was not recycled by East Penn Manufacturing Company was the sulfuric acid electrolyte. This acid was unusable in new batteries because the iron level was found to exceed new product specifications. The development of a liquid ion exchange process to remove the iron from the acid allows East Penn to currently recover over three million gallons of sulfuric acid annually. The process is based upon the use of an iron selective liquid ion exchange material or solvent to extract iron from the sulfuric acid electrolyte followed by regeneration of the solvent. Equilibrium and kinetic data for the extraction and regeneration steps were collected in order to scale up the process to commercial scale. An electrochemical process for the treatment of the acid used in the regeneration step was also developed which significantly reduces the volume of strip acid required in the process.

  8. The role of nitric oxide in testosterone-induced vasodilation in pig coronary arteries and rat thoracic aorta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piefer, Jason William

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have provided evidence that the administration of testosterone to vascular tissue causes vasodilation (Costarella, Yue). This study examines the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a potential mechanism of testosterone-induced vasodilation...

  9. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  10. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  11. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  12. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic andand acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentation

  13. Production and use of activated char for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States). Geological Survey

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon adsorbents have been shown to remove sulfur oxides from flue gas, and also serve as a catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides at temperatures between 80 and 150{degrees}C. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feed stock for the production of activated char which could be used as a catalyst for removal of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} from combustion flue gas, and to evaluate the potential application of the products in flue gas cleanup. Key production variables will be identified to help design and engineer activated char with the proper pore structure and surface chemistry. During this reporting period, a series of chats was prepared from an Illinois coal (IBC-102). A 48{times}100 mesh size fraction of IBC-102 coal was physically cleaned to reduce its ash content from 5.5 to 3.6%. The clean coal was pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 500, 700 and 900{degrees}C. The surface area and oxygen content of the char was varied either by oxidation in 10% O{sub 2} or by nitric acid treatment. Steam activation or chemical activation using potassium hydroxide was employed to enhance surface area development. Nitrogen BET surface areas of the chars ranged from 1 to 800 M{sup 2}/g.

  14. Production of levulinic acid in urban biorefineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon-Coulson, Garth Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy security of the United States depends, most experts agree, on the development of substitute sources of energy for the transportation sector, which accounts for over 93% of the nation's petroleum consumption. ...

  15. Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low, a water-soluble product of isoprene, oxidizes further in the aqueous phase to pyruvic acid. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the aqueous-phase oxidation of pyruvic acid create large uncertainties in the in- cloud

  16. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  17. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  18. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive startup of two new SRS processing facilities, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side-Solvent-Extraction Unit (MCU) will add two new waste streams to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The ARP will remove actinides from the 5.6 M salt solution resulting in a sludge-like product that is roughly half monosodium titanate (MST) insoluble solids and half sludge insoluble solids. The ARP product will be added to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) at boiling and dewatered prior to pulling a SRAT receipt sample. The cesium rich MCU stream will be added to the SRAT at boiling after both formic and nitric acid have been added and the SRAT contents concentrated to the appropriate endpoint. A concern was raised by an external hydrogen review panel that the actinide loaded MST could act as a catalyst for hydrogen generation (Mar 15, 2007 report, Recommendation 9). Hydrogen generation, and it's potential to form a flammable mixture in the off-gas, under SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing conditions has been a concern since the discovery that noble metals catalyze the decomposition of formic acid. Radiolysis of water also generates hydrogen, but the radiolysis rate is orders of magnitude lower than the noble metal catalyzed generation. As a result of the concern raised by the external hydrogen review panel, hydrogen generation was a prime consideration in this experiment. Testing was designed to determine whether the presence of the irradiated ARP simulant containing MST caused uncontrolled or unexpected hydrogen production during experiments simulating the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) due to activation of titanium. A Shielded Cells experiment, SC-5, was completed using SB4 sludge from Tank 405 combined with an ARP product produced from simulants by SRNL researchers. The blend of sludge and MST was designed to be prototypic of planned DWPF SRAT and SME cycles. As glass quality was not an objective in this experiment, no vitrification of the SME product was completed. The results from this experiment were compared to the results from experiment SC-1, a similar experiment with SB4 sludge without added ARP product. This report documents: (1) The preparation and subsequent composition of the ARP product. (2) The preparation and subsequent compositional characterization of the SRAT Receipt sample. Additional details will be presented concerning the noble metal concentration of the ARP product and the SRAT receipt sample. Also, calculations related to the amount of formic and nitric acid added during SRAT processing will be presented as excess formic acid will lead to additional hydrogen generation. (3) Highlights from processing during the SRAT cycle and SME cycle (CPC processing). Hydrogen generation will be discussed since this was the prime objective for this experiment. (4) A comparison of CPC processing between SC-1 (without ARP simulant) and SC-5. This work was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP)6, and analyses were guided by an Analytical Sample Support Matrix (ASSM)7. This Research and Development (R&D) was completed to support operation of DWPF.

