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1

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The Energy Department funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of supernovae. But this research is not only about furthering our understanding of the world around

2

Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery  

SciTech Connect

A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries Peyman Taheri in batteries with orthotropic thermal conductivities, where the heat generation is due to irreversible of the battery thermal behavior with modest numerical effort. The accuracy of the proposed model is tested

Bahrami, Majid

4

Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batterie--High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batteries - High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles Background The key to making electric vehicles (EVs) practical is the development of batteries that can provide performance comparable with that of con ventional vehicles at a similar cost. Most EV batteries have limited energy storage capabili ties, permitting only relatively short driving distances before the batteries must be recharged. In 1991, under a coopera tive agreement with The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) initiated development of nickel- metal-hydride (NiMH) battery technology and established it as a prime mid-term candidate for use in EVs. DOE funding has been instru

5

Transition-Metal Hydrides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics A new type of electrochromic hydride material has interesting and unusual properties. Thin Ni-Mg films, for example, are mirror-like in appearance and have very low visible transmittance. On exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films become transparent. The transition is believed to result from formation of nickel magnesium hydride, Mg2NiH4. Switchable mirrors based on rare earth hydrides were discovered in 1996 at Vrije University in the Netherlands, Rare earth-magnesium alloy films were subsequently found to be superior to the pure lanthanides in maximum transparency and mirror-state reflectivity by Philips Laboratories. The newer transition-metal types which use less expensive and less reactive materials were discovered at LBNL. This has now become a very active area of study with a network of researchers.

6

Metal Hydrides - Science Needs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Grand Challenge Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June 19, 2003 1 Metal Hydrides - Science Needs TRADITIONAL METALLIC HYDRIDES: 1.5 to 2 wt.% H. Well studied. COMPLEX...

7

Influence of additives on the thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study discusses the thermal behavior of the 6.5 Ah cylinder Ni/MH hydride battery with 0.5 wt% ytterbium oxide (...2O3...) in nickel electrode and 1.0 wt% super absorbent polymer (SAP) in hydrogen-storage al...

Kai Yang; Jin Jing An; Shi Chen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Mixing effect of metal oxides on negative electrode reactions in the nickel-hydride battery  

SciTech Connect

Negative electrodes for use in nickel-hydride batteries were prepared from MmNi[sub 3.6]Mn[sub 0.4]Al[sub 0.3]Co[sub 0.7] (Mm = misch metal with the composition of 24.87% La, 52.56% Ce, 5.57% Pr, 16.86% Nd, and 0.14% Sm) alloy being mixed with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder. Then the hydrogen evolution reactions at the electrodes were investigated by measuring the potential decay immediately after the interruption of an applied cathodic current. The reactions were found to proceed by the Volmer-Tafel mechanism. The total overvoltage ([eta]) was divided into two components ([eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]) corresponding to the Tafel and Volmer reactions. The exchange current densities of the elementary reactions, i[sub 0V] and i[sub 0T], were then evaluated by extrapolating the Tafel lines for [eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]. The Volmer reaction is much more accelerated by surface modification with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder than the Tafel reaction, which results in the enrichment of adsorbed hydrogen, leading to higher charging efficiency.

Iwakura, Chiaki; Matsuoka, Masao; Kohno, Tatsuoki (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effects on the positive electrode of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in nickel-metal-hydride batteries  

SciTech Connect

Effects of corrosion of MmNi{sub 4.3{minus}x}Mn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4}Co{sub x} alloys (where Mm = Ce 50%, La 30%, Nd 15%, Pr 5%) are evaluated in nickel-metal-hydride (Ni-MH) cells. Particularly, it is shown how Al released by the corroded alloys pollutes the positive electrode, which endures a loss of charging efficiency, due to the formation of a hydrotalcite-like phase stabilized with Al. Furthermore, since Al is eluted from the hydride electrode and is completely trapped in the positive active material, the titration of this element in the positive electrode is a powerful technique for quantification of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in Ni-MH cells.

Bernard, P. [SAFT, Marcoussis (France). Research Dept.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage R and D  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

11

Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

12

Identification of a new pseudo-binary hydroxide during calendar corrosion of (La, Mg)2Ni7-type hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries J. Monnier 1 , H. Chen 1 , S. Joiret2,3 , J present higher hydrogen storage capacity and higher discharge capacity, eg. 356mAh/g for LaCaMgNi9 [4 in the huge market of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and Emergency Light Units (ELU). Hydrogen

Boyer, Edmond

13

Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...

14

Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hf for selected alkali metal hydrides, alkaline earth metal hydrides, transition metal hydrides... of binary hydrides based on alkali metals, alkaline earth ... Source:...

17

Recent developments in hydrogen storage applications based on metal hydrides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal hydrides have been commercialized for battery applications for more than 8 years. In case of storage applications, metal hydrides were extensively evaluated in combination with combustion engines. The relatively low gravimetric energy density of hydride tanks based on low temperature metal hydrides prevented the commercial use of that technology. Recently, lasting progress in the PEM fuel cell technology offers chances for metal hydride storage systems mainly for low power applications, but also for niche markets. The paper describes promising projects on metal hydride storage technology and gives an outlook about improvements of both the metal hydride alloy performance and the performance of metal hydride storage tanks.

V. Güther; A. Otto

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

19

Encapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentration feed stock, not for low concentration ďż˝ Hydrogen economy will need hydrogen recovery from lowEncapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation (Formerly Separation Membrane Development) DOE Hydrogen Program 2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation L. Kit Heung, Jim Congdon Savannah River Technology

20

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS  

SciTech Connect

I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

Huggins, John Mitchell

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

Bowman Jr, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)] [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE); Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V [University of the Western Cape, South Africa] [University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Pollet, Dr. B.G. [University of the Western Cape, South Africa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

23

Mathematical modelling of a metal hydride hydrogen storage system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In order for metal hydride hydrogen storage systems to compete with existing energy storage technology, such as gasoline tanks and batteries, it is important to… (more)

MacDonald, Brendan David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Title X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50574 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Baker Farangis, Jonathan L. Slack, Ponnusamy Nachimuthu, Rupert C. C. Perera, Nobumichi Tamura, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 356-357 Start Page 204 Pagination 204-207 Date Published 08/2003 Keywords A. hydrogen storage materials, NEXAFS, thin film s; C. EXAFS, x-ray diffraction Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Mg K-edge and Ni, Co, and Ti L-edge spectra reflect both reversible and irreversible changes in the metal environments. A significant shift in the nickel L absorption edge shows it to be an active participant in hydride formation. The effect on cobalt and titanium is much less dramatic, suggesting that these metals act primarily as catalysts for formation of magnesium hydride.

25

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

Process for production of a metal hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

1980-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

30

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloCo-chair Efficient hydrogen storage is required for fuel

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SANDIA REPORT SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0786 Unlimited Release Printed February 2012 Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Lennie Klebanoff Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Jay Keller Deputy Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

35

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

Congdon, James W. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride/carbon aerogel composites for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4), a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs), a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. ...

Kuen-Song Lin; Yao-Jen Mai; Su-Wei Chiu; Jing-How Yang; Sammy L. I. Chan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Title Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-1089E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Anders, André, Jonathan L. Slack, and Thomas J. Richardson Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 1 Date Published 08/2003 Call Number LBNL-1089E Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9% silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

39

Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - annulus metal hydride Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Metal hydride applications span a wide variety of tech nologies eg energy conversion... chemical compressors and hydrogen storage A knowledge of heat and...

42

Thermodynamics of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications using first principles calculations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Metal hydrides are promising candidates for H2 storage, but high stability and poor kinetics are the important challenges which have to be solved for vehicular… (more)

Kim, Ki Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

T: T: Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly, MA; Bridgeport Brass, Adrian, MI and Seymour, Chicago, IL CT; National Guard Armory, 0: Joe LaGrone, Manager Oak Ridge Operations Office Based on the attached radiological survey data (Attachments 1 through 3) and an appropriate authority review, the following properties are being authorized for remedial action. It should be noted that the attached survey data are for designation purposes only and that Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) should conduct appropriate comprehensive characterization studies to determine the extent'and magnitude of contamination on properties. Site Location Priority Former Bridgeport Brass Co. (General Motors) Adrian, MI Low Former Bridgeport Brass Co.

44

ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

45

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang Lü; Jing Mi; Lei Hao…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic

48

Dynamic modeling and simulation of hydrogen supply capacity from a metal hydride tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The current study presents a modeling of a LaNi5 metal hydride-based hydrogen storage tank to simulate and control the dynamic processes of hydrogen discharge from a metal hydride tank in various operating conditions. The metal hydride takes a partial volume in the tank and, therefore, hydrogen discharge through the exit of the tank was driven by two factors; one factor is compressibility of pressurized gaseous hydrogen in the tank, i.e. the pressure difference between the interior and the exit of the tank makes hydrogen released. The other factor is desorption of hydrogen from the metal hydride, which is subsequently released through the tank exit. The duration of a supposed full load supply is evaluated, which depends on the initial tank pressure, the circulation water temperature, and the metal hydride volume fraction in the tank. In the high pressure regime, the duration of full load supply is increased with increasing circulation water temperature while, in the low pressure regime where the initial amount of hydrogen absorbed in the metal hydride varies sensitively with the metal hydride temperature, the duration of full load supply is increased and then decreased with increasing circulation water temperature. PID control logic was implemented in the hydrogen supply system to simulate a representative scenario of hydrogen consumption demand for a fuel cell system. The demanded hydrogen consumption rate was controlled adequately by manipulating the discharge valve of the tank at a circulation water temperature not less than a certain limit, which is increased with an increase in the tank exit pressure.

