National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nitrate rates soil

  1. MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB Michigan State University Extension Crop and Soil Sciences Department Michigan State University WHY TEST SOIL FOR NITRATES Nitrate testing of soil is an excellent and inexpensive way of evaluating the available nitrogen (N) status

  2. NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION G.D. Hoyt1 , D.C. Sanders2 , J.T. D.R. Decoteau3 , ABSTRACT Movement of soil nitrates by leaching. This study measured soil nitrate-N with depth at planting and after cucumber harvest at Clinton, NC, Florence

  3. Ecohydrological Analysis of the Transport of Nitrate and Ammonium in Sandy Desert Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanlan, Julie Marie

    2012-01-01

    of nitrate beneath desert soils. Science 302:1021-1024. DOI:deposition on vegetation and soils in Joshua Tree NationalAndraski B.J. (1997) Soil-water movement under natural-site

  4. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  5. Role of added carbon in the transformation of surplus soil nitrate-nitrogen to organic forms in an intensively managed calcareous soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    effect of carbon substrates. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36: Myroldof bacteria and fungi in nitrate assimilation in soil.Soil Biol. Biochem. 39: 1737-1743. Stange CF, Spott O, Apelt

  6. How Does Your Soil Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Jack H.; Mills, J. F.

    1956-01-01

    ~SERVICE G. G. GIBSON. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS THE C $acb . Soil and Water Conservation ! Texas Agricultural Extensio~ 8. Assistant rrotessc 1 Department of A A. & M. College Texas A. & M. College aysrey ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This bulletin has... been written with the desire to give a better understanding of the soil. It is designed as a guide toward a more uniform method of teaching land evaluation. The advice, consultations and suggestions of the agronomists and soil scientists...

  7. Nitrate and nutrient accumulation in two varieties of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) as influenced by soil applied fertilizer nutrients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Dale Allen

    1968-01-01

    NITRATE AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN TWO VARIETIES OF BDRKIDllddlidd (C~d ~dt L (L. ) F . ) AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL APPLIED FERTILIZER NUTRIENTS A Thesis By DALE A. LOVELACE Submitted to the Graduate College of the TEXAS A6H UNIVERSITY... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject: Agronomy NITRATE AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN TWO VARIETIES DP EEEEDDECEEEE EC~d ~dt L EL. ) P . ) AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL APPLIED FERTILIZER NUTRl...

  8. Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Kenneth Phanon

    1976-01-01

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

  9. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  10. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO??) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO?? derived from at NO?? signal with ?¹?N averaging –4.8 ± 1.0‰ (standard error of the mean) and ?¹?O averaging 70.2 ±1.7‰. In active layer pore waters, NO?? primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average ?¹?N and ?¹?O of NO?? from high-centered polygons were 0.5 ± 1.1‰ and –4.1 ± 0.6‰, respectively. When compared to the ?¹?N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources,more »and the ?¹?O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO?? in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO?? had ?¹?N ranging from approximately –6‰ to 10‰, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO??, and highly variable ?¹?O ranging from approximately –2‰ to 38‰. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO??, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO??. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO?? with a ?¹?O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO?. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO?? dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO?? from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO?? isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO?? sources in extant permafrost ice.« less

  11. Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Potential for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations and Decreased Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzluebbers, Alan; Haney, Richard; Hons, Frank

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent overfertilization, which could lead to groundwater contamination, rapid and accurate soil testing procedures are needed to evaluate agricultural surface soils for their potential to mineralize C and N. Our objectives were...

  12. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

  13. Researchers question published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates | EurekAlert ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates ... researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of the ... have suggested that soil organic carbon can be sequestered by simply ...

  14. Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Nitrate to Distinguish Contaminant Sources in Hanford Soil and Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    of unsaturated zone and groundwater nitrate contaminationfor Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contaminationwater extracted B1L4W8 T4 groundwater B1L4Y3 T4 groundwater

  15. Biochar decreases dissolved organic carbon but not nitrate leaching in relation to vinasse application in a Brazilian sugarcane soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects that are not included in energy assessments, such as impacts on water quality, including disposal, inputs to ground and surface water from land- applied vinasse remain a challenge. Previously with vinasse [SV], soil with vinasse and biochar [SVB], and soil with biochar [SB]) were flushed with water

  16. Nitrate Leaching from Intensive Fiber Production on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantation treatments were much higher than the old field.

  17. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  18. Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry., Assessing the role of climate on uranium and lithium isotope behaviour in rivers draining a basaltic terrain

  19. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  20. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modelling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modelling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rate...

  1. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  2. Temperature effects on decomposition rates of soil organic matter with differing proportions of labile and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    that the carbon dioxide loss from soil declines over time then picks up again after approximately15 years properties will change and thus their role as a carbon sink. This experiment uses forest soils since the microbial physiological properties change over long-term warming and if it is a result of a change in carbon

  3. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    1969-01-01

    the exchangeable potassium and magnesium in a Lakeland fine sand 4 Distribution of potassium, magnesium, and sulfate in a Lakeland fine sand. 48 Effect of fertilizer treatments on total yield of Coastal bermudagrass grown in the field in 1968. . 51 10 Effect...THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDy SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Submitted to the Graduate Collccje of Texas AFM Unive, sity in partial fulfillment...

  4. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Barr, John Houston

    2006-08-16

    Clomazone is an effective herbicide widely used for preemergence grass control in rice. However, use of clomazone on sandy textured soils of the western Texas rice belt may cause serious rice injury. When labeled for rice ...

  5. Root responses of Tifway bermudagrass to nitrogen application rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilstrap, David Murphy

    1992-01-01

    both soil-nitrate utilization and water-use efficiency. Texas turfgrass specialists recommend that one-time applications of water soluble N not exceed 49 kg N/ha (1 lb N/1, 000 ft'); this recommendation is supported mainly by cool-season turfgrass... research. This field study was conducted to assess root growth following ammonium nitrate fertilization. Seven N rates (0, 24, 49, 73, 98, 146, and 195 kg N/ha) in four replications were applied once to established Tifway bermudagrass grown on a...

  6. Nitrogen Accumulation and Changes in Nitrate Leaching After Four Years of Intensive Forest Culture on Marginal Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.; Gresham, C.A.

    2000-02-15

    Loblolly pine and sweetgum were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilizer application and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate-nitrogen in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for four years. Years 1 and 2, groundwater nitrate-nitrogen concentration exceeded drinking water standards. Years 3 and 4, groundwater nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased where the greatest reduction occurred in soil moisture at the shallowest depths.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

  8. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  9. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  10. Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Erin C; Grismer, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    sites. In this study, higher infiltration rates measured byin the study. For example, at Blackwood Canyon infiltrationinfiltration rate of about 4 inches (100 millimeters) per hour was practically identical to that measured in this study.

  11. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  12. The Basicity of Texas Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1929-01-01

    mixture of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia in proper proportions will not affect the acidity of the soil. THE BASICITY OF TEXAS SOILS 7 The importance of these characteristics of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda depencls upon various... to the effect of fertilizer an the reaction of soils. Some fertilizer materials, such as sulphate of ammonia, have a tendency to cause the soil to become acid. Sulphate ,of ammonia reacts with the replaceable bases in the soil silicates; the ammonia replaces...

  13. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  14. A study of the rate of gain of strength in lime stabilized soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Sterling Ramsdell, Jr

    1960-01-01

    0 37 ~ o ~ 4'7 APPEEDIX C. Electron Nicrographs . . . . . . . . . . . 75 LIST OF TABLES Table Page i. Cation-Exchange Capacity of Clay Minerals 15 2. Results of pH Test on Lime Treate Clay a o o o o o 3. X-Ray Diffraction Data 4... Triaxial Compressi. on Test Results 12. Triaxisl Compression Test Results 13. Triaxial Compression Test Results 14. Triaxial Compression Test Results 15. Triaxial Compression Test Results Least Squares Raw Soil. 1$ Lime Content 2$ Lime Content 4...

  15. The influence of nitrogen rate and source on plant and soil properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Flake Leroy

    1959-01-01

    1000 pounds added. This d if fe ren ce in rate of in c rea se was thought to be due to gaseous lo s s o f nitrogen fr om the ammonia p lo ts . A lkali so luble nitrogen was in c rea sed approx im ate ly 250 and 200 pounds fo r each 1 0 0 0... stubble of 2 1 /2 to 3 in ches rem a ined . The harvested m a ter ia l was caught in a c o l le c t io n pan attached to the trailing edge of the cutter b a r . The f r e sh weight o f the fo ra g e p rodu ced on a 2 .5 by 17 .5 fo o...

  16. Pollutant Capacity within the Vadose Zone of Soils Daniel P. Treese, Dr. Shirley E. Clark, J. Bradley Mikula, Dr. Katherine H. Baker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    salts and nitrates, but some metals and organics) has occurred at sites where soils were not suited, zinc, copper, sulfur, cadmium, lead, nickel, soil texture, soil porosity, soil percent organic matter

  17. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  19. Plutonium nitrate bottle counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Adams, E.L.; Holbrooks, O.R.

    1984-03-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for plutonium nitrate assay in large storage bottles. This assay system can be used in the reprocessing plant or in the nitrate-to-oxide conversion facility. The system is based on the family of neutron detectors similar to the high-level neutron coincidence counter. This manual describes the system and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications. 4 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Effects of soil treatments supplemented with two rates of magnesium sulfate on the availability of soil nutrients and on the yield and chemical composition of coastal Bermuda grass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evatt, Nathan S

    1951-01-01

    'ZATZ ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL NUTRIENTS AND ON TH YIELD AND CHENICAL COMPOSITICN GF CO. iSTAL BERNUDA GHASS INTRODUCTION It is known that magnesium is one of' the elements essential for plant growth; however much is to be learned concerning its specific functions... within the plant, Host Texas soils are not deficient, in magnesium (23). Magnesium is reported to be a carrier of the phos- phorus used by the plant. It is entirely possible that the failure to obtain crops of higher phosphorus content upon...

  1. Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    of the water pumped from the Seymour in Knox, Haskell, Baylor, Wichita, Wilbarger, and Fisher counties is used for irrigation. Based on estimates prepared by DeLaune, each part per million of nitrate/nitrogen in irrigation water will add 0.23 pounds per...=ISO-8859-1 Dr. Cristine Morgan, Texas AgriLife Research soil scientist, takes soil cores for nitrate analysis before the drip irrigation system was installed. Story by Kathy Wythe Turning a negative into a positive Researchers fi nd...

  2. Catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate solutions: A kinetic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pintar, A.; Batista, J.; Levec, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kajiuchi, Toshio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Liquid-phase reduction using a solid Pd/Cu bimetallic catalyst provides a potential technique for the removal of nitrates from waters. Kinetic measurements were performed in an isothermal semi-batch slurry reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. The proposed intrinsic rate expression for nitrate disappearance is based on the conventional Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic approach, considering both equilibrium nitrate as well as dissociative hydrogen adsorption processes to different types of active sites, and assuming an irreversible bimolecular surface reaction between adsorbed reactant species to be the rate-controlling step. The apparent activation energy for catalytic liquid-phase nitrate reduction and the heat of nitrate adsorption, in the temperature range 280.5-293 K, were found to be 47 and -22 kJ/mol, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, K.

    2009-01-01

    on Reaction- Rates among Minerals and Aqueous-Solutions .1.as a result of secondary mineral precipitation and approachterm and Contemporary Mineral Weathering rates. Geochim.

  4. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  5. The influence of dose-rest cycles on the nitrate concentration of deep percolate below septic fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, John Bryan

    1976-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF DOSE-REST CYCLES ON THE NITRATE CONCENTRATION OF DEEP PERCOLATE BELOW SEPTIC FIELDS A Thesis by JOHN BRYAN ALLISON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Soil Science THE INFLUENCE OF DOSE-REST CYCLES ON THE NITRATE CONCENTRATION OF DEEP PERCOLATE BELOW SEPTIC FIELDS A Thesis by JOHN BRYAN ALLISON Approved as to style and content by...

  6. SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D..................................................20 SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMESTONE...............................................27 EXCHANGEABLE MAGNESIUM No. Page No. I. Nitrogen rate adjustments based upon soil texture, organic matter, and time of major

  7. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ?1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  8. Free amino acids, nitrate, and nitrate reductase in nitrogen fixation by soybean nodules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madtes, Paul Clayton

    1978-01-01

    FREE AMINO ACIDS, NITRATE, AND NITRATE REDUCTASE IN NITROGEN FIXATION BY SOYBEAN NODULES A Thesis by PAUL CLAYTON MADTES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Biophysics FREE AMINO ACIDS, NITRATE, AND NITRATE REDUCTASE IN NITROGEN FIXATION BY SOYBEAN NPDULES A Thesis by PAUL CLAYTON MADTES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: g jap (Chairman...

  9. Combined effects of short-term rainfall patterns and soil texture on nitrogen cycling -- A Modeling Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, C.

    2010-01-01

    NO 3- concentrations in leachate and surface water can alsoResponse Soil nitrate leachate fluxes were very sensitive tothe 15 cm month -1 scenario, N leachate fluxes in both soils

  10. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  11. Comparative evapotranspiration rates of thirteen turfgrasses grown under both non-limiting soil moisture and progressive water stress conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ki Sun

    1983-01-01

    by wind when the radiation heat is high, particularly if leaf resistance is also high. Under such conditions, the leaf temperature may be far above the air temperature, accounting for a high transpiration rate. The wind cools the leaf and this cooling...) rates of twelve C-4 warm season turfgrasses and one. C-3 cool season turfgrass were evaluated in mini-lysimeters utilizing the water balance method. The turf plots were constructed to insure a natural environment surrounding each mini-lysimeter. ET...

  12. Analytical models of soil and litter decomposition: Solutions for mass loss and time-dependent decay rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    decomposition data with process-based biogeochemical models is essential to quantify the turnover of organic to model multiple cohort decomposition, unifying both types of experimental data in one theory. Based models with a single time-dependent decay rate, and two models based on a continuous distribution

  13. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, K.

    2009-01-01

    SCT 5 profile, while K-spar reaches Page 15 Maher, Steefel,0.3 Al 1.3 Si 2.7 O 8f K-spar (Ab 20 ) K 0.8 Na 0.2 AlSi 3 Oprecipitation. Albite and K-spar rate constants are from

  14. Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-01-06

    When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste...

  16. Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    with nitrate reduction using spongy cadmium) also allows for isotopic analysis of both nitrate and nitrite (Mc205 Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3 ­ ) nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope of nitrate versus that of nitrite in a given sample. In the case of the ammonia distillation (Cline

  17. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  18. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  19. Nitrates and detinning in canned carrots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florine, Thomas Edward

    1968-01-01

    NITRATES AND DETINNING IN CANNED CARROTS A Thesis by Thomas Edward Florine Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major... Subject: Food Technology NITRATES AND DETINNING IN CANNED CARROTS A Thesis by Thomas Edward Florine Approved as to style and content by: / C-~ (Chairman of Cemi. tee) Head of Department Member) (Member) :-'i ~ (Member) (Member) (Member...

  20. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  1. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  2. Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01

    aerated. It is known, for example, that nitrification in a liquid culture is not the same as nitrification in the soil. Cottonseed meal will putrefy in soil in flaslcs stopperecl with cotton wool, while in glass jars, the same mixture will nitrifv. A... cnpaciiy. The nitrif-ing capac- it" the oxidatioa capacity 'and the capacit~ of the soil to convert am- monia into nitrates and ammonia are to a certain extent related, espe- . cially the t-ro latter. They are not necessarily the same in the same soils...