  20. Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

  1. Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

  2. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid] Production of industrial aro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a sus- tainable derived from benzene in the USA and Western Europe. Phenol is used mainly in the production of phenolic

  4. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  5. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant.

  6. Abstract A novel succinic acid-producing bacterium was isolated from bovine rumen. The bacterium is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    succinic acid, acetic acid and formic acid at a constant ratio of 2:1:1. When M. succiniciproducens MBEL55E of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabo- lism (Gottschalk 1986; Zeikus 1980). Fermentative pro- duction of succinic acid from renewable biomass has re

  7. Selective reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over vanadia on pillared titanium phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Lawrence Joseph

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the catalyst. Shikada et al. (1981) compared AlzOz, SiOz, and SiO, ? TiOz (equimolar) supports for VzOs using a simulated flue gas containing 100 ppni SOz. The silica- titanium dioxide supported catalyst showed the highest NO conversions followed by those...SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE YVITH AMMONIA OVER VANADIA ON PILLARED TITANIUM PHOSPHATE A Thesis LAWRENCE JOSEPH CZARNECKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  8. The Metabolism of Aluminum Citrate and Biosynthesis of Oxalic Acid in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    bioavailability of aluminum triggered by in- dustrialization and acid rain [20]. The presence of organic acidsThe Metabolism of Aluminum Citrate and Biosynthesis of Oxalic Acid in Pseudomonas fluorescens Vasu-citrate) was metabolized intracellularly and that oxalic acid was an important product in the Al-stressed cells

  9. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  10. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warwas, Edwin James

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS (January 1967) Edwin James Warwas B. S. , Southwest Texas State College Directed by: Dr. C. K. Hancock and Dr. E. A. Meyers The reactions of solid benzoic acid (BZAH) and nine m- or p- substituted benzoic acids (RBZAH...) with solid potassium benzoate (BZAK) and m- or p-substituted potassium benzoates (R'BZAK) have been carried out in sealed thin-walled glass capillary tubes or in 0 sealed weighing bottles at 70 For the reaction, RBZAH + R'BZAK, where R = R', the product...

  11. Inhibition of Biohydrogen Production by Undissociated Acetic and Butyric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inhibition of Biohydrogen Production by Undissociated Acetic and Butyric Acids S T E V E N V A N G Sackett Building, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 Glucose fermentation to hydrogen results in the production of acetic and butyric acids. The inhibitory effect of these acids

  12. A Comparative Study of Dolomite Dissolution in Simple Organic Acids and Chelating Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adenuga, Olusegun O

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid treatments have predominantly been conducted using HCl for its availability, high rock dissolving power and soluble reaction products. At high temperatures, rapid spending of the acid with carbonates prevents deeper penetration distance...

  13. In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

  14. acid reduce post-coronary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been effective in removing the ammonia and the resulting product can be used for fertilizer. However, sulfuric acid costs moreTitle: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce...

  15. Effect of Bioreactor Mode of Operation on Mixed-Acid Fermentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golub, Kristina

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    facultative anaerobic community existing in a biofilm. Compared to countercurrent trains, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivity and acid distribution, but lower yield, conversion, productivity, and acid concentration. One- to six...

