Sample records for nitrate rates soil

  1. Nitrate accumulation in soils and in plant parts of sorghum and oats as influenced by sources and rates of nitrogen fertilizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Cassimiro Vaz

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITRATE A CUNLU. ATION IN SOILS AND IN PLANT PARTS OF SORGHUM AND OATS AS INFLUENCED BY SOURCES AND RATES Or NITROGEN FERTILIZERS A Thee. "s CASSIMIRO VPw COSTA Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1970 Ma~or Subiect: Soil Chemistry i"'ITRATE ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AVD IN PLAVv. T PARTS OF SORGHUM AND OATS AS INFLUENCED BY SOURCES AND 'RATES OF N1TROGEN FERTILIZERS A Thesis...

  2. MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB Michigan State University Extension Crop and Soil Sciences Department Michigan State University WHY TEST SOIL FOR NITRATES Nitrate testing of soil is an excellent and inexpensive way of evaluating the available nitrogen (N) status

  3. The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus)

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIHENT STATIDJ A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 490 MARCH, 1934 .--' --7 , The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton - AGRICULTURAL... of nitrate of soda on yield, length and percentage of lint, size of boll, shedding, and other characters of the cotton plant on the sandy soils of eastern Texas, as a basis for developing a more intelligent and profitable fertilizer practice for cotton...

  4. Real time detection of soil moisture and nitrates using on-board in-situ impedance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Real time detection of soil moisture and nitrates using on-board in-situ impedance spectroscopy across a pair of electrodes immersed in that medium. We make accurate measurements on soil impedance over multiple frequen- cies using an in-situ soil-sensor we have designed. The impedance values are then used

  5. Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Kenneth Phanon

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

  6. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  7. The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus)

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIHENT STATIDJ A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 490 MARCH, 1934 .--' --7 , The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton - AGRICULTURAL... bolls and not by increasing the length of lint or percentage of lint, as shown in experiments at Nacogdoches and Troup, during four years ending 1930, to determine the best time and rate of applica- tion of nitrate of soda for cotton...

  8. Soil Tillage Influences on Soil Mineral Nitrogen and Nitrate Leaching in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in crops and weeds, rather than stimulation of N mineralisation. Timing of tillage proved to be important losses. The importance of high biomass production during autumn and winter was identified and should treatment Author's address: Åsa Myrbeck, SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07

  9. Micro- and Mini-nitrate Sensors for Monitoring of Soils, Groundwater and Aquatic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate Mini-Sensor with PVC membrane containing liquidmin) Mini-sensors with PVC maintain their sensitivity duringfabricated mini- sensors with PVC membranes showed better

  10. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil -- A rate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three rate equations, a modified Monod equation and two mass transfer rate equations, were used to calculate the biodegradation rate, oxygen transfer rate and oil transfer rate during a bioremediation process of oil-contaminated soil. Based on experimental rate constants, these three rates were calculated and compared. It was found the bioremediation rate of oil-contaminated soil could be controlled by the mass transfer process of oil into aqueous solution (0.12 mg BOD/(1-h)). When the oil transfer rate is enhanced by at least 10 times, the oxygen transfer process (0.1--1.0 mg BOD/(1-h)) becomes the rate-controlling step. For most of the cases, the biodegradation of oil in aqueous solution is not the limiting step unless the microbial population in the aqueous solution is less than 100 mg VSS/1.

  11. Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Potential for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations and Decreased Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzluebbers, Alan; Haney, Richard; Hons, Frank

    In order to prevent overfertilization, which could lead to groundwater contamination, rapid and accurate soil testing procedures are needed to evaluate agricultural surface soils for their potential to mineralize C and N. Our objectives were...

  12. Rate controlling model for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.Y.; Annamali, S.N.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix has been developed to predict the rate controlling step and the remediation rate during the bioremediation of a contaminated soil. The model is based on mass transfer of oxygen and oil into the aqueous solution in the soil matrix and the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons in the aqueous solution. Monod's equation was used to describe the biodegradation rate in aqueous solution while the mass transfer equations were used to describe the mass transfer rates of oxygen and oil in the soil matrix. Results from model calculations indicate that the bio-remediation rate increases and approaches a limiting value when one of the rates becomes controlling. When the parameters of the site soil samples are measured and the solubilities of oxygen and oil in aqueous solution are obtained, the bioremediation rate can be predicted by this model. The rate controlling step of the bioremediation site may be identified quickly and steps to improve the bioremediation rate can be recommended. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Potential dentrification rates of Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Shu-Chun Dolores

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tory because it did not adequa. tely reseal after punc*uring (Fig. 3). Leakage was reduced by placing silicone seal on the serum cap after sampling bu* there was still too much leakage for the planned experiment. A sampling port designed from... in the con*ainer was resealed af'ter each puncture by applying silicone rubber glue over the punc*ure mark on the stopper. All of the soils had measurable ra*es of denitrifi- cation after only 2 days incubation (Figs. ii. -11 (p. 19- 26) and Appendix...

  14. Flow Rate Dependence of Soil Hydraulic Characteristics D. Wildenschild,* J. W. Hopmans, J. Simunek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Flow Rate Dependence of Soil Hydraulic Characteristics D. Wildenschild,* J. W. Hopmans, J. Simunek that some of the pores in theanalyzed using both steady state and transient flow analysis. One before their air-entry pres- loamy soil to evaluate the influence of flow rate on the calculated sure

  15. Effects of soil water repellency on infiltration rate and flow instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi "Luke"

    . They are difficult to manage and pose negative effects on agricultural productivity and environmental sustain the contaminant transport to ground water. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effects of soil waterEffects of soil water repellency on infiltration rate and flow instability Z. Wanga,*, Q.J. Wua,1

  16. The influence of nitrogen rate and source on plant and soil properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Flake Leroy

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Anhydrous ammonia caused the lea s t a lteration of pH in the su r face , but it caused the greatest acid ity in the subso i l . The lev e ls of nitrates in the so il w ere exp re s sed by quadratic equa? tions with co rre la t ion coe ff ic... , and and are the annual rate of nitrogen in pounds p er a c r e app lied as ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia, r e sp e c t iv e ly . P red ic ted maximum y ields com pared favorab ly with the actual m aximum y ie lds o f 1 9 , 9 9 0 and 15, 850 pounds...

  17. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDy SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Submitted to the Graduate Collccje of Texas AFM Unive, sity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma 1969 Major Subject Soil Chemistr THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDY SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Approved...

  18. Measurement of biodegradation rate constants of a water extract from petroleum-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.Y.; Kane, A.J.; Wang, J.J.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of biodegradation rate constants of petroleum products in water extract from contaminated soil presents an important component in the evaluation of bioremediation process. In this study, soil samples were gathered from an industrial site which was used for maintenance and storage of heavy equipment used in the oil and gas exploration and production industry. The petroleum contaminants were extracted from the soil using distilled water. This water extract was used as the substrate to acclimate a microbial community and also for the biological kinetic studies. Kinetic studies were carried out in batch reactors, and the biodegradation rates were monitored by a computer-controlled respirometer. The BOD data were analyzed by using the Monod equation. Experimental results give the average value of the maximum rate constant as 0.038 mg BOD/(mg VSS hr) and the average value of the substrate concentration of half rate as 746 mg BOD/l. A GC/MS analysis on the sample of the test solutions before and after 5 days of biological oxidation indicates that the hydrocarbons initially present in the solution were degraded.

  19. Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state transport; 1866 Hydrology: Soil moisture; 1875 Hydrology: Unsaturated zone; 9900 Corrections; KEYWORDS), Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably

  20. Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: II. Elucidation of Rate-limiting Steps1 R. A. OGWADA ANDD. L. SPARKS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: II. Elucidation of Rate-limiting Steps1 R. A of this study was to elucidate the rate- limiting steps for K+ adsorption on the clay minerals and soil. We.L. Sparks. 1986. Kinetics of ion exchange on clay minerals and soil: II. Elucidation of rate-limiting steps

  1. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  2. Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry., Assessing the role of climate on uranium and lithium isotope behaviour in rivers draining a basaltic terrain

  3. Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arreola-Triana, Alejandra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource? Texas High Plains and Rolling Plain project. #31;e aim of this project is to understand how nitrates move through the soil and how they can be managed to improve water quality in underlying... it is a slow process and it may take several years before we see improvement.? Putting nitrates to work AgriLife Research environmental soil scientist Dr. Paul DeLaune is exploring one of these best management practices. Last July, Ale and De...

  4. Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dr. Cristine Morgan, Texas AgriLife Research soil scientist, takes soil cores for nitrate analysis before the drip irrigation system was installed. Story by Kathy Wythe Turning a negative into a positive Researchers fi nd promising use... for excessive nitrate For 30 years, farmers in northwest central Texas have known that high level of nitrates in irrigation water from the Seymour Aquifer is a problem. Now, with research conducted by Texas AgriLife Research scientists, that problem may...

  5. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

  6. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

  7. Degradation of perchloroethylene and nitrate by high-activity modified green rusts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jeong Yun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    produce high-activity modified green rusts (HMGRs) that demonstrate higher degradation rates. Methods of modifying GRs to obtain high reactivity for degradation of PCE and nitrate were developed and reduction kinetics of PCE and nitrate by HMGRs were...

  8. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  9. Effect of nitrogen source, rate and time of application on soil nitrogen status and on the characteristics of the plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadik, Mohamed Kamal

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on July Z4. A sumxnary of the analysis of variance on soil nitrogen (NO3 and NH+4) as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application. 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on the dry weight of the plant organs and the yield of seed... cotton as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application, 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on ni- trogen (T. N. , NO3 and NH4) content of the different parts of the plant as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application...

  10. REGULAR ARTICLE Soil nitrogen cycling rates in low arctic shrub tundra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    of the soil microbial community in both ecosystems indicat- ed similar fungal dominance (epifluorescence landscape. Keywords 15 Nitrogen . Gross N mineralization . Arctic tundra . Litter. Soil microbial community). For example, remote sensing studies have characterized an increase in peak-season biomass across the Arctic

  11. Temperature effects on decomposition rates of soil organic matter with differing proportions of labile and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    that the carbon dioxide loss from soil declines over time then picks up again after approximately15 years properties will change and thus their role as a carbon sink. This experiment uses forest soils since the microbial physiological properties change over long-term warming and if it is a result of a change in carbon

  12. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory study. Particle size. Field study. Source. . 26 . 26 Rate. . 28 Particle size. . . $0 Soil pH change with depth. Influence oi' Limestone on Ca and Ng at Different Soil Depths. . Influence of Limestone on Yields oi' Corn and Coastal... to increase the downward movement of Ca and Mg snd to reduce soil acidity as determined by pH measurements (2, 3, 4, 26, 45, 46, 54, 56). Adams et al. (3) using dolomitic lime- stone, have shown that on a Cecil sandy loam soil, N rates of 0, 400, snd 800...

  13. Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment.

  14. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  15. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Barr, John Houston

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Clomazone is an effective herbicide widely used for preemergence grass control in rice. However, use of clomazone on sandy textured soils of the western Texas rice belt may cause serious rice injury. When labeled for rice ...

  16. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Barr, John Houston

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Clomazone is an effective herbicide widely used for preemergence grass control in rice. However, use of clomazone on sandy textured soils of the western Texas rice belt may cause serious rice injury. When labeled for rice in 2001, sandy textured...

  17. The effect of water application rate on the formation of a soil crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran Carcamo, Fausto Daniel

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND EQUIPNENT Soil Type and Analysis. Equipment . Rainfall Simulator. Raindrop Size . Specific Power . Experiment Design . CHAPTER IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results Discussion . CHAPTER V. SUMNARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary . Conclusions . REFERENCES... for the a1easurement of the strength of a soil crust Regression analysis of the data collected while calibrating the Platform Load cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The rotating-disk and spray nozzle of the rainfall simulator. 22 26 27 29 31...

  18. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  19. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

  1. Mycorrhizal status influences the rate but not the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    subjected to various mycorrhizal treatments, and their root and soil systems were enclosed in chambers that continuously monitored belowground (root+mycorrhizal+heterotrophic) CO2 production during plant growth, death matured, an increase that was in proportion to the mycorrhizal stimulation of plant growth. Living

  2. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  3. 7, 55535593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 5553­5593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030 S. E. Bauer et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: importance relative to other aerosol species and tropospheric, 5553­5593, 2007 Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030 S. E. Bauer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  4. The Basicity of Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    basicity is here used to mean the bases which neutralize dilute nitric acid, sulphuric acid or similar acids, as measured by titra- tion of the acid after contact with the soil. It is recognized that this does not correctly represent the real basicity... of the soil and other circumstances. The use of nitrate of soda on acid soils tends to reduce the acidity. A mixture of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia in proper proportions will not affect the acidity of the soil. THE BASICITY OF TEXAS SOILS 7...

  5. A study of the rate of gain of strength in lime stabilized soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Sterling Ramsdell, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 37 ~ o ~ 4'7 APPEEDIX C. Electron Nicrographs . . . . . . . . . . . 75 LIST OF TABLES Table Page i. Cation-Exchange Capacity of Clay Minerals 15 2. Results of pH Test on Lime Treate Clay a o o o o o 3. X-Ray Diffraction Data 4... Triaxial Compressi. on Test Results 12. Triaxisl Compression Test Results 13. Triaxial Compression Test Results 14. Triaxial Compression Test Results 15. Triaxial Compression Test Results Least Squares Raw Soil. 1$ Lime Content 2$ Lime Content 4...

  6. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  7. The Effect of Rock Phosphate Upon the Corn Possibility of Phosphoric Acid of the Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - phate, when added in ~niall amounts; and it is shown that the average availability of rock phosphate applied at the rate of about 40 parts per million of soil, to sereral crops, in 21 experiments is 9.lfil.1, com- pared with 43.022.3 for acid....'ROD OF WORK. The soils used in the experiments were selected by the determina- tion of active phosphoric acid as probably deficient in phosphoric acicl. To 5000 grams of soil, were added one gram of ammonium nitrate, 1 gram of potassium sulphate...

  8. Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water California Nitrate Project,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Control Board Report to the Legislature With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley Groundwater Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley: Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water with a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley

  9. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  11. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  12. Biological Oxidation of Fe(II) in Reduced Nontronite Coupled with Nitrate Reduction by Pseudogulbenkiania sp. Strain 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Agrawal, A.; Liu, Deng; Zhang, Jing; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate contamination in soils, sediments, and water bodies is a significant issue. Although much is known about nitrate degradation in these environments, especially via microbial pathways, a complete understanding of all degradation processes, especially in clay mineral-rich soils, is still lacking. The objective of this study was to study the potential of removing nitrate contaminant using structural Fe(II) in clay mineral nontronite. Specifically, the coupled processes of microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in microbially reduced nontronite (NAu-2) and nitrate reduction by Pseudogulbenkiania species strain 2002 was investigated. Bio-oxidation experiments were conducted in bicarbonate-buffered medium under both growth and nongrowth conditions. The extents of Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction were measured by wet chemical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to observe mineralogical changes associated with Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) oxidation in nontronite. The bio-oxidation extent under growth and nongrowth conditions reached 93% and 57%, respectively. Over the same time period, nitrate was completely reduced under both conditions to nitrogen gas (N2), via an intermediate product nitrite. Magnetite was a mineral product of nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation, as evidenced by XRD data and TEM diffraction patterns. The results of this study highlight the importance of iron-bearing clay minerals in the global nitrogen cycle with potential applications in nitrate removal in soils.

  13. Degradation of perchloroethylene and nitrate by high-activity modified green rusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jeong Yun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    , nitrate reduction by GR-F(Cu) and GR-F(Pt) was further studied to determine the effects on degradation rates of pH, Cu(II) addition, and initial nitrate concentration. A reaction model with four sequential steps was proposed to describe the process...

  14. Effects of soil treatments supplemented with two rates of magnesium sulfate on the availability of soil nutrients and on the yield and chemical composition of coastal Bermuda grass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evatt, Nathan S

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ZATZ ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL NUTRIENTS AND ON TH YIELD AND CHENICAL COMPOSITICN GF CO. iSTAL BERNUDA GHASS INTRODUCTION It is known that magnesium is one of' the elements essential for plant growth; however much is to be learned concerning its specific functions... within the plant, Host Texas soils are not deficient, in magnesium (23). Magnesium is reported to be a carrier of the phos- phorus used by the plant. It is entirely possible that the failure to obtain crops of higher phosphorus content upon...