  3. The effect of sources of nitrogen on nitrate formation and nitrogen uptake by cotton plants growing on Miller clay loam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Zilmar Ziller

    1958-01-01

    LIB RARV A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE EFFECT OF SOURCES OF NITROGEN ON NITRATE FORMATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE HX COTTON PIANTS GROWXNG ON MILLER CIAY LOAN A Thesis ZXINAR ZXLLER NARCOS AAS Submitted, to the Graduate School of the Agricultural... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ 66 APPEEDIXt ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 73 Tables l. Treatments Used in the Study. 2 Nitrate Content (ppm) of Miller Clay (0-6 ') on the 10th of July as Affected. by Rate and Source of' Nitrogen, Avexage oi' Two Repli- Nitrate Content (ppm) of Miller...

  4. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  5. Understanding and eliminating iron interference in colorimetric nitrate and nitrite analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colman, Benjamin P.

    2010-01-01

    to cadmium for photomet- ric nitrate determinations in waterNitrogen, nitrate–nitrite (spectrophotometric, cadmiumDetermination of nitrate in sea water by cadmium- copper

  6. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  7. ORNL/TM-2008/048 Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/048 Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop October 2008 Jennifer L. Ladd-Lively #12;DOCUMENT Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/048 Nuclear Science and Technology Division URANYL NITRATE

  8. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    limonene-1-nitrate, 1-hydroxy-butane- 2-nitrate, 3-hydroxy-our measured spectra of the butane hydroxynitrate we foundstandards except for the butane hydroxynitrate the O/C based

  9. Shock compression of water and solutions of ammonium nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morley, Michael James

    2011-07-12

    Modern mining explosives employ solutions of ammonium nitrate, where the solution is the oxidising component of a fuel/oxidiser mixture. This thesis is primarily concerned with the shock response of water and of aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate...

  10. Potentiometric Nitrate Sensors in the Form of Plant Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatyana Bendikov; Nicole Jurisch; Mallory Davidson; Thomas Harmon

    2005-01-01

    cadmium reactant) Potentiometric Response for NO 3 Ion Electrochemical deposition (constant current conditions) of polypyrrole dopped with nitrate

  11. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  12. Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodard, Dawn B.

    Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater DAWN B. WOODARD, ROBERT L. WOLPERT in groundwater over the mid-Atlantic states, using measurements gathered during a pe- riod of ten years. A map- trations in air, pesticide concentrations in groundwater, or any other quantity that varies over

  13. DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates soil column within 20 yr following culti- Carbon sequestration rates, with a change from CT to NT, can in approximately 40 to and returning to the original land cover or other peren- 60 yr. Carbon sequestration rates

  14. RECHERCHE DES NITRATES DANS LES FOURRAGES ET LES ENSILAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'une purification des extraits puis de la réduction des nitrates en nitrites par le cadmium. Les nitrites sontH sur la réduction par le cadmium de solutions pures de nitrates de concentrations variables. La méthode réduction par le cadmium des nitrates en nitrites lesquels sont dosés par colorimétrie (de BoRGER et JENNEN

  15. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  16. Reducing nitrate loads from corn and soybean, tile-drained, agricultural production systems in the Upper Mississippi River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Mark B.

    ). Tile woodchip bioreactors had good nitrate removal in 2012 (80% nitrate reduction), and wetlands had

  17. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  18. Cotton Root Rot Studies with Special Reference to Sclerotia, Cover Crops, Rotations, Tillage, Seeding Rates, Soil Fungicides, and Effects on Seed Quality. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Cyril H.

    1942-01-01

    and Composition of Viable and Non-Viable Sclerotia------------ 19 of ,Certain Monocotyledonous Plants by the .Root-Rot Fungus 21 e of Legumes Under Blackland Conditions 24 Sweet Clovers 2 4 Sesbania 2 5 Guar 25 Cowpeas -_--. totations and Grr ires... to be adapted to blackland soils under rot conditions. Of the many legume species tested at the Blacl Experiment Station, the sweet clovers (Melibotus spp.) , Sesbania, (Cyarnopsia tetragonoloba) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) have proved adaptable. S~veet c1o...

  19. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pigments found in soils throughout the United States roughly following the USDA soil taxonomy 11. Ensuring a repeatable test formulation was straightforward when using...

  20. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  2. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is...

  3. Report seeks solutions for nitrate in drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Editors, By

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate in California’s Drinking Water report http://ANR Healthy Crops, Safe Water http://ucanr.edu/News/crops,_safe_water http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu •

  4. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft0 Soils Soil Series and

  5. Evaluation of ferrocyanide/nitrate explosive hazard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, H.H.

    1992-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of view. These tests show that these materials are not initiated by mechanical insult, and they require an external heat source before any exothermic chemical reaction can be observed.

  6. Energetic Material - Electro Nitration - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureElyElectro Nitration Idaho National

  7. Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrd, Robert Claude

    1995-01-01

    crop P response, evaluate crop response to P fertilizer placement and rate, and compare extractable P levels from TAEX, Bray 1, Olsen, TAEX 1, TAEX 2, and TAEX 3 in selected Blackland Prairie soils. Five field locations were established with replicated...

  8. Chemical reactivity of nitrates and nitrites towards TBP and potassium nickel ferrocyanide between 30 and 300 deg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambertin, D.; Chartier, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C. [CEA Valrho, DTCD/SPDE/L2ED, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2007-07-01

    Since the late sixties, bitumen has been widely used by the nuclear industry as a matrix for the immobilization of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste originating mainly from the nuclear activities: precipitation or evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, incinerator ashes, and filter materials. Depending on bitumen and operating conditions, bituminization of radioactive waste can be operated between 130 and 180 deg. C, so chemical reaction can be induced with nitrate or nitrite towards elements contained in waste (TPB, potassium nickel ferrocyanide and cobalt compound) and bitumen. These reactions are mainly exothermic this is the reason why the enthalpy reaction and their temperature of initiation have to be determined independently of their concentration in waste. In this work, we have studied by Calvet Calorimetry at 0.1 deg. C/min heating rates, the behaviour of chemical elements especially oxido-reduction couples that can react at a temperature range 100- 300 deg. C (Nitrate/PPFeNi, Nitrite/PPFeNi, Nitrate/TBP, Nitrite/TBP, Nitrate/bitumen and Nitrite/bitumen). The initial temperature reaction of nitrates or nitrites towards potassium nickel ferrocyanide (PPFeNi) has been studied and is equal respectively to 225 deg. C and 175 deg. C. Because of the large scale temperature reaction of nitrate and PPFeNi, enthalpy reaction can not be calculated, although enthalpy reaction of nitrite and PPFeNi is equal to 270 kJ/mol of nitrite. Sodium Nitrate and TBP behaviour has been investigated, and an exothermic reaction at 135 deg. C until 250 deg. C is evidenced. The exothermic energy reaction is a function of TBP concentration and the enthalpy reaction has been determined. (authors)

  9. --SOILS SUSTAIN LIFE --SOIL SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, John F.

    -- SOILS SUSTAIN LIFE -- SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 677 South Segoe Road · Madison WI 53711 a PDF file only for $100. TOTAL: $ Invoice no. Shipping (to be added) $ * If you have a subscription;-- SOILS SUSTAIN LIFE -- SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 677 South Segoe Road · Madison WI 53711 · (608

  10. A study of the organic emission from a turbocharged diesel engine running on 12 percent hexyl nitrate dissolved in ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walde, N.; Westerholm, R.; Persson, K.-A.

    1984-01-01

    A highly rated turbocharged diesel engine adapted for an alternative fuel based on ethanol and hexyl nitrate has been investigated with respect to the emission of organic compounds in the exhausts. The adaption involves: ignition nozzles with larger holes, a change of injection timing and more fuel injected per stroke. Emissions were measured at four different driving modes ie, 1, 8, 10 and 12 respectively, in the California Cycle. The exhaust composition are different compared to conventional diesel emissions. The main part of the organic pollutants consists of unburned ethanol and hexyl nitrate, acetaldehyde being the most abundant aldehyde.

  11. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  12. SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS? Scot T. Martin, Hui Observational evidence shows that mineral dusts in Asian outflows become coated by sulfates and nitrates. Layer), and the asymmetry parameter. The aqueous coatings also provide milieu for aqueous chemical reactions

  13. GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMOVAL CAPACITY OF RIPARIAN ZONES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Art

    GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMOVAL CAPACITY OF RIPARIAN ZONES IN URBANIZING WATERSHEDS BY TARA KIMBERLY the watershed, however, is not well understood. Nitrate in groundwater moving through the "biologically active and geomorphology of riparian zones, potentially changing riparian groundwater denitrification capacity. Little work

  14. River biogeochemistry and source identification of nitrate by means of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow-melt r=0.67 n=14, pLandnutzung und 15N-NO3 0 50;Isotopensignaturen in Flüssen und Landnutzung 0 20 40 60 80 100 Nitrate from Farmland [%] 100 80 60 40 20 0 Kokemäenjoki Peene Vistula #12;Isotopensignaturen in Flüssen und Landnutzung 0 20 40 60 80 100 Nitrate from

  15. MINERALAVATER INTERFACE USING MOLECULAR SCALE TECHNIQUES An understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is fundamental in assessing the speciation, mobility metals (e.g., Co, Ni, Zn) residence time affects the rate of metal release from soil minerals while on soil minerals and soils and speciation of metals in contaminated soils via macroscopic and molecular

  16. A comparison of methods for determining the adsorption of pentachlorophenol on soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Eva Lorine

    1986-01-01

    . PentacMorophenol, a widely used organic pesticide, was used for these tests. The batch tests showed that both the surface soil and subsurface soil fit a non-linear Freundlich isotherm, and distribution ccefficients of 1. 11 and 0. 76 mug were..., with the widespread use of fertilizers having the greatest effect due to the high mobility of nitrate in natural soil and groundwater systems. Although the use of organic pesticides in the United States increased significantly following World War II, pesticides...

  17. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01

    significantly increased Ca to 18 inches, while only the 6-ton/acre rate of fine dolomitic lime- stone increased Ca into the same depth. All dolomitic treatments increased Mg to 18-inch depths. Sampling deeper than 18 inches in the 6 ton/acre dolomitic fine... formed soluble salts with the NO and were leached down as Ca(ND ) Limestone treatments did not produce significant increases in yield of corn or Coastal bermudagrass. The no-lime plots produced 70 bushels of corn and 9. 2 tons of oven-dry Coastal...

  18. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  19. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  20. Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively. Authors: Gao, Haichun ; Yang, Zamin ; Barua, Soumitra ; Reed,...

  1. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    the nitrate radical (no 3 ) with isoprene, 1,3-butadiene and2,3-dimethyl- 1,3-butadiene in air, Atmos. Environ. , 26A(Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is globally the most

  2. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  3. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  4. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

  5. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09

    35,000 tons of inert nitrogen gas (N 2 ). Most of the nitrogen found in soil originated as N 2 gas and nearly all the nitrogen in the atmosphere is N 2 gas. This inert nitrogen cannot be used by the plant until it is changed to ammonium (NH 4... + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen fertilizer production...

  6. Response of rice to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen applied at various stages of plant growth on limed and unlimed Beaumont and Lake Charles clays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, William Blalock, III

    1962-01-01

    and Patna1k (1 ) partially support th1s explanation. They found that lime at ths rate of one percent of the weight of the so11 increased mineralisat1on of nitrogen, but most of the n1trogen in their tests accumulated as ammonia rather than nitrate under...RESPONSE OF RICE TO AMMONIUM AND NITRATE NITROGEN APPLIED AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PLANT GROWTH ON LIMED AND UNLINED BEAUNONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By William B. Gay, III Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agricultural...

  7. Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermes, W. H.; Hylton, T. D.; Mattus, C.H.; Storch, S. N.; Singley, P.S.; Terry. J. W.; Pecullan, M.; Reilly, F. K.

    2003-02-26

    The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC sought technical assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define and quantify the management options for the thorium nitrate stockpile. This paper describes methodologies and results comprising the work in Phase 1 and Phase 2. The results allow the DNSC to structure and schedule needed tasks to ensure continued safe long-term storage and/or phased disposal of the stockpile.

  8. Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arreola-Triana, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info Groundwater nitrates in the seymour aquifer.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7802 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Groundwater nitrates in the seymour aquifer.pdf.txt Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 24 tx H2O Fall 2012 Story by Alejandra Arreola-Triana In the Rolling Plains of Texas, the Seymour Aquifer is the major source of water for Haskell, Jones and Knox counties. ?e water from the Seymour Aquifer, however...

  9. STRUCTURE OF PENTAKIS (UREA) DIOXOURANIUM(VI)NITRATE LUO2 (OC (NH2)2)5 (NO3) 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalkin, Allan

    2011-01-01

    DIFfERENCES (ALL f(O,O.t» URANYL UREA NITRATE FOB AND FCASTRUCTURE FACTORS CONTINUEC URANYL ~REA NITRATE L FO~ FAG! SFACTORS CO~TINUE& FOf URANYL UREA NITRATE l F[) B PAGE . ,

  10. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  11. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[UNOCAL, Brea, CA (United States). Hartley Research Center

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  12. Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Darren R.

    2010-07-14

    The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES system demonstrated as part...

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosatable Drugs and Preterm Births 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuong, Ann Minh

    2013-10-28

    , we examined the relation between preterm births and: 1) prenatal nitrosatable drug usage; 2) dietary intake of nitrates/nitrites; 3) joint exposures to nitrosatable drugs and nitrate/nitrite intake; and 4) nitrosatable drugs and vitamin C intake among...

  14. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  15. LIFE IN THE SOIL SOIL BIODIVERSITY: ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    LIFE IN THE SOIL SOIL BIODIVERSITY: ITS IMPORTANCE TO ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES Report of a Workshop Held vision Literature cited Workshop participants EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Soils are one of the most poorly the soil physico- chemical environment and the soil's species through activities such as: inputs

  16. SEN3: Potentiometric Nitrate Sensors in the Form of Plant Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatyana Bendikov (UCLA); Nicole Jurisch (U Wash); Mallory Davidson (U Wash); Thomas Harmon (UCM)

    2005-01-01

    cadmium reactant) Potentiometric Response for NO 3 Ion Electrochemical deposition (constant current conditions) of polypyrrole dopped with nitrate

  17. A High-Performance Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor for Environmental Monitoring (SEN 8)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dohyun Kim; Ira B. Goldberg; Michael Glickman; Jack W. Judy

    2006-01-01

    0.038× 10 -3 cm 2 ) • polyimide insulation layer Nitratespecies when nitrate is Polyimide not present - PO 43- , Ca

  18. An Unexpected Nitrate Decline in New Hampshire Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodale, Christine L.

    An Unexpected Nitrate Decline in New Hampshire Streams Christine L. Goodale,1 * John D. Aber,1 and Peter M. Vitousek2 1 Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire stands on Mount Moosilauke, New Hampshire (Vi- tousek and Reiners 1975; Bioscience 25:376­381). We

  19. Predicting Ground Water Nitrate Concentration from Land Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    to assess the effects of land use on ground water quality. Exploratory data analysis was applied to historic-foot radius of a well are reliable predictors of nitrate concentration in ground water. Similarly with highly permeable materials to evaluate potential effects of development on ground water quality

  20. VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for Drinking Water in the United, Rapid City, South Dakota 57702 Samples of untreated groundwater from 1255 domestic drinking-water wells of the groundwater resource and, thus, were distributed geographically across large aquifers, primarily in rural

  1. WHAT CAUSES NITRATE CONTAMINATION? While there are several potential sources, the three most common are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radcliffe, David

    WHAT CAUSES NITRATE CONTAMINATION? While there are several potential sources, the three most common. Contamination problems occur when nitrate from these sources is overapplied to lawns, gardens, crop land contamination. Septic systems are another source of nitrate found in well water. Septic systems that have been

  2. Study of nitrate stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using iTRAQ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    tagging; nitrate INTRODUCTION Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), a sulphate-reducing bacterium, to nitrate stress as in iron^sulphur-cluster-containing proteins, however, appear to be specific to nitrate exposure. Finally

  3. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo-MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions (Asn {r_reversible} His, Val {r_reversible} Trp) occurred in a region close to the surface of the NapA substrate funnel resulting in potential interdomain {pi}-{pi} and/or cation-{pi} interactions. Three mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions occurred within 4.5 A of the Mo-MGD cofactor (Phe {r_reversible} Met, Ala {r_reversible} Ser, Ser {r_reversible} Thr) resulting in local regions that varied in hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding networks. These results contribute to the understanding of thermal protein adaptation in a redox-active mononuclear molybdenum enzyme and have implications in optimizing the design of low-temperature environmental biosensors.