  16. Plasma Production via Field Ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, C.L.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu,; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam's bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  17. Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

  18. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  19. Angiopoietins and eNOS in pulmonary hypoplasia 0 Defective angiogenesis in hypoplastic human fetal lungs correlates with nitric oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    lungs correlates with nitric oxide synthase deficiency that occurs despite enhanced angiopoietin 2-mail: jacques.bourbon@inserm.fr inserm-00473115,version1-14Apr2010 Author manuscript, published in "AJP Lung and eNOS in pulmonary hypoplasia 1 Abstract Lung hypoplasia (LH) is a life-threatening congenital

  20. Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  6. Structure of a Loose Dimer: an Intermediate in Nitric Oxide Synthase Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pant,K.; Crane, B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooperativity among ligand binding, subunit association, and protein folding has implications for enzyme regulation as well as protein aggregation events associated with disease. The binding of substrate l-arginine or cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin converts nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) from a 'loose dimer', with an exposed active center and higher sensitivity to proteolysis, to a 'tight dimer' competent for catalysis. The crystallographic structure of the Bacillus subtilis NOS loose dimer shows an altered association state with severely destabilized subdomains. Ligand binding or heme reduction converts loose dimers to tight dimers in solution and crystals. Mutations at key positions in the dimer interface that distinguish prokaryotic from eukaryotic NOSs affect the propensity to form loose dimers. The loose dimer structure indicates that non-native interactions can mediate subunit association in NOS.

  7. ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

  8. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of Composite K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KECDVSR24H-2) produced during a 20- to 24-hr dissolution of a composite K East (KE) Basin canister sludge in 95 C 6 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KECDVSR24H-2, contains radionuclides at concentrations which exceed the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for TRU by about a factor of 70, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 200, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 50. The solids also exceed the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 2 and uranium by a factor of 5. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (both components of TRU) and then uranium and {sup 137}Cs.

  9. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  10. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  11. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis; Syrimis, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana (United States); Fatemi, S.M. [Amoco, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to invert the conventional scale of values for products of coal utilization processes by making coal chars (carbons) that, because of their unique properties, are the most valuable materials in the product slate. A unique type of coal-derived carbon studied in this project is oxidized activated coal char having both adsorptive and catalyst properties. Major program elements were (a) preparation and characterization of materials (b) characterization of carbons and catalyst testing (c) completion of diesel engine testing of low-ash coal and (d) initiation of a two-year adsorption study. Materials prepared were (a) two low-ash coal samples one via ChemCoal processing of IBC-109 and the other by acid dissolution of IBC-109`s mineral matter, (b) coal char (MG char), (c) activated low-ash carbon (AC), (d) oxidized activated carbon (OAC). Amoco continued its support with state-of-the art analytical capabilities and development of catalyst testing procedures. Diesel engine tests were made with low ash coal dispersed in diesel fuel at solid loadings of 20% and 35%. The slurry was successfully burned in cylinder 2 of a two-cylinder diesel engine, after modifications of the engine`s fuel injection system. The higher speed proved to be more favorable but the slurry burned with a slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency at both speeds with respect to diesel fuel alone. Adsorption studies included preparation of seven base-line carbon samples and their characterization, including their N{sub 2} BET surface areas and apparent densities. Paranitrophenol (PNP) adsorption isotherms were determined for the six controls. Oxidation of carbon with nitric acid decreases activated carbon`s PNP adsorption capacity while air oxidation increases adsorption capacity.

  12. Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role in petroleum production is the resulting stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions, which can cause problems (CA). Key Words: Napthenic acid; Heptylbenzoic acid; Water-in-oil emulsion; pH. INTRODUCTION

  13. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  14. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  15. Preparation and recovery of methacrylic acid and its esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, P.J.; Hite, J.R.

    1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the vapor phase catalytic oxydehydrogenation of isobutyric acid or its esters to form methacrylic acid or its esters wherein the gaseous product is condensed and purified. The improvement described here consists of adding to the gaseous product at or about the point of its condensation from 1 to 6000 ppm of a surfactant material selected from the group consisting of an anionic a cationic and non-ionic surfactant.