Ju-Hyeong Cho; Sang-Seok Yu; Man-Young Kim; Sang-Gyu Kang; Young-Duk Lee; Kook-Young Ahn; Hyun-Jin Ji

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of several rhenium hydride complexes. A study of the role of metal hydrides in organometallic reactions  

SciTech Connect

The mechanistic role of transition metal hydrides in organometallic reactions has been studied using several low valent, electron rich rhenium complexes. The reaction ReH[sub 7](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] with indene has been found to yield products that are [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 7]ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] and ([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 11])ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2], respectively. The mechanism proposed for the formation of these two products consists of several metal to ring hydride migrations, and the activation parameters for one of the migrations have been obtained. Hydride migrations are prevalent in the subsequent chemistry of ([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 11])ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2], as well as in the similar complex ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 9]H[sub 12])ReH[sub 3](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]. The complex ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 4]H[sub 5]S)ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] has been synthesized and structurally characterized in an attempt to model the interaction of thiophene with a metal hydride surface which is presumably present during typical hydrodesulfurization conditions. The thermolysis of ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 4]H[sub 5]S)ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] in the presence of PMe[sub 3] has been found to yield free tetrahydrothiophene and the cyclometallated Re(PMe[sub 3])[sub 4](PPH[sub 2]C[sub 6]H[sub 4]), while photolysis with excess PMe[sub 3] yields a mixture of organometallic products in which the thiophene ligand has undergone C-S bond cleavage. Products have been identified that contain an S-bound 1-butene-1-thiolate ligand, an [eta][sup 3]-allyl bound 1-butene-1-thiolate ligand, an ethylthioketene ligand and an S-bound 1-butanethiolate ligand, all of which represent the first such homogeneous transformations of thiophene. The photochemical ligand exchange reactions and the observed H/D exchange catalysis (between a deuterated solvent and a protio substrate) of CpReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] have been studied in detail.

Rosini, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for TES systems.

52

First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides  

SciTech Connect

Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

Chou, Mei-Yin

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

53

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini- Grid TIAX, LLC Acorn Park Cambridge_MERIT_REVIEW_MAY2003 2 Introduction Hydrogen Mini-Grid Concept Distributed FCPS utilizing a H2 Mini-Grid can provide waste heat can be used for hot water or space heating in buildings (i.e. "cogen") Distributed FCPS

54

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL-MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE FILMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardson a, *, B. Farangis a , J. L. Slack a , P. Nachimuthu b , R. Pereira b , N. Tamura b , and M. Rubin a a Environmental Energy Technologies Division, b Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720, USA *Corresponding author, E-mail address: tjrichardson@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption

55

LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES  

SciTech Connect

Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

Positron binding to alkali-metal hydrides: The role of molecular vibrations  

SciTech Connect

The bound vibrational levels for J=0 have been computed for the series of alkali-metal hydride molecules from LiH to RbH, including NaH and KH. For all four molecules the corresponding potential-energy curves have been obtained for each isolated species and for its positron-bound complex (e{sup +}XH). It is found that the calculated positron affinity values strongly depend on the molecular vibrational state for which they are obtained and invariably increase as the molecular vibrational energy content increases. The consequences of our findings on the likelihood of possibly detecting such weakly bound species are briefly discussed.

Gianturco, Franco A.; Franz, Jan; Buenker, Robert J.; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Pichl, Lukas; Rost, Jan-Michael; Tachikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Mineo [Department of Chemistry and INFM, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Fachbereich C-Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer St. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Graduate School of Science, Yokohama-city University, Seto 22-2, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hydriding and dehydriding characteristics of LiBH{sub 4} and transition metals-added magnesium hydride  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Hydriding reaction curves under 12 bar H{sub 2}, and dehydriding reaction curves under 1.0 bar H{sub 2}, at 593 K at the 1st cycle for MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti and MgH{sub 2}. Highlights: ? Addition of Ni, LiBH{sub 4}, and Ti to MgH{sub 2} to increase reaction rates. ? Sample preparation by reactive mechanical grinding. ? At n = 2, the sample absorbed 4.05 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H{sub 2}. ? Analysis of rate-controlling step for dehydriding of the sample at n = 3. - Abstract: In this study, MgH{sub 2} was used as a starting material instead of Mg. Ni, Ti, and LiBH{sub 4} with a high hydrogen-storage capacity of 18.4 wt% were added. A sample with a composition of MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti was prepared by reactive mechanical grinding. The activation of MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti was completed after the first hydriding–dehydrding cycle. The hydriding rate decreases as the temperature increases due to the decrease in the driving force for the hydriding reaction. At the 1st cycle, the sample desorbs 1.45 wt% H for 10 min, 2.54 wt% H for 20 min, 3.13 wt% H for 30 min, and 3.40 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 1.0 bar H{sub 2}. At the 2nd cycle, the sample absorbs 3.84 wt% H for 5 min, 3.96 wt% H for 10 min, and 4.05 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H{sub 2}. MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti after reactive mechanical grinding contained MgH{sub 2}, Mg, Ni, TiH{sub 1.924}, and MgO phases. The reactive mechanical grinding of Mg with Ni, LiBH{sub 4}, and Ti is considered to create defects on the surface and in the interior of Mg (to facilitate nucleation), and to reduce the particle size of Mg (to shorten diffusion distances of hydrogen atoms). The formation of Mg{sub 2}Ni during hydriding–dehydriding cycling increases the hydriding and dehydriding rates of the sample.

Song, Myoung Youp, E-mail: songmy@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Engineering Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Young Jun; Lee, Seong Ho [Department of Materials Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbongdong, Bukgu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Startup and Operation of a Metal Hydride Based Isotope Separation Process  

SciTech Connect

Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957--1986), fractional absorption (1964--1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing.

Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S.

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fracture Initiation Due to Hydrides in Zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In hydride-forming metals, the presence of hydrides can sometimes lead to brittle fracture. Zirconium is a hydride-forming metal that forms the basis of a number of alloys used in CANDUTM nuclear reactors. Under ...

M. P. Puls; B. W. Leitch; W. R. Wallace

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Methodology of Materials Discovery in Complex Metal Hydrides Using Experimental and Computational Tools  

SciTech Connect

We present a review of the experimental and theoretical methods used in the discovery of new metal-hydrogen materials systems for hydrogen storage applications. Rather than a comprehensive review of all new materials and methods used in the metal hydride community, we focus on a specific subset of successful methods utilizing theoretical crystal structure prediction methods, computational approaches for screening large numbers of compound classes, and medium-throughput experimental methods for the preparation of such materials. Monte Carlo techniques paired with a simplified empirical Hamiltonian provide crystal structure candidates that are refined using Density Functional Theory. First-principle methods using high-quality structural candidates are further screened for an estimate of reaction energetics, decomposition enthalpies, and determination of reaction pathways. Experimental synthesis utilizes a compacted-pellet sintering technique under high-pressure hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Crystal structure determination follows from a combination of Rietveld refinements of diffraction patterns and first-principles computation of total energies and dynamical stability of competing structures. The methods presented within are general and applicable to a wide class of materials for energy storage.

Majzoub, Eric H.; Ronnebro, Ewa

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) In fulfillment of the end of Fiscal Year 2007 Project Milestone on Materials Down-selection Lennie Klebanoff, Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94551 September/October 2007 1 Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the contributions of all Principal Investigators within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) to the work summarized herein. Their names and affiliations are listed below. Especially significant contributions to this document were made by Dr. Ewa Ronnebro (SNL), Dr. John Vajo (HRL), Prof. Zak Fang (U. Utah), Dr. Robert Bowman Jr. (JPL), Prof. David Sholl (CMU) and Prof. Craig Jensen (U. Hawaii). The author thanks Dr.

63

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

Widom, A; Larsen, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Study of integrated metal hydrides heat pump and cascade utilization of liquefied natural gas cold energy recovery system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The traditional cold energy utilization of the liquefied natural gas system needs a higher temperature heat source to improve exergy efficiency, which barricades the application of the common low quality thermal energy. The adoption of a metal hydride heat pump system powered by low quality energy could provide the necessary high temperature heat and reduce the overall energy consumption. Thus, an LNG cold energy recovery system integrating metal hydride heat pump was proposed, and the exergy analysis method was applied to study the case. The performance of the proposed integration system was evaluated. Moreover, some key factors were also theoretically investigated about their influences on the system performance. According to the results of the analysis, some optimization directions of the integrated system were also pointed out.