  4. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production 1: TotalofSupplySurface Soil Surface Soil We

  5. Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft CostsSoil &Soil0

  6. A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy,, E. M.; Szecsody,, J. E.; Phillips,, S. J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Study sites at Hanford were chosen close to micrometeorology stations on downwind transects from the operational facilities. Initial testing will be done on sites that lack perennial vegetation. Six tracer techniques (total chlortde, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 3}H, nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden si~ loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers wortks best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated to determine the effect of vegetation on recharge estimates and on the performance of individual tracers. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial vartability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other and sites operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as well as at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites.

  7. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  8. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery* Department of Earth and Space conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1­2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production indicates that, considered globally, hill- slope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic

  9. Oxygen exchange with water alters the oxygen isotopic signature of nitrate in soil ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    ., 1994; Kendall et al., 2007; Wankel et al., 2006). Different sources and processes are assumed to lead

  10. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  11. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  12. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  13. Seasonal variations in N and O isotopes of nitrate in snow at Summit, Greenland: Implications for the study of nitrate in snow and ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Seasonal variations in N and O isotopes of nitrate in snow at Summit, Greenland: Implications for the study of nitrate in snow and ice cores Meredith G. Hastings Department of Geosciences, Princeton measured in snow and firn from Summit, Greenland. The 15 N/14 N and 18 O/16 O ratios of NO3 À in recently

  14. Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Eric Scott

    1996-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

  15. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  16. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2010-06-11

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on the organic precursor.

  17. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01

    A Backyard Guide to Healthy Soil and Higher Yields, by JohnInstitute. Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny. Emmaus,Institute. 1993. The Soul of Soil: A Guide to Ecological

  18. Mass Transport within Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Nature and Properties of Soils 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall,Exchange of PCBS betweetl Soil and the Atmosphere in theChemicals Residing below the Soil Surface” Water Resources

  19. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  20. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-12-15

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  2. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  3. Effects of lime rate, lime ECCE, and B rate on rose clover and coastal bermudagrass dry matter yields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villavicencio Batres, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01

    that soil pH was only affected by lime rate at the soil surface after 5 months, indicates that CaCO3 andior the dissolution products of CaCO3 did not readily leach through the soil profile when the lime was surface applied. Lime ECCE Effects Soil pH (0...EFFECTS OF LIME RATE, LIME ECCE, AND B RATE ON ROSE CLOVER AND COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS DRY MATTER YIELDS A Thesis by RODOLFO VILLAVICENCIO BATRES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfiliment...

  4. Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns

  5. Managing Soil Salinity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13

    oceans and lakes. Fertilizers and organic amendments also add salts to the soil. Effects of salts on plants As soils become more saline, plants become unable to draw as much water from the soil. This is because the plant roots contain varying... and die, no matter how much you water them. Routine soil testing can identify your soil?s salinity levels and suggest measures you can take to correct the specific salinity problem in your soil. Salinity and salt The terms salt and salinity are often used...

  6. Teaching Organic Farming and Gardening: Resources for Instructors, 3rd Edition. Part 2 - Applied Soil Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Texture 9. The rate at which water moves through the soil isinfluence the available water-holding capacity of the soil?True False 3. Clay holds more water than sand. True False 4.

  7. Materials Chemistry and Physics 100 (2006) 3840 X-ray irradiation induced degradation of cellulose nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Materials Chemistry and Physics 100 (2006) 38­40 X-ray irradiation induced degradation of cellulose the thickness of the cellulose nitrate layer of the commonly used LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detector spectrometry will induce degradation of the cellulose nitrate. For this purpose, Fourier transform infrared

  8. Materials Chemistry and Physics 95 (2006) 307312 Chemical etching characteristics for cellulose nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Materials Chemistry and Physics 95 (2006) 307­312 Chemical etching characteristics for cellulose; received in revised form 31 May 2005; accepted 12 June 2005 Abstract Cellulose nitrate films (commercially was consistent with the expected range. © 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Cellulose nitrate

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air + particle phases) of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated when (before or during the sampling) the OPAHs are formed. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  10. Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of their oxidation products, such as nitrated and oxygenated PAHs samplers (cascade impactor and conventional high volume sampler) installed in parallel during several field

  11. Cosmogenic production and climate contributions to nitrate record in the TALDICE Antarctic ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Nitrate Holocene TALDICE a b s t r a c t This paper presents the results of a comparative wavelet the TALDICE drilling project (Talos Dome, Antarctica), which covers the age range 12,000­700 BP (years before present, i.e. before 1950) and includes records of nitrate as well as climatic proxies, such as Naþ , Ca2þ

  12. Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state), Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably saturated flow'' by Kelly

  13. Practical considerations in the concentration and recovery of spent nitration acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, C.M. [Chemetics International Co. Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Most organic nitrations employ sulphuric acid or oleum in the nitration acid. Even in rare nitric acid only nitrations, sulphuric acid is used as the dehydrating agent to produce 99% nitric acid. The used sulphuric acid is discharged in a diluted form contaminated with organic components and nitric/nitrous species. Pressures are emloyed to reconcentrate and reprocess such spent acids. Acid recovery and concentration is expensive. This paper discusses some of the aspects which must be considered when contemplating acid recovery. In the current industrial climate, acid recovery and recycle should be regarded as an integral part of a nitration process development rather than an afterthought. Case histories will be given in which such considerations influenced the course of the development of the nitration process itself. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of well planned bench and pilot scale test programmes.

  14. Non-sea-salt sulfate and nitrate in trade wind aerosols at Barbados: Evidence for long-range transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savoie, Dennis L; Prospero, Joseph M; Saltzman, Eric S

    1989-01-01

    878, 1977. and Nitrate at Barbados Kendall, M. G. , and A.in the trade winds at Barbados' Impact of the Africanand J. in the and Nitrate at Barbados Savoie, D. L. , J. M.

  15. Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus cells with the potential for nitrate assimilation in the subtropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berube, Paul M.

    Utilization of nitrate as a nitrogen source is broadly conserved among marine phytoplankton, yet many strains of Prochlorococcus lack this trait. Among cultured strains, nitrate assimilation has only been observed within ...

  16. A computational study of novel nitratoxycarbon, nitritocarbonyl, and nitrate compounds and their potential as high energy materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    ] and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) [5]. (In the latter case, the nitroxy group is formed through the nitration

  17. Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver

    2009-06-01

    Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.

  18. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  19. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

  20. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  1. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  2. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  3. Production, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Beth

    , Crook County Soil and Water Conservation District, Prineville, OR 97754. ABSTRACT: Harvesting trials, production rates, and soil compaction impacts of two systems for harvesting western juniper (Juniperus. Stump to deck harvesting costs ranged from $32.15 to $49.48/ton for the conventional system and from $60

  4. PlantHealthandSoilChangeswithHumic SubstanceApplications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    (Pettit, 2004). Commercially available humic substances are extracted from composts, coal and peat (Quilty, 2011). They are available in liquid and granular forms. Liquid humic substances are applied to the soil or incorporated into the soil (Quilty, 2011). Suggested application rates for liquids range from 0.4-12 L per acre

  5. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

  6. Rapid and effective decontamination of chlorophenol-contaminated soil by sorption into commercial polymers: Concept demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    .e. photodecomposition) and biological pro- cesses can occur authochthonously, their rates of degradation tend to be very rapidly (95%) sorb phenol from soil. This approach was further confirmed

  7. Denitrification as a means of addressing nitrate-contaminated groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motolenich-Salas, Kenneth M. (Kenneth Michael)

    1997-01-01

    The residents of Cape Cod face a problem of nitrate contamination of their groundwater (their primary source of drinking water) and their coastal and aquatic environments. Groundwater is the only source of drinking water ...

  8. Syntheses and Characterizations of One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers Generated from Cadmium Nitrate and Bipyridine Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    Syntheses and Characterizations of One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers Generated from Cadmium Nitrate and Bipyridine Ligands Yu-Bin Dong, Ralph C. Layland, Mark D. Smith, Neil G. Pschirer, Uwe H. F

  9. Effect of potential Hanford ferrocyanide waste constituents on the reaction between ferrocyanide and nitrates/nitrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    During the 1950s, ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes were produced at Hanford. A concern about continued safe storage and future treatment of these wastes has arisen because ferrocyanide and nitrate mixtures can explode when heated. Because of this concern, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed experimental studies to determine the conditions needed to continue storing the wastes safely. In this paper, we present the results of our studies on the effects of other potential ferrocyanide waste constituents on the explosivity of mixtures of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium nitrate and nitrite. In particular, this paper presents the results of investigations on the diluent effects of equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite, sodium nickel ferrocyanide, and sodium aluminate, and the catalyst or initiator effects of nickel sulfide.

  10. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  11. Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive desorption electrospray ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive hydrocarbons (PAHs) are nonpolar and difficult to detect by desorption electrospray ionization. We present. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent forms of aquatic environmental

  12. Nighttime Measurements of Dinitrogen Pentoxide and the Nitrate Radical via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Katie C.

    2010-10-12

    technique, known as cavity ring-down spectroscopy, will be introduced for simultaneously measuring the nitrate radical and dinitrogen pentoxide. The cavity ring-down spectrometer was initially designed and constructed based on the experiments by Steven Brown...

  13. Nitrate ions spikes in ice cores are not suitable proxies for solar proton events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duderstadt, Katharine A; Jackman, Charles H; Randall, Cora E; Schwadron, Nathan A; Solomon, Stanley C; Spence, Harlan E; Yudin, Valery A

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate ion spikes in polar ice cores are contentiously used to estimate the intensity, frequency, and probability of historical solar proton events, quantities that are needed to prepare for potentially society-crippling space weather events. We use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to calculate how large an event would have to be to produce enough odd nitrogen throughout the atmosphere to be discernible as nitrate peaks at the Earth's surface. These hypothetically large events are compared with probability of occurrence estimates derived from measured events, sunspot records, and cosmogenic radionuclides archives. We conclude that the fluence and spectrum of solar proton events necessary to produce odd nitrogen enhancements equivalent to the spikes of nitrate ions in Greenland ice cores are unlikely to have occurred throughout the Holocene, confirming that nitrate ions in ice cores are not suitable proxies for historical individual solar proton events.

  14. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an elasto-plastic framework. An attempt to describe the numerous and significant recent advances in the investigation of the behaviour of unsaturated soils, including the contributions to this Conference, is proposed.

  15. Sorption/Desorption Kinetics and Equilibria of Atrazine, Diuron, And Bensulfuron Methyl on Selected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Soils M. Zhou, R. K. Trubey, T. M. Priester and T. H. Carski Sorption/desorption isotherm equilibria soils. Results indicated that the content of organic matter was the major variable contributing that both pesticides were not readily desorbed from the soils tested. The rates of sorption were more rapid

  16. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  17. Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

    1998-01-01

    ) in this region. The objective of this study was to quantify variation in soil respiration, soil microbial biomass (SMB), and potential C and N mineralization rates in relation to landscape heterogeneity and woody plant encroachment in this region. In addition...

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    environment." Additionally, the Order requires information regarding the "volumetric flow rate for ventilation in the WIPP underground, a description of how the volumetric flow...

  19. Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science achievements from the state of Wisconsin that took place between 1870 and the early 1980s: (i) the first soil

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil order and management practices control soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil order and management practices control soil phosphorus fractions in managed in wetland rice soils. In this study we evaluated 71 wetland soils in the Sacramento Valley, California, consisting of different soil orders (Alfisols, Entisols, Mollisols and Verti- sols) and different management

  1. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  2. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics Position Summary: Plastic mulches are used in agriculture to conserve water, suppress weeds, and increase soil temperatures. However, plastic mulches need to be disposed off at the end

  3. VARIATION IN EROSION/DEPOSITION RATES OVER THE LAST FIFTTY YEARS ON ALLUVIAL FAN SURFACES OF L. PLEISTOCENE-MID HOLOCENE AGE, ESTIMATIONS USING 137CS SOIL PROFILE DATA, AMARGOSA VALLEY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert

    2005-08-26

    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic system that primarily responds to the incising of the channels into the upper fan surface, and the development of protecting desert pavements with time.

  4. Disturbed core Undisturbed soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Batch Disturbed core Undisturbed soil column Pedon Field Watershed Multi-scale modeling .001-1 m3 1-10 m3 10-10,000 m3 >10,000 m3 Unraveling the influence of scale on organic C transport Soil through deep soil profiles may be the "missing" C flux in global budgets. Jardine, P.M., M.A. Mayes, J. R

  5. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    B. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and itsA. S. & Whitmore, A. P. Soil organic matter turnover isorganic matter in a cultivated soil. Org. Geochem. 33, 357–

  6. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01

    soil amendments such as compost, manure, cover crops, andare some readily available sources: j Compost is rich inorganic matter, and making compost is a great way to recycle

  7. Mass Transport within Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    large fraction of the sewage sludge produced in many regionsharmful microorganisms. Sewage sludge contains contaminantsdisposal of sewage and industrial sludge. Soil contamination

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbo-contaminated soils, comprehensive report, December 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    2000-01-01

    of nitrate in the column filled with cadmium catalyst, theof nitrate in the column filled with cadmium catalyst, the

  9. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rémy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (?{sup 15}N, ?{sup 18}O, and ?{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from ?40 to ?74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well reproduced the values obtained in the laboratory study. These cross sections can be used in isotopic models to reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles.

  10. Technical Note Engineering Soils Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Note Engineering Soils Maps PAUL M. SANTI Department of Geology and Geological, Suite 100, Overland Park, KS 66211 Key Terms: Engineering Properties, Soils, Hazards, Mapping INTRODUCTION For many applications, `engineering soils maps' may be preferable to comprehensive engineering

  11. DIVISION S-10-WETLAND SOILS Methane Production and Emissions from Four Reclaimed and Pristine Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    DIVISION S-10-WETLAND SOILS Methane Production and Emissions from Four Reclaimed and Pristine% of the plant-mediated emissions. Potential CRi production rates were measured as a function of depth using soil samples obtained at 2-cm increments. Methane production rates were the same order of magni- tude at all

  12. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  13. communications in soil scienceand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ) IMPACT OF HIGH-VOLUME WOOD-FIRED BOILER ASH AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND NUTRIENTS Tait Chirenje was conducted to determine the changes in soil properties and the availability and leachability of nutrients.13) increased water holding capacity increases supply of water to plants. However, the results from coal ash

  14. communications in soil scienceand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ) IMPACT OF HIGH-VOLUME WOOD-FIRED BOILER ASH AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND NUTRIENTS Tait Chirenje-0290 ABSTRACT Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash following the application of large quantities of boiler ash in a sandy soil (with a spodic horizon). Two

  15. Free Standing Soil Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Free Standing Soil Sample Kiosks Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service Reportto of Richland County, Jackie Kopack Jordan has partnered with local garden centers to provide free standing soil sample collections sites. The free standing kiosks are located at three local garden centers. Woodley

  16. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in bold and acronyms are defined in Chapter 32, Glossary and Acronyms. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils This chapter describes existing geological and soil conditions in the...