  15. Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarre, Audrey

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The leaching of a Na?-affected calcareous soil with water results in two concurrent recesses: (i) CaCO? dissolution, and (ii) replacement of Na? on the cation-exchange complex by Ca²?. In the current study, Woodward soil (coarse-silty, mixed...

  16. Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarre, Audrey

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The leaching of a Na?-affected calcareous soil with water results in two concurrent recesses: (i) CaCO? dissolution, and (ii) replacement of Na? on the cation-exchange complex by Ca²?. In the current study, Woodward soil (coarse-silty, mixed...

  17. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in most of these soils. In a field experiment on Lakeland sand, ryegrass responded to applications of sulfur, but not to potassium or maqnesium, Soil profile analyses indicate that appli- cations of potassium caused magnesium to be displaced downward... the exchangeable potassium and magnesium in a Lakeland fine sand 4 Distribution of potassium, magnesium, and sulfate in a Lakeland fine sand. 48 Effect of fertilizer treatments on total yield of Coastal bermudagrass grown in the field in 1968. . 51 10 Effect...

  18. Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidized to nitrates. The direct study of the changes in organic matter or carbon in the soil is more satisfactory than any assumption. A considerable amount of work upon the oxidation of organic matter in the soil has been clone hy Wollny... cflpo8city, so the re1ati~-e power of the soil to support oxidizing organisms ma!r he termed its oxidafion cnpaciiy. The nitrif-ing capac- it" the oxidatioa capacity 'and the capacit~ of the soil to convert am- monia into nitrates and ammonia are to a...

  19. Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water California Nitrate Project,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Control Board Report to the Legislature With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley Groundwater Report 6 Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas and Salinas Valley Groundwater. Report for the State Water Resources Control Board Report to the Legislature

  20. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, K.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Reaction- Rates among Minerals and Aqueous-Solutions .1.as a result of secondary mineral precipitation and approachterm and Contemporary Mineral Weathering rates. Geochim.

  1. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  2. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  3. A mechanism of abiotic immobilization of nitrate in forest ecosystems: the ferrous wheel hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    , including carbon sequestration by forests. How- ever, recent evidence from N fertilization studies soils has important implications for under- standing current and future carbon budgets. Abiotic a key role as a catalyst, with Fe(II) reducing nitrate and reduced forms of carbon then regenerating Fe

  4. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

  5. SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D..................................................20 SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMESTONE...............................................27 EXCHANGEABLE MAGNESIUM No. Page No. I. Nitrogen rate adjustments based upon soil texture, organic matter, and time of major

  6. Comparative evapotranspiration rates of thirteen turfgrasses grown under both non-limiting soil moisture and progressive water stress conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ki Sun

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    yield. Only a limited number of references are available concerning ET rate studies on turfgrasses (2, 4, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 41, 47, 51). The general zange reported for ET rates of most turfgrass is 2 to 6 mm (0. 1 to 0. 3... grasses also is greater (4, 15, 22, 23, 32, 40). Shearman and Beard (40, 42) showed that increasing the cutting height f 'P*'ptgbg*(n t pl t gd)f 0. 7 to 2. 5 cm resulted in a 53X greater ET rate and from 2. 5 to 12. 5 cm resulted in a doubling...

  7. Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrd, Robert Claude

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCLUSIONS . REFERENCES. . APPENDIX. 92 . 94 99 . . 104 Vlh Table LIST OF TABLES Page Extractable soil P ratings for the TAEX, Bray I, Olsen, and TAEX 3 soil P extractants 18 Chemical properties of preliminary soil sample (Fall 1992) taken from..., and 8 0). The authors, however, noted that Olsen and TAEX extractable P also resulted in acceptable correlation values All the above extractants were highly correlated (r& 0. 94) with total P uptake for both the calcareous soil and the slightly acidic...

  8. Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

  9. Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

  10. A Field-Scale Assessment of Soil-Specific Seeding Rates to Optimize Yield Factors and Water Use in Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav, Scott Michael

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    al., 2006; Ge et al., 2008). Other precision agriculture technologies in cotton, such as variable rate seeding, fertilizer, pest management, and irrigation may have a positive impact on cotton production under a site-specific management plan... the potential to reduce inputs, but equipment costs make these technologies undesirable to producers that have working systems in place (Bronson et al., 2006; Seo et al., 2008). Implementation of these precision agriculture technologies in cotton, especially...

  11. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

  12. aqueous nitrate flowsheet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the...

  13. Atomic structure of nitrate-binding protein crucial for photosynthetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure of nitrate-binding protein crucial for photosynthetic productivity. Atomic structure of nitrate-binding protein crucial for photosynthetic productivity. Abstract:...

  14. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion USDA, Natural Resources and removal of soil material by water. The process may be natural or accelerated by human activity. The rate of erosion may be very slow to very rapid, depending on the soil, the local landscape, and weather conditions

  15. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  16. Nitrates and detinning in canned carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florine, Thomas Edward

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITRATES AND DETINNING IN CANNED CARROTS A Thesis by Thomas Edward Florine Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major... Subject: Food Technology NITRATES AND DETINNING IN CANNED CARROTS A Thesis by Thomas Edward Florine Approved as to style and content by: / C-~ (Chairman of Cemi. tee) Head of Department Member) (Member) :-'i ~ (Member) (Member) (Member...

  17. Nitrates and detinning in canned carrots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florine, Thomas Edward

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Steel Producers-Can Manufacturers Institute-National Canners Association Research Founda- tion on Internal Can Corrosion to encourage the investi- gation of nitrates as a possible causative agent in the rapid detinning of plain tinned containers... accelerated the internal corrosion of the tin plate. He also reported that high levels of nitrates in green beans produced accelerated corrosion of the container. A vari- able response to fertilizer treatments was found in toma- toes; although those...

  18. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  19. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  20. The Production of Active Nitrogen in the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1908-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    together are taken, the differences are much smaller. If oitrates are much more valuable to plants than ammonia, these differences are very important; but if there is little difference in the value of the two, soils do not vary greatly in their power... ordx. The nitrifying power of all the soils which were probably acid were low; the limed sodium nitrate soil had a much greater ability of converting cottonseed meal into nitrates than the others. We did no' study the production of ammonia...

  1. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  2. The influence of dose-rest cycles on the nitrate concentration of deep percolate below septic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, John Bryan

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in private water sup- plies in Morgan County, Missouri. J. Milk and Food Technology, 30: 224-225. 23. King, L. D. and H. D. Morris. 1972. Land disposal of liquid sewage sludge; the effect on soil nitrate. J. Environmental Quality, 1: 442-446. 34 24... septic- tank technology. J. Environmental Health, 3, 30: 250-262. 37 APPENDIX 0 ~O O I- CL IJ, I U O O O 20 16 12 8 4 20 I FEB. DOSE IO 20 ' 30 MAR. ~ OXYGEN NITRATE RESI 10 20 30 IO 20 30 10 20 APR . MAY JUNE DATE -120 100...

  3. The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process -- a newly developed low-temperature technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new low-temperature (50-60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), showed that between 90 and 99% of the nitrate at Hanford can be readily converted to ammonia. Aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an alumina-silica-based ceramic solid. The process may utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final nitrate-free ceramic product can be calcined, pressed, and sintered like any other ceramic. Based on starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution (probable supernate concentrations resulting from salt-cake/sludge removal from Hanford SSTs), volume reductions as high as 70% are currently obtained, compared with an expected 40 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data indicate that the process will be very economical. Data were used to cost a batch facility with a production rate of 1200 kilograms of nitrate per hour for processing all the Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Process cost analysis indicates that between $2.01 and 2.66 will be required to convert each kilogram of nitrate. These costs are one-third to one-half of the processing costs for electrolytic and thermal processes. The ceramic waste form offers other cost savings associated with a smaller volume of waste as well as eliminates other process steps such as grouting. Silica added to the reactor, based upon the total sodium in the waste, permits us to actually bind the sodium in a nepheline phase of the final ceramic structure as well as bind most metals and nonmetals in the ceramic.

  4. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  5. alkaline nitrate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or...

  6. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  7. Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    for the California State Water Resources Control Board With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley #12;Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Lake Basin and Salinas Valley Groundwater. Report for the State Water Resources Control Board Report

  8. Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater DAWN B. WOODARD, ROBERT L. WOLPERT in groundwater over the mid-Atlantic states, using measurements gathered during a pe- riod of ten years. A map- trations in air, pesticide concentrations in groundwater, or any other quantity that varies over

  9. DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates soil column within 20 yr following culti- Carbon sequestration rates, with a change from CT to NT, can in approximately 40 to and returning to the original land cover or other peren- 60 yr. Carbon sequestration rates

  10. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  11. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    of nitrogen and how it is added to and removed from the soil. Commercial fertilizers used by agricultural produc- ers are a significant source of nitrogen addition to soils. Nitrogen is continuously recycled through plant and animal waste residues and soil... to ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen...

  12. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  13. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pigments found in soils throughout the United States roughly following the USDA soil taxonomy 11. Ensuring a repeatable test formulation was straightforward when using...

  14. Production, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Beth

    , Crook County Soil and Water Conservation District, Prineville, OR 97754. ABSTRACT: Harvesting trialsProduction, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper Extraction Systems, production rates, and soil compaction impacts of two systems for harvesting western juniper (Juniperus

  15. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C. Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much of the pitting occurred near welds; however this was the hottest region in the chamber. Pitting was observed up to two inches above the weld, indicating independence from weld effects.

  16. ammonium nitrate solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  17. americium nitrates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  18. acute uranyl nitrate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  19. ammonium nitrates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  20. ammonium nitrate pills: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  1. ammonium nitrate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate...

  2. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0SoilSoils

  3. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0SoilSoils0

  4. Steady state protein levels in Geobacter metallireducens grown with Iron (III) citrate or nitrate as terminal electron acceptor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrendt, A. J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Lindberg, C.; Zhu, W.; Yates, J. R., III; Nevin, K. P.; Lovley, D.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Massachusetts

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geobacter species predominate in aquatic sediments and submerged soils where organic carbon sources are oxidized with the reduction of Fe(III). The natural occurrence of Geobacter in some waste sites suggests this microorganism could be useful for bioremediation if growth and metabolic activity can be regulated. 2-DE was used to monitor the steady state protein levels of Geobacter metallireducens grown with either Fe(III) citrate or nitrate to elucidate metabolic differences in response to different terminal electron acceptors present in natural environments populated by Geobacter. Forty-six protein spots varied significantly in abundance (p<0.05) between the two growth conditions; proteins were identified by tryptic peptide mass and peptide sequence determined by MS/MS. Enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were more abundant in cells grown with Fe(III) citrate, while proteins associated with nitrate metabolism and sensing cellular redox status along with several proteins of unknown function were more abundant in cells grown with nitrate. These results indicate a higher level of flux through the TCA cycle in the presence of Fe(III) compared to nitrate. The oxidative stress response observed in previous studies of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with Fe(III) citrate was not seen in G. metallireducens.

  5. Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of their oxidation products, such as nitrated and oxygenated PAHs hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Sampling

  6. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  7. NO2 Adsorption on BaO/Al2O3: The Nature of Nitrate Species. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO2 Adsorption on BaOAl2O3: The Nature of Nitrate Species. NO2 Adsorption on BaOAl2O3: The Nature of Nitrate Species. Abstract: The nature of nitrate species formed in the...

  8. MINERALAVATER INTERFACE USING MOLECULAR SCALE TECHNIQUES An understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is fundamental in assessing the speciation, mobility metals (e.g., Co, Ni, Zn) residence time affects the rate of metal release from soil minerals while on soil minerals and soils and speciation of metals in contaminated soils via macroscopic and molecular

  9. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.

  10. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  11. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly increased Ca to 18 inches, while only the 6-ton/acre rate of fine dolomitic lime- stone increased Ca into the same depth. All dolomitic treatments increased Mg to 18-inch depths. Sampling deeper than 18 inches in the 6 ton/acre dolomitic fine... formed soluble salts with the NO and were leached down as Ca(ND ) Limestone treatments did not produce significant increases in yield of corn or Coastal bermudagrass. The no-lime plots produced 70 bushels of corn and 9. 2 tons of oven-dry Coastal...

  12. The effects of varied rates and ratios of fertilizer on forage yields and tillering of Austin wheat on Lufkin fine sandy loam and Miller clay soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffey, Lee Clayton

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of hgroncmy, uho read the thesis and offered valuable suggestions and constructive criticisms 0C5TENTS Introduction . I. Review of Literature . 2 II. Materials and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 III. Experimental Results... level (Table 8) ~ The cmmcn yield per aors of forage produoed by tbe ~ ~wend rectos sas 753 snd 588 ponndsx respeotively The moan differenoex 165 pcnmds~ eas highly signifioant The ~xnxnd rate bsd oeased to have as snob effest as in ths pxevions...

  13. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 8 What are soil biota? Soil biota, the biologically active powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro

  14. Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arreola-Triana, Alejandra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 tx H2O Fall 2012 Story by Alejandra Arreola-Triana In the Rolling Plains of Texas, the Seymour Aquifer is the major source of water for Haskell, Jones and Knox counties. #31;e water from the Seymour Aquifer, however, contains nitrate levels... are working on ways to manage the nitrate levels in this aquifer. Tracking the source Nitrates in groundwater can come from runo#27;, fertilizer use, leaks from septic tanks, sewage and erosion of natural deposits, according to the U.S. Environmental...

  15. Some Principles and Practices in the Irrigation of Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Morris E.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exist among soil, water and plants. Good irrigation practices also must take into ac- t such important factors as soil fertility. amount and quality of water, adapted crops and varieties, land xration for irrigation, water distribution over the land..., irrigation timing to suit crop needs, rate of water application for a particular soil type, capacity of soils to store and release water, rates of seeding and root development and distribution within the soil storage reservoir for obtaining both water...

  16. The moisture retention characteristic of four soils from Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landeck, Jonathon Keith

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gradient. Determination of the hydraulic gradient through unsatu- rated soil is best obtained by the "instantaneous profile method" (Hillel 1972) which requires frequent measurement of soil wetness and matric suction under conditions of internal...-drained, unsaturated, low-solute soil. Also known as soil-water suction, matric potential (M) is a function of the interaction between solid soil parti- cles and the soil water. The nature of these interactions is a function of the arrangement, sizes, and shapes...

  17. Response of rice to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen applied at various stages of plant growth on limed and unlimed Beaumont and Lake Charles clays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, William Blalock, III

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESPONSE OF RICE TO AMMONIUM AND NITRATE NITROGEN APPLIED AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PLANT GROWTH ON LIMED AND UNLINED BEAUNONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By William B. Gay, III Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agricultural... BEAUMONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By Nilliam B. Gay, III Chairman of Committee Head of the Department of Soil Sc Crop Sciences ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. A. G. Caldwell for his 1nterest and guidance...

  18. Degradation of the molecular weight and nitrate ester content of cellulose nitrate on thermal aging. [PBX-9404

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leider, H R

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in molecular weight and nitrate ester content for cellulose nitrate (NC), either pure or as a constituent of PBX-9404, were determined as a function of time and temperature. Changes in the number-averaged molecular weight, M/sub n/, are described by the simple theory of random chain scission, and M/sub n/ is found to correlate well with nitrate ester loss. Significant differences are seen between NC aged in the isolated condition and aged as the binder in PBX-9404.

  19. Nitrate contamination of domestic potable water supplies: a social problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, T.; Jensen, E.L.; Conway, J.B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate contamination of potable water supplies is a recognized health hazard. Potentially, the contamination of private drinking water supplies could be a problem in the rural Palouse area of Idaho and Washington. Studies have shown that 12% of the rural population of Whitman County, Washington, may be drinking water containing nitrates in excess of the national standard. Yet there is no organized concern about this potential health hazard among local citizens. After reviewing the literature on nitrate contamination of ground water and discussing nitrate contamination of private potable water supplies in the Palouse, we use a social movement theory of social problems to explain why this situation has not been defined as a public health problem.

  20. The STICS model to predict nitrate leaching following agricultural practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    scaling approach was used to assess the effectiveness of "Good Agricultural Practice" established within of Good Agricultural Practice" and other additional measures, with the objective of reducing water pollution from nitrogen compounds in "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (NVZs). Good agricultural practices

  1. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  2. Thermal decomposition study of hydroxylamine nitrate during storage and handling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chuanji

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN), an important agent for the nuclear industry and the U.S. Army, has been involved in several costly incidents. To prevent similar incidents, the study of HAN safe storage and handling boundary has become extremely...