Xiangyu Meng; Feifei Bai; Fusheng Yang; Zewei Bao; Zaoxiao Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

66

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Getting metal-hydrides to do what you want them to  

SciTech Connect

With the discovery of AB/sub 5/ compounds, intermetallic hydrides with unusual properties began to be developed (H dissociation pressures of one to several atmospheres, extremely rapid and reversible adsorption/desorption very large amounts of H adsorbed). This paper reviews the factors that must be controlled in order to modify these hydrides to make them useful. The system LaNi/sub 5/ + H/sub 2/ is used as example. Use of AB/sub 5/ hydrides to construct a chemical heat pumps is discussed. Results of a systematic study substituting Al for Ni are reported; the HYCSOS pump is described briefly. Use of hydrides as hydrogen getters (substituted ZrV/sub 2/) is also discussed. Finally, possible developments in intermetallic hydride research in the 1980's and the hydrogen economy are discussed. 10 figures. (DLC)

Gruen, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Sulfur resistance of Group VIII transition metal promoted nickel catalysts for synthesis gas methanation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SULFUR RESISTANCE OF GROUP VIII TRANSITION METAL PROMOTED NICKEL CATALYSTS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS METHANATION A Thesis by KELLEE HALL HAMLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...: Aydin Akger n (Chairman of Co 'ttee) Ahme M. Gadalla (Member) Michael . Rosynek (Member) aries D. Holland . ( ead of Department) May 1986 ABSTRACT Sulfur Resistance of Group VIII Transition Metal Promoted Nickel Catalysts For Synthesis Gas...

Hamlin, Kellee Hall

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method for inhibiting alkali metal corrosion of nickel-containing alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Structural components of nickel-containing alloys within molten alkali metal systems are protected against corrosion during the course of service by dissolving therein sufficient aluminum, silicon, or manganese to cause the formation and maintenance of a corrosion-resistant intermetallic reaction layer created by the interaction of the molten metal, selected metal, and alloy.

DeVan, Jackson H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Selle, James E. (Westminster, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Oxidative Dissolution of Nickel Metal in Hydrogenated Hydrothermal Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of metallic nickel in hydrogenated ammonia and sodium hydroxide solutions between 175 and 315 C. The solubility measurements were interpreted by means of an oxidative dissolution reaction followed by a sequence of Ni(II) ion hydrolysis reactions: Ni(s) + 2H+(aq) = Ni2+(aq) + H2(g) and Ni{sup 2+}(aq) + nH{sub 2}O = Ni(OH){sub n}{sup 2-n}(aq) + nH{sup +}(aq) where n = 1 and 2. Gibbs energies associated with these reaction equilibria were determined from a least-squares analysis of the data. The extracted thermochemical properties ({Delta}fG{sup 0}, {Delta}fH{sup 0} and S{sup 0}) for Ni2{sup +}(aq), Ni(OH){sup +}(aq) and Ni(OH){sub 2}(aq) were found to be consistent with those determined in a previous solubility study of NiO/Ni(OH){sub 2} conducted in our laboratory. The thermodynamic basis of the Ni/NiO phase boundary in aqueous solutions is examined to show that Ni(s) is stable relative to NiO(s) in solutions saturated at 25 C with 1 atm H{sub 2} for temperatures below 309 C.

Ziemniak SE, Guilmette PA, Turcotte RA, Tunison HM

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

71

Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for Electron Transport G. V. Gibbs point properties (the electron density (F) and the Hessian of F at the bond critical points (bcp

Downs, Robert T.

72

Electrodepositionof Metal Alloyand Mixed Oxide Films Usinga Single-PrecursorTetranuclearCopper-NickelComplex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compositionally uniform mixed metals, metal oxides, and alloys are used extensively as corrosion protective and catalysts. I-~For example, nickel-containing oxides and alloys are used for oxidative protection of very. Although Cu-Ni alloy deposition has been stud- ied for many years, none of the previous approaches has led

Kounaves, Samuel P.

73

Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrode materials. In order to fully understand the processes involved in the corrosion study, tests were carried at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. These tests showed that Zn prevented the corrosion of Ni-a...

Alexander, Michael Scott

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Thermal analysis of nickel/metal (Ni/MH) hydride battery during charge cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional mathematical model containing temporal and spatial coordinates is presented for analyzing the thermal behavior and obtaining the internal temperature profile of cylindrical Ni/MH battery. This model is performed to investigate the ... Keywords: Ni/MH battery, charge, heat transfer coefficient, thermal analysis

Nabi Jahantigh; Ebrahim Afsharia

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride battery during charging and discharging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work discusses thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery with experimental methods. The present work not ... new way to get more exactly parameters and thermal model, but also concentrates on thermal behavior in dis...

K. Yang; D. H. Li; S. Chen; F. Wu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermal behavior analysis of nickel/metal hydride battery during overcharging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To analyze the thermal behavior of the cylinder Ni/MH battery during overcharging, a two-dimensional thermal model is provided in this work. More ... reliable data is provided to create the precise thermal model....

Kai Yang; JinJing An; Shi Chen

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Model based design of an automotive-scale, metal hydride hydrogen storage system.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and General Motors have successfully designed, fabricated, and experimentally operated a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system using the complex metal hydride sodium alanate. Over the 6 year project, the team tackled the primary barriers associated with storage and delivery of hydrogen including mass, volume, efficiency and cost. The result was the hydrogen storage demonstration system design. The key technologies developed for this hydrogen storage system include optimal heat exchange designs, thermal properties enhancement, a unique catalytic hydrogen burner and energy efficient control schemes. The prototype system designed, built, and operated to demonstrate these technologies consists of four identical hydrogen storage modules with a total hydrogen capacity of 3 kg. Each module consists of twelve stainless steel tubes that contain the enhanced sodium alanate. The tubes are arranged in a staggered, 4 x 3 array and enclosed by a steel shell to form a shell and tube heat exchanger. Temperature control during hydrogen absorption and desorption is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through each module shell. For desorption, heat is provided by the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen within a high efficiency, compact heat exchanger. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to the circulating heat transfer fluid. The demonstration system module design and the system control strategies were enabled by experiment-based, computational simulations that included heat and mass transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. Module heat exchange systems were optimized using multi-dimensional models of coupled fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Chemical kinetics models were coupled with both heat and mass transfer calculations to design the sodium alanate vessels. Fluid flow distribution was a key aspect of the design for the hydrogen storage modules and computational simulations were used to balance heat transfer with fluid pressure requirements. An overview of the hydrogen storage system will be given, and examples of these models and simulation results will be described and related to component design. In addition, comparisons of demonstration system experimental results to model predictions will be reported.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.; Jorgensen, Scott W. (General Motors R& D); Dedrick, Daniel E.; Evans, Gregory Herbert

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ultra compact direct hydrogen fuel cell prototype using a metal hydride hydrogen storage tank for a mobile phone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The small fuel cell is being researched as an alternative power source to the Li-ion battery in mobile phone. In this paper, a direct hydrogen fuel cell system which powers a mobile phone without a supplementary battery is compactly integrated below 25 ml volume at the backside of the phone. The system consists of a small (8 ml) metal hydride hydrogen storage tank with 4 L hydrogen storage or an energy density of ?640 W h/L, a thin air-breathing planar polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack (13.44 cm2 × 3 mm for a volumetric power density of 335 W/L), miniature pressure regulator, and a high efficiency DC–DC voltage converting circuitry. The hydrogen storage tank is packed with the AB5 type metal hydride alloy. The eight-cell air-breathing planar stack (8 ml) is very thin (3 mm) due to a thin flexible printed circuit board current collectors as well as a unique riveting assembly and is capable of a robust performance of 2.68 W (200 mW/cm2). A miniature pressure regulator is compact with fluidic and electrical connections within 4 ml. A miniature DC–DC voltage converter operates at an overall efficiency of 90%. Consequently, the estimated energy density of a fully integrated fuel cell system is 205 W h/L (70.5 W h/kg).

Sung Han Kim; Craig M. Miesse; Hee Bum Lee; Ik Whang Chang; Yong Sheen Hwang; Jae Hyuk Jang; Suk Won Cha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof  

SciTech Connect

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

A unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear resonance and inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is presented. It is shown that both exchange processes coexist i.e. do not transform into each other although they may dominate the spectra in different temperature ranges. This superposition is the consequence of the incorporation of the tunnel frequency J of the coherent process into the nuclear two-spin hamiltonian of hydrogen pairs which allows to treat the problem using the well known density matrix theory of NMR line-shapes developed by Alexander and Binsch. It is shown that this theory can also be used to predict the line-shapes of the rotational tunneling transitions observed in the INS spectra of transition metal dihydrogen complexes and that both NMR and INS spectra depend on similar parameters.