  17. Low time resolution analysis of polar ice cores cannot detect impulsive nitrate events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smart, D F; Melott, A L; Laird, C M

    2015-01-01

    Ice cores are archives of climate change and possibly large solar proton events (SPEs). Wolff et al. (2012) used a single event, a nitrate peak in the GISP2-H core, which McCracken et al. (2001a) time associated with the poorly quantified 1859 Carrington event, to discredit SPE-produced, impulsive nitrate deposition in polar ice. This is not the ideal test case. We critique the Wolff et al. analysis and demonstrate that the data they used cannot detect impulsive nitrate events because of resolution limitations. We suggest re-examination of the top of the Greenland ice sheet at key intervals over the last two millennia with attention to fine resolution and replicate sampling of multiple species. This will allow further insight into polar depositional processes on a sub-seasonal scale, including atmospheric sources, transport mechanisms to the ice sheet, post-depositional interactions, and a potential SPE association.

  18. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site—10281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Miller, D.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Morris, S.A. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Sheader, L.R. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Glenn, E.P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Moore, D. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Carroll, K.C. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Benally, L. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Roanhorse, M. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, CO; none,

    2010-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Navajo Nation, and the University of Arizona are exploring natural and enhanced attenuation remedies for groundwater contamination at a former uranium-ore processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. DOE removed radioactive tailings from the Monument Valley site in 1994. Nitrate and ammonium, waste products of the milling process, remain in an alluvial groundwater plume spreading from the soil source where tailings were removed. Planting and irrigating two native shrubs, fourwing saltbush and black greasewood, markedly reduced both nitrate and ammonium in the source area over an 8-year period. Total nitrogen dropped from 350 mg/kg in 2000 to less than 200 mg/kg in 2008. Most of the reduction is attributable to irrigation-enhanced microbial denitrification rather than plant uptake. However, soil moisture and percolation flux monitoring show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing additional leaching of nitrogen compounds. Enhanced denitrification and phytoremediation also look promising for plume remediation. Microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute transport modeling results suggest that (1) up to 70 percent of nitrate in the plume has been lost through natural denitrification since the mill was closed in 1968, and (2) injection of ethanol may accelerate microbial denitrification in plume hot spots. A field-scale ethanol injection pilot study is underway. Landscape-scale remote sensing methods developed for the project suggest that transpiration from restored native phreatophyte populations rooted in the aquifer could limit further expansion of the plume. An evaluation of landfarm phytoremediation, the irrigation of native shrub plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway.

  19. Modeling Soil Quality Thresholds to Ecosystem Recovery at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-03-08

    The objective of this research was to use a simple model of soil C and N dynamics to predict nutrient thresholds to ecosystem recovery on degraded soils at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the southeastern USA. The model calculates aboveground and belowground biomass, soil C inputs and dynamics, soil N stocks and availability, and plant N requirements. A threshold is crossed when predicted soil N supplies fall short of predicted N required to sustain biomass accrual at a specified recovery rate. Four factors were important to development of thresholds to recovery: (1) initial amounts of aboveground biomass, (2) initial soil C stocks (i.e., soil quality), (3) relative recovery rates of biomass, and (4) soil sand content. Thresholds to ecosystem recovery predicted by the model should not be interpreted independent of a specified recovery rate. Initial soil C stocks influenced the predicted patterns of recovery by both old field and forest ecosystems. Forests and old fields on soils with varying sand content had different predicted thresholds to recovery. Soil C stocks at barren sites on Fort Benning generally lie below predicted thresholds to 100% recovery of desired future ecosystem conditions defined on the basis of aboveground biomass (18000 versus 360 g m{sup -2} for forests and old fields, respectively). Calculations with the model indicated that reestablishment of vegetation on barren sites to a level below the desired future condition is possible at recovery rates used in the model, but the time to 100% recovery of desired future conditions, without crossing a nutrient threshold, is prolonged by a reduced rate of forest growth. Predicted thresholds to ecosystem recovery were less on soils with more than 70% sand content. The lower thresholds for old field and forest recovery on more sandy soils are apparently due to higher relative rates of net soil N mineralization in more sandy soils. Calculations with the model indicate that a combination of desired future conditions, initial levels of soil quality (defined by soil C stocks), and the rate of biomass accumulation determines the predicted success of ecosystem recovery on disturbed soils.

  20. A search for regulatory mutants of the nitrate utilization pathway of Neurospora Crassa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Claude Steven

    1976-01-01

    A SEARCH FOR REGULATORI MUTANTS OF THE NITRATE UTILIZATION PATHWAl OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by CLAUDE STEVEN MCDANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fu1fillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Genetics A SEARCH FOR REGULATORY MUTANTS OF THE NITRATE U1'IIIZA1'ION PA1'NNAY OF ~N A Thesis by CLAUDE STEVEN MCDANIEL Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committ e) (Head oi' epar...

  1. The reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide towards nitrate and nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

    1991-09-01

    Beginning in late 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began an experimental program at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to investigate the effects of temperature on the oxidation reaction between synthetic nickel cesium ferrocyanide (FeCN) and nitrates and nitrites representative of materials present in some of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). After completing a preliminary series of experiments in 1988, the program was expanded to include five tasks to evaluate the effect of selected compositional and operational parameters on the reaction and explosion temperatures of FeCN and nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures. 10 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Nitrate dynamics in the soil and unconfined aquifer in arid groundwater coupled ecosystems of the Monte desert, Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    of the Monte desert, Argentina J. N. Aranibar,1,2 P. E. Villagra,1,3 M. L. Gomez,1 E. Jobbágy,4 M. Quiroga,1 R desert, Argentina, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G04015, doi:10.1029/2010JG001618. 1. Introduction [2] Drylands desert, Argentina, shallow groundwater is exploited by deep rooted trees, increasing primary productivity

  3. Soil Profile Rebuilding Specification (Full Version)--1 Soil Profile Rebuilding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    for Restoration of Graded and Compacted Soils that will be Vegetated CSI Div 2 CSICode-02910-Plant Preparation or addition of topsoil, and subsequent planting with woody plants. The soil preparation portion of Soil-Soil Preparation CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION 2. PROCEDURE 3. DEFINITIONS 4. SUBMITTALS REFERENCES

  4. Artificial Soiling of Photovoltaic Module Surfaces using Traceable Soil Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artificial Soiling of Photovoltaic Module Surfaces using Traceable Soil Components Patrick D@sandia.gov Abstract--Effective evaluation and prediction of photovoltaic performance loss due to soiling requires types. I. INTRODUCTION Soiling is a significant source of energy loss in photovoltaic (PV) systems [1

  5. APBI 401 / SOIL 501: SOIL PROCESSES TERM 1 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APBI 401 / SOIL 501: SOIL PROCESSES TERM 1 ­ 2014 Instructor Sandra Brown, MCML 156c Office hour: M Rationale: Soils are a fundamental component of agro-ecological, forest and other land use systems; reflecting natural processes and the influence of human activities. Soil properties and processes regulate

  6. APBI 403 / SOIL 503 SOIL SAMPLING, ANALYSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APBI 403 / SOIL 503 SOIL SAMPLING, ANALYSES AND DATA INTERPRETATION TERM 1 ­ 2015/16 Instructors measurement procedures and techniques in soil science. Course Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of APBI 403 readings will be drawn from a variety of sources. Course Marks: APBI 403 ­ Soil Sampling, Analyses and Data

  7. NITRATE UTILIZATION BY PHYTOPLANKTON IN LAKE SUPERIOR IS IMPAIRED BY LOW NUTRIENT (P, Fe) AVAILABILITY AND SEASONAL LIGHT LIMITATION--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterner, Robert W.

    NITRATE UTILIZATION BY PHYTOPLANKTON IN LAKE SUPERIOR IS IMPAIRED BY LOW NUTRIENT (P, Fe utilization in this oligotrophic system. Clean sampling methods were used to collect water from Lake Superior during spring and summer 2004, and nitrate utilization was measured by monitoring bioreporter

  8. A Critical Evaluation on the Use of Kinetics for DeterminingThermodynamicsof Ion Exchange in Soils1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    not assist one in understanding the mechanisms and rates of K exchange in clay min- erals and soils, norA Critical Evaluation on the Use of Kinetics for DeterminingThermodynamicsof Ion Exchange in Soils1 (£,,) in the two soils ranged from 7.42 kJ mol~' using the miscible displacement tech- nique to 32.96 kJ mol

  9. Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Chapter 21 Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with and Applications for Hydropedology J.A. Thompson,1, * S. Roecker,2 S. Grunwald3 and P.R. Owens4 ABSTRACT Spatial information on soils, particularly hydrologic and hydromorphic soil properties, is used to understand and assess soil water retention, flooding

  10. Department: SOIL Course No.: 2120

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    :George Elliott Content Area: CA3 Science and Technology Catalog Copy: SOIL 2120. Environmental Soil Science (251 products) spend a significant amount of time in soils. This, in turn, impacts water quality. The production it has on our everyday lives, and the interdependency of the various natural environments. Soil formation

  11. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  12. The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus)

    1934-01-01

    . Mackey, M. S., Animal Husbandry J. H. Knox, M. S.. Animal Husbandry R. G. Reeves. Ph. D., Biology A. L. Darnell. M. A.. Dairy Husbandry *Dean, School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of March 1, 1934 **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture...

  13. Effect of nitrate on the performance of single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA b Department due to the competition between the electricity generation and denitrification processes. Over 84 by the electricity generation process. No electricity was generated when the MFC fed with 8.0 mM nitrate was moved

  14. Timed application of ammonium nitrate for optimum yield of uniform sweetpotato (lpomoea batatas) tuberous roots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kelly Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas L., was grown under 6 different nitrogen treatments for two lengths of time in pots of vermiculite and watered with a nutrient solution. The treatments were 50kg/Ha ammonium nitrate (NH?NO?) applied either when...

  15. Using nitrate dual isotopic composition (d15 O) as a tool for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    of NO3 À uptake and nitrification result in NO3 À with low d15 N and high d18 O values. A simple steady Francisco Bay, the largest estuary on the west coast, over 95% of the historical saltmarsh has been lost high loads of N [Los Huertos et al., 2001]. The chronic exposure to high nitrate (NO3 À ) and eutrophic

  16. Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    majority of terrestrial fungi. We propose that the acquisition of high affinity nitrate assimilation of described species of filamentous, terrestrial fungi. Without regard to clustering, nrt2 is widely metabolic pathways in the fungi [9,10]. Examples mainly involve secondary metabolite clusters, which do

  17. Nitration of Benzo[a]pyrene Adsorbed on Coal Fly Ash Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Nitration of Benzo[a]pyrene Adsorbed on Coal Fly Ash Particles by Nitrogen Dioxide: Role of ThermalP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging

  18. 29The North Carolina Geographer The Effects of Local Weather Patterns on Nitrate and Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamble, Douglas W.

    29The North Carolina Geographer The Effects of Local Weather Patterns on Nitrate and Sulfate Rainwater Concentrations in Wilmington, North Carolina Sarah Beth Jenkins Douglas W. Gamble Michael M. Benedetti Joan Willey University of North Carolina Wilmington Analysis of weather patterns on a synoptic

  19. Ammonium Oxidation and Nitrate Reduction in Sediments of a Hypereutrophic Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Ammonium Oxidation and Nitrate Reduction in Sediments of a Hypereutrophic Lake E. M. D'Angelo and K. R. Reddy* ABSTRACT Internal N cycling processes in sediments and the overlying water column may is through biological oxidation and reduction of N species in the aerobic and anaerobic sediment zones

  20. Construction, monitoring, and performance of two soil liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Hensel, B.R.; Herzog, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype and large-scale soil liner were constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for saturated hydraulic conductivity. In situ ponded infiltration rates into the prototype liner were measured and water containing fluorescein and rhodamine WT dyers was allowed to infiltrate in the prototype liner. Although the liner met the USEPA conductivity requirement, the dye flow paths indicated a need for better bonding between lifts and a reduction in soil clod sizes. These observations suggested that if soil liners are to perform according to design specifications, soil processing prior to construction and rigid construction QA/QC are necessary. The large-scale liner (7.3 c 14.6 {times} 0.9 m) consisted of six 15-cm compacted lifts. Full-scale equipment was used for compaction, and construction practices were modified on the basis of experience gained from the prototype liner study. The work conducted so far indicates that compacted soil barriers can be constructed to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirements established by the USEPA. Questions regarding methodologies to collect in situ infiltration data have arisen from the research. Differences have been noted in infiltration fluxes, as measured by different types of infiltrometers. Perturbations in measurements of infiltration rates and soil tensions have been correlated with barometric pressure fluctuations and/or temperature changes in the liner.

  1. Saving our soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandy, A. Stuart; Billings, Sharon A.; Richter Dan

    2010-05-01

    Saving our soils 171 A Stuart Grandy Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI GUEST EDITORIAL GUEST EDITORIAL GUEST EDITORIAL © The Ecological Society of America www.frontiersinecology.org Although the US healthcare system is among the best... in the world at treating disease, it is frequentlycriticized for not doing enough to prevent disease. Similarly, soil management, while effectively address- ing acute problems, is less successful at preventing chronic degradation. This analogy becomes clear...

  2. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 22922299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 2292­2299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil saprobic microfungi Veronika R eza´ c ova´ a,b,Ã, Hana Hrs elova´ a , Hana Gryndlerova in their solutions and in sterile soil by microfungal species and two well-known HA degraders were studied

  3. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  4. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  5. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  6. Propagation of seismic waves through liquefied soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiebat, Mahdi; Jeremic, Boris; Dafalias, Yannis; Kaynia, Amir; Cheng, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,of critical state soil mechanics and bounding surfacewith critical state soil mechanics principles; it renders

  7. Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID Intensive (SOIL 325) (3) _______ HHS 231 ­ Lifetime Fitness for Health (2. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science

  8. Pennsylvania Soil Survey Edward J. Ciolkosz,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dePamphilis, Claude

    Pennsylvania Soil Survey History by Edward J. Ciolkosz, Robert L. Cunningham, and Joseph J ............................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2 Pennsylvania Soil Characterization ......................................... 10 CHAPTER 4 Soil Survey Committee History

  9. Controls on black carbon storage in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Masiello, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbonin three agricultural soils with different contents ofcalcium carbonate, Aust. J. Soil Res. , 38, 1005 – 1016.

  10. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  11. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  12. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  13. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  14. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  15. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

  16. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald...

  17. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil...

  18. Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coho, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

  19. Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raut Desai, Aditya B.

    2011-08-08

    Highly oxidized species like perchlorate and nitrate that are released into the environment by anthropogenic activities are a source of concern as they have been known to contaminate groundwater. These species are extremely ...

  20. Impact of pH on the removal of fluoride, nitrate and boron by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Laura A.; Vuachère, Marion; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pH on boron, fluoride, and nitrate retention by comparing modelled speciation predictions with retention using six different nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis ...

  1. Nitrogen cycling in oxygen deficient zones : insights from [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O of nitrite and nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchwald, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The stable isotopes, [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O, of nitrite and nitrate can be powerful tools used to interpret nitrogen cycling in the ocean. They are particularly useful in regions of the ocean where there are multiple ...

  2. Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1998-09-30

    A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.