  3. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E. (Ames, IA); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  4. acid uranyl nitrate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Websites Summary: ) 575.7317 www.uark.edudeptsawrc 12;Nutrients Ammonia-N POLY 100 Sulfuric Acid 0.1 mL100mL 28 DAYS EPA 351.2Salicylate Nitrate...

  5. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  6. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  7. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  8. Crystal chemistry of thorium nitrates and chromates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmon, Ginger E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.ed [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structures and infrared spectra of six novel thorium compounds are reported. Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1) crystallizes in space group C2/c, a=14.050(1), b=8.992(7), c=5.954(5) A, {beta}=101.014(2){sup o}. K{sub 2}Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6} (2), P-3, a=13.606(1), c=6.641(6) A. (C{sub 12}H{sub 28}N){sub 2}Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6} (3), P2{sub 1}/c, a=14.643(4), b=15.772(5), c=22.316(5) A, {beta}=131.01(1){sup o}. KTh(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (4), P2{sub 1}/c, a=10.070(8), b=12.731(9), c=13.231(8) A, {beta}=128.647(4){sup o}. Th(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (5), P2{sub 1}/n, a=12.731(1), b=9.469(8), c=12.972(1) A, {beta}=91.793(2){sup o}. K{sub 2}Th{sub 3}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 7}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} (6), Ama2, a=19.302(8), b=15.580(6), c=11.318(6) A. The coordination polyhedra about Th in these structures are diverse. Th is coordinated by 9 O atoms in 5 and 6, seven of which are from monodentate (CrO{sub 4}) tetrahedra and two are (H{sub 2}O). The Th in compound 1 is coordinated by ten O atoms, four of which are O atoms of two bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles and six of which are (OH) and (H{sub 2}O). In compounds 2, 3 and 4 the Th is coordinate by 12 O atoms. In 2 and 3 there are six bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles, and in 4 ten of the O atoms are part of five bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles and the others are (H{sub 2}O) groups. The structural units of these compounds consist of a chain of thorium and nitrate polyhedra (1), isolated thorium hexanitrate clusters (2, 3), an isolated thorium pentanitrate dihydrate cluster (4), and a sheet (6) and framework (5) of thorium and chromate polyhedra. These structures illustrate the complexity inherent in the crystal chemistry of Th. - Graphical Abstract: The structures and infrared spectra of four new Th nitrates and two Th chromates are reported. The coordination numbers of the Th cations range from nine to 12 in these compounds. Structural units consist of isolated clusters, chains, sheets and frameworks.

  9. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information by infiltration. The infiltration rate can be restricted by poor management. Under these conditions, the water) and the infiltration rate. These are affected by vegetation and many soil properties. Residence time The length of time

  10. IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS PLACEMENT BPG NOTE 5 Best Practice Guidance for Land of heavy industry. Soil material initially present on a site may have been removed or stored in bunds the original soil that has been stored or importing a soil from elsewhere or using a soil-forming material

  11. APBI 402 / SOIL 502 SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    1 APBI 402 / SOIL 502 SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT TERM 1 - 2014/15 Lead Instructors*: Maja Krzic indicators to assess sustainability of land management practices. Characterize the soil chemical environment 402-Sustainable Soil Management SOIL 502-Advanced Sustainable Soil Management Final exam 35% Final

  12. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter perturbation methods. It was found that uncertainty in the impurities in the polyethylene bottles, reflector position, bottle outer diameter, and critical array spacing had the largest effect. The total uncertainty ranged from 0.00651 to 0.00920 ?keff. Evaluation methods and results will be presented and discussed in greater detail in the full paper.

  13. Response of rice to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen applied at various stages of plant growth on limed and unlimed Beaumont and Lake Charles clays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, William Blalock, III

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Patna1k (1 ) partially support th1s explanation. They found that lime at ths rate of one percent of the weight of the so11 increased mineralisat1on of nitrogen, but most of the n1trogen in their tests accumulated as ammonia rather than nitrate under...RESPONSE OF RICE TO AMMONIUM AND NITRATE NITROGEN APPLIED AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PLANT GROWTH ON LIMED AND UNLINED BEAUNONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By William B. Gay, III Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agricultural...

  14. Some Factors Affecting the Utilization of Phosphoric Acid in Soils by Plants in Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    briefly as follows: Total phosphoric acid, Pz05: The soil was ignited with magnesium nitrate, the mixture was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, filtered, and phos- phoric acid was then determined by the volumetric method of the Associa- tion of Official...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 647 APRIL, 1944 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOILS BY PLANTS IN POT EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE...

  15. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy [JSC VNIINM, 123060, Moscow, Rogova st., 5a (Russian Federation)] [JSC VNIINM, 123060, Moscow, Rogova st., 5a (Russian Federation); Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin [JSC SCC, 636039,Tomsk oblast, Seversk, Kurchatova street 1 (Russian Federation)] [JSC SCC, 636039,Tomsk oblast, Seversk, Kurchatova street 1 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  16. Soils and Environment Soil fertility and soil processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    be removed without blasting. Definition of soil #12; Land use planning, urbanization, timber management, landslides, and earthquakes Soils often carry a climatic signal Soil properties related to environmental soil. The fertile soils formed on glacial deposits in the mid-western United States are transported

  17. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  18. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  19. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported...

  20. THE SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES OF THORIUM NITRATE Re-direct Destination: times redirected to final destination ShortURL Code Published Current...

  1. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was...

  2. Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Darren R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES system demonstrated as part...

  3. A High-Performance Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor for Environmental Monitoring (SEN 8)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dohyun Kim; Ira B. Goldberg; Michael Glickman; Jack W. Judy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0.038× 10 -3 cm 2 ) • polyimide insulation layer Nitratespecies when nitrate is Polyimide not present - PO 43- , Ca

  4. Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for excessive nitrate For 30 years, farmers in northwest central Texas have known that high level of nitrates in irrigation water from the Seymour Aquifer is a problem. Now, with research conducted by Texas AgriLife Research scientists, that problem may... turn into a benefit. Nitrate is the most common chemical con- taminant in groundwater. For the Seymour, a shallow aquifer underlying about 300,000 acres in 20 counties, more than 50 percent of groundwater nitrate measurements exceed the federal...

  5. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality-- Physical and Biological Soil Crusts USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 7 What are soil crusts? A physical crust is a thin layer with reduced porosity and increased density at the surface of the soil. A biological crust

  6. GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMOVAL CAPACITY OF RIPARIAN ZONES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Art

    , and 3 in Urban watersheds to study denitrification capacity. Mini-piezometers were installed at eachGROUNDWATER NITRATE REMOVAL CAPACITY OF RIPARIAN ZONES IN URBANIZING WATERSHEDS BY TARA KIMBERLY and geomorphology of riparian zones, potentially changing riparian groundwater denitrification capacity. Little work

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    , The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 2 Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The UniversityORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: a comparative Study Hazen4,5 , Judy D Wall4,8 and Jizhong Zhou3,4 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

  8. VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas. For each sample, as many as 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 83 pesticides, and nitrate were of food and water, and dermal contact). Everyone has hundreds of measurable contami- nants in their bodies, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are not known. Defining human exposure to mixtures

  9. Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began- duction and extraction procedures used from 1944 to 1988 at the Hanford Site. After irradiation of U fuel rods, various solvent extraction techniques were used to separate the Pu from U and other components

  10. Regulation by nitrate of protein synthesis and translation of RNA in maize roots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, P.R.; Bouthyette, P.Y.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roots of maize seedlings were exposed to /sup 35/S-methionine in the presence or absence of nitrate. Using SDS-PAGE, nitrate-induced changes in labeled polypeptides were noted in the soluble (at 92, 63 and 21kD) and organellar(at 14kD) fractions, as well as in a membrane fraction of putative tonoplast origin (at 31kD). No nitrate-induced changes were noted in a plasmamembrane-enriched fraction or in a membrane fraction of mixed origin. Total RNA from nitrate-treated and control roots was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte system. Five translation products (94, 63, 41, 39 and 21kD) were identified as nitrate-inducible by comparative gel electrophoresis. Changes in protein synthesis and translation of mRNA were apparent within 2-3 h after introduction of nitrate. Within 4-6 h after removal of nitrate, the level of nitrate-inducible translation products diminished to that of control roots. In contrast, the 31kD tonoplast polypeptide was still labeled 26 h after removal of external nitrate and /sup 35/S-methionine. The results will be discussed in relation to the nitrate induction of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the nitrate uptake system.

  11. The effect of various cropping systems upon the stability of aggregates: the rate of water infiltration, and the organic matter content of three soil conditions in the Texas Blacklands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quintero, Angel H

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the soil snd its relation to water oonserxation and to crop production has been recognised for a long tixm by uorkmrs e~ in agricultural research Soil fertility and plant growth are affected by a nuaber of faotarsx among which structurex organic matter.... . . , ?, ~ . ~ ~ ~ 31 ~ ~ ~ 32 ~ ~ ~ 33 Average pex'oentages of organic carbon in tbe surface layer of three land classes in 6 different cropping systelwl ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 34 Analysis of varianoe of organic oarbon in tbs...

  12. The Self-Ignition Temperatures of Bitumen Mixtures Containing Transition Metal Nitrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Ken; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is provided on the self-ignition temperature (SIT) of blown bitumen asphalt mixed with sodium nitrate and some chemicals that are added in the bituminization process to adjust pH and to immobilize the radioactive isotopes of Cs, Sr, and I. In each ignition temperature test, the prepared bitumen sample was heated at a constant rate of temperature increase, and the ignition point was measured. Among the tested chemicals added to the bitumen, Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows a relatively large SIT decrease, and furthermore, the mixture of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and AgNO{sub 3} has been shown to greatly lower the SIT of blown bitumen. It is suggested that, in general, segregation of these nitrates should be avoided in bituminization, and care should be taken in handling Ag in a Purex reprocessing plant from the viewpoint of waste treatment. Furthermore, the oxidation effects of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} were tested by measuring torque of the bitumen sample. It was confirmed that the addition of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} to bitumen rapidly oxidizes the bitumen and increases the viscosity of the bitumen mixture.

  13. A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy,, E. M.; Szecsody,, J. E.; Phillips,, S. J.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Study sites at Hanford were chosen close to micrometeorology stations on downwind transects from the operational facilities. Initial testing will be done on sites that lack perennial vegetation. Six tracer techniques (total chlortde, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 3}H, nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden si~ loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers wortks best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated to determine the effect of vegetation on recharge estimates and on the performance of individual tracers. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial vartability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other and sites operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as well as at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites.

  14. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

  15. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  16. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface Soil Surface Soil

  17. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  18. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery* Department of Earth and Space conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1­2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production indicates that, considered globally, hill- slope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic

  19. Soil compaction is a manageable factor that can lim-it grain or silage yield on many Virginia soils. Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Soil compaction is a manageable factor that can lim- it grain or silage yield on many Virginia soils. Corn plants growing on compacted areas are often stunted and have slower root penetration rates grown in these areas. Compaction is created when soil particles are pressed together, reducing the pore

  20. Ecohydrological Analysis of the Transport of Nitrate and Ammonium in Sandy Desert Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanlan, Julie Marie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that solves the problem of residual water contents. European1991) Treatment of residual water-content in a consistent1991) Treatment of residual water-content in a consistent

  1. Reduced nitrate leaching and enhanced denitrifier activity and efficiency in organically fertilized soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohannan, Brendan

    Well Road, Salina, KS 67401 Contributed by Harold A. Mooney, January 17, 2006 Conventional agriculture) maximum contaminant level of 10 mg liter 1 as N (8). In the Yakima River Basin of Washington State, where

  2. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  3. Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Eric Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

  4. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  5. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  6. Phosphorus Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Two Soils Utilized for Disposal of Animal Wastes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Phosphorus Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Two Soils Utilized for Disposal of Animal was to determine the effect of animal waste loading rates on P adsorption-desorption characteristics of two soils to a Norfolk soil decreased adsorption capacity of the soil and increased soluble P (in 0.01A/ CaCU), acid

  7. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on the organic precursor.

  8. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  9. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0 Soil

  11. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Backyard Guide to Healthy Soil and Higher Yields, by JohnInstitute. Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny. Emmaus,Institute. 1993. The Soul of Soil: A Guide to Ecological

  12. Investigating In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Sustained Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Tommy; Balkwill, David

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal at DOE sites, such as the ERSP Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC), provides strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that will allow for uranium bioreduction and long-term stabilization in the presence of nitrate. The cost and effort required for complete nitrate removal from the FRC and similar DOE-contaminated sites may prove to be unworkable. For example, field tests of uranium bioreduction at the FRC have shown that nitrate levels rebound quickly and completely after cessation of active biostimulation.

  13. Effect of K loadings on nitrate formation/decomposition and on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO2 adsorption at room temperature, ionic and bidentate nitrates were observed by fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The ratio of the former to the latter...

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M., E-mail: drhanif-mcs@nust.edu.pk [MCS, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan); Salik, M. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronics (China); Baig, M. A. [Quaid-E-Azam University Campus, National Center for Physics (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  15. Ureides in active and nitrate-repressed soybean nodules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bundy, Timothy K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) detected ureides in his final preparations of two acid soluble peptides which seemed to be associated with nitrogen fixation. He presented evidence that these crude preparations were able to: A) bind and release NH ; and 8) reduce the triple bond... (----1 of nitrate, were analyzed on a Beckman 120B automatic amino acid analyzer. The post arginine peaks (I, II, III) were measured. 38 Table 4. The Effect of N03 on Acid-Soluble Peptide(s) from Soybean Nodules. Acid-soluble ex- tracts were...

  16. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  17. Effects of lime rate, lime ECCE, and B rate on rose clover and coastal bermudagrass dry matter yields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villavicencio Batres, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that soil pH was only affected by lime rate at the soil surface after 5 months, indicates that CaCO3 andior the dissolution products of CaCO3 did not readily leach through the soil profile when the lime was surface applied. Lime ECCE Effects Soil pH (0...EFFECTS OF LIME RATE, LIME ECCE, AND B RATE ON ROSE CLOVER AND COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS DRY MATTER YIELDS A Thesis by RODOLFO VILLAVICENCIO BATRES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfiliment...

  18. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  19. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  20. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raciulete, Monica; Kachina, Anna; Puzenat, Eric [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.f [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO{sub 2}. The technique consists in heating to 400-500 {sup o}C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl{sub 2}). The crystallites of the resulting TiO{sub 2} demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. - Graphical abstract: Ammonium nitrate melts stabilized by nitrogen-containing organic molecules can be applied for expedite one-step preparation of highly dispersed oxides, as exemplified by synthesis of titania photocatalysts.

  1. Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns

  2. Silicon absorption by sugarcane: effect of soils type and silicate fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sartori de Camargo, Mônica; Korndörfer, Gaspar Henrique; Wyler, Patricia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G et al, Effect of Ca-silicate amendments on soil chemicalResponse of sugarcane to silicate source ad rate. I. GrowthSoil and plant silicon and silicate response by sugarcane.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of the Microhydrated Nitrate Ions NO3 Daniel J. Goebbert,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Infrared Spectroscopy of the Microhydrated Nitrate Ions NO3 - (H2O)1-6 Daniel J. Goebbert ReceiVed: April 15, 2009 We present infrared photodissociation spectra of the microhydrated nitrate ions the infrared spectroscopy of NO3 - (H2O)n clusters, n ) 1-6. The gas-phase vibrational spectroscopy of NO3

  4. Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors, Constructed Wetlands, and Outreach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Mark B.

    Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors chip tile bioreactors to reduce nitrate losses in the upper Embarras River watershed in east. Three tile bioreactors will be installed in various locations in the watershed, again for determining

  5. Strontium sorption and precipitation behaviour during bioreduction in nitrate impacted sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    radionuclides (e.g. U and Tc) from groundwaters at these sites is a key challenge for nuclear decommissioning D. Bryan a , Katherine Morris a, a Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Williamson Nitrate Nuclear The behaviour of strontium (Sr2+ ) during microbial reduction in nitrate impacted

  6. Physical pathways and utilization of nitrate supply to the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Hannah Louise

    Physical pathways and utilization of nitrate supply to the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, we measured ambient nitrate concentrations at a kelp forest for 13 months uptake. This shortfall indicates that the kelp forest received over half its nitrogen from sources other

  7. Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman Oberlin College `13 Advisor and loss. Rapid nitrate addition to salt marshes may stimulate bacterial decomposition of existing peat, and the decomposition may contribute to creek bank destabilization and collapse. Alternately, peat deposited in high

  8. The fate and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in northwestern Mississippi, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling . USA Introduction Nitrate is the primary form of dissolved nitrogen in natural waters (MuellerThe fate and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in northwestern Mississippi, USA Heather L. Welch & Christopher T. Green & Richard H. Coupe Abstract Agricultural contamination of groundwater

  9. Soil Testing and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Soil Testing and Research Analytical Laboratory Copyright © 2014 University of Minnesota Soil Testing and Research Analytical Laboratory Department of Soil, Water and Climate College of Food payable to the University of Minnesota We also accept the following credit cards: Soil Testing

  10. Indiana Soil and Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Indiana Soil and Landscape Evaluation Manual Version 1.0 D.P. Franzmeier G.C. Steinhardt D soil scientists to be the state soil. The scale on the gray panel is in decimeters and feet. The upper 18 inches (46 cm) of the soil formed in Wisconsinan age loess, and the lower part formed

  11. The Effects of Nanoparticle Augmentation of Nitrate Thermal Storage Materials for Use in Concentrating Solar Power Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, Matthew

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic, commercially called Hitec Solar Salt. Two nanoparticle types were chosen, alumina and silica. The nanoparticle composite materials were fabricated by mixing the components in an aqueous solution, mixing...

  12. Does nitrate deposition following astrophysical ionizing radiation events pose an additional threat to amphibians?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian C. Thomas; Michelle D. Honeyman

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that amphibians are especially susceptible to the combination of heightened UVB radiation and increased nitrate concentrations. Various astrophysical events have been suggested as sources of ionizing radiation that could pose a threat to life on Earth, through destruction of the ozone layer and subsequent increase in UVB, followed by deposition of nitrate. In this study, we investigate whether the nitrate deposition following an ionizing event is sufficiently large to cause an additional stress beyond that of the heightened UVB previously considered. We have converted predicted nitrate depositions to concentration values, utilizing data from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Acid Rain Monitoring Network web site. Our results show that the increase in nitrate concentration in bodies of water following the most intense ionization event likely in the last billion years would not be sufficient to cause a serious additional stress on amphibian populations and may actually provide some benefit by acting as fertilizer.

  13. Occurrence of Nitrites in Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the usual way. The amount of nitrite nitrogen varied from 6 to 98 parts per million. The nitrites exceeded the nitrates in two cases. The per- centage of nitrous nitrogen in the combined nitric and nitrous nitrogen varied from 11 to '74 per cent... Station, irregularities were observed which rendered necessary a com- parison of several methods for estimating nitrates. On account of discrepancies between the amounts of nitrates as deter- mined by the colorimetric method (phenol-disulphonic acid...

  14. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  15. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) or nitrate to ammonia and glass (NAG) process: Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuing benchtop studies using Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants and actual Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW), employing a new denitration process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 and 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted to gaseous ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid. The process may be able to use contaminated aluminum scrap metal from DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nitrate-free ceramic product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics or silica and/or fluxing agents can be added to form a glassy ceramic or a flowable glass product. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 70% were obtained for the waste form produced. Sintered pellets produced from supernate from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) have been leached in accordance with the 16.1 leach test for the radioelements {sup 85}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Despite lengthy counting times, {sup 85}Sr could not be detected in the leachates. {sup 137}Cs was only slightly above background and corresponded to a leach index of 12.2 to 13.7 after 8 months of leaching. Leach testing of unsintered and sintered reactor product spiked with hazardous metals proved that both sintered and unsintered product passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Design of the equipment and flowsheet for a pilot demonstration-scale system to prove the nitrate destruction portion of the NAC process and product formation is under way.

  16. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  17. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  18. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  19. Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils Larry G. Bundy & Laura W. Good Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Introduction · Soil test P is often measured · Little information is available on total P content of soils · Why do we care about total P now? ­ Soil total P

  20. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  1. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  2. Systematic Variability of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Across Three Vertisol Catenas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivera, Leonardo Daniel

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .......................................................... 16 Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements .......................... 19 Soil Sampling and Analysis ............................................................ 22 ROSETTA Modeling... properties. Manure application improved aggregation, decreased bulk density, and increased the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Conventional tillage treatments had the highest bulk densities and lowest infiltration rates. Effects of Landscape Position...

  3. Nitrification in Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have a high nitrificati is the balmcing of these extremes which redlices the average le between acid ancl non-acid soils. C03TPOSITION OF SOILS TVITFI LOW AND HIGH NITRIFIC-4TION. Table 11 contains the chemical composition of soils having low nitl... are subsoils. Subsoils thus possess nnu~nally high and unusually low nitrification. Table 11.-Chemical composition of soils with nitrification below 10 . I Average .............................. Nitri- fication 7164 7090 4596' 5710 4645 3976 3657 3...

  4. Managing Soil Salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    helps the water move downward through the soil. While deep tillage will help temporarily, the parts of the soil not permanently broken up may reseal. Leaching: Leaching can be used to reduce the salts in soils. You must add enough low-salt water...

  5. UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION DURING PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE Mn !! Performance Based Construction QA !! Unsaturated Soil Mechanics !! What We've Learned !! Next Steps #12.6-6.0 5 - 7 19 0.8 5 7 - 9 24 1.1 4 9 - 11 28 1.2 4 #12;Unsaturated Soil Mechanics #12;Fundamentals

  6. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO{sub 3}/h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting.

  7. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  8. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a non- oxidizing solid. Assumptions: 1. Bulk density of KNO3 is approximately 0.8 gcc and the crystal density about 2 gcc; accordingly, the assumed density for the nitrate...

  9. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  10. Memo - Legacy Technical Area (TA)-55 Nitrate Salt Wastes at TA...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Memo - Legacy Technical Area (TA)-55 Nitrate Salt Wastes at TA-54, Potential Applicability of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D001D002D003 Waste Codes Memo - Legacy...

  11. Utilizing Microalgae to Remediate Nitrate-Contaminated Groundwater N. Case, M. Sommerfeld, H. Qiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Utilizing Microalgae to Remediate Nitrate-Contaminated Groundwater N. Case, M. Sommerfeld, H. Qiang or domestic animals. It can also be used as a fertilizer or converted to biofuels. The photobioreactor can

  12. Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch experiments and field comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch concentrations were investigated in bioreactors, using peat samples from field sites influenced by different hydrologic regimes. In this experiment, peat samples were subjected to similar conditions to address

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Nitrates, Nitrites, Nitrosatable Drugs, and Small-For-Gestational-Age Births

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinde, Mayura

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption of nitrates and nitrites and SGA. Exposure to nitrates and nitrites can occur from diet, drinking water, certain medications, and environmental or occupational sources of which dietary consumption accounts for a significant portion of daily... as nitrosatable during the first trimester of pregnancy.25 N-nitroso compounds are known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as congenital malformations and reduced fetal weight in animal models. The role of these compounds on fetal growth and risk of SGA...

  14. acid sandy soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  15. acid soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  16. acid sulphate soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  17. acidic soil amended: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  18. acid soil infertility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  19. acid sandy soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  20. acid soil technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  1. acid sulphate soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  2. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  3. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential W . M . P O S T * and K . C that may result in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We carbon accumulation. This data summary provides a guide to approximate rates of SOC sequestration

  4. A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AND EROSION POLK COUNTY, NEBRASKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AND EROSION IN POLK COUNTY, NEBRASKA A.E. Gadem1-based decision-support systems are powerful, new tools for assessing inherent soil productivity and potential conservation strategies to reduce soil-loss in areas with high potential erosion rates. These decision support

  5. Iodine in Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , while the quantity of iodine in spinach bore a close relation to the quantity of iodine in the soil. The action. of the added iodine differed with the kind of soil. Hercus and Roberts (12) state that loam has a marked retentive power for soluble... in surface soils by soil types High 1 0 1 p. *. rn. Low p. p. m. .- 1.1 ........ 1.6 2.5 0.8 1.5 ........ ........ 1.1 ........ 2.0 East Texas Timber Country Upland soils with friable subsoils: Bowie fine sandy loam...

  6. Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) in this region. The objective of this study was to quantify variation in soil respiration, soil microbial biomass (SMB), and potential C and N mineralization rates in relation to landscape heterogeneity and woody plant encroachment in this region. In addition...

  7. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    design on both sites. Yield, soil pH, plant and soil concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were determined. Soil pH and extractable Ca increased with increasing rate of flue dust or calcite. Under field conditions, flue dust compared favorably with calcite... was similar to plant uptake from corresponding calcite + KC1 treatments. Soil pH and extractable soil K, Ca, and Mg increased with increased rate of flue dust treatment equally as well as from the corresponding calcite treatments. The flue dust was equal...

  8. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  9. Modeling of strain rate effects on clay in simple shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung Chan

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of strain rate on clays in simple shear conditions. The response of clay soils is highly dependent on the rate of strain for both effective stress path and stress-strain behavior. The undrained shear strength is strongly influenced by strain rate both...

  10. Modeling of strain rate effects on clay in simple shear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung Chan

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests. Nevertheless, the few available experimental results cover a very limited range of loading conditions and rates. The existing literature established that the soil response display a unique relationship between shear...

  11. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Introduction USDA, Natural Resources of the soil, the vegetation, the water, and the air as well as the ecological processes of the rangeland ecosystem are balanced and sustained. What is soil? Soil is a dynamic resource that supports plants

  12. Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science achievements from the state of Wisconsin that took place between 1870 and the early 1980s: (i) the first soil

  13. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  15. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics Position Summary: Plastic mulches are used in agriculture to conserve water, suppress weeds, and increase soil temperatures. However, plastic mulches need to be disposed off at the end

  16. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.MITRA,S.HENDREY,G.ORION,I.ROGERS,H.TORBERT,A.PRIOR,S.RUNION,B.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

  17. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soil amendments such as compost, manure, cover crops, andare some readily available sources: j Compost is rich inorganic matter, and making compost is a great way to recycle

  18. Soil and Water Conservation (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soil and water conservation districts (SWCDs) were established in the 1930s to develop comprehensive programs and plans to conserve soil resources, control and prevent soil erosion, prevent floods...

  19. Soil and Water Conservation (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board is established to encourage and oversee soil-conserving land-use practices, and to provide for the conservation of soil and related resources and...

  20. Low time resolution analysis of polar ice cores cannot detect impulsive nitrate events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smart, D F; Melott, A L; Laird, C M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice cores are archives of climate change and possibly large solar proton events (SPEs). Wolff et al. (2012) used a single event, a nitrate peak in the GISP2-H core, which McCracken et al. (2001a) time associated with the poorly quantified 1859 Carrington event, to discredit SPE-produced, impulsive nitrate deposition in polar ice. This is not the ideal test case. We critique the Wolff et al. analysis and demonstrate that the data they used cannot detect impulsive nitrate events because of resolution limitations. We suggest re-examination of the top of the Greenland ice sheet at key intervals over the last two millennia with attention to fine resolution and replicate sampling of multiple species. This will allow further insight into polar depositional processes on a sub-seasonal scale, including atmospheric sources, transport mechanisms to the ice sheet, post-depositional interactions, and a potential SPE association.

  1. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in bold and acronyms are defined in Chapter 32, Glossary and Acronyms. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils This chapter describes existing geological and soil conditions in the...

  2. Soil and Water Conservation (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts is an association of the 92 soil and water conservation districts, each representing one of the 92 Indiana counties.

  3. Soil Conservation Districts Law (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes a soil and water conservation division within the Iowa Department of Agriculture, as well as local soil and water conservation districts. The regulations accompanying...

  4. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site—10281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Miller, D.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Morris, S.A. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Sheader, L.R. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Glenn, E.P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Moore, D. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Carroll, K.C. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Benally, L. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Roanhorse, M. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, CO; none,

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Navajo Nation, and the University of Arizona are exploring natural and enhanced attenuation remedies for groundwater contamination at a former uranium-ore processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. DOE removed radioactive tailings from the Monument Valley site in 1994. Nitrate and ammonium, waste products of the milling process, remain in an alluvial groundwater plume spreading from the soil source where tailings were removed. Planting and irrigating two native shrubs, fourwing saltbush and black greasewood, markedly reduced both nitrate and ammonium in the source area over an 8-year period. Total nitrogen dropped from 350 mg/kg in 2000 to less than 200 mg/kg in 2008. Most of the reduction is attributable to irrigation-enhanced microbial denitrification rather than plant uptake. However, soil moisture and percolation flux monitoring show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing additional leaching of nitrogen compounds. Enhanced denitrification and phytoremediation also look promising for plume remediation. Microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute transport modeling results suggest that (1) up to 70 percent of nitrate in the plume has been lost through natural denitrification since the mill was closed in 1968, and (2) injection of ethanol may accelerate microbial denitrification in plume hot spots. A field-scale ethanol injection pilot study is underway. Landscape-scale remote sensing methods developed for the project suggest that transpiration from restored native phreatophyte populations rooted in the aquifer could limit further expansion of the plume. An evaluation of landfarm phytoremediation, the irrigation of native shrub plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway.

  5. A search for regulatory mutants of the nitrate utilization pathway of Neurospora Crassa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Claude Steven

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SEARCH FOR REGULATORI MUTANTS OF THE NITRATE UTILIZATION PATHWAl OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by CLAUDE STEVEN MCDANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fu1fillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Genetics A SEARCH FOR REGULATORY MUTANTS OF THE NITRATE U1'IIIZA1'ION PA1'NNAY OF ~N A Thesis by CLAUDE STEVEN MCDANIEL Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committ e) (Head oi' epar...

  6. On-Farm Soil Monitoring for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Soil quality and soil management resources the air which helps build soil organic matter and tilth, and sustains the soil resource for future generations and other species. Improving and protecting soil quality can help support sustainable crop

  7. Unusual persistence of DDT in some western USA soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitch, R.K.; Day, H.R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural use of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane) was canceled in 1972. By the late 1970's and early 1980's, the National Soils Monitoring Program of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was consistently finding higher soil residues of the degradate DDE (1,1-dichloro 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) than of parent DDT. Similarly, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) had been finding during the late 1970's that DDT and related compounds had been decreasing in birds throughout the US. During 1984 and 1985, the EPA and the agriculture departments of Texas and New Mexico, in response to the FWS, conducted soil sampling in 13 areas where contaminated birds had been collected. It was agreed that soil samples containing higher levels of DDT than DDE would serve as a possible indicator of illegal DDT use. This was an intensive soil sampling program; over 236 fields were sampled. A controversy developed as to whether high ratios of DDT and DDE might corroborate the accusations of recent illegal use of DDT products. Dell City area soils containing higher levels of DDT than of DDE became classified as suspicious soils. Soils bearing the expected higher level of DDE were dubbed as normal. To resolve the controversy, the authors, in 1989, conducted a DDT soil metabolism study with representative samples of the suspicious and normal soils. It was felt that a soil metabolism study could, once and for all, determine if there was, indeed, something unusual about the rate at which the suspicious soils degrade DDT.