  16. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  17. Evaluation of Acid Fracturing Using the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaehun

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    acid volume versus cumulative production with optimum fracture half length............................................................................................40 4.1 For Well SA-2, IPR and VLP curves shows production rates... at the beginning of production....................................................................................47 4.2 For Well SA-2, IPR & VLP curves shows production rates at the end of production history; the absolute open flow (AOF) of IPR is much less...

  18. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  19. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the effects of cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) on nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and 2) determine if the consideration of ccv affects the average NO emission as compared to ...

  20. EMSL - Nuclei acid structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

  1. Nuclei acid structure | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

  2. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  3. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  4. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. ECOS Inquiries Series -University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    1 ECOS Inquiries Series - University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of Soil Microbes OF ACID RAIN ON THE ABILITY OF SOIL MICROBES TO DECOMPOSE ORGANIC NITROGEN 3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: a ecosystems. One well known example of this is the production of acid rain due to certain air pollutants

  6. QUALIT DES ENSILAGES DE MAS GRAIN HUMIDE PRSERVS PAR L'ACIDE PROPIONIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    product) and acetic (0,1-0,3 per cent) acids are produced by carbohydrate fermentation. The silage p maïs grain humide, la fermentation des glucides entraîne une pro- duction notable d'acides lactique (0 degradative change is practically inhi- bited after 3 to 8 months : in our assays, lactic and acetic acids

  7. Firmness and cell wall characteristics of pasteurized jalapeno pepper rings affected by acetic acid, calcium chloride and preheating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burma, Prashanthi V

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pasteurization and storage, especially when high acid brines are used. Development of treatments to retard softening may result in a higher quality product. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCI2), acetic acid...

  8. Pathophysiology of endotoxin: microvascular dysfunction, and the roles of VEGF and nitric oxide (NO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naftanel, Mark Andrew

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -induced impairment of VEGF-stimulated NO production in the endothelial pathophysiology of shock/sepsis....

  9. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. Studies are ongoing to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. The next phase of testing for this work will focus on the following down selected eluants: Ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide. The next testing phase is a confirmation of the elution ability of the selected eluants. It will mimic a typical sRF cesium ion exchange process i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. Due to corrosion concerns, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate will be tested instead of calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively. Nitric acid is for benchmarking since it is the baseline sRF eluant. The information at hand indicates ammonium hydroxide, while a weak base, may hold promise as an effective eluant. Hence, its inclusion among the eluants to be studied despite the fact that it was not tested as a stand-alone eluant earlier.

  10. Well Productivity Enhancement of High Temperature Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guanqun

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidizing is one of the most popular techniques for well productivity enhancement during oil and gas production. However, the treatment method is not very effective when the wellbore penetrates through multiple layers of heterogeneous reservoirs...

  11. Antimicrobial Property of Lauric Acid Against Propionibacterium Acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liangfang

    et al., 1999). Previous studies have found that P. acnes stimulates the production of proinflammatory of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular

  12. Specialty Cellular Glass Products and Their Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rostoker, D.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and boroaluminosilicate fields which exhibit a high degree of resistance to corrosion by aggressive chemicals as well. One product, sold as PENNGUARDTM block by Pennwalt Corporation, is used as a liner for chimneys where acid corrosion had previously caused substantial...

  13. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sakai, Y. , and Kato, N. (2002) Wax ester production from n-Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acidSteinbuchel, A. (2005) The wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme

  14. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V,; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  15. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

  16. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  17. Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron Douglas

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near- optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate- equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19... NOMENCLATURE A mass of carboxylic acid, g [A] total carboxylic acid concentration, g/Lliq. aceq acetic acid equivalents concentration, g/Lliq. ATP adenosine triphosphate Bi Fermentor i bottle plus centrifuge cake, g C conversion, g NAVS consumed/g NAVS...