  3. LIVING SOIL Master Gardener College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    LIVING SOIL Master Gardener College George W. Bird, Professor, MSU (June 9, 2012) #12;#12;Living Soil References G. W. Bird, Professor Michigan State University birdg@msu.edu http://www.ent.msu.edu/Directory/Facultypages/bird/tabid/133/Default.aspx · Brady, N. and R. Weil. 2002. Nature and Properties of Soils (13th ed) Prentice Hall

  4. Soil Testing for Environmental Contaminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Testing for Environmental Contaminates Interpreting Your Heavy Metals Test Results Olivia quantities. Soils have often been the landing spot for heavy metals, chemicals, and wastes as byproducts of industrial and agricultural pollutants. Many of these metals are present in soils natu- rally, usually

  5. LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35° K

  6. SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    production. Send samples, forms, and payment to Virginia Tech Soil Testing Lab, 145 Smyth Hall (MC 0465), 185 Industrial Lawns - Bermudagrass Routine (soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC) $10, Virginia Tech." COST PER SAMPLE IN-STATE OUT-OF-STATE SOIL TEST DESIRED AND FEES SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION Your

  7. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  8. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  9. Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate Montpellier, France Abstract The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective

  10. Soil chemistry versus environmental controls on production of CH4 and CO2 in northern peatlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher J.

    . B. YAVITT a , C. J. WILLIAMS b & R. K. WIEDER c a Department of Natural Resources, Cornell Rates of organic carbon mineralization (to CO2 and CH4) vary widely in peat soil. We transplanted four peat soils with different chemical composition into six sites with different environmental conditions

  11. The behavior of soil-applied cyclotri- and cyclotetraphosphate in Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trostle, Calvin Lewie

    1993-01-01

    the prominence of biological hydrolysis in cyclic P decomposition in soils. Energy of activation (EA) was 45.8 and 61.1 kJ mol-1, respectively, for C3P and C4P on Falba sandy loam at the low P rate (38.6 and 51.2 kJ mol-I for the same treatments on Branyon clay...

  12. Comparison of soil respiration methods in a mid-latitude deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayson, C. A. [Indiana University; Randolph, J. C. [Indiana University; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Grimmond, CSB [Indiana University

    2006-01-01

    In forest ecosystems the single largest respiratory flux influencing net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is the total soil CO2 efflux; however, it is difficult to make measurements of this flux that are accurate at the ecosystem scale. We examined patterns of soil CO2 efflux using five different methods: auto-chambers, portable gas analyzers, eddy covariance along and two models parameterized with the observed data. The relation between soil temperature and soil moisture with soil CO2 effluxes are also investigated, both inter-annually and seasonally, using these observations/results. Soil respiration rates (Rsoil) are greatest during the growing season when soil temperatures are between 15 and 25 C, but some soil CO2 efflux occurs throughout the year. Measured soil respiration was sensitive to soil temperature, particularly during the spring and fall. All measurement methods produced similar annual estimates. Depending on the time of the year, the eddy covariance (flux tower) estimate for ecosystem respiration is similar to or slightly lower than estimates of annual soil CO2 efflux from the other methods. As the eddy covariance estimate includes foliar and stem respiration which the other methods do not; it was expected to be larger (perhaps 15-30%). The auto-chamber system continuously measuring soil CO2 efflux rates provides a level of temporalr esolution that permits investigation of short- to longer term influences of factors on these efflux rates. The expense of building and maintaining an auto chamber system may not be necessary for those esearchers interested in estimating Rsoil annually, but auto-chambers do allow the capture of data from all seasons needed for model parameterization.

  13. Estimated impacts of soil degradation on the African water balance and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.

    1998-01-01

    This study uses a well-established water balance methodology, the Thornthwaite-Mather approach, to evaluate the effects of soil water holding capacity assumptions on estimates of African evapotranspiration rates, moisture deficit, and moisture...

  14. Relationship Between Soil Moisture Storage and Deep Percolation and Subsurface Return Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nieber, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was performed to analyze the relationship between the volume of moisture stored in a soil profile and the rate of percolation and subsurface return flow. The simulation study was derived on the basis of the Richards equation...

  15. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  16. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  17. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore »plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N addition rates indicate that arid ecosystems are sensitive to modest increments in anthropogenic N deposition.« less

  18. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  19. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  20. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grote, K.

    2010-01-01

    wave method for soil water content measurement: Hydrologicalfor estimating soil water content during irrigation andvariations of the soil water content in an agro-ecosystem

  1. Water and heat transport in boreal soils: Implications for soil response to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    G. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetatione n v Water and heat transport in boreal soils: Implicationsfor soil response to climate change Zhaosheng Fan a, ? ,

  2. Iron and zinc response and nutrient uptake of sorghums grown on two calcareous soils from the High Plains of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennington, Hurm Dale

    1971-01-01

    . (11) suggest that Pe is absorbed at different rates by the different species from the Tulare clay which could account for the 19 differences in Fe chlorosis shown by different plant species. DeKock and. Hall (17) measured the P~Fe and Ca... and Portales soils. Sorghums grown on the Drake sandy loam soil are more chlorotic than those grown on the Portales loam soil. The Drake soil has more CaCO and. "availaole" P but 3 less total Fe and EDTA extractable Fe than the Portales soil, The Drake...

  3. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E.; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  4. Fates of Eroded Soil Organic Carbon: Mississippi Basin Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S. V.; Sleezer, R. O.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a mass balance analysis of organic carbon (OC) across the five major river subsystems of the Mississippi (MS) Basin (an area of 3.2 3 106 km2). This largely agricultural landscape undergoes a bulk soil erosion rate of ;480 t·km22...

  5. Digitally controlled simple shear apparatus for dynamic soil testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duku, Pendo M; Stewart, Jonathan P; Whang, Daniel H; Venugopal, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Techniques in Soil Mechanics,” Soils Found. , Vol. 23, No.Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, A. Taran- tino, E.

  6. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  7. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  8. TEOS 02 La Selva soil and root dynamics: What happens in soil, stays in soil Team Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    TEOS 02 La Selva soil and root dynamics: What happens in soil, stays in soil Team Members · Michael. This includes clay soils, high precipitation, and relatively constant warm temperatures. Another importance flux network, and a large database on ecological dynamics. Approach Soil AMR units and sensor networks

  9. Experimental observation of signature changes in bulk soil electrical conductivity in response to engineered surface CO2 leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou X.; Wielopolski L.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Apple, M.; Dobeck, L. M.; Gullickson, K.; Shaw, J. A.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L. H.

    2012-03-01

    Experimental observations of signature changes of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) due to CO{sub 2} leakage were carried out at a field site at Bozeman, Montana, to investigate the change of soil geophysical properties in response to possible leakage of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The dynamic evolution of bulk soil EC was measured during an engineered surface leakage of CO{sub 2} through in situ continuous monitoring of bulk soil EC, soil moisture, soil temperature, rainfall rate, and soil CO{sub 2} concentration to investigate the response of soil bulk EC signature to CO{sub 2} leakage. Observations show that: (1) high soil CO{sub 2} concentration due to CO{sub 2} leakage enhances the dependence of bulk soil EC on soil moisture. The bulk soil EC is a linear multivariate function of soil moisture and soil temperature, the coefficient for soil moisture increased from 2.111 dS for the non-leaking phase to 4.589 dS for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase; and the coefficient for temperature increased from 0.003 dS/C for the non-leaking phase to 0.008 dS/C for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase. The dependence of bulk soil EC on soil temperature is generally weak, but leaked CO{sub 2} enhances the dependence, (2) after the CO{sub 2} release, the relationship between soil bulk EC and soil CO{sub 2} concentration observes three distinct CO{sub 2} decay modes. Rainfall events result in sudden changes of soil moisture and are believed to be the driving forcing for these decay modes, and (3) within each mode, increasing soil CO{sub 2} concentration results in higher bulk soil EC. Comparing the first 2 decay modes, it is found that the dependence of soil EC on soil CO{sub 2} concentration is weaker for the first decay mode than the second decay mode.

  10. Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexa?uoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexa?uoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

  11. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Paticulate Organic Nitrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruns, Emily; Perraud, Veronique; Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Alexander, M. L.

    2010-02-01

    While multifunctional organic nitrates are formed during the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, relatively little is known about their signatures in particle mass spectrometers. High resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was applied to NH4NO3, NaNO3 and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IMN) particles, and to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from NO3 radical reactions at 22 C and 1 atm in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene reaction. The mass spectra of all particles exhibit significant intensity at m/z 30, and for the SOA, weak peaks corresponding to various organic fragments containing nitrogen [CxHyNzOa]+ were identified using HR-ToF-AMS. The NO+/NO2+ ratios from HR-ToF-AMS were 10-15 for IMN and the SOA from the and pinene, 3-carene and limonene reactions, ~5 for the isoprene reaction, 2.4 for NH4NO3 and 80 for NaNO3. The N/H ratios from HR-ToF-AMS for the SOA were smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than the -ONO2/C-H ratios measured using FTIR on particles impacted on ZnSe windows. While the NO+/NO2+ ratio may provide a generic indication of organic nitrates under some conditions, specific identification of particulate organic nitrates awaits further development of particle mass spectrometry techniques.

  12. Sandia Energy - Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSampleLignin-Feasting MicrobeMesaAnalysisSuccess Nitrate

  13. Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or Soil and Terrestrial Environmental Physics CHN F 29.1 Universitätstrasse 16 8092 Zürich dani.or@env.ethz.ch +41 44 633 60 15 Dr. Peter Lehmann Soil and Terrestrial Environmental Physics Objectives of soil protection major · understand composition and structure of soil · study

  14. Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case Study Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 ; Hangseok interface is not the geomembrane (GM)/compacted low-permeability soil liner (LPSL) but a soil­soil interface placing the cover soil from bottom to top. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606 .0000556. © 2012 American

  15. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  16. Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function Rachel of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences This project is funded in part by theTree Research and Education

  17. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  18. Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony

    2007-04-11

    THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Urban and Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form See sampling procedures and mailing instructions on the back of this form. (PLEASE DO NOT SEND CASH) SU07 E-444... (7-07) Results will be mailed to this address ONLY Address City Phone County where sampled Name Laboratory # (For Lab Use Only) State Zip Payment (DO NOT SEND CASH). Amount Paid $ SUBMITTED BY: Check Money Order Make Checks Payable to: Soil...

  19. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore »is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  20. Organic Constituents of the Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    materials. As might be expected, those in the excrement are the most resistant to the action of the soil bacteria. Other experiments were made, but the results were similar to this one. SUGARS BY HYDROLYSIS OF SOILS The reducing sugars formed by heating... sheep excrement. The amount of reducing substance, calculated as sugars, produced by heating the soil with la per cent. sulphuric acid varied from .OO2 to .215 per cent. with the average of .058 for 7'7 soils. The nitrogen insoluble in permanganate...

  1. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stands to improve climate modeling Environmental microbiology In 2009, the Department of Energy established the Los Alamos Science Focus Area in Soil Metagenomics & Carbon Cycling...

  2. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  3. Effects of Frozen Soil on Snowmelt Runoff and Soil Water Storage at a Continental Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Effects of Frozen Soil on Snowmelt Runoff and Soil Water Storage at a Continental Scale GUO-YUE NIU) ABSTRACT The presence of ice in soil dramatically alters soil hydrologic and thermal properties. Despite computes soil ice content and its modifications to soil hydrologic and thermal properties. However

  4. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  5. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  6. Soils | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH JumpSlough HeatMccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP)Soils

  7. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  8. Determination of diffusion coefficient for unsaturated soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sood, Eeshani

    2005-08-29

    The structures constructed on unsaturated soils are damaged by the movement of the soil underneath. The movement is basically due to the flow of moisture in and out of the soil. This change in moisture also affects the ...

  9. Climatic influences on hillslope soil transport efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schurr, Naomi D. (Naomi Danika)

    2014-01-01

    The soil transport coefficient D represents the relationship between local topographical gradient and soil flux in the landscape evolution model. This work presents new estimates of the soil transport coefficient D at 9 ...

  10. Collection Policy: Crop and Soil Sciences Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Collection Policy: Crop and Soil Sciences ___________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction: This 2007 collection policy review for the Department of Crops and Soil Sciences comes several the Department of Atmospheric and Earth Sciences. Since then, Crops and Soil Sciences has reorganized into three

  11. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an ...

  12. Speciation model selection by Monte Carlo analysis of optical absorption spectra: Plutonium(IV) nitrate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M.; Veirs, D. Kirk; Vaughn, Randolph B.; Cisneros, Michael R.; Smith, Coleman A.

    2000-06-01

    Standard modeling approaches can produce the most likely values of the formation constants of metal-ligand complexes if a particular set of species containing the metal ion is known or assumed to exist in solution equilibrium with complexing ligands. Identifying the most likely set of species when more than one set is plausible is a more difficult problem to address quantitatively. A Monte Carlo method of data analysis is described that measures the relative abilities of different speciation models to fit optical spectra of open-shell actinide ions. The best model(s) can be identified from among a larger group of models initially judged to be plausible. The method is demonstrated by analyzing the absorption spectra of aqueous Pu(IV) titrated with nitrate ion at constant 2 molal ionic strength in aqueous perchloric acid. The best speciation model supported by the data is shown to include three Pu(IV) species with nitrate coordination numbers 0, 1, and 2. Formation constants are {beta}{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.5 and {beta}{sub 2}=11.2{+-}1.2, where the uncertainties are 95% confidence limits estimated by propagating raw data uncertainties using Monte Carlo methods. Principal component analysis independently indicates three Pu(IV) complexes in equilibrium. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  13. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  14. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  15. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  16. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous OC stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global C cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil OC stocks to changing climatic conditions. In this review,more »we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of OC stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this OC to permafrost thaw under a warming climate.« less

  17. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community...

  18. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  19. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  20. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 10, PAGES 1207-1210, OCTOBEX 1982 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AND SULFATE IN THE MARINE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    of nitrate in the atmosphere have been conducted in continental (primarily urban) areas; data on nitrate polycarbonate sheets were used as impaction surfaces; these sheets had a "frosted" finish which minimizes to collect the smallest particles. The polycarbonate inlpaction sheets were used because of their inertness

  1. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  2. The Composition and Properties of Some Texas Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1907-01-01

    What Constitutes Soil Fertility; Causes of Small Crops; Maintaining Soil Fertitlity; Increasing Soil Fertility; Chemical Analysis of Soils; Value of Chemical Analysis; Pot Experiments; The United States Soil Survey; General ...

  3. Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Stichler, Charles; Lemon, Robert G.

    2002-06-26

    Non-traditional soil additives include soil conditioners such as organic materials and minerals, soil activators that claim to stimulate soil microbes or inoculate soil with new beneficial organisms, and wetting agents that may be marketed...

  4. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  5. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  6. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  7. DISTINCT PATTERNS OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN ALGAE: LIGHT AND AMMONIUM SENSITIVITY IN LAMINARIA DIGITATA IS ABSENT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berges, John A.

    DISTINCT PATTERNS OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN ALGAE: LIGHT AND AMMONIUM SENSITIVITY and lowest in summer. This is the first report of NR activity in any alga that is not strongly regulated the regulation of NR by light that has been observed in other algae and higher plants. Key index words: ammonium

  8. Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria Nicole Klueglein,a Fabian Zeitvogel,b York-Dieter Stierhof,c Matthias and microoxic conditions. While most of the mix- otrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and compli- cates our ability to delineate microbial Fe

  9. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Fowler, Christopher J; Haverlock, Tamara; Kang, Hyun Ah; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bau, Diadra; Hossain, Alamgir; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Gross, Mr. Dustin E.; Bill, Nathan; Marquez, Manuel; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.

  10. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  11. Structural Aspects of Hydrogen Bonding with Nitrate and Sulfate: Design Criteria for Polyalcohol Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Dixon, David A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Organic hosts for oxyanion complexation can be constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding sites. The deliberate design of architectures for such hosts requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Important structural parameters include the O--H distance, the O--H-D angle, the X-O--H angle, and the X-O--H-D dihedral angle (H-D=hydrogen bond donor, X=any atom). This information can be obtained through the analysis of hydrogen bonding observed in crystal structures and electronic structure calculations on simple gas-phase complexes. In this chapter, we present an analysis of hydrogen bonding structural parameters for alcohol hydrogen donors and the oxygen atom acceptors in nitrate and sulfate.