  8. Isotopic evidence for source changes of nitrate in rain at Bermuda Meredith Galanter Hastings and Daniel M. Sigman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    ), or nitrate (NO3 Ã? ), is a significant contributor to acid rain, an important species in marineIsotopic evidence for source changes of nitrate in rain at Bermuda Meredith Galanter Hastings O is 68.6% and 76.9% (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The few cool season rain events

  9. Use and Accuracy of the Diphenylamine Field Kit for Determining the Presence of Toxic Nitrate Levels in Forage Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    a risk to livestock. The test is primarily an indi- cator of the presence of high nitrate concentration and is not quantitative. If the test indicates the presence of nitrate, samples should be sent to a lab for quantitative analysis. When using the kit, or collecting samples for lab analysis, always collect several samples from

  10. Nitrate dynamics in the soil and unconfined aquifer in arid groundwater coupled ecosystems of the Monte desert, Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    of the Monte desert, Argentina J. N. Aranibar,1,2 P. E. Villagra,1,3 M. L. Gomez,1 E. Jobbágy,4 M. Quiroga,1 R desert, Argentina, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G04015, doi:10.1029/2010JG001618. 1. Introduction [2] Drylands desert, Argentina, shallow groundwater is exploited by deep rooted trees, increasing primary productivity

  11. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    roots, rills, gullies, wind scours, and soil deposition reflect such processes as runoff and erosion. Waterflow patterns X X 3. Pedestals and/or terracettes X X 4. Bare ground X X 5. Gullies X X 6. Wind. Compaction layer X X X 12. Functional/structural groups X 13. Plant mortality/ decadence X 14. Litter amount

  12. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Compaction USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 4 What is compaction? Soil compaction occurs when moist or wet soil aggregates are pressed together and the pore space between them is reduced. Compaction changes

  13. Beth Brockett SOIL 502 Soil Quality Analysis -Chemistry Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beth Brockett SOIL 502 Soil Quality Analysis - Chemistry Case Study "Sustainability Street are represented by the Podzolic Order, and more specifically form part of the Bose Soil Management Group) with a limited decomposer community dominated by fungi. Any remnants of native soil at the Sustainability Street

  14. SoilSciSubjAreas.doc September 12, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    ) Soldat, Douglas J. (turfgrass and urban soils) Soil Pedology Bockheim, James G. (pedology/forest soils

  15. The effect of soil water upon soil albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graser, Elizabeth Annette

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SOIL WATER UPON SOIL ALBEDO A Thesis by ELIZABETH ANNETTE GRASER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A/M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19S1 Major Sub...]ect: Soil Science THE EFFECT OF SOIL WATER UPON SOIL ALBEDO A Thesis by ELI ZABETH ANNETTE GRASER Approved as to style and content by: arrman of Committee Mem er Rem er ea o epar nt August 1981 The Effect of Soil Water upon Soil Albedo. (August...

  16. Managing Soil Salinity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    both surface water and groundwater often are a combina- tion of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlo- rides, nitrates, sulfates, bicarbonates and carbonates (Table 1). These salts often originate from the earth?s crust. They also can result from... Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 Gypsum Calcium sulfate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Street salt Calcium chloride CaCl 2 2H 2 O Muriate of potash Potassium chloride KCl Muriate of sulfate Potassium sulfate K2SO 4 seen. Fortunately, plants take up many salts in the form...

  17. Estimating spatially-variable rate constants of denitrification in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems using an Ensemble Smoother

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bau, Domenico A.

    an irrigated agricultural river-aquifer system using measurements of (i) nitrate concen- trationEstimating spatially-variable rate constants of denitrification in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems using an Ensemble Smoother Ryan T. Bailey , Domenico A. Baù, Timothy K. Gates Department

  18. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  19. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  20. Summary Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration of thin- ning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water content, and soil physi- cal and chemical properties, result in high variability in and sensitivity

  1. UNDERSTANDING SOIL Larry G. Bundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    available for plant uptake, extraction, or measured by soil test. #12;Phosphorus (P) Loss Processes slowly soluble compounds: Sorbed P ·Clays ·Al and Fe oxides Secondary P minerals (precipitation #12;Effect of soil extraction time on water extractable soil P concentration for two soils. 22 24 26

  2. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist Committee Membership Dr. John Beasley - committee chair Dr. Jared Whitaker Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (912) 681-0376 Dr. Robert Carrow Dr. Mark Risse Department of Crop & Soil Sciences

  3. Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Chapter 21 Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with and Applications for Hydropedology J.A. Thompson,1, * S. Roecker,2 S. Grunwald3 and P.R. Owens4 ABSTRACT Spatial information on soils, particularly hydrologic and hydromorphic soil properties, is used to understand and assess soil water retention, flooding

  4. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics Committee Membership Dr. Scott Jackson - committee chair Dr. Peng-Wah Chee Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Horticulture Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  5. Effect of nitrate on the performance of single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Effect of nitrate on the performance of single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells Chontisa Accepted 26 August 2008 Published online 11 September 2008 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Denitrification microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has drawn much attention recently as a new approach of waste- water treatment

  6. Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas-to-particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas Plateau. Size-resolved ionic aerosols (NH4 + , Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , SO4 2À , ClÀ , NO3 À CO3 2À , formate, acetate and oxalate), organic aerosols, black carbon and gaseous HNO3 and SO2 were measured

  7. Materials Chemistry and Physics 100 (2006) 3840 X-ray irradiation induced degradation of cellulose nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Abstract Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry was previously proposed to measure energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. For that method, a reference silver nitrate-ray energy is high enough to avoid total a

  8. Study of Nitrate Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Using iTRAQ Proteomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.

    2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH),a sulphate-reducing bacterium, to nitrate stress was examined usingquantitative proteomic analysis. DvH was stressed with 105 m M sodiumnitrate(NaNO3), a level that caused a 50 percent inhibition in growth.The protein profile of stressed cells was compared with that of cellsgrown in the absence of nitrate using the iTRAQ peptide labellingstrategy and tandem liquid chromatography separation coupled with massspectrometry (quadrupoletime-of-flight) detection. A total of 737 uniqueproteins were identified by two or more peptides, representing 22 percentof the total DvH proteome and spanning every functional category. Theresults indicate that this was a mild stress, as proteins involved incentral metabolism and the sulphate reduction pathway were unperturbed.Proteins involved in the nitrate reduction pathway increased. Increasesseen in transport systems for proline, glycine^ betaineandglutamateindicate that the NaNO3 exposure led to both salt stress and nitratestress.Up-regulation observed in oxidative stress response proteins (Rbr,RbO, etc.) and a large number of ABC transport systems as well as in iron^ sulphur -cluster-containing proteins, however, appear to be specific tonitrate exposure. Finally, a number of hypothetical proteins were amongthe most significant changers, indicating that there may be unknownmechanisms initiated upon nitrate stress in DvH.

  9. Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    as 25.0%) at the Sacramento­San Joaquin River delta region give rise to a wide range of d18ONO3 valuesNitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition18O) within the estuarine system of San Francisco (SF) Bay, California, to explore the utility

  10. Alternative Water Supply Options for Nitrate Contamination in California's Tulare and Salinas Groundwater Basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    to harm human health. The Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley were chosen as pilot study areas to studyi Alternative Water Supply Options for Nitrate Contamination in California's Tulare and Salinas Groundwater Basins By KRISTIN LINN HONEYCUTT B.S. (University of California, Davis) 2007 M.S. (University

  11. Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field: Model measured NO3 flux concentrations in a subsurface tile drain, several monitoring wells and nested reasonably well. However, NO3 flux concentrations in the subsurface tile drain and piezometers at the field

  12. Water and nitrate exchange between cultivated ecosystems and groundwater in the Rolling Pampas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    model (UPFLOW) suggested that at TS groundwater supplied an importanWater and nitrate exchange between cultivated ecosystems and groundwater in the Rolling Pampas Agropecuaria Parana´, INTA, Ruta 11 km 12.5, 3101 Oro Verde, Argentina 1. Introduction Biogeochemical exchange

  13. Husnjak et al., 2004. Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia ISRIC World Soil Information Country Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, D G "David"

    Husnjak et al., 2004. Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia Page 1 ISRIC World Soil Information Country Series Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia: historical review, current classification in Croatia Page 2 Summary An historical overview of soil survey and soil classification activities

  14. Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

  15. Construction, monitoring, and performance of two soil liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Hensel, B.R.; Herzog, B.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype and large-scale soil liner were constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for saturated hydraulic conductivity. In situ ponded infiltration rates into the prototype liner were measured and water containing fluorescein and rhodamine WT dyers was allowed to infiltrate in the prototype liner. Although the liner met the USEPA conductivity requirement, the dye flow paths indicated a need for better bonding between lifts and a reduction in soil clod sizes. These observations suggested that if soil liners are to perform according to design specifications, soil processing prior to construction and rigid construction QA/QC are necessary. The large-scale liner (7.3 c 14.6 {times} 0.9 m) consisted of six 15-cm compacted lifts. Full-scale equipment was used for compaction, and construction practices were modified on the basis of experience gained from the prototype liner study. The work conducted so far indicates that compacted soil barriers can be constructed to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirements established by the USEPA. Questions regarding methodologies to collect in situ infiltration data have arisen from the research. Differences have been noted in infiltration fluxes, as measured by different types of infiltrometers. Perturbations in measurements of infiltration rates and soil tensions have been correlated with barometric pressure fluctuations and/or temperature changes in the liner.

  16. Soil Erosion (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Water and Soil Resources has adopted a model ordinance to serve as the minimum standard for local governments, which are asked to implement standards and administrative procedures...

  17. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 22922299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 2292­2299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil saprobic microfungi Veronika R eza´ c ova´ a,b,Ã, Hana Hrs elova´ a , Hana Gryndlerova in their solutions and in sterile soil by microfungal species and two well-known HA degraders were studied

  18. Saving our soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandy, A. Stuart; Billings, Sharon A.; Richter Dan

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when we consider how important the world’s soils are to human civilization. Within the next several decades, about 9–10 billion people will increasingly require food, timber, fiber, and bioenergy, as well as related ecosystem ser- vices... producers, motivated by short-term finances, increase inputs of fertilizers and pesticides to maximize yields, frequently with adverse environmental impacts. Subsistence farmers coax decreasing crop yields from soils that can no longer be managed sustainably...

  19. SOIL QUALITY AND CROP Dick Wolkowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Protection Soil pH Crop residue Tillage intensity Soil test P and K Water availability Bulk density Soil SOIL QUALITY Inherent properties Texture Organic matter Aggregation Water holding capacity - Nutrient cycling - 1 g of soil has 100,000,000 bacteria #12;Water Soil particle Plant root SOIL IS HABITAT

  20. acids soils ph: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil ScienceSoil QualitySoil Physics Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Department of Crop and Soil...

  1. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  2. Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID Intensive (SOIL 325) (3) _______ HHS 231 ­ Lifetime Fitness for Health (2. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science

  3. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating.

  4. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  5. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  6. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  7. Structure and Function of Metal- and Nitrate-reducing Microbial Communities in the FRC Subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akob, Denise M.; Mills, Heath J.; Kerkhof, Lee; Gihring, Thomas M.; Kostk, Joel E.

    2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this study is to evaluate structure-function relationships of sedimentary microbial communities likely to regulate U(VI) reduction and immobilization in the subsurface of Area 2 at the Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge, TN. Microcosm experiments were conducted under near in situ conditions with FRC subsurface materials cocontaminated with high levels of U(VI) and nitrate. The activity, abundance, and community composition of microorganisms was determined in microcosm samples, stimulated with ethanol or glucose, and compared to those from sediment cores and unamended controls. Activity was assessed by monitoring terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs; nitrate, sulfate, uranium, and iron reduction) as well as electron donor utilization. Microbial functional groups, nitrate- and iron(III)-reducing bacteria, were enumerated during the nitrate- and metal-reduction phases of the incubation and in sediment core samples using a most probable number (MPN) serial dilution assay. U(VI) and Fe(III) were reduced concurrently in the glucose but not the ethanol treatments. In ethanol-amended microcosms, U(VI) was reduced during a 4-day lag phase between nitrate- and Fe(III)-reduction phases. Biostimulation resulted in 3 to 5 orders of magnitude higher counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, whereas populations of nitrate-reducers were enhanced by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. One to 2 orders of magnitude more Fe(III)-reducers were observed in ethanol- as compared to glucose-amended treatments in parallel with enhanced U(VI) removal in ethanol treatments. Cultivatable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in the ethanol treatments were dominated by Geobacter sp. while those cultured on glucose were dominated by fermentative organisms, i.e., Tolumonas sp. Currently, carbon substrate utilization is being examined through HPLC analysis of microcosm porewaters. In addition, changes in the overall microbial community composition are being assessed using cultivation-independent techniques, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and cloning/sequencing of structural and functional genes. Our results indicate that the microbially-catalyzed mechanism of U(VI) reduction is electron donor dependent and that more effective U(VI) removal is achieved in parallel with an enrichment of Geobacter sp. upon treatment with ethanol.

  8. Procedures to predict vertical differential soil movement for expansive soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naiser, Donald David

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Damage to lightly loaded structures, paving and service piping in areas of expansive clay soils has occurred throughout the world. The cause of this damage has been the inability to accurately model expansive soil movement so that foundations...

  9. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Wind Erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and to be blown away. A cover of plants disrupts the force of the wind. Soils are more susceptible to wind erosionSoil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Wind Erosion USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 10 What is wind erosion? Wind erosion is the physical wearing

  10. soils.ifas.ufl.edu Soil & Water Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    interested in courses that emphasize sustainability, resource management, valuation of ecosystem servicessoils.ifas.ufl.edu UF/IFAS Soil & Water Science Department DISTANCE EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAMS #12;SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT The Soil and Water Science Department at the University of Florida

  11. Soils in the Riparian Incorporating Soil Dynamics into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution (salt moves with water) ­Anaerobic conditions ­Ponding and flooding #12;Dynamics of Soil Wetness environment · Salinity is transient, but moves slowest through clayey sediments (as does the water) · System in riparian areas #12;Soil Map Reliability · Soils in riparian settings (level, near water) often dramatically

  12. Nitrogen cycling in oxygen deficient zones : insights from [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O of nitrite and nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchwald, Carolyn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stable isotopes, [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O, of nitrite and nitrate can be powerful tools used to interpret nitrogen cycling in the ocean. They are particularly useful in regions of the ocean where there are multiple ...

  13. Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raut Desai, Aditya B.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly oxidized species like perchlorate and nitrate that are released into the environment by anthropogenic activities are a source of concern as they have been known to contaminate groundwater. These species are extremely soluble in water and can...

  14. Soil and Water Conservation (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida’s 62 Soil and Water Conservation Districts were established in 1937 under Chapter 582 Florida Statutes. The law was based on federal model legislation to establish Soil and Water...

  15. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald...

  16. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

  17. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil...

  18. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Olinger, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the widespread use of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP) for energetic materials applications, relatively little data is available regarding their behavior under shock loading. We have evaluated the shock Hugoniots of AN and AP at high initial density ({ge} 94% TMD) to pressures of approximately 20 GPa. We have used sound speed measurements, isothermal compfession X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments to further explore the behavior of the two materials at elevated pressures.

  19. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)); Olinger, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the widespread use of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP) for energetic materials applications, relatively little data is available regarding their behavior under shock loading. We have evaluated the shock Hugoniots of AN and AP at high initial density ([ge] 94% TMD) to pressures of approximately 20 GPa. We have used sound speed measurements, isothermal compfession X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments to further explore the behavior of the two materials at elevated pressures.

  20. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  1. Centrifuge modelling of lateral pipeline/soil interaction -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulin, M.J.; Phillips, R. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering; Boivin, R. [NOVA Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). NOVA Gas Transmission Limited Division

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An ongoing research program is investigating the load transfer behavior of buried pipelines subjected to lateral soil movement in cohesive soil. Phase 1 of this study, reported to OMAE `92, demonstrated that the centrifuge technique was appropriate for this application in determining the interaction conditions for the lateral loading of pipelines. Limited control of the shear strength masked geometric effects (trench width and burial depth) on the interaction factors and desiccation affected the interpretation of some of the interaction factors. The Phase 2 study investigated the geometric effects of pipeline soil cover, ditch width and also displacement rate. The study included a ``modelling of models`` test to verify the reliability of the centrifuge modelling technique. This paper addresses two issues: (1) The Phase 1 soil strength profiles and interaction factors were reanalyzed based on an improved understanding of the soil conditions at the time of testing; (2) A selection of the Phase 2 results are presented for a 0.95m diameter pipeline subjected to lateral soil movement. The program results are discussed and compared with current pipeline/soil interaction analysis methods.

  2. Soil chemistry versus environmental controls on production of CH4 and CO2 in northern peatlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher J.