Limbach, H.H.; Ulrich, S.; Buntkowsky, G. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Sabo-Etienne, S.; Chaudret, B. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination du C.N.R.S.; Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and complete processing... facility for hydride research 12;BNL Current Research in Hydrogen Storage Complex metal hydride ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and...

82

Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center of Excellence - Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Executive Summaries Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE Period of Performance: 2005-2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy April 2012 2 3 Primary Authors: Chemical Hydrogen Storage (CHSCoE): Kevin Ott, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Sorption (HSCoE): Lin Simpson, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Metal Hydride (MHCoE): Lennie Klebanoff, Sandia National Laboratory Contributors include members of the three Materials Centers of Excellence and the Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Team in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program.

83

URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atmosphere to reduce sample oxidation .................................................................................................. 13 12 Aluminum oxide crucible located at the bottom of the hydride-dehydride rig. ... 14 13 Furnace and furnace... at 60 minutes, 5psig, 250?C hydride, 325?C dehydride ................................................................................................... 30 27 Rotary kiln designed at ORNL for use in voloxidation...

Sames, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

84

Structural Basis of the Metal Specificity for Nickel Regulatory Protein NikR  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of excess nickel, Escherichia coli NikR regulates cellular nickel uptake by suppressing the transcription of the nik operon, which encodes the nickel uptake transporter, NikABCDE. Previously published in vitro studies have shown that NikR is capable of binding a range of divalent transition metal ions in addition to Ni{sup 2+}, including Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+}. To understand how the high-affinity nickel binding site of NikR is able to accommodate these other metal ions, and to improve our understanding of NikR's mechanism of binding to DNA, we have determined structures of the metal-binding domain (MBD) of NikR in the apo form and in complex with Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions and compared them with the previously published structures with Ni{sup 2+}. We observe that Cu{sup 2+} ions bind in a manner very similar to that of Ni{sup 2+}, with a square planar geometry but with longer bond lengths. Crystals grown in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} reveal a protein structure similar to that of apo MBD with a disordered {alpha}3 helix, but with two electron density peaks near the Ni{sup 2+} binding site corresponding to two Zn{sup 2+} ions. These structural findings along with biochemical data on NikR support a hypothesis that ordering of the {alpha}3 helix is important for repressor activation.

Phillips, C.M.; Schreiter, E.R.; Guo, Y.; Wang, S.C.; Zamble, D.B.; Drennan, C.L.

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrogen storage characteristics of nanograined free-standing magnesium–nickel films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of nanograined free-standing magnesium–nickel ?lms MatthewAbstract Free-standing magnesium–nickel (Mg–Ni) ?lms withfree- standing magnesium–nickel ?lms. Magnesium hydride (MgH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Relies on a Different Metal Storage Mechanism for Cobalt than for Nickel  

SciTech Connect

The nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni from metal-enriched soils. Here, metal co-tolerance, accumulation and localization were investigated for A. murale exposed to metal co-contaminants. A. murale was irrigated with Ni-enriched nutrient solutions containing basal or elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) or zinc (Zn). Metal localization and elemental associations were investigated in situ with synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXRF) and computed-microtomography (CMT). A. murale hyperaccumulated Ni and Co (> 1000 {micro}g g{sup -1} dry weight) from mixed-metal systems. Zinc was not hyperaccumulated. Elevated Co or Zn concentrations did not alter Ni accumulation or localization. SXRF images showed uniform Ni distribution in leaves and preferential localization of Co near leaf tips/margins. CMT images revealed that leaf epidermal tissue was enriched with Ni but devoid of Co, that Co was localized in the apoplasm of leaf ground tissue and that Co was sequestered on leaf surfaces near the tips/margins. Cobalt-rich mineral precipitate(s) form on leaves of Co-treated A. murale. Specialized biochemical processes linked with Ni (hyper)tolerance in A. murale do not confer (hyper)tolerance to Co. A. murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for Co (exocellular sequestration) than for Ni (vacuolar sequestration).

Tappero, R.; Peltier, E; Grafe, M; Heidel, K; Ginder-Vogel, M; Livi, K; Rivers, M; Marcus, M; Chaney, R; Sparks, D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Thermal behavior of nickel–metal hydride battery during charging at a wide range of ambient temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal behavior of D-type Ni–MH battery during charging was investigated at a wide ... this work. The temperature measurement of the battery was conducted by using a thermal infrared imager put in a high–low...

Kai Zheng Fang; Dao Bin Mu; Shi Chen…

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Metal Hydrides- Science Needs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

91

Lightweight Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Ji-Cheng Zhao (Primary Contact), Xuenian Chen, Sheldon G. Shore The Ohio State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 286 Watts Hall, 2041 College Road Columbus, OH 43210 Phone: (614) 292-9462 Email: zhao.199@osu.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC3605GO15062 Project Start Date: January 1, 2005 Project End Date: August 31, 2011 (No-cost extension to December 31, 2012) Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a high-capacity lightweight hydride for * reversible vehicular hydrogen storage, capable of meeting or exceeding the 2010 DOE FreedomCAR

92

Reinforced nickel and nickel-platinum catalysts for performing the thermally coupled reactions of methane steam reforming and hydrogen oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of composite nickel and nickel-platinum catalysts reinforced with steel gauze was studied. The catalysts were prepared by sintering powdered nickel metal and a supported nickel catalyst (GIAP-3 or N...

M. M. Danilova; Z. A. Sabirova; N. A. Kuzin; V. A. Kirillov…

93

Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal-coverage Ti atoms on Al 111 as a model surface system for transition metal doped alanate hydrogen storage the dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen in Ti-doped alanate storage materials. © 2007 American Institute

Ciobanu, Cristian

94

Pressure-induced phase transformations in alkali-metal hydrides calculated using an improved linear-muffin-tin-orbital–atomic-sphere-approximation energy scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme for the calculation of total energies from first principles is described which is intermediate between the popular linear muffin-tin-orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) and an exact full-potential treatment. The local-density total energy is evaluated accurately for the output charge density from the ASA potential. This method is applied to the study of static structural properties and the pressure-induced phase transformation from B1 (NaCl-structure) to B2 (CsCl-structure) phases for the partially ionic alkaki-metal hydrides NaH and KH and the alkali halide NaCl. Good agreement with experimental transition pressures and volumes is obtained. The series NaH, KH, and NaCl shows the observed strong cation and weak anion dependence. Charge densities and band structures are given at zero and high pressure. Calculated energy-volume curves for LiH show no transition up to 1 Mbar, in agreement with experimental data.

C. O. Rodriguez and M. Methfessel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

Mullendore, A.W.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Zero-field Spin Depolarization of Low-Energy Muons in Ferromagnetic Nickel and Silver Metal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present zero-field muon-spin depolarization measurements in nickel and silver performed using low-energy muon-spin relaxation technique.Ni or Ag are usually used in this depth-resolved technique as a backing material to enable background subtraction when studying small crystals or materials with weak magnetism. The depolarization rate of the asymmetry in silver and that of the slow relaxing part of the asymmetry in nickel are small(? 0.05 ?s?1), and weakly temperature and energy-dependent.

H. Saadaoui; Z. Salman; T. Prokscha; A. Suter; B.M. Wojek; E. Morenzoni

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

First-principles study of the stability and electronic structure of metal hydrides H. Smithson,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy is the chemical bonding between the hydrogen and metal in which it is inserted. This is the only number s : 61.50.Ah, 61.66.Dk I. INTRODUCTION The absorption of hydrogen in materials is of wide to as hydro- gen embrittlement. The mechanism of such embrittlement is believed to be different depending

Ceder, Gerbrand

98

High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

Jacobson, J.

1994-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere  

SciTech Connect

Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the Feynman method was equally shared between the uncertainties in fitting the data to the Feynman equations and the neutron multiplicity of 239Pu. Material and geometry uncertainties in the benchmark experiment were generally much smaller than uncertainties in the analysis methods.

John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Development of the Low-Pressure Hydride/Dehydride Process  

SciTech Connect

The low-pressure hydride/dehydride process was developed from the need to recover thin-film coatings of plutonium metal from the inner walls of an isotope separation chamber located at Los Alamos and to improve the safety operation of a hydride recovery process using hydrogen at a pressure of 0.7 atm at Rocky Flats. This process is now the heart of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project.

Rueben L. Gutierrez

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Plug-In Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Infrastructure and transport requirements, though often generic, were always included. ... vehicles (PHEV), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector; however, meaningful GHG emissions redns. ... storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and elec. ...