  18. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  19. Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /mol (50­99% of the theoretical maxi- mum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall of combustion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m3 of H2 per

  20. Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid working to exposures. #12;Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Programs Office

  1. Water O?H Stretching Raman Signature for Strong Acid Monitoring via Multivariate Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, Amanda J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopic techniques have been applied extensively for quantification and analysis of solution compositions. In addition to static measurements, these techniques have been implemented in flow systems providing real-time solution information. A distinct need exists for information regarding acid concentration as it affects extraction efficiency and selectivity of many separation processes. Despite of the seeming simplicity of the problem, no practical solution has been offered yet particularly for the large-scale schemes involving toxic streams such as highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Classic potentiometric technique is not amiable for on-line measurements in nuclear fuel reprocessing due to requirements of frequent calibration/maintenance and poor long-term stability in the aggressive chemical and radiation environments. In this work, the potential of using Raman spectroscopic measurements for on-line monitoring of strong acid concentration in the solutions relevant to the dissolved used fuel was investigated. The Raman water signature was monitored and recorded for nitric and hydrochloric acid solution systems of systematically varied chemical composition, ionic strength, and temperature. The generated Raman spectroscopic database was used to develop predictive chemometric models for the quantification of the acid concentration (H+), neodymium concentration (Nd3+), nitrate concentration (NO3-), density, and ionic strength. This approach was validated using a flow solvent extraction system.

  2. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  3. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  4. Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEW CONSTRUCTION OF APPARATUS . DESCRIPTION OF CORE SAMPLES DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL ACID TREATMENT . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE SATURATED CORE L1D ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/CRUDE OIL SATURATED CORE S2A . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/KEROSENE OIL... experiment they used HCl saturated kerosene to test the same crude samples. Deposition occurred with the HCl saturated acid. The authors concluded, though deposition at an interface was preferential, sludge formation did not require an interface. Moore et...

  5. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  6. Effects of humic acid on forage digestibility in ruminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkenbery, James Marcus

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Minson, 1988; Okine- Mathison, 1991; Luginbuhl et al. , 1994). The clearance of these residues through the reticulo-omasal orifice is generally considered dependent upon physical reduction in particle size by mastication and rumination. However, Lllyatt et... by increasing microbial enzymatic activity, and (2) boosting intake by increasing particle breakdown and passage rate from the reticulo-rumen. Humic Acid Humic acid is the amorphic end product of microbial degradation of organic matter. Humic substances...

  7. Introduction "The cycle of N is unique in that it consists of a massive, well-mixed, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    [Lavery et al., 2002]. If these trends continue, HNO3 may become a more important contributor to acid rain uncertain due to the very limited number and variety of measurements to date. Nitric acid (HNO3), the oxidation product of NO2, is second only to sulfuric acid as a source of acid precipitation over much

  8. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  9. acid succinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulated the laser heating of the succinic acid (this data is still simulation is that infrared heating generates about 10-15 more succinic acid molecules bound to the analyte...

  10. The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitric oxide NOx NNN NNK Ncyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitrogen oxides Nirogen oxidescyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitrogen oxides Nirogen oxides

  11. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  12. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  13. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  14. Lubrication with boric acid additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, {sup 203}Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl{sub 2} from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Hyuk Jin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow ...

  19. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  20. Investigating acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A report is given of an address by Kathleen Bennett, Assistant Administrator of Air, Noise and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency which was presented to the US Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works. Bennet explained that in view of the many unknowns about acid rain, and the possible substantial cost burden of additional controls, EPA is proceeding with its program to investigate this environmental malady over a 10-year period. The three major areas of the research program are (1) transport, transformation, and deposition processes, (2) effects of acid deposition, and (3) assessments and policy studies. Other issues discussed were global transboundary air pollution and Senate amendments addressing long-range transport. (JMT)

  1. Endogenously produced nitric oxide mitigates sensitivity of melanoma cells to cisplatin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godoy, Luiz Claudio

    Melanoma patients experience inferior survival after biochemotherapy when their tumors contain numerous cells expressing the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) and elevated levels of nitrotyrosine, a product derived ...