    . B. YAVITT a , C. J. WILLIAMS b & R. K. WIEDER c a Department of Natural Resources, Cornell Rates of organic carbon mineralization (to CO2 and CH4) vary widely in peat soil. We transplanted four peat soils with different chemical composition into six sites with different environmental conditions

  3. Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Sites Technologies to Address Excavated VOC Contaminated Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    and available solar heat. This report focuses on design features and recommendations for implementing disposal, passive soil venting, enhanced soil venting, zero-valent iron, anaerobic bioremediation, aerobic and functional design requirements (equipment, flow rates, options, issues, cautions, etc.).The design

  4. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  5. Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or Soil and Terrestrial Environmental Physics CHN F 29.1 Universitätstrasse 16 8092 Zürich dani.or@env.ethz.ch +41 44 633 60 15 Objectives of soil protection major · understand composition and structure of soil · study key processes in soils and their relation to soil

  6. SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    production. Send samples, forms, and payment to Virginia Tech Soil Testing Lab, 145 Smyth Hall (MC 0465), 185 Industrial Lawns - Bermudagrass Routine (soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC) $10, Virginia Tech." COST PER SAMPLE IN-STATE OUT-OF-STATE SOIL TEST DESIRED AND FEES SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION Your

  7. UNDERSTANDING SOIL Larry G. Bundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    available for plant uptake, extraction, or measured by soil test. #12;Phosphorus (P) Loss Processes slowly soluble compounds: § Sorbed P · Clays · Al and Fe oxides § Secondary P minerals (precipitation/Lancaster/Madison (r2 = 0.65) n = 119 #12;Effect of soil extraction time on water extractable soil P concentration

  8. LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35° K

  9. GUIDE TO GRADUATE SOIL SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    GUIDE TO GRADUATE PROGRAMS in AGRONOMY and SOIL SCIENCE Updated July 2011 THE DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK, PA #12;iiii Guide to Graduate Programs in Agronomy and Soil Science Table of Contents Introduction

  10. Soil Remediation Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manlapig, D. M.; Williamsws

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils contaminated with petroleum by-products can now be effectively remediated using a variety of technologies. Among these are in-situ bioremediation, land farming, and landfill/replacing of soil. The range of efficiencies and cost effectiveness of these technologies has been well documented. Exsorbet Plus is showing promise as an in-situ bioremediation agent. It is made of naturally grown Spaghnum Peat Moss which has been activated for encapsulation and blended with nitrogen-rich fertilizer. In its initial field test in Caracas, Venezuela, it was able to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil in 90 days at less than half of the cost of competing technologies. Waste Solutions, Corp and the US Department of Energy signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to test Exsorbet Plus at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center near Casper, Wyoming. As part of the test, soil contaminated with crude oil was treated with Exsorbet Plus to aid the in-situ bioremediation process. Quantitative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurements were acquired comparing the performance of Exsorbet Plus with an adjacent plot undergoing unaided in-situ bioremediation.

  11. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  12. Density of Gadolinium Nitrate Solutions for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In late 1992, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was planning to switch the solution contained in the poison injection tank from cadmium nitrate to gadolinium nitrate. The poison injection system is an emergency system used to shut down the reactor by adding a neutron poison to the cooling water. This system must be able to supply a minimum of 69 pounds of gadolinium to the reactor coolant system in order to guarantee that the reactor would become subcritical. A graph of the density of gadolinium nitrate solutions over a concentration range of 5 to 30 wt% and a temperature range of 15 to 40{sup o}C was prepared. Routine density measurements of the solution in the poison injection tank are made by HFIR personnel, and an adaptation of the original graph is used to determine the gadolinium nitrate concentration. In late 2008, HFIR personnel decided that the heat tracing that was present on the piping for the poison injection system could be removed without any danger of freezing the solution; however, the gadolinium nitrate solution might get as cold as 5{sup o}C. This was outside the range of the current density-concentration correlation, so the range needed to be expanded. This report supplies a new density-concentration correlation that covers the extended temperature range. The correlation is given in new units, which greatly simplifies the calculation that is required to determine the pounds of gadolinium in the tank solution. The procedure for calculating the amount of gadolinium in the HFIR poison injection system is as follows: (1) Calculate the usable volume in the system; (2) Measure the density of the solution; (3) Calculate the gadolinium concentration using the following equation: Gd(lb/ft{sup 3}) = measured density (g/mL) x 34.681 - 34.785; (4) Calculate the amount of gadolinium in the system using the following equation: Amount of Gd(lb) = Gd concentration (lb/ft{sup 3}) x usable volume (ft{sup 3}). The equation in step 3 is exact for a temperature of 5{sup o}C, and overestimates the gadolinium concentration at all higher temperatures. This guarantees that the calculation is conservative, in that the actual concentration will be at least as high as that calculated. If an additional safety factor is desired, it is recommended that an administrative control limit be set that is higher than the required minimum amount of gadolinium.

  13. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  14. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    observed in surface soils. NT significantly increased SOC. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC only under NT. Compared to NT or N addition, enhanced cropping intensity only slightly increased SOC. Estimates of C sequestration rates under NT...

  15. acid aluminum-rich soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorporated into in situ soil cores at a rate of 350 kg N ha-1 and compared to unamended controls. Microbial properties were determined by microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase...

  16. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  17. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  18. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  19. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  20. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  1. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  2. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  3. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  4. Water infiltration studies of the major rice producing soil series of the Texas Gulf Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesmith, Douglas M

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the three d1fferent soil moisture levels; 1. 960 cm/hr at f1eld mo1sture, 1. 485 cm/hr at field capac1ty and 1. 388 cm/hr at satura- tion. The Morey silt loam had the lowest equil1brium infiltration rates with 0 . 931 cm/hr at field moisture, 0 . 481 cm.... Field Profile Description for at Site B16. Field Profile Description for Clay Loam Soil at Site J5. Field Profile Description for Clay Loam Soil at Site FB51. Field Profile Description for Clay Loam Soil at Site B1B Field Profile Description...

  5. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  6. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  7. Liming effects on slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) seedlings growing on acid soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzner, John Thomas

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . lg Comparison of treatment means on selected soils using Duncan's New Nultiple Range Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , 20 pH and percent exchangeable Al neutralized with lime rates based on initial exchangeable Al content...* , 842* 95. 02* . 051 . 0060 . 0001 408. 0 . 0328 Error 33 . 072 . 053 . 155 . 004 . 147 . 018 . 0033 . 0002 336. 8 . 0151 *P~ 0. 05 Table 4. ? Comparison of treatment means on selected soils using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. Lime rate, ! Exch...

  8. Fates of Eroded Soil Organic Carbon: Mississippi Basin Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S. V.; Sleezer, R. O.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, Robert W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a mass balance analysis of organic carbon (OC) across the five major river subsystems of the Mississippi (MS) Basin (an area of 3.2 3 106 km2). This largely agricultural landscape undergoes a bulk soil erosion rate of ;480 t·km22...

  9. Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Duane

    and sodium. Two soil amendments were applied to plots furrowirrigated with wastewater. The amendments were gypsum (11 Mg ha-1), and PAM added to irrigation water at rates of 25 mg L-1 PAM applications were made during every irrigation and during every second...

  10. The influence of vegetation on frost dynamics, infiltration rate and surface stability in Icelandic Andisolic rangelands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orradottir, Berglind

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only occurred where vegetation cover was sparse. Seasonal changes in infiltration rates, measured with double-ring infiltrometers, varied with soil frost depth and type, as indicated by the depth of visible ice crystals and size and number of ice...

  11. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  12. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  13. Crop and vegetative growth impact on water infiltration into gulf coast soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Dwayne Jack

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. Lloyd R. Hossner Water infiltration rates and the time to initial runoff (TTIR) of water were determined using a rainfall simulator on two select rice land soils in the Texas Gulf Coast. Non-vegetated (control), rice, and soybean... in the infiltration rate were due to variations in soil moisture content. The TTIR on the control plots decreased significantly during the course of the growing seasons on the Nada soil. The TTIR on the rice and soybean plots did not significantly change...

  14. Safe handling of TBP and nitrates in the nuclear process industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory and literature study was made of the reactions of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) with nitric acid and nitrates. Its goal was to establish safe conditions for solvent extraction processes involving these chemicals. The damaging explosions at the Tomsk-7 PUREX plant in Russia graphically illustrated the potential hazard involved in such operations. The study has involved a review of prior and contemporary experiments, and new experiments to answer particular questions about these reactions. TBP extracts nitric acid and some metal nitrates from aqueous solutions. The resulting liquid contains both oxidant and reductant, and can react exothermically if heated sufficiently. Safe handling of these potentially reactive materials involves not only limiting the heat generated by the chemical reaction, but also providing adequate heat removal and venting. Specifically, the following recommendations are made to ensure safety: (1) tanks in which TBP-nitrate complexes are or may be present should be adequately vented to avoid pressurization. Data are supplied as a basis for adequacy; (2) chemically degraded TBP, or TBP that has sat a long time in the presence of acids or radiation, should be purified before use in solvent extraction; (3) evaporators in which TBP might be introduced should be operated at a controlled temperature, and their TBP content should be limited; (4) evaporator bottoms that may contain TBP should be cooled under conditions that ensure heat removal. Finally, process design should consider the potential for such reactions, and operators should be made aware of this potential, so that it is considered during training and process operation.

  15. Factors affecting total alkaloid and nitrate levels in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejsa, Beverly Blohowiak

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ('gM University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ethan C. Holt Dr. F. M. Roulette, Jr. P l 'lit (P ' t ' (L. )L k)g 'gt d drought stress in the summer of 1978 in East Texas became unpalat- able to grazing cattle. The unpalatable forage contained... as much as 460 ppm total alkaloid and. potentially toxic levels of nitrate (NO ). Several factors which may play a role in the accumula. tion of alkaloids and NO in pearl millet were investigated in these studies. The effect of drought stress, nitrogen...

  16. Predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in the Puget Sound Basin: Implications for aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Voss, F.D. [Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence and distribution of elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, were determined by examining existing data from more than 3,000 wells. Models that estimate the probability that a well has an elevated nitrate concentration were constructed by relating the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations to both natural and anthropogenic variables using logistic regression. The variables that best explain the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations were well depth, surficial geology, and the percentage of urban and agricultural land within a radius of 3.2 kilometers of the well. From these relations, logistic regression models were developed to assess aquifer susceptibility and ground-water vulnerability. Both models performed well at predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in an independent data set. This approach to assessing aquifer susceptibility and ground-water vulnerability has the advantages of having both model variables and coefficient values determined on the basis of existing water quality information and does not depend on the assignment of variables and weighting factors based on qualitative criteria.

  17. Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case Study Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 ; Hangseok interface is not the geomembrane (GM)/compacted low-permeability soil liner (LPSL) but a soil­soil interface placing the cover soil from bottom to top. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606 .0000556. © 2012 American

  18. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist ­ Tifton campus Committee Membership Dr. Stanley Culpepper - committee chair Dr. John Beasley Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia-SE District University

  19. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  20. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management Committee Membership Dr. David Radcliffe - committee chair Dr. George Vellidis Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Stripling

  1. Apparent adsorption and microbial degradation of phenol by soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, H.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Lavy, T.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of pretreatment, equilibrium time, and concentration on adsorption of the labile organic chemical phenol by two soils: Captina silt loam (Typie Fragiudult) and Palouse silt loam (Ultic Haploxeroll). Adsorption of phenol by soil was determined by radioassay using the batch technique. Since loss from solution is equated with adsorption with the batch method, degradation of phenol is also recorded as adsorption. Adsorption of phenol was low, as evidenced by Freudlich K values of 0.57 and 1.19 for the sterile Captina and Palouse soils, respectively. The addition of water, glucose, or nutrient broth to the non-sterile soil increased the apparent adsorption by reducing the phenol concentration in the solution phase. As equilibration time increased, the apparent adsorption of phenol by the non-sterile soil also increased. When compared with the sterilized soil, this increase suggested that the loss of phenol from solution was largely due to microbial decomposition. As the concentration of phenol increased, there was a corresponding increase in the lag phase and a decrease in the degradation rate constant indicating inhibition and microbial activity by phenol at higher concentrations. The length of time in the lag phase was linearly related to the log of the phenol concentration. At a given concentration, the lag phase of the Captina soil was longer and more sensitive to changes in phenol concentration than was the lag phase in the Palouse soil. This was attributed to its lower phenol adsorption, organic matter content, and initial microbial population.

  2. Soil structure interaction for shrink-swell soils a new design procedure for foundation slabs on shrink-swell soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelmalak, Remon Melek

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    diffusion soil volume change model starts with proposing a new laboratory test to determine the coefficient of unsaturated diffusivity for intact soils. Then, it introduces the development of a cracked soil diffusion factor, provides a chart for it...

  3. Soil samples at the APS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    movement into and about the country. A permit from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is required to receive these soils unless they are sterilized. More complete...

  4. Plant and Soil VIII, no. 3 March 1957 PROBLEMS OF SOIL TESTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Plant and Soil VIII, no. 3 March 1957 PROBLEMS OF SOIL TESTING ON CALCAREOUS SOILS by DAN H. YAALON The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Chemically and mineralogically the soils of arid and semiarid of limestone, most of the soils are calcareous. Extensive leaching may have removed the CaCO3 from the soil

  5. Original article Soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest: dependence on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest: dependence on soil temperature and soil water 1998) Abstract - Our objective was to quantify the annual soil carbon efflux in a young beech forest in north-eastern France (Hesse Forest, Euroflux site FR02) from measurements of soil CO, efflux. Soil CO

  6. Recommended Academic Plan for the Environmental Resource Management -Soil Science Option (E R M/SOIL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Recommended Academic Plan for the Environmental Resource Management - Soil Science Option (E R M/SOIL of Calculus I or MATH 140* (GQ) Calculus With Analytic Geometry I 4 SOILS 101 (GN) Introductory Soil Science 3 AG 150S (First-Year Seminar) Be a Master Student! 2 SOILS 102 Introductory Soil Science Laboratory 1

  7. The response of some putting green soil mixtures to compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Hugh Leon

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 11 Sand, soil, and peat ratios used in the test . . . . . . 11 Capillay porosity, non-capillary porosity, visual ratings, weight of clippings, hydraulic conductivity, bulk density and total porosity as indicated . . . , . . . 60 Grams of oven dried...-percent-moisture sand-Houston Black clay various tensions retained by cores of concrete soil-peat when sub]ected to 12. 13. Volume-percent-moisture sand-Houston Black clay various tensions Volume-percent-moisture land sand-Houston Black to various tensions...

  8. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  9. The effect of stone retention walls on soil productivity and crop performance on selected hillside farms in southern Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Marc Ellery

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resulted in a serious loss of forest resources, exploitation of marginal lands, and increasing soil loss due to erosion. A comparison of data on actual land use and availability found that the amount of land This thesis follows the style of the Soil... resource base by deforestation and soil erosion; iv) distortive, relatively low prices for cereal grains and high costs for factors of production such as fertilizer; and v) inadequate levels of human capital, characterized by low literacy rates...

  10. Uranyl nitrate pouring solution for producing nuclear fuel particles and a method for its preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, K.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbitol, or another polyalcohol such as erythritol, dulcitol or xylitol, is added to a solution containing uranyl nitrate which may also contain another heavy metal, such as thorium or plutonium, prior to preneutralization with ammonia in order to provide a highly viscous solution that can be preneutralized to a great extent without premature precipitation of uranium. The high viscosity makes possible the formation of favorably large drops when the solution is dripped into an ammonia containing bath for external gelification of the drops. According to the pouring apparatus used, the particles after washing, drying and sintering have a diameter between 0.6 and 1.5 mm. The polyalcohol is added to a hydrosol containing from 1.5 to 2 moles per liter of heavy metal, the polyalcohol being added until concentration of onethird mole of polyalcohol per mole of heavy metal is reached. In certain cases up to four moles of ammonium nitrate per liter are added. The solution so produced can be preneutralized with up to 90% of the amount of ammonia stoichiometrically necessary for T separation of uranium without the formation of any precipitate, preferably by first adding ammonia gas under strong stirring and then adding ammonium bicarbonate in excess, which decomposes to liberate ammonia to an extent determined by the temperature, which is to be precisely controlled. It is possible to obtain this way a solution of predetermined viscosity from which the excess ammonium bicarbonate can readily be separated.

  11. Soils | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformationSoda Springs, Idaho:Soil Sampling

  12. Collection Policy: Crop and Soil Sciences Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    silage utilization by dairy cows o Phytoremediation of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated soils/environmental biophysics related to soil quality and fertility o Mechanisms by which soil minerals can decompose or modify

  13. Climatic influences on hillslope soil transport efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schurr, Naomi D. (Naomi Danika)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil transport coefficient D represents the relationship between local topographical gradient and soil flux in the landscape evolution model. This work presents new estimates of the soil transport coefficient D at 9 ...

  14. Soil Conservation Districts Law (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter aims to provide for the conservation of the soil and soil resources of this state and for the control and prevention of soil erosion, and to preserve the state's natural resources,...