Guillaume Majeau-Bettez; Troy R. Hawkins; Anders Hammer Strřmman

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Microstructural study by XRD profile analysis and TEM observations on hydrided recrystallized Zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-4, used as cladding tube material in the nuclear reactors, may become brittle due to the precipitation of hydrides. During hydride formation, the anisotropic misfit strains between hydrides and the hexagonal-close-packed zirconium matrix results in a preferred orientation of the hydride platelets in the anisotropic stress field caused by non-relieved fabrication residual stresses and misfit stresses. To understand the mechanism of rupture and to predict the threshold stresses for hydride stress orientation, it is necessary to study the residual stresses, especially the microstrain caused by crystalline lattice misfit, in a hydrided specimen. The X-ray diffraction profile analysis is very sensitive to all the microstructure evolution in metallic materials. It is a non-destructive and voluminal technique compared with transmission electron microscope observation. The XRD peak broadening can be related closely with the microstrain in case of hydrided Zircaloy-4, because the hydride formation creates in general a great number of dislocations which contributes especially to the diminution of coherent domain size and to the increase of microstrain. To calibrate the internal microstrain due to precipitation effect of hydrided specimens, XRD profile analysis has also been realized on the non-hydrided specimens deformed by uniaxial tension. In this paper the authors restrict to analyzing the results about the recrystallized state, because more informations about the anisotropic elasticity, plasticity, thermal expansion, neutron diffraction measurement and the crystallographic texture results are available.

Bai, J.B. (Lab. MSS/MAT, CNRS URA 850, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (FR)); Gilbon, D. (LM3, CNRS URA 1219, ENSAM, 151 Bd. de l'Hopital, 75013 Paris (FR)); Lebrun, J.L. (CEA/DTA/CEREM/DTM/SRMA, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Ductility and chemical reactions at the interface between nickel and magnesium oxide single crystals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An investigation was conducted on the interaction between nickel metal and single crystals of magnesium oxide. The nickel was cleaned with purified hydrogen gas at… (more)

Hasselman, Didericus Petrus Hermannus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Hydride Capabilities PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

113

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

14 - Hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrogen storage technologies are playing a significant and critical role in the so-called ‘hydrogen economy’: they are used to buffer primary energy sources for time-delayed end-uses. The purpose of this chapter is to review the main hydrogen storage processes and materials, with a special emphasis on chemical storage (metal and chemical hydrides). First, the main hydrogen processes (physical, chemical, electrochemical, geological) are reviewed. Then, reversible hydrogen storage in hydride-forming metals and intermetallics is discussed. Basic principles (thermodynamic properties, sorption mechanisms, kinetics) are presented and the properties of the main materials are listed and compared. Irreversible hydrogen storage in the main classes of chemical hydrides is then described. In the last section, specifications for automotive and stationary applications are reviewed and discussed.

P. Millet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

116

Quantum dissipative dynamics of adsorbates near metal surfaces: A surrogate Hamiltonian theory applied to hydrogen on nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum dissipative dynamics of adsorbates near metal surfaces: A surrogate Hamiltonian theory; accepted 18 February 1997 Dissipative dynamics of an adsorbate near a metal surface is formulated of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces are complicated due to the simultaneous encounter with dis- sipative

Baer, Roi

117

Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

119

Crack propagation in hydrided zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscope observations of cracks in thin foils of Zircaloy—2 which contains hydride particles have shown that the fracture process is one of linking up satellite cracks in the hydride ph...

G. Östberg

1968-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Materials Reliability Program Low-Temperature Cracking of Nickel-Based Alloys and Weld Metals (MRP-108)  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 A rising load test in low-temperature (50-100 degree C) pH 10 water containing a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen (150 cc/kg) has demonstrated that Alloy 690 as well as weld metals 82 and 52 exhibit a marked loss of ductility. A similar loss of ductility has been shown to occur in widely used weld metal 182 under replica test conditions and simulated PWR primary water containing 100 cc/kg of hydrogen. The objective of this report was to confirm the Bettis test results for weld metal 82 and determine whether weld metal 182 is susceptible to the same reductions in toughness. This report documents the first industry effort to reckon with the low temperature crack propagation (LTCP) issue.

B. Young

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Modular, Energy-Based Approach to the Development of Nickel Containing Molecular Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This review discusses the development of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production and oxidation based on nickel. A modular approach is used in which the structure of the catalyst is divided into first second and outer coordination spheres. The first coordination sphere consists of the ligands bound directly to the metal center, and this coordination sphere can be used to control such factors as the presence or absence of vacant coordination sites, redox potentials, hydride acceptor abilities and other important thermodynamic parameters. The second coordination sphere is defined as functional groups such as pendant acids or bases that can interact with bound substrates such as H2 molecules and hydride ligands, but that do not form strong bonds with the metal center. These functional groups can play diverse roles such as assisting the heterolytic cleavage of H2, controlling intra- and intermolecular proton transfer reactions, and provide a physical pathway for coupling proton and electron transfer reactions. By controlling both the hydride donor/acceptor ability of the catalysts using the first coordination sphere and the proton acceptor/donor abilities of the functional groups in the second coordination sphere, catalysts can be designed that are biased toward H2 production, H2 oxidation, or that are bidirectional (catalyzing both H2 oxidation and production). The outer coordination sphere is defined as that portion of the catalytic system that are not in the first and second coordination spheres. This coordination sphere can assist in the delivery of protons and electrons to and from the catalytically active site, thereby adding another important avenue for controlling catalytic activity. Many features of these simple catalytic systems are good models for enzymes and they provide the opportunity to probe certain aspects of catalysis that may be difficult in enzymes themselves, but that can provide insights into enzyme function and reactivity.

Shaw, Wendy J.; Helm, Monte L.; DuBois, Daniel L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Use of Metal Hydrides for Handling Tritium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Material Interaction / Proceedings of the Second National Topical Meeting on Tritium Technology in Fission, Fusion and Isotopic Applications (Dayton, Ohio, April 30 to May 2, 1985)

Mark S. Ortman; Thomas J. Warren; Daniel J. Smith

123

Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Preparation and X-Ray diffraction studies of curium hydrides  

SciTech Connect

Curium hydrides were prepared by reaction of curium-248 metal with hydrogen and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Several of the syntheses resulted in a hexagonal compound with average lattice parameters of a/sub 0/ = 0.3769(8) nm and c/sub 0/ = 0.6732(12) nm. These products are considere to be CmH/sub 3//sup -//sub 8/ by analogy with the behavior of lanthanide-hydrogen and lighter actinide-hydrogen systems. Face-centered cubic products with an average lattice parameter of a/sub 0/ = 0.5322(4) nm were obtained from other curium hydride preparations. This parameter is slightly smaller than that reported previously for cubic curium dihydride, CmH /SUB 2-x/ (B.M. Bansal and D. Damien. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 6 603, 1970). The present results established a continuation of typical heavy trivalent lanthanidelike behavior of the transuranium actinide-hydrogen systems through curium.

Gibson, J.K.; Maire, R.G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrides for Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage George Thomas, Consultant Sandia National Laboratories G. J. Thomas Efficient onboard hydrogen storage is a critical enabling technology for the use of hydrogen in vehicles * The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which densifies the fuel. - This is particularly true for hydrogen because of its lower energy density relative to hydrocarbon fuels. * Storage methods result in additional weight and volume above that of the fuel. How do we achieve adequate stored energy in an efficient, safe and cost-effective system? G. J. Thomas However, the storage media must meet certain requirements: - reversible hydrogen uptake/release - lightweight - low cost - cyclic stability - rapid kinetic properties - equilibrium properties (P,T) consistent

126

Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This...

127

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities...

128

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of hydride fueled BWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:1489–Hydride Fueled LWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Synthesis and structure of complex metal oxides produced by interaction of iron and nickel acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interaction of nickel and iron acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates and their mixture has been studied. It was shown that chemical synthesis of organometallic gel...

M. V. Tsodikov; O. V. Bukhtenko…

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Nickel Co - Bayonne  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Nickel Co - Bayonne Nickel Co - Bayonne Laboratories - NJ 17 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Nickel Co., Bayonne Laboratories (NJ.17 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Bayonne , New Jersey NJ.17-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 NJ.17-1 Site Operations: Conducted research on the nickel plating of uranium metal. NJ.17-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope of the operations Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium NJ.17-2 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to International Nickel Co., Bayonne Laboratories

131

Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuelcladdings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H 2 from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t 1 ? 2 potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the ? - Zr H 1.5 phase. The measured H 2 desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

M. Díaz; A. González-González; J. S. Moya; B. Remartínez; S. Pérez; J. L. Sacedón

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Electrical Properties of Hydrides and Deuterides of Zirconium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrical properties of hydrides and deuterides of zirconium have been investigated between 1.1 and 410°K. The metallic nature of these materials is evident in the fact that for compositions approaching ZrH2, the hydride is a better conductor than is high-purity zirconium. Above ?150°K the electrical resistivity exhibits an interesting upturn, which arises from scattering from the optical-model lattice vibrations. Excellent fits to the ideal-resistivity data are obtained with a simple additive combination of Grüneisen and Howarth-Sondheimer functions for the respective acoustical- and optical-mode scattering contributions. The corresponding acoustical- and optical-mode characteristic temperatures are in good accord with expectations based on earlier inelastic neutron scattering data. Moreover, the optical-mode characteristic temperature exhibits the expected hydride-deuteride isotope shift of 2. The observed Hall coefficients are large in magnitude (much greater than for pure Zr), and indicate majority hole conduction for the fcc ? phase and majority electron conduction for the face-centered tetragonal ? phase. The thermoelectric power also changes from positive to negative with increasing hydrogen concentration in the range ZrH1.5-ZrH2.