  2. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

    2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

  3. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Method for the continuous production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Getty, John Paul (Knoxville, TN); Orr, Mark T. (Kingsport, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

  5. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  6. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  7. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  8. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Frances Helen (Santa Fe, NM); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  9. Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1

  10. Antimicrobial activity of L. plantarum, isolated from a traditional lactic acid fermentation of table olives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of approximately 50 kg.mol­1. The presence of another compound of different properties and with a molecular mass) is due to the accumulation of main primary metabolites (lactic and acetic acids, ethanol and carbon dioxide) as well as to the production of other antimicrobial com- pounds, such as formic and benzoic acids

  11. Evaluation of a New Liquid Breaker for Polymer Based In-Situ Gelled Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksoy, Gamze

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    resulting in a less than desirable productivity. Therefore, an effective liquid breaker that is based on tetrafluoroboric acid was developed. This study was conducted to evaluate this new breaker system under the following conditions: breaker...

  12. Evaluation of various sulphur amino acid compounds in the diet of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goff, Jonathan B

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinement of diet formulations to enhance the efficiency of red drum production continues to be pursued. Based on previous studies, the sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirement of red drum for methionine plus cystine appears to be most limiting, which...

  13. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    calves as yearlings optimizes beef fatty acid composition. M.S. thesis, College Station: Texas A&M University. Chung, K.Y., Lunt, D.K., Choi, C.B., Chae, S.H., Rhoades, R.D., Adams, T.H., Booren, B., & Smith, S.B. (2006). Lipid characteristics... of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissiumus thoracis of Angus and Wagyu steers fed to U.S. and Japanese endpoints. Meat Science, 73(3), 432-441. Chung, K.Y., Lunt, D.K., Kawachi, H., Yano, H., & Smith, S.B. (2005). Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase...

  14. Product Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be...

  15. Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Bruce Mincher

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is investigating techniques involving ionic liquids (IL) and supercritical (SC) fluids for dissolution and separation of lanthanides, actinides, and fission products. The research project consists of the following tasks: Study direct dissolution of lanthanide oxides, uranium dioxide and other actinide oxides in [bmin][Tf{sub 2}N] with TBP(HNO{sub 3}){sub 1.8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.6} and similar types of Lewis acid-Lewis base complexing agents; Measure distributions of dissolved metal species between the IL and the sc-CO{sub 2} phases under various temperature and pressure conditions; Investigate the chemistry of the dissolved metal species in both IL and sc-CO{sub 2} phases using spectroscopic and chemical methods; Evaluate potential applications of the new extraction techniques for nuclear waste management and for other projects. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) and ionic liquids are considered green solvents for chemical reactions and separations. Above the critical point, CO{sub 2} has both gas- and liquid-like properties, making it capable of penetrating small pores of solids and dissolving organic compounds in the solid matrix. One application of sc-CO{sub 2} extraction technology is nuclear waste management. Ionic liquids are low-melting salts composed of an organic cation and an anion of various forms, with unique properties making them attractive replacements for the volatile organic solvents traditionally used in liquid-liquid extraction processes. One type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [bmin] with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [Tf{sub 2}N] is of particular interest for extraction of metal ions due to its water stability, relative low viscosity, high conductivity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. Recent studies indicate that a coupled IL sc-CO{sub 2} extraction system can effectively transfer trivalent lanthanide and uranyl ions from nitric acid solutions. Advantages of this technique include operation at ambient temperature and pressure, selective extraction due to tunable sc-CO{sub 2} solvation strength, no IL loss during back-extraction, and no organic solvent introduced into the IL phase.

  16. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

    1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

  17. acid products adsorbed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. N. Likos,*, K. A. Vaynberg, H. Lowen, and N. J. Wagner Physics Websites Summary: brush. These results agree with previous studies of the surface forces of gelatin adsorbed...

  18. most carbon exists as equilibrium products of carbonic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    expressed as mg/L CaCO3 (which assumes that alkalinity results only from CaCO3 and HCO3 - #12;HARDNESS = Ca and Mn salts of CO3 and HCO3 and also SO4, Cl, etc · often expressed as mg/L CaCO3 in USA · elsewhere runoff, percolating through soil: H+ + CaCO3 Ca(HCO3)2 · an important source of C in watersheds over

  19. Production Of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids In Genetically Modified Plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An annular wire harness for use in drill pipe comprising two rings interconnected by one or more insulated conductors. The rings are positioned within annular grooves located within the tool joints and the conductors are fixed within grooves along the bore wall of the pipe. The rings may be recessed within annular grooves in order to permit refacing of the tool joint. The rings are provided with means for coupling a power and data signal from an adjacent pipe to the conductors in such a fashion that the signal may be transmitted along the drill pipe and along an entire drill string.