  15. Soil stabilization properties of flexible intruders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luginbuhl, Katharine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many locations, soil is held in place by the roots of plants. When these plants are removed or die, the soil loses its cohesive strength and erodes away. We seek to create artificial soil stabilizers that use the same ...

  16. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  17. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 10, PAGES 1207-1210, OCTOBEX 1982 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AND SULFATE IN THE MARINE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    of nitrate in the atmosphere have been conducted in continental (primarily urban) areas; data on nitrate polycarbonate sheets were used as impaction surfaces; these sheets had a "frosted" finish which minimizes to collect the smallest particles. The polycarbonate inlpaction sheets were used because of their inertness

  18. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  19. Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    this step 8 to 10 times in the lawn or garden which is being considered for testing. ? Mix all collected soil thoroughly, removing any roots or other visible plant materials and place 2-3 cups of soil in a quart-sized re-sealable plastic bag. Air...

  20. Soil organisms are the catalysts that link elemen-tal exchange among the lithosphere,biosphere,and at-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    ,biosphere,and at- mosphere. Understanding the rates of these exchanges, and the sequestration of elements within in carbon (C) compounds.Soil C is derived largely from plant photosynthesis and allocated to the soil either ) is oxidized and broken down to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water (H2 O), releasing ATP (adenosine triphosphate

  1. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  2. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  3. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  4. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  5. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  6. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  7. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  8. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  9. Comparison of analytical results for chloride, sulfate and nitrate obtained from adjacent ice core samples by two ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    and sulfate but not for nitrate. 2% of the data indicate real differences in concentrations across the ice atmosphere. Ice core data are widely used to understand environmental and climate processes in the past.1 suited for the analysis of low concentrations of soluble ions in ice core samples without pretreatment.5

  10. Wood decomposition after five years in anaerobic nitrate rich groundwaters: Implications for lifetime of NitrexTM Permeable Reactive Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    decomposition at the WB barrier. Sulfate reduction: SO4 2- + 2CH2O + 2H+ 2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O 1.2. Questions 2 Abstract Permeable reactive barriers can benefit aquatic ecosystems by using wood chips to remove carbon was more important in the wood from the barriers. Keywords Nitrate removal, Permeable Reactive

  11. DISTINCT PATTERNS OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN ALGAE: LIGHT AND AMMONIUM SENSITIVITY IN LAMINARIA DIGITATA IS ABSENT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berges, John A.

    DISTINCT PATTERNS OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN ALGAE: LIGHT AND AMMONIUM SENSITIVITY and lowest in summer. This is the first report of NR activity in any alga that is not strongly regulated the regulation of NR by light that has been observed in other algae and higher plants. Key index words: ammonium

  12. The effects of harvesting intensity on soil CO2 efflux and carbon content in an east Texas bottomland hardwood ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londo, Andrew James

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -harvested control. I hypothesized that respiration rates would vary directly with harvest intensity. The sodalime absorption technique was used for determining in situ respiration and the wet alkali method was used for measuring mineral soil respiration in the lab...

  13. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  14. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. (Research Center for Engergetic Materials, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)); Olinger, B. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk sound speed measurements, isothermal volume compression/X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments (maximum pressure [approx]20 GPa) have been performed for high initial density ([ge]94% TMD) ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP). The experimental data, and full density Hugoniots calculated from that data, suggest the presence of low pressure, shock induced phase transitions in both the AN and AP. The AP phase transition occurs at [approx]4 GPa, and exhibits characteristics of a high density to low density phase transition, but the present data are not conclusive. The AN phase change occurs at a shock pressure of less than 3.5 GPa, but the associated volume change is relatively large, indicating the presence of a previously unidentified high pressure, high density phase. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  15. Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Campus Coatzacoalcos, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad Km 7.5, 96530 Coatzacoalcos, Ver. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

  16. Micrometeorological and Soil Data for Calculating Evapotranspiration for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada 2002-05.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy A. DeMeo; Alan L. Flint; Randell J. Laczniak; Walter E. Nylund

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at two instrumented sites on Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site, January 1, 2002/August 23, 2005. Data collected at each site include net radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at two heights; wind speed and direction; subsurface soil heat flux; subsurface soil temperature; volumetric soil water; and matric water potential. These data were used to estimate 20-minute average and daily average evapotranspiration values. The data presented in this report are collected and calculated evapotranspiration rates.

  17. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  18. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of agricultural soil drainage on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;2 Basic Course1 SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation 3 Credits Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water resources, historical erosions and sediment

  19. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences-7300 Fax: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (770) 412-4734 Dr. Eric Prostko Dr. Guy Collins Department of Crop & Soil

  20. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Paul Raymer - committee chair Dr. Scott Jackson Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Horticulture University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  1. KSInglett Page 1 MATH FOR SOIL SCIENTISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    skills that are most relevant to graduate courses in environmental science including Soil and Water transport 9. Soil temperature, heat capacity and conductivity Unit 3 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY 10 and gas fluxes Unit 5 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL CHEMISTRY, FERTILITY, and MANAGEMENT (optional) 19. p

  2. RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type and management data-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract This report evidences factors controlling soil or- ganic carbon at the national scale by modelling data of 2,158 soil samples from France. The global soil carbon amount, of about 1

  3. Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Sheng-Tao

    Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic C. J. Miller, M.ASCE1 the variation of water content and pore water suction for compacted clayey soils. The soils had varying amounts of clay fraction with plasticities ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior

  4. Part I. Ecological Sites and Soil Part II. A Framework for Soil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part I. Ecological Sites and Soil Survey Part II. A Framework for Soil and Vegetation Dynamics Arlene Tugel, Soil Scientist Liaison to ARS, USDA-NRCS Las Cruces, NM and the Soils-ESD Advisory Group #12;What makes a site a site? Soil forming factors: climate, parent, material, biotic factors

  5. Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test fertility status of the soil in each field can invest wisely in fertilizer and lime to produce the most economical crop yields. A soil test provides the needed information about soil pH, lime need and available

  6. Soil drainage as an active agent of recent soil evolution: a David Montagnea,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Soil drainage as an active agent of recent soil evolution: a review* David Montagnea,b , Sophie on pedogenesis mainly focuses on the long-term soil formation and most often neglects recent soil evolution drainage on soil evolution. Artificial drainage is considered as an example of the impact of recent changes

  7. Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth X of P around soil aggregates (Gunary et al., 1964; Linquist etfrom soil, understanding P desorption from soils may improve the precision of P diagnosis and fertilization recommendations. Many al., 1997

  8. Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of the soil system to withstand global-scale perturbations (e.g., climate or land use change, spread Properties 4. Land Use Change Impacts on Soils 5. Land Use and Agriculture (Irrigation and Fertilization In Soil) 6. Land Use and Soil Erosion 7. Climate Change Impacts on Soils 8. Land Use-Climate

  9. Feedback control of the rate of peat formation Lisa R. Belyea1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or net sinks at present. Second, long-term rates of peat accumulation (and hence carbon sequestration and carbon sequestration. Keywords: peatlands; soil organic matter; ecosystem dynamics; carbon cycle 1). As a result of these discrepancies, estimates of the rates of carbon sequestration and emission derived from

  10. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  11. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  12. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  13. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, P.O. Box 149, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  14. Infiltration and sediment production of Edwards Plateau rangeland as affectd by soil characteristics and grazing management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, William Allan

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at their extremes were highest on the range sites characterized by coarse textured soils. Simple correlation between water intake rates during the second 30 min period showed that soil structure of the first horizon was highly correlated with water in- take... and topographic properties evaluated were bulk density, particle density, total pore space, texture, organic matter, pH, aggregate stability, rock cover, slope and micro-depression size, number and depth. Plant biomass for each site was collected and separated...

  15. Transient nature of salt movement with wetting front in an unsaturated soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soman, Vishwas Vinayak

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    permeability and tilth as the two major problems in irrigated areas. According to him, in sodic soils the physicochemical reactions cause the slaking of aggregates and the swelling and dispersion of clay minerals, leading to reduced permeability and poor... of clays and slaking of aggregates. Zartman and Gichuru (1984) observed that excessive amounts of exchangeable sodium salts present in the soil or irrigation water, can decrease hydraulic conductivity, decrease the infiltration rate, and increase...

  16. Acid soil fertility at the Cinzana station, Mali, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doumbia, Mamadou Diosse

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant dry matter production in the greenhouse. Liming followed by the above N rate had the same result. However, application of P or any treatment combination containing P resulted in good sorghum growth and yield. Dry matter yield correlated well... with Bray-1 P (r = 0. 74). Both exchangeable soil Al (34'/ Al saturation) and shoot Al concentration had a significant, negative impact on dry matter yield, but neither had a strong correlation (r values of -0. 42 and -0. 31, respectively). Application...

  17. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  18. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a draft final report (Volume 1) for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees} to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  19. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of natural and created marsh soils. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.2007. Freshwater Input Structures Soil Properties, VerticalS.S. , Hoover, K.L. 1996. Soil properties of reference

  20. Organic soil phosphorus is plant-available but is neglected by routine soil-testing methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffens, Diedrich; Leppin, Thomas; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microorganisms. Biol. Fertil. Soils 1988; 5: 308-312 Van derplant species and to evaluate different soil-testing methodsin measuring organic soil-P. Material and Methods This

  1. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  2. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  3. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  4. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  5. When Did the Atacama Desert Become Dry? : Geological Evidence for the late Pliocene onset of Hyperaridity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elser, Jim

    Dng - low erosion rates - ancient, well preserved landforms - unique, economically impt, salt accumulaDons (nitrate, lithium, borates, sulfates · Regional fluvial erosion history · Hillslope soils in the hyperarid zone

  6. Photolysis of smoke dyes on soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.L. (Technology Applications Inc., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Weber, E.J.; Baughman, G.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. Initially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemically protected. The average mean depths of photolysis ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 mm for outdoor studies and from 0.42 to 0.73 mm for lab studies. The magnitude of the mean depths of photolysis suggests that photo-degradation of the dyes occurs through indirect photochemical processes. Photolysis products for only two of the dyes could be identified. Photolysis of Disperse Red 9 resulted in the formation of 1-aminoanthraquinone, whereas Solvent Yellow 33 photo-degraded to give 2-carboxyquinoline and phthalic anhydride. Reaction mechanisms involving sensitized photo-oxidation by singlet oxygen are consistent with the formation of these reaction products.

  7. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  8. Effect of transpiration rate on internal plant resistance to water flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailey, James Lester

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models for liquid water flow in plants. because it enables one to estimate leaf water potential from known or estimated transpiration rates. The predicted leaf water potential can be used for scheduling irrigation ~ The leaf diffusion resistance... OF LITERATURE Soil Resistance Internal Plant Resistance Ohm's Law Analogy Mathematical Models of Water Transport in the Soil-Plant- Atmosphere System . ~ Poiseuille's Law . ~ ~ ~ ~ Leaf Diffusion and Aerodynamic Resistances ~ Conclusions of Literature...

  9. The effects of soil moisture on pecan weevil emergence and predicting drought delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraer, Stephen Martin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soils. Drought conditions, induced on soil plots, as well as natural soil conditions were used to assess the effects of soil particle size distribution and soil moisture on soil hardness. Soil hardness can be determined by the following: 572...

  10. air water soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  11. air soil water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  12. An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Abstract: Interactions between biochar, soil, microbes and plant roots...

  13. amended soil microcosms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amendment Effects on Soil Phosphorus Stabilization in Poultry Litter Amended Sandy Soils. Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Litter Amended Sandy Soils....

  14. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  15. Influence of loading rate on axially loaded piles in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland Ponce, Enrique Eduardo

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Founda- tion Engineerinq, London, V. l, pp. 207-210 Bjerrum, L. Simons, N. Torblaa, I. (1958) Crawford, C. B. (1959) The Effect of Time on the Shear Strength of a Soft Marine Clay The Influence of Rate... of Strain on Effective Stresses in Sensitive Clay Norweqian Geotechnical Institute, Publication No. 33, pp. 135-142. American Society of Testing Materials (Special Technical Publication No. 361), pp. 36-61. Richardson, A. M. Whitman, R. V. (1963...

  16. Effect of freshets on the flux of groundwater nitrate through streambed sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia, University of

    acceptors and high rates of metabolism may result in a sharp redox gradient within a few centimeters sediments where rates of microbial metabolism are high and pore water is isolated from exchange

  17. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  18. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  19. Preliminary Risk Analysis of Nitrate Contamination in the Salinas Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California, Including the Implementation of POU Devices in Small Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    i Preliminary Risk Analysis of Nitrate Contamination in the Salinas Valley and Tulare Lake Basin is a drinking water contaminant prevalent in the Salinas Valley and Tulare Lake Basin (the study area), mainly

  20. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  1. Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST): A Pilot Field Experiment for Inter-Calibration of Biogeochemistry and Nucleic Acid Measurements Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronk, Deborah

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST) project sought to correlate biogeochemical flux rates with measurements of gene expression and mRNA abundance to demonstrate the application of molecular approaches to estimate the presence and magnitude of a suite of biogeochemical processes. The study was headed by Lee Kerkhoff of Rutgers University. In this component of the GRIST study, we characterized ambient nutrient concentrations and measured uptake rates for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and dissolved free amino acids) during two diel studies at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  2. The effect of soil moisture levels on evapotranspiration from cotton and grain sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Arland David

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measured value of soil t moisture. Substituting these values into Equations (I), (2) and (3) gave the following three equations: SM =be ct t SM =bK t t SM = d ? b log (t+c ) t (5) (6) The next logical step would have been to evaluate... as several atmospheres pressure which is sufficient tc move water to the leaves of even the tallest trees. The flew cf water can be governed by either the rate at which it is extracted from the soil or the rate at which it moves through the plants...

  3. Evidence of Reactive Aromatics As a Major Source of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate over China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Liu, Shaw C.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM) indicate that aromatic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are the dominant (55-75%) PAN source. The major oxidation product of aromatics that produces acetyl peroxy radicals is methylglyoxal (MGLY). PAN and O3 in the observations are correlated at daytime; aromatic NMHCs appear to play an important role in O3 photochemistry. Previous NMHC measurements indicate the presence of reactive aromatics at high levels over broad polluted regions of China. Aromatics are often ignored in global and (to a lesser degree) regional 3D photochemical transport models; their emissions over China as well as photochemistry are quite uncertain.Our findings suggest that critical assessments of aromatics emissions and chemistry (such as the yields of MGLY) are necessary to understand and assess ozone photochemistry and regional pollution export in China.

  4. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen associated with switchgrass production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobo Alonzo, Porfirio Jose

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .), other forage grasses, cultivated crops, and forest were collected seasonally at six locations. Soil organic C (SOC), total N, soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and N (SMBN), soil mineralizable C and N, and basal soil respiration (BSR) were in general...

  6. Major Nitrogen Loss Pathways in Upland Blueberry Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vano, Imre

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 O production in an arable peat soil in Central KalimantanTateyama brown forest soil + peat moss (1:1), SC- Soil +the tropical and boreal peat soils have a wide fungal

  7. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  8. Probabilistic Analysis of the Compressibility of Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung C.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of surface loads or variable soil deposits. In current practice, the analysis to determine settlements is deterministic. It assumes that the soil profile at a site is uniform from location to location, and only allows limited consideration of the variations...

  9. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  10. Rainwater Harvesting: Soil Storage and Infiltration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil storage and infiltration system collects rainfall runoff from the roofs of buildings and directs it underground where it infiltrates the soil. Such a system conserves water and protects it from surface pollution. This publication describes...

  11. FINGERPRINTING SOILS – A PROOF OF CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobylinski, Catherine

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Forensic soil characterization is an under-explored field in the forensic sciences. One aspect of forensic sciences is Locard’s Exchange Principle, which states that every contact leaves a trace. As soil characterization technology improves...

  12. Irrigation Monitoring with Soil Water Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Peries, Xavier

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring soil water content is essential if growers want to optimize production, conserve water, reduce environmental impacts and save money. This publication illustrates how soil moisture monitoring can improve irrigation decisions and how...

  13. BIOCYCLE JUNE 2002 41 ETAL contaminated soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    where smelter emissions or mine wastes caused con- tamination and soils were acidic. Such metal toxic the location of the main lead smelter, over 2,000 yards of soils have been excavated and replaced with clean

  14. Maryland Soil Conservation Districts Law (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to conserve the soil, water, and related resources of the state through establishing regulations for land-use practices related to soil erosion. This legislation...