P. W. Bickel and T. G. Berlincourt

1970-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

Diller, Peter

134

Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated hydride generation-cryotrapping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beds... Laboratories Hydride DevelopmentHydride Development for Hydrogen Storagefor Hydrogen Storage Karl Gross Sandia... using light-weight reversible hydrides The lack of a...

136

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relative rates of Sn2 and ocesses in the reaction of 1 withthat these reactions proceed by an Sn2 displacementthe anion, the reaction was found to proceed by Sn2 di prima

Huggins, John Mitchell

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.  

SciTech Connect

We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nickel-Cathoded Perovskite Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel-Cathoded Perovskite Solar Cells ... Current lead halide perovskite solar cells use high work function (?) precious metals, such as gold (? = 5.1 eV), as the back cathode to maximize the attainable photovoltage. ... We report herein a set of perovskite-type solar cells that use nickel (? = 5.04 eV), an earth-abundant element and non-precious metal, as back cathode and achieve the same open-circuit voltage as gold and an efficiency of 10.4%. ...

Qinglong Jiang; Xia Sheng; Bing Shi; Xinjian Feng; Tao Xu

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

139

Gas phase contributions to topochemical hydride reduction reactions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali and alkali earth hydrides have been used as solid state reductants recently to yield many interesting new oxygen-deficient transition metal oxides. These reactions have tacitly been assumed to be a solid phase reaction between the reductant and parent oxide. We have conducted a number of experiments with physical separation between the reductant and oxides, and find that in some cases reduction proceeds even when the reagents are physically separated, implying reactions with in-situ generated H{sub 2} and, to a lesser extent, getter mechanisms. Our findings change our understanding of these topochemical reactions, and should enhance the synthesis of additional new oxides and nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: Topochemical reductions with hydrides: Solid state or gas phase reaction? Display Omitted - Highlights: • SrFeO{sub 2} and LaNiO{sub 2} were prepared by topochemical reduction of oxides. • Separating the reducing agent (CaH{sub 2}, Mg metal) from the oxide still results in reduction. • Such topochemical reactions can occur in the gas phase.

Kobayashi, Yoji [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Li, Zhaofei [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirai, Kei [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tassel, Cédric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Loyer, François [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 Université de Rennes 1-CNRS, équipe CSM, Bât. 10B, Campus de Beaulieu, 263, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ichikawa, Noriya [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Abe, Naoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takafumi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Shimakawa, Yuichi [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); and others

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dimensionality-induced insulator-metal crossover in layered nickelates La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n = 2, 3, and ?)  

SciTech Connect

Low-valence layered nickelates are a structural analog to the superconducting cuprates and possess interesting properties. In this work, we have systematically studied the electronic structure of La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} using first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that the Ni-3d 3z{sup 2} ? r{sup 2} orbital state is active and evolves from discrete molecular levels to a continuous solid band and its filling varies as the dimensionality (or n) increases. The two-dimensional (2D) La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 6} and La{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}O{sub 8} are thus found to have a molecular insulating state. In contrast, the 3D LaNiO{sub 2} is metallic and its 3z{sup 2} ? r{sup 2} band surprisingly becomes 3D due to the Ni-La hybridization, and the La-5d xy orbital also forms a 2D metallic band. Therefore, La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} is a dimensionality-controlled insulator-metal crossover system.

Liu, Ting; Jia, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoli [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Hua, E-mail: wuh@fudan.edu.cn [Laboratory for Computational Physical Sciences (MOE), State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Department of physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Laboratory for Computational Physical Sciences (MOE), State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Department of physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China) [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lin, H. Q. [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, X. G. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Nickel assisted healing of defective graphene S. Karoui,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nickel or transition-metal-carbide surfaces can pro- duce thin graphitic layers.5 However, for the most of graphene grown from a metallic substrate is investigated using tight-binding Monte Carlo simulations and 1000 C, using metallic substrates (such as Co, Ni, Ir, Ru) that catalyze the decomposition

Boyer, Edmond

142

Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition  

SciTech Connect

Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

Yan, Yong [ORNL] [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL] [ORNL; Ray, Holly B [ORNL] [ORNL; Cook, Tyler S [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 plate; Part 2: Interaction between the tensile stress and the hydride morphology  

SciTech Connect

The effect of an applied tensile stress on the hydrides morphology in ZIRCALOY-4 was studied. To this end, the residual stresses around the hydride caused by the hydride precipitation was first evaluated. Considering the disability to predict hydride transformation stresses by ordinary macroscopical mechanical calculation in previous studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out to quantify the microstructural evolution in hydrided ZIRCALOY-4. The residual microstrains and microstresses in the matrix and around the hydride were thus estimated. The big discrepancy between the results and the existing studies were explained by the major self-accommodation of phase transformation deformation remaining inside the hydrides and the local plastic accommodation of ZIRCALOY-4. In order to study the stress effect on hydride orientation and to estimate the hydride orientation threshold stresses, hydrogen was introduced into the specimens under tensile stress. A quantitative technique was used to evaluate the susceptibility to perpendicular hydride formation under the influence of texture, residual stresses, and externally applied tensile stresses, following an improved approach that had been first developed by Sauthoff and then applied to Zr-H system by Puls. Both analytical and experimental results indicate that the threshold stress for producing perpendicular hydrides varies with the microstructural features, the yield strength, and the residual stresses.

Bai, J.B.; Prioul, C.; Francois, D. (Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Ji, N. (ENSAM, Paris (France)); Gilbon, D. (C.E.N. Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Recovery of nickel and water from nickel electroplating wastewater by electrodialysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Galvanic processes are one of the main activities contributing to metal discharges into the environment. The wastewater generated contains a high load of salts and metals that should be treated. In this work, the electrodialysis (ED) treatment was studied in order to concentrate and extract nickel (Ni) and its salts of effluents from the bright nickel electroplating process, aiming at water and concentrated solution recovery for reuse, and saving industrial and environmental resources. A laboratory-scale ED system was applied in the treatment of a synthetic effluent based on industrial bath composition. Properties of recovered water and nickel-concentrated solution have also been analyzed to verify their quality: Both solutions were used in the nickel-plating process in order to analyze their effects on the properties of electroplated pieces. It was found that ED treatment generates a very low conductivity solution, enabling its reuse as rinsewater, and a concentrated solution, which can be fed to the bath to recover volumes lost by evaporation and drag out during the nickel-electroplating process. The reuse does not cause any harm to the quality of plated pieces with regard to the visual aspects and corrosion resistance.

T. Benvenuti; R.S. Krapf; M.A.S. Rodrigues; A.M. Bernardes; J. Zoppas-Ferreira

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Kinetic model of catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism is proposed for describing the previous disclosed multiplicity of equilibrium states in the oxidation of carbon monoxide on metallic nickel. In contrast to the known mechanism for oxidation of CO on platinum metals it includes a nonlinear stage of carbon monoxide adsorption and a linear stage of oxygen adsorption. A kinetic model has been obtained and stage velocity constants have been found, providing a basis for obtaining a quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimental relations between the reaction velocity and the reagent concentrations. Opinions are stated in relation to the causes for evolution of the CO oxidation reaction from platinum metals to nickel.

Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Ostapyuk, V.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

HYDRIDE-RELATED DEGRADATION OF SNF CLADDING UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and scope of this analysis/model report is to analyze the degradation of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) cladding under repository conditions by the hydride-related metallurgical processes, such as delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride reorientation and hydrogen embrittlement, thereby providing a better understanding of the degradation process and clarifying which aspects of the process are known and which need further evaluation and investigation. The intended use is as an input to a more general analysis of cladding degradation.

K. McCoy

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

148

Dissipative hydride precipitates in superconducting niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

We report the first direct observation of the microstructural features exhibiting RF losses at high surface magnetic fields of above 100 mT in field emission free superconducting niobium cavities. The lossy areas were identified by advanced thermometry. Surface investigations using different techniques were carried out on cutout samples from lossy areas and showed the presence of dendritic niobium hydrides. This finding has possible implications to the mechanisms of RF losses in superconducting niobium at all field levels.

Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L.D.; /Fermilab; Ciovati, G.; / /Jefferson Lab; Wu, G.; /Argonne

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Metallic glass composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Sb(V) were the only hydride-forming species found... WATERS BY HYDRIDE GENERATION ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY Water-Resources Investigations Report 03... Prior to the...

151

LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 4 Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton Summary: Complex Hydrides for...

153

Cobasys and Panasonic EV Energy cooperation agreement | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Panasonic EV Energy to share patents and expertise about nickel-metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. References: Cobasys and Panasonic EV Energy...