  12. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 °C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 °C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is mostmore »common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.« less

  13. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  14. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of agricultural soil drainage on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;2 Basic Course1 SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation 3 Credits Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water resources, historical erosions and sediment

  15. Soil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kauai, and Oahu. These soils represent 10 great soil groups commonly found in the State of HawaiiSoil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties of Selected Soils in Hawaii Teruo Yamamoto U S is a geologist with the Pacific Southwest Sta- tion's watershed management research project in Honolulu, Hawaii

  16. SOIL, WATER, AND CLIMATE MS DEFENSE SEMINAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    SOIL, WATER, AND CLIMATE MS DEFENSE SEMINAR Case study for Determining the Presence of the Moorsh- Forming Process in Drained Peat (Markey Muck) Soils, Anoka County, Minnesota, USA by Allyz Kramer Polacsek Soil Science Advisor: Jay Bell Friday, May 15, 2009 9:00 ­ 10:00 am S415 Soil Science Building ABSTRACT

  17. Integrating Soil Ecological Knowledge into Restoration Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell

    Integrating Soil Ecological Knowledge into Restoration Management Liam Heneghan,1,2 Susan P. Miller that lead to restoration success. The discipline of soil ecology, which emphasizes both soil organisms the outcomes of restoration despite this variability. Here, we propose that the usefulness of this soil

  18. Hardpan Formation In Coarse and Medium-textured Soils In the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerard, C. J.; Burleson, C. A.; Cowley, W. R.; Bloodworth, M. E.; Kunze, G. W.

    1964-01-01

    . Briquets, which were imbeclclecl in air-c-11-y soil to cause slow clrying, were 25 to 30 percent stronger than surface-clried briquets. Lemo5 ancl Lutz (1 0) havc reported that the rate of drying on briquet slrenqtll was important. Gill (8) postulated... also that thc action of the soil moisture films during drying was ;~n extremely important factor in effecting the in- tensity of soil strength of a clay. .-\\F indicated in Figure 4, maximum soil strength \\\\.as achievecl at 27" C. Briquets clried...

  19. Classification of urban & industrial soils in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Classification of urban & industrial soils in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources: Working, Industrial, Traffic and Mining Areas (SUITMA) of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS), 09­11 July . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Urban and industrial soils in the current WRB 4 3.1 Natural Soils

  20. Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test fertility status of the soil in each field can invest wisely in fertilizer and lime to produce the most economical crop yields. A soil test provides the needed information about soil pH, lime need and available

  1. Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Sheng-Tao

    Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic C. J. Miller, M.ASCE1 the variation of water content and pore water suction for compacted clayey soils. The soils had varying amounts of clay fraction with plasticities ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior

  2. Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. doi:10.2136/sssaj2013.03.0093 Received 8 Mar. 2013. *Corresponding author (tyson.ochsner@okstate.edu). © Soil Science Society of America. State of the Art in Large-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring Review & Analysis--Soil Physics T he science

  3. Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth X of P around soil aggregates (Gunary et al., 1964; Linquist etfrom soil, understanding P desorption from soils may improve the precision of P diagnosis and fertilization recommendations. Many al., 1997

  4. REGULAR ARTICLE Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    REGULAR ARTICLE Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments

  5. Soil Profile Rebuilding Specification (Brief Version)--1 Soil Profile Rebuilding--Abbreviated Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Soil Profile Rebuilding Specification (Brief Version)--1 Soil Profile Rebuilding--Abbreviated Specification Specification for Restoration of Graded and Compacted Soils that will be Vegetated 1. PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION Purpose Soil Profile Rebuilding is an appropriate soil restoration technique for sites where

  6. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  7. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  8. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  9. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  10. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  11. Feedback control of the rate of peat formation Lisa R. Belyea1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or net sinks at present. Second, long-term rates of peat accumulation (and hence carbon sequestration and carbon sequestration. Keywords: peatlands; soil organic matter; ecosystem dynamics; carbon cycle 1). As a result of these discrepancies, estimates of the rates of carbon sequestration and emission derived from

  12. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: II. Geochronologies and mass sedimentation rates based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Geochronologies and mass sedimentation rates based on 14 C and 210 Pb data Brent A. McKee1, *, Andrew S. Cohen2 accumulation rates, Soil erosion Abstract We established sediment geochronologies for cores from eight deltaic with pre-20th century conditions. In this study we provide geochronological data from cores collected

  13. Infiltration and sediment production of Edwards Plateau rangeland as affectd by soil characteristics and grazing management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, William Allan

    1976-01-01

    to 5. 4), a 4-pasture, 3-herd deferred rotation grazing system (5. 2 ha/A. U. ) and a livestock exclosure that has been ungrazed for 27 years. Infiltration rates were determined with a drip infiltro- meter on deep, intermediate and shallow soil...- tion grazing and an exclosure for an infil- tration study on the Sonora Agricultural Research Station during the summer of 1976 33 Mean separation of soil and vegetation variables for three sites (shallow, intermediate and deep) for an infiltration...

  14. Transient nature of salt movement with wetting front in an unsaturated soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soman, Vishwas Vinayak

    1992-01-01

    permeability and tilth as the two major problems in irrigated areas. According to him, in sodic soils the physicochemical reactions cause the slaking of aggregates and the swelling and dispersion of clay minerals, leading to reduced permeability and poor... of clays and slaking of aggregates. Zartman and Gichuru (1984) observed that excessive amounts of exchangeable sodium salts present in the soil or irrigation water, can decrease hydraulic conductivity, decrease the infiltration rate, and increase...

  15. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  16. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  17. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  18. Organic soil phosphorus is plant-available but is neglected by routine soil-testing methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffens, Diedrich; Leppin, Thomas; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    microorganisms. Biol. Fertil. Soils 1988; 5: 308-312 Van derplant species and to evaluate different soil-testing methodsin measuring organic soil-P. Material and Methods This

  19. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    of natural and created marsh soils. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.2007. Freshwater Input Structures Soil Properties, VerticalS.S. , Hoover, K.L. 1996. Soil properties of reference

  20. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  1. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  2. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  3. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  4. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  5. Effect of Combustion Temperature on Soil and Soil Organic Matter Properties: A Study of Soils from the Western Elevation Transect in Central Sierra Nevada, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araya, Samuel Negusse

    2014-01-01

    during pyrolysis compared to untreated soils, Rosa et al. (soil organic matter as reflected by 13 C natural abundance, pyrolysis

  6. Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234 Course Syllabus: Fall 2014 that can be found at: https://catalog

  7. Recovery of Soil Carbon Stocks on Disturbed Coastal Plain Soils Through Secondary Forest SuccessionPlain Soils Through Secondary Forest Succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Recovery of Soil Carbon Stocks on Disturbed Coastal Plain Soils Through Secondary Forest SuccessionPlain Soils Through Secondary Forest Succession Recovery of soil carbon stocks in historically Contact and Environmental Research 50 µm Recovery of soil carbon stocks in historically degraded soils provides a means

  8. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  9. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharnagl, B.; Vrugt, J. A; Vereecken, H.; Herbst, M.

    2011-01-01

    monitor- ing soil water contents, Water Resour. Res. , 26,spatial variation of soil water content at the field scaledetermination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial

  10. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharnagl, B.; Vrugt, J. A; Vereecken, H.; Herbst, M.

    2011-01-01

    data for identifying soil hydraulic parameters from outflowdistributions of the soil hydraulic parameters Carrera, J.method to determine soil hydraulic functions from multistep

  11. Effect of freshets on the flux of groundwater nitrate through streambed sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia, University of

    acceptors and high rates of metabolism may result in a sharp redox gradient within a few centimeters sediments where rates of microbial metabolism are high and pore water is isolated from exchange

  12. Extractability of zinc, cadmium, and nickel in soils amended with EDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic chelating agents are produced in large quantities for use in many industrial applications. Certain chelates, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), are persistent in the environment. The presence of EDTA in soil may alter the mobility and transport of Zn, Cd, and Ni in soils because of the formation of water soluble chelates, thus increasing the potential for metal pollution of natural waters. Mobility of metals is related to their extractability. To investigate metal extractability affected by EDTA, Zn, Cd, and Ni were added to a portion of eight Georgia topsoil samples at rates of 75.9, 1.62, and 4.30 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Both natural and metal-amended soils were treated with Na{sub 2-}EDTA at rates of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg{sup -1}. After 5 months of incubation, soil samples were extracted with Mehlich-1, DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) and 1 M Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, the latter of which extracts the exchangeable form of metals. Results showed that Zn and Ni in Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractions increased with increasing rates of EDTA. The increase for Cd was not as great as for Zn or Ni. Similar changes were found for the Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extraction. As a percentage of total metal concentration, the Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractable Zn was greater than Ni in the natural soils, and the order for the metal-amended soils was Cd > Zn > Ni. The results also suggested that EDTA significantly elevated the extractability of Zn and Ni in both natural and metal-amended soils. The order of mobility based on extractability was: Cd > Zn > Ni for metals added to soils, but when EDTA was present, added Ni was more extractable than Zn or Cd. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  15. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  16. Endogenously Nitrated Proteins in Mouse Brain: Links to Neurodegenerative Colette A. Sacksteder,, Wei-Jun Qian,,| Tatyana V. Knyushko, Haixing Wang,| Mark H. Chin, Goran Lacan,@

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Desmond J.

    proteins that have been identified are involved in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or otherEndogenously Nitrated Proteins in Mouse Brain: Links to Neurodegenerative Disease Colette A Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, and Department of Human Genetics and Department of Molecular

  17. Linking specific heterotrophic bacterial populations to bioreduction of uranium and nitrate using stable isotope probing in contaminated subsurface sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akob, Denise M. [Florida State University; Kerkhof, Lee [Rutgers University; Kusel, Kirsten [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Watson, David B [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in terminal electron-accepting processes during biostimulation of uranium-contaminated sediments were linked to the composition of stimulated microbial populations using DNA-based stable isotope probing. Nitrate reduction preceded U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction in [{sup 13}C]ethanol-amended microcosms. The predominant, active denitrifying microbial groups were identified as members of the Betaproteobacteria, whereas Actinobacteria dominated under metal-reducing conditions.

  18. Evidence of Reactive Aromatics As a Major Source of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate over China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Liu, Shaw C.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM) indicate that aromatic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are the dominant (55-75%) PAN source. The major oxidation product of aromatics that produces acetyl peroxy radicals is methylglyoxal (MGLY). PAN and O3 in the observations are correlated at daytime; aromatic NMHCs appear to play an important role in O3 photochemistry. Previous NMHC measurements indicate the presence of reactive aromatics at high levels over broad polluted regions of China. Aromatics are often ignored in global and (to a lesser degree) regional 3D photochemical transport models; their emissions over China as well as photochemistry are quite uncertain.Our findings suggest that critical assessments of aromatics emissions and chemistry (such as the yields of MGLY) are necessary to understand and assess ozone photochemistry and regional pollution export in China.

  19. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

  1. Soil structure interaction for shrink-swell soils a new design procedure for foundation slabs on shrink-swell soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelmalak, Remon Melek

    2009-05-15

    ............................................................................. 34 3.3 Weather-Soil Interaction Models ................................................... 37 viii CHAPTER Page 3.4 Soil-Structure Interaction Models .................................................. 40 3.5 Comparison of Beam Depths... for Stiffened Slabs on Shrink-Swell Soils Using WRI, PTI 2004 and AS 2870...................................... 42 3.6 Influence of the 2002 Texas Section of ASCE Recommended Practice on the Beam Depths for Stiffened Slabs on Shrink-Swell Soils...

  2. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  3. Rainwater Harvesting: Soil Storage and Infiltration System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-11

    A soil storage and infiltration system collects rainfall runoff from the roofs of buildings and directs it underground where it infiltrates the soil. Such a system conserves water and protects it from surface pollution. This publication describes...

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of the Compressibility of Soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung C.

    2010-07-14

    , to incorporate all available sources of information, and to integrate the uncertainty in an estimate of the probability. In geotechnical engineering, current soil classification charts based on CPT data may not provide an accurate prediction of soil type, even...

  5. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  6. Beth Brockett SOIL 502 Soil Quality Analysis -Chemistry Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (see map in Appendix 1). Sustainability Street is in an urban location and the microclimate) will be useful in diagnosing management issues at this site. History of Site Urban soils can be expected as grazing land, has had an orchard planted on it, and has been developed for building. Proximity to storage

  7. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Belgium. 8 Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State10 Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell Center for

  8. Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques@ce.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially

  9. Effects of Soil pH and Soil Water Content on Prosulfuron Dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Effects of Soil pH and Soil Water Content on Prosulfuron Dissipation RYAN P. HULTGREN,*, ROBERT J% dissipation of the herbicide (DT50) was determined for each soil and water content treatment. At equivalent water contents, prosulfuron DT50 values were positively correlated with soil pH (P

  10. Water in the Soil http://www.alison-burke.com/jpgs-large/lifesciences/soil_waterflow.jpg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Recap Recap Recap #12;Water in the Soil http://www.alison-burke.com/jpgs-large/lifesciences/soil_waterflow.jpg Soil water potential More negative #12;Less water requires more force As the soil water content decreases, plants need to excerpt more pressure to take water Photosynthesis and Water A decreases

  11. Recommended Academic Plan for the Environmental Resource Management -Soil Science Option (E R M/SOIL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    of Pollutants in Soils 3 ASM 327 (fall only) Soil and Water Resource Management 3 SOILS 401 Soil Composition requirements. GWS, GHA, GQ, GN, GA, GH, and GS are codes used to identify General Education requirements. US, IL, and US;IL are codes used to designate courses that satisfy University United States

  12. Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL SENSOR technologies that may be combined into a cost effective soil redox sensor network, discuss the merits of each as a component of said network, describe a prototype soil redox sensor network and perform basic laboratory

  13. Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:310

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:3­10 doi:10.2136/sssaj2013.07.0287dgs Received 17 July 2013. *Corresponding author (david.myrold@oregonstate.edu). © Soil Science by the publisher. The Potential of Metagenomic Approaches for Understanding Soil Microbial Processes The11th

  14. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 21382149 Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Author's personal copy Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2138­2149 Heterogeneity of soil Laboratory, 999-W, Aiken, SC 29808, USA f Department of Plant & Soil Science, University of Vermont, Hills to have a highly heterogeneous distribution of nutrients and soil biota, with greater concentrations

  15. The effect of soil hydraulic properties vs. soil texture in land surface models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    The effect of soil hydraulic properties vs. soil texture in land surface models E. D. Gutmann and E and difficulties in scaling existing data. In particular, the spatial distribution of Soil Hydraulic Properties to determine SHPs. Citation: Gutmann, E. D., and E. E. Small (2005), The effect of soil hydraulic properties vs

  16. Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    36 Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics Johannes Lehmann1), ColombiaQ1 CONTENTS 36.1 Bio-Char Management and Soil Nutrient Availability ............................................. 518 36.2 Microbial Cycling of Nutrients in Soils with Bio-Char

  17. Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils Stephanie A. Ewing,1 Jonathan Sanderman,1 W. Troy Baisden,2 Yang Wang,3 and Ronald Amundson1 characterized the effect of large-scale (>20 mm) soil physical structure on the age and recalcitrance of soil

  18. Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States § Department of Crop and Soil, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Large-scale soil application

  19. The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils a Rhizosphere Science Research Group, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, N122S Agricultural Sciences North Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA c Environmental Soil Chemistry Research Group

  20. Soil Science Society of America Journal Revealing Soil Structure and Functional Macroporosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    how fast water, greenhouse gases, vola- tile compounds, chemicals, and pollutants can enter and move ecosystem functions. In this study, soil physical measurements (soil-water retention and air permeability soil clay content, while significantly higher air permeability was observed for the l1 to l3 soils than

  1. Soil microbial activity and N availability with elevated CO2 in Mojave Desert soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billings, Sharon A.; Schaeffer, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Mojave Desert by measuring plant N isotope composition (?15N), soil microbial biomass N, soil respiration, resin-available N, and C and N dynamics during soil incubations...