  15. Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil Fan Liu1 of cutans on potassium forms and their transformations were investigated for a Western Australian grey clay soil. Cutans and matrix soil had similar clay mineral associations with kaolinite, smectite and illite

  16. Soil Science Society of America Journal Revealing Soil Structure and Functional Macroporosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    how fast water, greenhouse gases, vola- tile compounds, chemicals, and pollutants can enter and move ecosystem functions. In this study, soil physical measurements (soil-water retention and air permeability soil clay content, while significantly higher air permeability was observed for the l1 to l3 soils than

  17. Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    the interactions of contaminants with soil mineral surfaces. For example, phosphate, a common constituent of minerals to pore space. Contaminants and solids in the effluent are trapped in the pore space between soil tank and soil absorption field. These systems rely on the soil to remove all contaminants -- including

  18. UNL Microgravity: Team Fast Project: Lunar soil is much different from terrestrial soil,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    UNL Microgravity: Team Fast Project: Lunar soil is much different from terrestrial soil, consisting of a large percentage of very fine particles. Lunar soil also contains very irregular and jagged particles formed from the sintering together of broked grains during micro-meteorite bombardment. NASA has soil

  19. Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, `barren' soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, `barren' soil Kristen R of Colorado, Campus Box 450, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Summary Soil-dominated ecosystems, with little-elevation, subnival zone soil (i.e. elevations higher than the zone of continuous vegetation), the structure

  20. Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre Ingeniors, Clermont-Ferrand, France Abstract This study concludes that, from the soil compaction point of view, using on all the contact area and induce overall less stress on the soil. Introduction As agricultural machines

  1. Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL SENSOR technologies that may be combined into a cost effective soil redox sensor network, discuss the merits of each as a component of said network, describe a prototype soil redox sensor network and perform basic laboratory

  2. Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increaseResourcesNonmedia, Producers, Web. From Sara Adlington, (406) 994-4602 Filename: Eval Soil Health PR2014 Web: Ag, Extension with Montana State University and MSU Extension have recommendations for growers on evaluating soil quality

  3. Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    therefore have to be applied each year to sustain soil productivity. Management of black carbon (C36 Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics Johannes Lehmann1), ColombiaQ1 CONTENTS 36.1 Bio-Char Management and Soil Nutrient Availability

  4. The effect of rock fragments on the hydraulic properties of soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many soils contain rock fragments the sizes of which are much larger than the average pore size of the sieved soil. Due to the fact that these fragments are often fairly large in relation to the soil testing apparatus, it is common to remove them before performing hydrologic tests on the soil. The question then arises as to whether or not there is a simple way to correct the laboratory-measured values to account for the fragments, so as to arrive at property values that can apply to the soil in situ. This question has arisen in the surface infiltration studies that are part of the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain, where accurate values of the hydraulic conductivities of near-surface soils are needed in order to accurately estimate infiltration rates. Although this problem has been recognized for some time, and numerous review articles have been written there are as yet no proven models to account for the effect of rock fragments on hydraulic conductivity and water retention. In this report we will develop some simple physically-based models to account for the effects of rock fragments on gross hydrological properties, and apply the resulting equations to experimental data taken from the literature. These models are intended for application to data that is currently being collected by scientists from the USGS on near-surface soils from Yucca Mountain.

  5. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  6. Derivation of Soil Moisture Retention Characteristics from Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h, and evapotranspiration. The soil factors include soil matric potential and water content relationship, saturated content of soil. The relation between matric potential and volumetric water content in a soil is termed

  7. 11:776:413 Soil Quality S. Murphy Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    : Soil Management & Sustainability, best management practices Week 4 Soil Degradation and resulting's dependence on soil To understand society's impact on soil and need for educated management To increase sequestration. Managing soil to build/maintain organic matter. Week 6 Chemical Indicators: soil pH, buffering

  8. Wind resuspension of trace amounts of plutonium particles from soil in a semi-arid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of resuspension of soil containing minute amounts of plutonium (Pu-239) has been in progress at the Rocky Flats (RF) Plant since 1978. It is one of several studies initiated after wind relocated small amounts of soil-borne Pu-239 during cleanup of an outdoor storage area. The Pu-239-settled field is now sparsely covered with prairie grass typical of the area. Past studies were limited to comparisons of bulk soil activity with total activity in the airborne dust. This work covers the physics of the particle resuspension process. This report covers the following: (1) Pu-239 resuspension rate versus wind speed, (2) mechanisms of soil particle resuspension, (3) vertical concentration profile of Pu-239 particles, (4) Pu-239 and host particle size distribution and activity concentration. 5 references, 1 table.

  9. FieldIndicators of Hydric Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Soils, Version 5.01, 2003 Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Science Institute Soil on the right has mucky peat (hemic soil material) to a depth of about 8 cm. If indicator S2 (2.5 cm mucky peat or peat) or indicator S3 (5 cm mucky peat or peat) is not a concern, morphologies below 8 cm would

  10. The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Agriculture. STS PAGE ............................................. What lime does 5 ............................................. Acidity of soils 7 ............................................. Sources of lime 8... of Texas soils for lime, as far as our present information permits. WHST LIME DOES Lime performs sereral functions in the soil, some of which are favor- able to increased crops and the maintenance of fertility, some favorable to certain crops...

  11. Exploring the World of Plants and Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Exploring the World of Plants and Soils 4-H Plant , Soils, and Entomology Curriculum 18 U.S.C. 707 Project Book 2 Publication 380-021 2014 #12;Exploring the World of Plants and Soil: Stems and Stamens ................................................................................................................. 3 Activity 1 The Stages of a Plant's Life

  12. Chemical Composition of Soils of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATION Table 5. Analyses of soils of the Gulf Coast Prairie-Continued Type Name Flat marshy to semi-marshy soils ....................... Harr~e clay, surface.. Harris clay, subsoil. ........................ Harris fine sandy loam, surface.... ............. Harris fine sandy loam. subsoil.. ............. Tidal marsh. surface.. ...................... Tidal marsh. subsoil. ....................... Flat stream bottom soils Guadalupe clay. surface.. ................... Guadalupe clay, subsoil...

  13. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;Basic Course Requirements: 1. Exams consistSWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 most valuable and most mistreated resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water

  14. Common Questions Why should I soil test?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Common Questions Why should I soil test? Soil testing is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate nutrient imbalances and understand plant growth. The most important reason to soil test is to have a basis for intelligent application of fertilizer and lime. Testing also allows for growers and homeowners to maintain

  15. Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites Mike Duniway USGS-Southwest Biological Science of vegetation? Why do sites differ in response to disturbance & management? #12;Ecological Sites & Soil Properties · Within a climatic zone (e.g. MLRA), differentiation of ecological sites based on soil

  16. 4, 38293862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 4, 3829­3862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil carbon storage S. Steinbeiss et al. Title Page Abstract Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Mechanisms of soil carbon­3862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil carbon storage S. Steinbeiss et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  17. Soil Carbon Accumulation During Temperate Forest Succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    K7L 3N6, Canada ABSTRACT Carbon sequestration in soils that have previously beendepletedoforganic the soil carbon sequestration potential of such lands by sampling adjacent mature forest and agricultural abandonment is more important than soil type in determining the potential magnitude of carbon sequestration

  18. 9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd if available. Causes of variation in soil carbon predictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison #12;BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd

  19. Effect of soil freezing on particulate resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Winberg, M.R.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of small scale laboratory tests that were conducted to determine the effect of soil freezing on soil resuspension. Nontransuranic contaminated soil form the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was subjected to a series of test conditions to determine respirable and nonrespirable fractions of airborne dust. A separate fraction of the same soil was spiked with Pu-239 and subjected to the same test conditions. Concentrations of resuspended soil and Pu in air were determined. Test results show that: (a) the largest fraction of soil resuspended is in the nonrespirable size fraction, (b) the concentration of resuspended soil in air is highly dependent on surface air velocity, and (c) freezing is not as effective at reducing resuspension of fine dry soil as it is with coarse soil, and (d) artificially prepared Pu contaminated soil has a high proportion of the total activity distributed on ultrafine material, reacts inversely to the mass movement of soil, and does not adequately imitate Pu movement in an actual contaminated soil. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

  1. Rangeland Sheet 6 Soil Quality Information Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decomposition. Chemically stable organic matter gives soil its dark color and is generally the largest pool. Increasing levels of organic matter promote a higher water- holding capacity, which results in increasedRangeland Sheet 6 Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Organic Matter USDA

  2. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

  3. Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. Publication 452-400 #12;Agricultural Management Associate, respectively, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech #12;1 Introduction What makes

  4. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  5. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergy InnovationRecentPreviouspower-rates

  6. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-rates Sign In About |

  7. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; John S. Wettlaufer

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new, physically-intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil, and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil; a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation, and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that is currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios, and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost heave rates.

  8. Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits: I. Soil Core A. ______SOIL 205.Soil Science (4) or ____ CSS 305. Principles of Soil Science (4) [Taught at EOU La Grande campus only

  9. Accumulation and replacement of exchangeable sodium in soils of Southeast Texas under turfgrass and its effect on soil infiltration rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydemir, Salih

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gypsum application. 34 TABLE Page 10 Mean of extractable bases at site 1 for 20-30 cm depth before gypsum application and 9 wk and 36 wk rdter gypsum application. 35 Mean of extractable bases at site 2 for 0-10 cm depth before gypsum application... and 9 wk and 36 wk after gypsum application. 36 12 Mean of extractable bases at site 2 for 10-20 cm depth before gypsum application and 9 wk and 36 wk after gypsum application. 38 13 Mean of extractable bases at site 2 for 20-30 cm depth before...

  10. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign In About |

  11. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign

  12. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergy ZEROFIXED RATE GUARANTEED

  13. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSetting the Stage for the Next SolarRate

  14. Investigation of exposure rates and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, A.T.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies have been conducted to investigate exposure rates, and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Columbia River where it borders the Hanford Site. The last major field study was conducted in 1979. With recently renewed interest in various land use and resource protection alternatives, it is important to have data that represent current conditions. Radionuclides and trace metals were surveyed in Columbia River shoreline soils along the Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). The work was conducted as part of the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The survey consisted of taking exposure rate measurements and soil samples primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates.

  15. Development of site-specific soil cleanup criteria: New Brunswick Laboratory, New Jersey site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veluri, V.R.; Moe, H.J.; Robinet, M.J.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential human exposure which results from the residual soil radioactivity at a decommissioned site is a prime concern during D and D projects. To estimate this exposure, a pathway analysis approach is often used to arrive at the residual soil radioactivity criteria. The development of such a criteria for the decommissioning of the New Brunswick Laboratory, New Jersey site is discussed. Contamination on this site was spotty and located in small soil pockets spread throughout the site area. Less than 1% of the relevant site area was contaminated. The major contaminants encountered at the site were /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, normal and natural uranium, and natural thorium. During the development of the pathway analysis to determine the site cleanup criteria, corrections for the inhomogeneity of the contamination were made. These correction factors and their effect upon the relevant pathway parameters are presented. Major pathways by which radioactive material may reach an individual are identified and patterns of use are specified (scenario). Each pathway is modeled to estimate the transfer parameters along the given pathway, such as soil to air to man, etc. The transfer parameters are then combined with dose rate conversion factors (ICRP 30 methodology) to obtain soil concentration to dose rate conversion factors (pCi/g/mrem/yr). For an appropriate choice of annual dose equivalent rate, one can then arrive at a value for the residual soil concentration. Pathway modeling, transfer parameters, and dose rate factors for the three major pathways; inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, which are important for the NBL site, are discussed.

  16. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadi, A. (Rivers State Univ. of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)) Ue Bari, Y. (Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  17. THE CENTRIFUGE PERMEAMETER FOR UNSATURATED SOILS (CPUS) By: John McCartney1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    THE CENTRIFUGE PERMEAMETER FOR UNSATURATED SOILS (CPUS) By: John McCartney1 and Jorge Zornberg, Advisor2 Abstract: This paper describes the development of a new centrifuge permeameter capable inflow rates (0.1 ml/min) within a rotating centrifuge environment, capable of imposing an acceleration

  18. Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -The transport of Cl and Li was investigated in 90 undisturbed ing of trace metals from an old sludge application through preferential flowpaths. variety of sewage sludges (biosolids) at agronomic rates. With soil;of deionized water and multiple subsequent irrigations with synthetic Yasuda et al., 1996; Jorgenson

  19. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  20. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  1. Long-Term Hydrologic Responses To Shrub Removal In A SW Texas Rangeland: Using Soil Chloride To Estimate Deep Drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barre, David Anthony

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG-TERM HYDROLOGIC RESPONSES TO SHRUB REMOVAL IN A SW TEXAS RANGELAND: USING SOIL CHLORIDE TO ESTIMATE DEEP DRAINAGE A Thesis by DAVID ANTHONY BARRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... of the study were to identify those biotic and abiotic factors facilitating deep drainage and to examine differences in recharge for the years following clearing of natural shrub vegetation. Soil chloride was examined to estimate long-term recharge rates...

  2. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  3. Effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polka, H.M.; Gmehling, J. (Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany). Chair of Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water was studied using a Swietoslawski ebulliometer. The measurements were performed for two constant salt molalities (1 and 2 mol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]) under isobaric conditions at 50.66 kPa. Strong salting-out of the alcohol was observed in all cases, leading to a complete elimination of the azeotropic point at relatively low salt concentrations. The results were correlated using an extension of the NRTL equation for mixed solvent electrolyte systems proposed by Mock, Evans, and Chen.

  4. Plant-soil interactions and acclimation to temperature of microbial-mediated soil respiration may affect predictions of soil CO2 efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curiel Yuste, J.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shifts in microbial communities due to soil warming.Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:475–481to an important portion of soil CO 2 ef?ux (Hanson et al.

  5. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  6. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  7. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  8. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A. (US EPA, Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  9. Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish Soil and Water Conservation Districts throughout the State of Connecticut. Each district has its own Board of Directors; membership and election procedures are defined...

  10. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  11. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  12. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

    1986-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

  13. Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient Lauric Cécillon1,2,* , Nilvania://lauric.cecillon.free.fr/ Key words: Mountain soils; Climate change; Soil aggregation; Soil organic matter; Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Soil threats Biogeochemistry 97: 31-43 (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533

  14. Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a, , Birl Lowery a , Carl Wacker b a University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Soil Science, FD Hole Soils Lab, 1525 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 May 2012 Accepted 15 May 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Soil maps Historical maps Digital soil

  15. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator Committee Membership Dr. Jerry Johnson - committee chair Dr. Paul Raymer Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University

  16. Expanded Course Description for 11:776:413 Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    Soil Quality: soil management & sustainability, concept of best management practices (BMPs) Soil and restoration of desirable properties will be addressed. Management of our soil resource to maintain or improve soil quality and maximize ecosystem sustainability will be emphasized. Learning Goals: To gain full

  17. SOIL QUALITY (SWS 6134) 3 Credits-Fall 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    with basic concepts, principles, components, measurements, and evaluation of soil quality and its management for sustainable agriculture. Soil quality is the capacity of the soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries. In this course, state-of-the-art studies on soil quality and the principles, assessment and management of soil

  18. The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lime, ground oyster shells, air-slaked lime, or ground limestone rock. A number of acid soils are found to occur in the counties described in this Bulletin. The acidity of some of the soils is slight, while that of others is high. Acidity... ........................................... 1.) .............................. Fertilizers for the Soils Studied 13 ........ ....................................... Use of Lime : 14 Soils of Bowie County ............................. ........ 14 .................. Pot Experiments on Soils...

  19. Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    of the soil surface is the limiting parameter. Effects of Crude Oil on Evaporation - Crude oil applied to the wet soil surfaces of the lysimeters following rains suppressed evaporation immediately following the rains. However, the value of the crude oil...

  20. Airborne microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Quentin Robert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Studies of Sampling Accuracy Soil Type Variation . Surface Conditions. Lawrence, 1976 Experiment. Finney County, 1976 Experiment Hand County, 1976 Experiment . 1 1 3 4 4 5 7 15 16 16 21 28 31 33 33 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 41 42... 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 0. 5 cm thick 56 22 Comparison of the response of coherent and noncoherent emissions models for several 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 1. 0 cm thick . . . . . . . . 57...