154

Nano-engineering of magnesium hydride for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The destabilization of magnesium hydride (MgH"2) by solid-state reaction with Si in a nanoscale under vacuum was studied. The nanostructured Si films were deposited on the nanocrystalline MgH"2/Mg composite substrate by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD). ... Keywords: Destabilization, Magnesium hydride, Microstructure, Nano-engineering, Silicon

J. Bystrzycki; T. P?oci?ski; W. Zieli?ski; Z. Winiewski; M. Polanski; W. Mróz; Z. Bojar; K. J. Kurzd?owski

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - active filler metal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. The dissolution of the base metal in the liquid filler metal could eventually shift the eutectic point, however... -temperature brazing with nickel-based filler ... Source:...

156

Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity  

SciTech Connect

The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ? 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ? 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination

Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

157

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

158

Anisotropic behavior and rupture of hydrided Zircaloy-4 sheets  

SciTech Connect

In a French pressurized water reactor (PWR), most of the structural parts of the fuel assembly consist of zirconium alloys (ZIRCALOY-2). The mechanical behavior of ZIRCALOY-4 sheets is investigated at room temperature. The effect of hydride precipitation on the mechanical behavior and on the rupture mechanism is also studied, in the range from 200 to 1,200 wt ppm hydrogen and for different stress triaxialities. It is shown that the material exhibits a strong anisotropy die to its pronounced texture, and that its mechanical properties depend on the strain rate. Hydride precipitation appears to have no effect on the anisotropy or on the strain-rate sensitivity, in the range from 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The main effect of hydrogen is the reduction of the ductility and of crack resistance. The ductile rupture mechanism is studied, focusing on the stage of damage nucleation by hydride fracture. Observations during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ tests show that hydrides allow the transmission of slip, which occurs in ZIRCALOY-4 grains. Hydrides can also deform, together with surrounding zirconium matrix. Damage appears after a plastic-strain yield of about 14 to 25 pct. Fracture occurs first on intergranular hydrides. Fracture of transgranular hydrides is observed only prior to failure, for higher plastic strains.

Grange, M.; Besson, J.; Andrieu, E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Production of Hydrogen by Electrocatalysis: Making the H-H Bond by Combining Protons and Hydrides  

SciTech Connect

Generation of hydrogen by reduction of two protons by two electrons can be catalysed by molecular electrocatalysts. Determination of the thermodynamic driving force for elimination of H2 from molecular complexes is important for the rational design of molecular electrocatalysts, and allows the design of metal complexes of abundant, inexpensive metals rather than precious metals (“Cheap Metals for Noble Tasks”). The rate of H2 evolution can be dramatically accelerated by incorporating pendant amines into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines in the second coordination sphere function as protons relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. The thermodynamics of hydride transfer from metal hydrides and the acidity of protonated pendant amines (pKa of N-H) contribute to the thermodynamics of elimination of H2; both of the hydricity and acidity can be systematically varied by changing the substituents on the ligands. A series of Ni(II) electrocatalysts with pendant amines have been developed. In addition to the thermochemical considerations, the catalytic rate is strongly influenced by the ability to deliver protons to the correct location of the pendant amine. Protonation of the amine endo to the metal leads to the N-H being positioned appropriately to favor rapid heterocoupling with the M-H. Designing ligands that include proton relays that are properly positioned and thermodynamically tuned is a key principle for molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production as well as for other multi-proton, multi-electron reactions important for energy conversions. The research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Bullock, R. Morris; Appel, Aaron M.; Helm, Monte L.

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

160

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This technical report describes the activities carried out, key accomplishments, and recommendations from the DOE’s Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory from 2005 through 2010.

162

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Engineering Sciences Center Atoms to Continuum Storage development within the DOE hydrogen Storage development within the DOE hydrogen program for 10 years program for 10...

163

Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches Andre M of the sorption mechanisms of heavy metals on soil mineral surfaces is therefore of fundamental importance. This study examined Ni(Il) sorption mechanisms on pyrophyllite. The removal of Ni from solution was studied

Sparks, Donald L.

164

Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh, E-mail: yeganehghotbi@gmail.com [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Novel Hydride Transfer Catalysis for Carbohydrate Conversions  

SciTech Connect

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), an important versatile sugar derivative has been synthesized from glucose using catalytic amounts of CrCl2 in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidizolium chloride. Glycerol and glyceraldehyde were tested as sugar model compounds. Glycerol is unreactive and does not interfere with glucose conversion. Glyceraldehyde is reactive and does interfere with glucose conversion in competitive experiments. MnCl2 or FeCl2 catalyze dehydration of glyceraldehyde dimer to form compound I, a cyclic hemiacetal with an exocyclic double bond. Upon aqueous work-up I forms pyruvaldehyde. CrCl2 or VCl3 further catalyze a hydride transfer of I to form lactide. Upon aqueous work-up lactide is converted to lactic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Appel, Aaron M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

166

Delayed hydride cracking behavior for ZIRCALOY-2 tubing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The delayed hydride cracking (DHC) behavior for ZIRCALOY-2 tubing was characterized at temperatures ranging from 93 °C to 288 °C. Testing was performed on the three types of pressure tubes that were used in th...

F. H. Huang; W. J. Mills

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Magnetism of nickel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A previously developed theory of the magnetism of iron, based upon notion of a randomized exchange field, has now been applied to calculate the properties of nickel. We obtained a Curie temperature of 1200 K, about twice the observed value. The magnetization curve, the paramagnetic susceptibility (a Curie-Weiss law), and the distribution of spin lengths are also calculated. Both similarities and differences from the results of the iron calculations are noted.

J. Hubbard

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hydride-dehydride module within ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System)  

SciTech Connect

One of the many requirements placed on the DOE is the reduction of the nuclear stockpile through dismantlement programs. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has been tasked with the disposition of excess plutonium and other fissile materials. On the list of items containing excess fissile materials are nuclear weapon cores, pits. The Advanced Recovery and integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line that is being used to gather data to support the design of the full scale pit disassembly and conversion facility. The Hydride Dehydride recycle system is an important element to this program, because it provides these dismantlement programs with a technology for removing plutonium from nuclear weapons without producing large amounts of waste compared to historical processes used in the DOE complex. The Hydride Dehydride recycle process can separate plutonium from other weapons components resulting in an unclassified plutonium metal button. After separation, this button can be stored in long term storage containers or processed to produce plutonium oxide, which will be used by either of the plutonium disposition options, mixed oxide fuel burning in a nuclear reactor or immobilization. Once placed into long term storage containers, either the plutonium metal or plutonium oxide can be inspected by bilateral or international agencies to invoke transparency of the plutonium.

Flamm, B.F.; Isom, G.M.; Nelson, T.O.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Biomonitoring on Carcinogenic Metals and Oxidative DNA Damage in a Cross-Sectional Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...result of human activities such as mining, smelting, fossil fuel combustion, and industrial application of metals. The highest...production of stainless steel, high-nickel alloys, Ni-Cd batteries, and electronic components. A major fraction of nickel absorbed...

Hiltrud Merzenich; Andrea Hartwig; Wolfgang Ahrens; Detmar Beyersmann; Regina Schlepegrell; Martin Scholze; Jürgen Timm; and Karl-Heinz Jöckel

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Nanoparticle assembly via the dewetting of patterned thin metal lines: Understanding the instability mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle assembly via the dewetting of patterned thin metal lines: Understanding correlated nanoparticles from lithographically patterned pseudo-one-dimensional nickel lines. The evolution of the nickel line instabilities and nanoparticle formation with a correlated size and spacing was observed

Kondic, Lou

171

Comparison of various battery technologies for electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

four technologies; Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual...

Dickinson, Blake Edward

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Nickel recovery aids battery development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GM is developing the zinc/nickel-oxide battery for the small commuter-type electric car that the company expects to produce in a few years. ...

1981-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reaction of BH 3 :THF with magnesium hydride byproduct. A.It was also observed that magnesium hydride can partiallyACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES A dissertation

Clary, Jacob William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in IlliteWater Suspensions E. J. Elzinga* and D. L. Sparks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in Illite­Water Suspensions E. J. Elzinga by ions other than K, presumably leadingNickel sorption in illite suspensions was studied as a function the Ni sorption complexes formed. The formation of The different sites available for metal uptake

Sparks, Donald L.

175

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

SciTech Connect

Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Support and crystallite effects in CO hydrogenation on nickel  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen were studied on seven alumina-supported catalysts containing 0.5-23% nickel, four silica-supported catalysts containing 2.7-15% nickel, and 2.8 and 15% nickel on titanium oxide. On the silica and alumina-supported catalysts, hydrogen adsorption, per cent reduction of metal, carbon monoxide/hydrogen adsorption ratio, and methane yield increased with increasing metal dispersion, the methane turnover number decreased with increasing metal dispersion, and the carbon monoxide turnover number was not affected by dispersion. Hydrogen adsorption was suppressed by the titanium dioxide support. The suppression of hydrogen adsorption and the activity for carbon monoxide hydrogenation decreased as a function of support in the order TiO/sub 2/ > Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ > SiO/sub 2/ and apparently depended on the strength of the electronic interaction of support and metal. The selectivity shifted to higher hydrocarbons as the metal dispersion increased and as the carbon monoxide/hydrogen adsorption ratio increased. Effects of preparation method are also reported.