  2. ASSESSING AND MANAGING SOIL QUALITY FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE IN A DEGRADED VACANT LOT SOIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (OM) amendments produced from yard wastes and the use of raised beds on soil properties and vegetable wastes can improve soil quality at previously degraded sites and increase crop yields for urban; compost; Soil Management Assessment Framework; vacant land; shrinking cities; soil compaction INTRODUCTION

  3. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several...

  4. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fendorf, S.

    2010-01-01

    and selenium from landfill leachate by clay minerals. Soil1987) Using landfill leachate, (Frost and Griffin, 1977) (

  5. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2016-01-01

    a mesocosm study. Applied Soil Ecology 8, 61e75. Mueller,and acidity in mineral soils at a common garden experiment.of Stasi n litter traits, soil biota, and soil chemistry on

  6. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  7. SOIL PHYSICS, SWS 4602C I. COURSE INSTRUCTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    tube c. Soil water content d. Measurement of soil water content e. Energy status of soil water f. Soil water velocity c. Darcy's law and Poiseuille's Law d. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, permeability Soils (Hillel pages 203-233, Lectures 10-14) a. Darcy's Law in unsaturated soils b. Hydraulic

  8. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;Basic Course Requirements: 1. Exams consistSWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 most valuable and most mistreated resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water

  9. 9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd if available. Causes of variation in soil carbon predictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison #12;BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd

  10. Common Questions Why should I soil test?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Common Questions Why should I soil test? Soil testing is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate nutrient imbalances and understand plant growth. The most important reason to soil test is to have a basis for intelligent application of fertilizer and lime. Testing also allows for growers and homeowners to maintain

  11. Factors influencing swelling and shrinking in soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Steve Edwin

    1956-01-01

    in the laboratory on top of a soil sample compacted inside the Proctor mold followed by plate tests. That way, a soil modulus versus water content curve is developed which parallels the approach for the dry density versus water content. The soil modulus versus water...

  12. FieldIndicators of Hydric Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Soils, Version 5.01, 2003 Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Science Institute Soil on the right has mucky peat (hemic soil material) to a depth of about 8 cm. If indicator S2 (2.5 cm mucky peat or peat) or indicator S3 (5 cm mucky peat or peat) is not a concern, morphologies below 8 cm would

  13. Effect of soil freezing on particulate resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Winberg, M.R.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of small scale laboratory tests that were conducted to determine the effect of soil freezing on soil resuspension. Nontransuranic contaminated soil form the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was subjected to a series of test conditions to determine respirable and nonrespirable fractions of airborne dust. A separate fraction of the same soil was spiked with Pu-239 and subjected to the same test conditions. Concentrations of resuspended soil and Pu in air were determined. Test results show that: (a) the largest fraction of soil resuspended is in the nonrespirable size fraction, (b) the concentration of resuspended soil in air is highly dependent on surface air velocity, and (c) freezing is not as effective at reducing resuspension of fine dry soil as it is with coarse soil, and (d) artificially prepared Pu contaminated soil has a high proportion of the total activity distributed on ultrafine material, reacts inversely to the mass movement of soil, and does not adequately imitate Pu movement in an actual contaminated soil. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Soil and Water Chemistry Distance Education Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ., 2nd edition Oxford University Press. 3. Soil Chemistry. Bohn, McNeal, O'Connor, and Myer. 2001 3rd, Professor, Soil and Water Science Dept Mailing address: University of Florida Everglades Research principles of soil and water chemistry. The class will cover the fundamentals principles of the properties

  15. Soil Carbon Accumulation During Temperate Forest Succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    K7L 3N6, Canada ABSTRACT Carbon sequestration in soils that have previously beendepletedoforganic the soil carbon sequestration potential of such lands by sampling adjacent mature forest and agricultural abandonment is more important than soil type in determining the potential magnitude of carbon sequestration

  16. Pennsylvania Soil Survey The First 100 Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dePamphilis, Claude

    Pennsylvania Soil Survey The First 100 Years by Joseph J. Eckenrode and Edward J. Ciolkosz Agronomy Series Number 144 July 1999 #12;Pennsylvania Soil Survey The First 100 Years by Joseph J. Eckenrode1 University Park, PA 16802 July 1999 1 Soil Scientist USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS

  17. Soil: 24077 (subsample 24077,9)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Soil: 24077 (subsample 24077,9) D.S. McKay PI LOCATION COMMENTS: Sample collected from the Luna 24.S. scientists were given sam ples totalling 3 grams; these were divided into 6 soil samples and one rock fragment. The Moscow Institute of Geochemistry reports that the Luna 24 soil included more large grains

  18. KSInglett Page 1 MATH FOR SOIL SCIENTISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    transport 9. Soil temperature, heat capacity and conductivity Unit 3 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY 10 and radioactive isotopes Unit 4 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL BIOLOGY 14. Microbial growth yield and mortality 15 and nutrient availability 22. Potential Erosion 23. Waste management and bioremediation Unit 6 DATA ANALYSIS

  19. Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils pollutants interact with the soils in the unsaturated zone as they migrate towards the groundwater prevalence, solubility, and differing migration rates. Through the use of the SESOIL model, factors

  20. TSNo s02-staats173645-P Alum Amendment Effects on Soil Phosphorus Stabilization in Poultry Litter Amended Sandy Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    bioavailable P on Arkansas loamy pasture soils. However, the effects on acidic sandy soils are not well

  1. Wind resuspension of trace amounts of plutonium particles from soil in a semi-arid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, G.

    1984-01-01

    This study of resuspension of soil containing minute amounts of plutonium (Pu-239) has been in progress at the Rocky Flats (RF) Plant since 1978. It is one of several studies initiated after wind relocated small amounts of soil-borne Pu-239 during cleanup of an outdoor storage area. The Pu-239-settled field is now sparsely covered with prairie grass typical of the area. Past studies were limited to comparisons of bulk soil activity with total activity in the airborne dust. This work covers the physics of the particle resuspension process. This report covers the following: (1) Pu-239 resuspension rate versus wind speed, (2) mechanisms of soil particle resuspension, (3) vertical concentration profile of Pu-239 particles, (4) Pu-239 and host particle size distribution and activity concentration. 5 references, 1 table.

  2. Qualitative evaluation of heavy metals in soils using portable XRF instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCain, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Portable isotope-source energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers can provide rapid on site screening for heavy metals in soils. Their use generally involves empirical calibration to a suite of representative soil samples spiked with a range of concentrations of the analytes of interest. In most cases, only a limited number of analytes can be measured with this approach, because of constraints imposed by the operational software and costs associated with preparing the calibration suite. A simple approach is described that provides a qualitative indication of anomalous concentrations of heavy metals based on numeric comparison of gross count rates to background values. This approach can rapidly identify contaminated soils and does not depend on a suite of calibration samples. Direct measurements can be made to rapidly map soil contamination without sample collection, and the method can also be applied to other surfaces such as concrete.

  3. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  4. Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01

    sand, pH 6.8-7.1; 6-12 inches, brownish-yellow fine sand, pH 6.9-7.1; 12-24 inches, yellow fins sand, pH 7.0-7.1. Subsoil: 24-36 inches, red heavy clay, pH 5.7-6.2. Lufkin fine sandy loam. Surface layer: 0-12 inches, homo- geneous brownish-gray fine... 0 x N 0. 1 2 4 5 3 6 11 12 13 14 19 20 25 26 27 25 33 34 35 36 37 38 49 50 rates various soils, into which the Average pH of soil, 1929 51 38 47 39 53 45 8 6 57 56 3 3 41 6 47 43 61 47 6 35 56 69 53...

  5. Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits: I. Soil Core A. ______SOIL 205.Soil Science (4) or ____ CSS 305. Principles of Soil Science (4) [Taught at EOU La Grande campus only

  6. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; John S. Wettlaufer

    2011-09-09

    We present a new, physically-intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil, and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil; a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation, and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that is currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios, and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost heave rates.

  7. Description of Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov., isolated from nitrate-rich zones of a contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, Om [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University; Overholt, Will [Florida State University; Canion, Andy [Florida State University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 were isolated from the subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site where sediments are co-contaminated with large amounts of acidity, nitrate, metal radionuclides and other heavy metals. A combination of physiological and genetic assays indicated that these strains represent the first members of the Rhodanobacter genus shown to be capable of complete denitrification. Cells of strain 2APBS1T and 116-2 were Gram negative, non-spore-forming, rods, 3-5 micro;m long and 0.25-0.5 m in diameter. The isolates were facultative anaerobes, and had temperature and pH optima for growth at 30 C and pH 6.5, respectively, and could tolerate up to 2.0 % NaCl, though growth improved in its absence. Strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 contained fatty acid profiles and 100 % Q-8 ubiquinone, that are characteristic features of the genus Rhodanobacter. Although strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 share high SSU rRNA gene sequence similarity to R. thiooxydans (>99%), DNA-DNA hybridization values were substantially below the 70% threshold used to designate novel species. Thus, based on genotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological differences, strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhodanobacter, for which the name Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is 2APBS1T (=DSM 23569T =JCM 17641T). Strain 116-2 (=DSM 24678 = JCM 17642) is a reference strain.

  8. Behavior of nitrate-nitrogen movement around a pumping high-capacity well: A field example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, J.F.; Chen, X.; Gosselin, D.C. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Conservation and Survey Div.

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the near-field flow regime influencing the chemical composition of water samples collected form an irrigation well during short pumping periods. Data on the radial and vertical distribution of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) and on draw-down were collected from a closely spaced multi-level monitoring well network installed around an irrigation well. Aquifer properties were determined from grain-size analyses performed on samples collected from test holes drilled around the irrigation well and from drawdown data using the method of Neuman (1974). Grain-size characteristics were determined from cumulative distribution curves and used to construct vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles based on frequently used empirical formulas applied to grain-size data for the determination of aquifer properties. Resultant vertical profiles show a general increase in K with depth. Results from the analysis of drawdown curves support the general trend of K determined form the grain-size data, drawdown-based K values, however, were 1.5 to 2 times greater than those determined form the empirical methods. Results from four pump-and-sample experiments at different times during the irrigation season indicate: (1) the distribution of NO{sub 3}-N around the irrigation well is complex and variable over time and space; (2) shapes of concentration-time curves for individual sample points are governed by the initial contaminant distribution, and shapes of concentration-time curves for the pumping well are governed by variables such as well screen position and hydrogeologic properties; (3) irrigation well samples underestimate the highest, as well as the average NO{sub 3}-N concentrations within the aquifer; and (4) a sampling strategy based on the behavioral characteristics of the well as reflected in concentration-time curves can improve the interpretation of water quality data collected from high-capacity wells.

  9. Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 219-5 Coupled Biotic and Abiotic Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics with Heterotrophic Soil Bacteria and a Poorly Crystalline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics with Heterotrophic Soil Bacteria and a Poorly Crystalline Manganese Oxide. See more from rates in batch experiments with a mixture of poorly crystalline manganese oxide (-MnO2) and four strains

  10. Assessing Fossil and New Carbon in Reclaimed Mined Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rattan Lal; David Ussiri

    2008-09-30

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is the mixture of coal C originating from mining and reclamation activities and recent plant-derived organic carbon (OC). Accurate estimates of OC pools and sequestration rates in the RMS are limited by lack of standard and cost-effective method for determination of coal-C concentration. The main objective of this project was to develop and test analytical procedures for quantifying pool sizes of coal-derived C in RMS and to partition organic C in RMS into coal-derived and newly deposited SOC fractions. Analysis of soil and coal artificial mixtures indicated that the {Delta}{sup 13}C method developed was very effective in estimating coal C added in the mixtures, especially soils under C4 plants. However, most of the reclaimed sites in Ohio are under C3 plants with range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal falling within ranges of coal. The wide range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal observed in minesoils, (i.e. -26 to -30 for plants and -23 to -26 for coal) limits the ability of this approach to be used for southeast Ohio minesoils. This method is applicable for reclaimed prime farm land under long term corn or corn soybean rotation. Chemi-thermal method was very effective in quantifying coal-C fraction in both soil-coal artificial mixtures and minesoils. The recovery of coal-C from the mixture ranged from 93 to 100% of coal. Cross-validation of chemi-thermal method with radiocarbon analysis revealed that chemi-thermal method was as effective as radiocarbon analysis in quantifying coal-C in RMS. Coal C determined after chemi-thermal treatment of samples was highly correlated with coal C concentration calculated by radiocarbon activity (r{sup 2} = 0.95, P < 0.01). Therefore, both radiocarbon activity and chemi-thermal method were effective in estimating coal carbon concentration in reclaimed minesoils of southeast Ohio. Overall, both coal-C and recent OC fraction exhibited high spatial and depth variation, suggesting that approaches used to obtain representative samples in undisturbed soils may not be effective in RMS sites. Analysis of coal-C fraction in RMS indicated that the contribution of coal C to SOC increased with increase in soil depth, accounting for up to 92% of SOC in the sub-soil. Our data indicated that land use and land management practices plays significant role in enhancing SOC sequestration in reclaimed mined lands.

  11. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  12. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  13. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  14. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  15. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadi, A. (Rivers State Univ. of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)) Ue Bari, Y. (Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  16. Lateral migration of hillcrests in response to channel incision in soil-mantled landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Lateral migration of hillcrests in response to channel incision in soil-mantled landscapes Simon August 2005; accepted 16 September 2005; published 23 December 2005. [1] We investigate lateral migration, the speed of hillcrest migration will depend on the ratio of the downcutting rates and the density ratio

  17. New Phytol. (1992), 120, 543-549 Effects of soil temperature on growth,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heckathorn, Scott

    1992-01-01

    in the growing season. Key words: Andropogon gerardii, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, relative growth rate and function, as well as indirect season may cause substantial reductions in the effects on shoot processes, cause uncoupling of air and soil thermal regimes. 1985; Setter & Greenway, 1988; Tindall, Mills

  18. THE CENTRIFUGE PERMEAMETER FOR UNSATURATED SOILS (CPUS) By: John McCartney1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    THE CENTRIFUGE PERMEAMETER FOR UNSATURATED SOILS (CPUS) By: John McCartney1 and Jorge Zornberg, Advisor2 Abstract: This paper describes the development of a new centrifuge permeameter capable inflow rates (0.1 ml/min) within a rotating centrifuge environment, capable of imposing an acceleration

  19. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  20. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  1. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  2. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  3. Sustainable Management of Biogeochemical Cycles in Soils Amended with Bio-Resources from Livestock, Bioenergy, and Urban Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnell, Ronnie Wayne

    2011-10-21

    without sacrificing crop productivity. Alum treatment of bioresources prior to land application effectively reduced runoff loss of dissolved P to levels observed for control soil. For situations in which large, volume-based bioresource rates are top... biomass and residues used for bioenergy production. Recycling byproducts of bioenergy production may be necessary to maintain levels of C and nutrients in soil (Anex et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2004). In addition to benefiting crop growth...

  4. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  5. Effects of litter traits, soil biota, and soil chemistry on soil carbon stocks at a common garden with 14 tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Nematode density (min. soil) Bacterial-feeding nemat.C:N microb. biomass (min. soil) Ectomycorrh. sporocarp spp.R, McCartney D (2002) Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in

  6. Plant-soil interactions and acclimation to temperature of microbial-mediated soil respiration may affect predictions of soil CO2 efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curiel Yuste, J.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    shifts in microbial communities due to soil warming.Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:475–481to an important portion of soil CO 2 ef?ux (Hanson et al.