  20. Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid Derived Molecules -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 23807 1- EnergyEnergy

  1. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 BrProcurement

  2. acid acetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of asphaltene deposition that occurs during acid treatments of oil reservoirs. Asphaltenes are present to some degree in most hydrocarbons. Due to the molecular weight of the...

  3. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  4. Formic Acid Mechanical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    ). What's Food and Bioprocess Engineering (FBE)? It's the application of engineering principles to biological materials to make useful products. FBE is a specialization within the Agricultural Engineering. An FBE will understand the biological material and bioprocessing used to make ethanol. By 2008, we

  5. Biphasic kinetics of growth and bacteriocin production with Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    , such as organic acids (lactate, acetate), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins (De Vuyst & Vandamme, 1994. For example, during sausage fermentations, bacteria are stressed by the lactic acid produced by the starter the production of lactic and acetic acid. During food processing, microbial survival depends on sensing

  6. Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron samples were analysed for diterpenoids derived from abietic acid (mainly retene, abietic acid, dehydroa- bietic acid and methyl dehydroabietate) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to test

  7. Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I... .............. phoric Acid by Acid and Ammonia 7 I ........ Other Soil Constituents Dissolved by Ammonia 8 ................... Solution of Fixed Phosphoric Acid 10 ................ ormation of Ammonia-Solubla Phosphoric Acid 11 ....... hosphoric Acid Dissolved...

  8. acidic alpha-amino acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid indicated that more succinic acid... Gilliland, Patti Lynn 2012-06-07 24 A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson Geosciences Websites Summary: , oxygen, and oxidants to form...

  9. In-plant Validation of Two Antimicrobial Agents Applied During the Production of Tenderized and/or Enhanced Beef Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Kayla

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness have been attributed to non-intact beef (e.g., tenderized, marinated, and enhanced) products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Organic acids are commonly utilized in the beef industry...

  10. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  11. RMOTC - Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on maximizing the value of the NPR-3 site and will continue with its Production Optimization Projects. NPR-3 includes 9,481 acres with more than 400 oil-producing wells....

  12. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitric oxide at electrodes modified with electropolymerized films of [Cr(v-tpy){sub 2}]{sup 3+} and their application to cellular NO determinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskus, M.; Wu, Q.; Shapleigh, J.P.; Abruna, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Pariente, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)] [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Toffanin, A. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain)] [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide can be electrocatalytically reduced at electrodes modified with electropolymerized films of [Cr(v-tpy){sub 2}]{sup 3+}. Upon further modification with a thin film of Nafion (to prevent interferences from anions, especially nitrite), these electrodes can be employed as NO sensors in solution with submicromolar detection limits and fast response. We have carried out preliminary studies of cellular NO release from Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacterial cells with excellent results. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  14. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  15. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  16. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  17. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  18. Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diacetate docosahexanoic acid diphenyliodonium chloride ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid eicosapentanoic acid ethidium homodiner ? 1 fragment length analysis using repair enzymes Fapy glycosylase Hanks' balanced salt solution hydrogen peroxide lipid... the elimination of cancer cells. Production and Functions of Reactive Oxygen Species Formation of reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species are a by-product of normal metabolism and include superoxide (Ot' ), hydrogen peroxide (HzO&), and the hydroxyl...

  19. Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

  20. Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

  1. acetic acid solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  2. arachidonic acid activation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  3. acid inertness studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  4. acid alleviates decreases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  5. acid activated montmorillonite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  6. acid amide hydrolase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been studied....

  7. acid chelation phototherapeutic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  8. acid phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  9. acetic acid solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  10. acid 2-benzothiazolylthiomethyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  11. acetic acid operational: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  12. acid phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  13. acid sphingomyelinase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  14. acids decreases fibrinolysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  15. acid potassium glycyrrhetinate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  16. arachidonic acid activates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  17. acid decarboxylase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  18. acid activates nrf2: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  19. acid processing activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  20. ascorbic acid enhances: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...