  7. Effects of litter traits, soil biota, and soil chemistry on soil carbon stocks at a common garden with 14 tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and acidity in mineral soils at a common garden experimentof dominant tree species on soils, but the underlyingN), and acidity in mineral soils from an experiment with

  8. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  9. Soil suitability index identifies potential areas for groundwater banking on agricultural lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    R. 1981. Range claypan soil improvement: response fromdoi:10.2134/ agronj2001.932281x Soil Survey Division Staff.1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service. US

  10. Effects of soil solarization on yields of celery, pepper, onion, control of soil-borne pathogens, and chemical changes in the soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avila, Francisco Antonio

    1989-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON YIELDS OF CELERY, PEPPER, ONION, CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS, AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE SOIL A Thesis by FRANCISCO ANTONIO AVILA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Horticulture EFFECTS OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON YIELDS OF CELERY, PEPPER, ONION, CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS, AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE SOIL A...

  11. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  12. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  13. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the year. Except on the driest of atolls, air temperature and humidity range only within limits set by the surrounding sea. There are no cold seasons, no frosts, no cold soils, no dry winds, and no periodic plagues of insects or diseases moving from miles away. Problems of soil drainage or salinity are few and easily recognized. Nor are there problems with acid soils, soil crusting, or erosion that challenge cultivators in many other areas. On the contrary, some of the black soils at the center of wide islands rank with the best soils of Russia and the American Midwest, except for their shortage of potassium and the uncertainties of rainfall. Some of these atoll soils contain more total nitrogen than many of the world's most productive agricultural soils and, in some, the total phosphorus content is so high as to be almost unbelievable--two to five tons of the element per acre. Certainly, problems exist in growing plants on atolls. There are also some special concerns not encountered in other environments, such as the wind and salt spray near shore. The two major physical limitations, however, are inadequate rainfall in some years and in many places, and soil fertility limitations. The alkaline or ''limy'' make-up of atoll soils means that a few plant nutrients, especially iron, limit growth of many introduced plants, and this is difficult to correct. As elsewhere in the world, many--but not all--atoll soils lack enough nitrogen and/or phosphorus for high yield, and all lack sufficient potassium. There is no practical way of overcoming drought except by use of tolerant plants such as coconut (ni) and Pandanus (bob), plus collection and careful use of whatever water is available. There are opportunities to overcome nutritional limitations mentioned above, first, by intensive use of all organic debris and household wastes in small gardens and, second, by use of commercial fertilizers. Imported fertilizers are expensive, certainly, but much less so on a family basis than the equivalent costs of imported food.

  14. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A. (US EPA, Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  15. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  16. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  17. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (pmore »with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  18. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Determining the Quasi-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field ponded infiltration tests in quasi-saturated soils (containing entrapped air) exhibit the same three-stage temporal variability for the flow rate and hydraulic conductivity. However, the values for the hydraulic conductivity may differ by as much as two orders of magnitude due to differences in the geometry and physics of flow when different laboratory and field methods are applied. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this variability using a comparison of results of ponded infiltration tests conducted under laboratory conditions using confined cores, with results of field tests conducted using partially isolated cores and double-ring infiltrometers. Under laboratory conditions in confined cores, during the firs stage, the water flux decreases over time because entrapped air plugs the largest pores in the soils; during the second stage, the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity increases by one to two orders of magnitude, essentially reaching the saturated hydraulic conductivity, when entrapped air is discharged from the soils; during the third stage, the hydraulic conductivity decreases to minimum values due to sealing of the soil surface and the effect of biofilms sealing the pores within the wetted zone. Under field conditions, the second stage is only partially developed, and when the surface sealing process begins, the hydraulic pressure drops below the air entry value, thereby causing atmospheric air to enter the soils. As a result, the soils become unsaturated with a low hydraulic conductivity, and the infiltration rate consequently decreases. Contrary to the laboratory experiments in confined cores, the saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be reached under field conditions. In computations of infiltration one has to take into account the variations in the quasi-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, moisture and entrapped air content, and the hydraulic gradient in the quasi-saturated or unsaturated soils.

  19. A Method for Estimating In Situ Reaction Rates from Push-Pull Experiments for Arbitrary Solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chen

    at the U.S. Department of Energy's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program's Field Research Background Concentrations CHANGBING YANG Department of Plants, Soil, and Climate, Utah State University, IN 47405-1405 Key Terms: Push-Pull Test, Reaction Rates, Numer- ical Modeling, Net Mass Transfer ABSTRACT

  20. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  1. Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    of the soil surface is the limiting parameter. Effects of Crude Oil on Evaporation - Crude oil applied to the wet soil surfaces of the lysimeters following rains suppressed evaporation immediately following the rains. However, the value of the crude oil...

  2. Water and heat transport in boreal soils: Implications for soil response to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    upward gradients of water potential energy (mainly due towater movement could be an important factor in seasonal soil energywater movement through boreal soil is a critical factor for accurate simulations of energy (

  3. Consolidation theories for saturated-unsaturated soils and numerical simulation of residential buildings on expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiong

    2005-11-01

    to perform uncoupled two or three dimensional consolidation calculation for both expansive soils and collapsible soils. From the analysis, the equivalent effective stress and excessive pore water pressure can be easily calculated. At the same time...

  4. Soil phosphorus status and fertilizer use in select agricutural soils in Nicaragua 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, Patrick G

    2001-01-01

    A survey of small, medium and large Nicaraguan producers indicated a heavy reliance on imported complete fertilizer. Analysis of soils sampled from the large-scale commercial producers found low P retention in the lowland heavy clay soils...

  5. Pedogenic Thresholds and Soil Process Domains in Basalt-Derived Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitousek, PM; Chadwick, OA

    2013-01-01

    rejuvenation of weathering-derived nutri- ent supply in anProcess Domains in Basalt-Derived Soils Peter M. Vitousekand domains in basalt-derived soils on two rainfall

  6. Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a, , Birl Lowery a , Carl Wacker b a University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Soil Science, FD Hole Soils Lab, 1525 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 May 2012 Accepted 15 May 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Soil maps Historical maps Digital soil

  7. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01

    stream_size 21847 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text.... This study will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare...

  8. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  9. Dynamic Soil-Structure-Soil-Interaction Analysis of Structures in Dense Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Katherine Carys

    2013-01-01

    soil. International Journal of Geomechanics, 8(6), 336-346.International Journal of Geomechanics. Takewaki, I. (1998).

  10. Supplementary Information Pyrogenic carbon additions to soil counteract positive priming of soil carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    derive the fraction of total soil CO2 emissions that are from this plant as compared to those from the C3 soil using the equation: fC4 veg T C3soil C4 veg C3soil , where fC4veg is the fraction of CO2 the contrasting metabolic pathways of C3 and C4 plants. During photosynthetic uptake of CO2, C3 plants

  11. Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than by enhancing soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than by enhancing soil moisture E . C A R O L A D A I R * § , P E T E R B . R E I C H , J A R E D J . T R O It is not clear whether the consistent positive effect of elevated CO2 on soil respiration (soil carbon flux, SCF

  12. The Chemical Composition of Some Texas Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1907-01-01

    as to be unfit for agricultural purposes, although very productive when the stones are removed. Crawford silty clay is a brown to reddish brown clay, being the principal truck soil of the area. Blanco Ioam is a heavy gray loam or silty loam occurring only... acid is low in the Houston Ioam and in the Susquehanna fine sandy loam, but other soils contain an abundance. A fair quantity of nit- rogen is present in all the soils. Potash is low in Houston clay and in the Blanco loam. These soils as a rule...

  13. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine...

  14. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fendorf, S.

    2010-01-01

    retention mechanisms on goethite. 1. Surface structure.ion adsorbed on synthetic goethite (?-FeOOH). Soil Sci. 35:of arsenic(III) on goethite: spectroscopic evidence for

  15. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  16. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  17. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  18. Stable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils effect of antecedent soil moisture content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    contents during the experiment, which caused the soil to be wettable instead of water repellent. The waterStable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils ± effect of antecedent soil moisture content Coen J. Ritsemaa,* , John L. Nieberb , Louis W. Dekkera , T.S. Steenhuisc a DLO Winand Staring

  19. Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Microbial Ecology Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils Roberta M. Veluci1,2 , Deborah A. Neher1,3 and Thomas R. Weicht1,3 (1) Department of Earth, FL 32611-0760, USA (3) Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, 105 Carrigan Dr

  20. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  1. The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: results from in situ soil column experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V; Stidson, Ruth T; Matucha, Miroslav; Cape, J Neil

    2010-01-01

    experiments with radioactively-labelled TCA and with irradiated (sterilised) soil columns. Control in situ forest soil columns showed evidence of net export (i.e. in situ production) of TCA, consistent with a net soil TCA production inferred from forest...

  2. Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than by enhancing soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than It is not clear whether the consistent positive effect of elevated CO2 on soil respiration (soil carbon flux, SCF) results from increased plant and microbial activity due to (i) greater C availability through CO2-induced

  3. Soil organic carbon and nutrient content in aggregate-size fractions of a subtropical rice soil under variable tillage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Soil organic carbon and nutrient content in aggregate-size fractions of a subtropical rice soil The effects of tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient content of soil aggregates can vary spatially and temporally, and for different soil types and cropping systems. We assessed SOC and nutrient levels within

  4. EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1 EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY compost as an antagonistic suppression approach to combat soil-borne disease effects on crop yields the effect of compost and lime on soil chemical properties, the soil microbial community (including Fusarium

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  6. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  7. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  8. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft CostsSoilBioscience:

  9. Finnish forest soils Pekka Tamminen and Erkki Tomppo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomppo, Erkki

    .9 %), Gleysols (1.4 %) and Regosols (1.2 %), had only a small proportion. International soil classifications seem properties, the use of continuous variables would be more useful for primary soil users. Keywords soil survey

  10. Biochar and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Soil Amendments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Lauren Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    pyrolysis temperature on biochar property and function as a heavy metal sorbent in soil.soil biological community structures and functions and that pyrolysisPyrolysis Temperature of Biochar Amendments on Transport of Escherichia coli in Saturated and Unsaturated Soil.

  11. Soil-landscape model helps predict potassium supply in vineyards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Geen, Anthony T; Pettygrove, Stuart; Southard, Randal; Minoshima, Hideomi; Verdegaal, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    for making and inter- preting soil surveys (2nd ed. ). USDA-K S, V, K Depth inches Color* moist soil Sand Silt Clay Claymineralogy† pH CEC cmol(+)/kg soil‡ Exchangeable K K

  12. Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction Operation in Southwest Oregon1 literature has quantified harvesting system effectiveness or soil disturbance concerns from such operations. This paper reports results of soil disturbance generated from an integrated forest harvesting

  13. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL IN FLORIDAParker, Effects of common soil anions and pH on the uptakein lettuce. Plant and Soil, 2008. 302(1-2): p. 139-148.

  14. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torn, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412 , 785. Fried,Plant Litter. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological2007). Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage:

  15. SOIL MICROBIOLOGY Resource Use of Soilborne Streptomyces Varies with Location,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    SOIL MICROBIOLOGY Resource Use of Soilborne Streptomyces Varies with Location, Phylogeny in prairie soils. Resource use patterns were highly variable among Streptomyces isolates and were soils less than 1 m apart differed significantly in their ability to use resources, indicating

  16. Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest Oregon Watershed Following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --------------------------------------------- Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest by a high-intensity burn over areas of steep topography. The areal distribution of soil hydraulic of infiltration capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisture characteristics. Also, measures

  17. Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by freshcarbon input G03033 from fresh liter to deep mineral soils,Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 71, 347–354, doi:

  18. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

    2011-01-01

    in S. Paulo State, Brazil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 38, Lima,G. : Variable Charge Soils: Their Mineralogy, Chemistry andV. S. : Edaphic controls on soil organic carbon retention in

  19. Measurement and Modeling of Solute Diffusion Coefficients in Unsaturated Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion and flow in gravel, soil, and whole rock, AppliedEds. ) (2002), Methods of Soil Analysis Part 4 PhysicalUnsaturated Volcanic Ash Soils, Vadose Zone Journal, 8(4),

  20. Vineyard nutrient needs vary with rootstocks and soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Jean-Jacques; Anderson, Michael M; Wolpert, J A

    2008-01-01

    to the interpretation of soil analysis for potassium andA (ed. ). 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physi- cal9:154–68. Nicholas P. 2004. Soil, Irrigation and Nutrition.

  1. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  2. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  3. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  4. Cliff T. Johnston Professor of Soil Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott A.

    in Academic, Professional and Scholarly Societies American Chemical Society Clay Minerals Society Awarded a Fulbright Senior Specialist Grant ­ Brazil. Publications - Journal Articles and Invited Reviews developments in soil science research, L.L. Boersma (ed.), Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. Publications, Madison, WI

  5. Data management system for organic soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinnette, P.

    1999-07-01

    A Data Management System for Organic Soil (DMSOS) has been developed that enables the acquisition, management and analysis of organic soil data as well as the presentation of results to be conducted effectively through a common interface. This development was in response to the data management needs of research investigating the engineering properties of organic soil and its extension to the stabilization of organic soil through dynamic replacement (DR). It is shown how the above functions are implemented efficiently using Windows-based software to perform comprehensive data management and analysis of data gathered from both laboratory and field tests. When the engineering properties of a given organic soil deposit are needed, a build-in Computer Advisor for Organic Soil Projects (CAOSP) predicts the properties from DMSOS based correlations. A unique and useful feature of the CAOSP is its ability to estimate the anticipated ultimate settlement of an organic soil deposit given the loading conditions and the moisture or organic content. Also incorporated in the DMSOS is a quality control system that utilizes computerized data acquisition/data management techniques in order to evaluate the degree of improvement of an organic soil layer at a given stage of treatment using DR.

  6. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  7. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  8. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. Moisture Relations of Some Texas Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01

    . %Water Content of Houston Black Clay, 1912 The curves show clearly the effects of cultivation upon the water content of the soil. T'he cultivated soil contains a larger percentage of water in practicaJly all cases. The curves also show the decided...

  10. Using soil sensing technology to examine interactions and controls between ectomycorrhizal growth and environmental factors on soil CO2 dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Allen, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Plant Soil (2010) 331:17–29 DOI 10.1007/s11104-y REGULAR ARTICLE Using soil sensing technology to examineand environmental factors on soil CO 2 dynamics Niles J.

  11. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane, Australia 1-6 August 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ). The investigated ES were climate regulation through carbon sequestration in soil and biomass, soil conservation of these results are discussed. Key Words Land use change, socioeconomic drivers, carbon sequestration, soil

  12. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

  13. SIMULATION OF CONSOLIDATION IN PARTIALLY SATURATED SOIL MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2010-01-01

    T.W. and R.V. Whitman, Soil Mechanics, John Wiley, New York,in the field of soil mechanics. The now widely used concept

  14. ORNL researchers improve soil carbon cycling models | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and releases carbon into the soil. Enzymes released by microbes in the soil degrade the organic matter, releasing carbon molecules, which the microbes absorb as food. Eventually,...

  15. Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how sequential expression mediates soil carbon stabilization and turnover Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plant...

  16. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mapping...

  17. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Erin Nuccio, Lawrence...

  18. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky...

  19. LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010...

  20. Soil and Groundwater Cleanup - In-Situ Grouting, Lessons Learned...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Soil and Groundwater Cleanup - In-Situ Grouting, Lessons Learned (Post CD-4), Environmental Management Cleanup, May 2011 Soil and Groundwater Cleanup - In-Situ Grouting, Lessons...