Bartholomew, C.H.; Pannell, R.B.; Butler, J.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Opening of a Post Doctoral Position Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opening of a Post Doctoral Position Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications in connection with the « Fast, reliable and cost effective boron hydride based high capacity solid state hydrogen storage materials» project co

178

Synthesis of Graphene Layers from Metal-Carbon Melts: Nucleation and Growth Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

both stable graphite and metal stable carbide formation. ForCarbide Eutectic in Nickel-Carbon Alloys The Physics of Metals andcarbide transition As it was explained in section 1.2 in some of metal-

Amini, Shaahin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Brittle fracture induced by hydrides in zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-4 is used as a cladding material in the nuclear industry for fuel elements. Its mechanical properties can be drastically affected by the presence of hydrides, which form when hydrogen content exceeds the terminal solid solubility. This change often manifests itself as a reduction in ductility (elongation and reduction in area), coupled with the evolution of the fracture mode from ductile microvoid nucleation and coalescence to intergranular fracture. It has been found, at room temperature, that Zircaloy-4 undergoes a ductile to brittle transition when the hydrogen content (hydride volume fraction) in the specimen is higher than some critical value depending on the microstructure and the hydride morphology. Heat treatment of the material can shift the transition end point from 1050 ppm wt H for the stress-relieved state to 100-150 ppm wt H for the {beta} treated state, thus strongly suggesting that there may be some relationship between the microstructure (grain size and shape) and the ductile-brittle transition. It has also been reported that for the same hydriding condition, the hydrogen absorption rate is higher for the stress-relieved and recrystallized states and lower for the {beta} treated state. This phenomenon is very important for engineering applications because it is related to the determination of the safe life. Insufficient attention has been drawn to the quantitative evaluation and the modelization of the influence of the microstructure on the ductile-brittle transition in hydrided Zircaloy-4, though there has been some general research on the boundary structural effect on intergranular fracture. The present authors attempt to modelize this influence by an upper-limit model using the results of image analysis on the microstructures and tensile tests on hydrided sheet specimens.

Bai, J.B.; Francois, D.; Prioul, C. (Lab. MSS/MAT CNRS URA 850, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (FR)); Lansiart, S. (CEA/DTA/CEREM/DTM/SRMA, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Nickel catalysts based on porous nickel for methane steam reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of synthesis conditions on the phase composition and texture of porous nickel supports as plates with a magnesium oxide underlayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen...

Z. A. Sabirova; M. M. Danilova; V. I. Zaikovskii; N. A. Kuzin…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions  

SciTech Connect

Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, B{sub x}Al{sub y}H{sub z}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Xiang [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)] [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effect of radial hydrides on the axial and hoop mechanical properties of Zircaloy-4 cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of radial hydrides on the mechanical properties of stress-relief annealed Zircaloy-4 cladding was studied. Specimens were firstly hydrided to different target hydrogen levels between 100 and 600 wt ppm and then thermally cycled in an autoclave under a constant hoop stress to form radial hydrides by a hydride reorientation process. The effect of radial hydrides on the axial properties of the cladding was insignificant. On the other hand, the cladding ductility measurements decreased as its radial hydride content increased when the specimen was tested in plane strain tension. A reference hydrogen concentration for radial hydrides in the cladding was defined for assessing the fuel cladding integrity based on a criterion of the tensile strength 600 MPa. The reference hydrogen concentration increased with the specimen (bulk) hydrogen concentration to a maximum of ?90 wt ppm at the bulk concentration ?300 wt ppm H and then decreased towards higher concentrations.

H.C. Chu; S.K. Wu; K.F. Chien; R.C. Kuo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

HYDROGEN STORAGE USINGHYDROGEN STORAGE USING COMPLEX HYDRIDESCOMPLEX HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Michael D. HamptonDarlene K. Slattery, Michael D. Hampton FL Solar Energy Center, U. of Central FLFL Solar Energy Center, U. of Central FL #12;Objective · Identify a hydrogen storage system that meets the DOEHYDROGEN STORAGE USINGHYDROGEN STORAGE USING COMPLEX HYDRIDESCOMPLEX HYDRIDES Darlene K. Slattery

184

Magnetism in metal-organic capsules  

SciTech Connect

Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

Switchable Mirrors Based on Nickel-Magnesium Films  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Switchable Mirrors Based on Nickel-Magnesium Films Switchable Mirrors Based on Nickel-Magnesium Films Title Switchable Mirrors Based on Nickel-Magnesium Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-47180 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Robert D. Armitage, Robert Kostecki, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 78 Pagination 3047 Call Number LBNL-47180 Abstract An electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin, magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on cathodic polarization in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction, and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

186

Laser fusing of HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 on nickel-aluminum bronze  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of laser fusing alloy 625 onto nickel-aluminum-bronze base metal. Laser fusing was performed by melting a pre-coated surface of alloy 625 that had been applied by the high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The laser fusing was successful in producing a metallurigical bond between alloy 625 and the substrate. Minor modification to the heat-affected zone of the base metal was observed by microhardness measurements, and defect-free interfaces were produced between alloy 625 and nickel-aluminum-bronze by the process. The laser is a high energy density source that can be used for precise thermal processing of materials including surface modification. Laser fusing is the full or partial melting of a coating material that has been previously applied in some fashion to the substrate. Thermal spray coating of nickel-aluminum-bronze material with alloy 625 was conducted at the David Taylor Research Center. Nickel-aluminum-bronze specimens 2 x 3-in. by 1/2-in. thick were coated with alloy 25 utilizing the HVOF equipment. Coating thicknesses of approximately 0.014-in. (0.3 mm) were produced for subsequent laser fusing experiments. A preliminary study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of laser fusing a HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 coating onto nickel-aluminum-bronze base metal. Conclusions of this investigation were as follows: (1) Laser fusing was successful in producing a metallurgical bond between HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 and the nickel-aluminum-bronze. (2) Only minor microstructural modification to the heat-affected zone of the base metal ws observed by microhardness measurements. (3) Defect-free interfaces were produced between thermal sprayed alloy 625 and nickel-aluminum-bronze by laser fusing.

Brenna, R.T.; Pugh, J.L.; Denney, P.E. [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Electron screening in nickel  

SciTech Connect

In order to further investigate electron screening phenomenon we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. Also, we have studied the decay of {sup 61}Cu produced in the reaction {sup 60}Ni(p,{gamma}), in order to find a possible decay rate perturbation by atomic electrons and found a small difference in half-life for metallic compared to oxide environment, respectively. The present results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energy and that it might also affect the decay rate.

Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

189

Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a “dust” of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900°C. Literature survey has shown...

Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I

190

Electron screening in nickel  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the interplay between nuclei and their surroundings we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. The presented results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energies.

Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

191

Elemental composition of nickel silicide layers using thermal and fast neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Metal silicides are important contact materials used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. The presence of impurities has been observed to alter or control the formation of the silicide during fabrication and to influence critically the thermal and electrical performance characteristics of the metal-semiconductor interface. The purpose of this investigation has been to use neutron activation analysis (NAAA), relying on both thermal and fast neutrons, to determine relative concentrations of nickel and impurity elements in nickel silicide/silicon systems. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

McGuire, S.C.; Wong, K.; Silcox, J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nickel crystallite thermometry during methanation  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic method to measure the average temperature of superparamagnetic nickel crystallites has been applied during CO methanation. The method takes advantage of the temperature dependence of the low field magnetization of such catalysts; however, the adsorption of carbon monoxide and the formation of surface carbon species complicate the interpretation of results. Calibrations to account for temperature change and the adsorption of reactants are described. The calibration for the effects of CO is based on the assumption that the interaction of CO with nickel is the same for methanation and disproportionation. Interphase heat transfer calculations based on the thermometric data compare favorably with previous results from ethane hyrogenolysis, and give no indication of microscopic temperature differences between the nickel crystallites and support.

Ludlow, D.K.; Cale, T.S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

Behavior and rupture of hydrided Zircaloy-4 tubes and sheets  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium alloys are used as structural parts in the nuclear fuel assembly. The mechanical behavior and rupture mechanisms of ZIRCALOY-4 guide tubes and sheet containing 150 to 1,200 wt ppm hydrogen have been investigated at room temperature. Sheets were notched to study the influence of geometrical defects on rupture. It is shown that hydrides strengthened the material, as maximum stresses sustained by the material are increased with increasing hydrogen contents. On the other hand, ductility is reduced. The material also exhibits a strong anisotropy due to its pronounced texture. Metallographic examinations have shown that damage by hydride cracking is a continuous process that starts after the onset of necking. Notches reduce ductility. A modified Gurson-Tvergaard model was used to represent the material behavior and rupture. Numerical simulation using the finite element method demonstrates the strong influence of plastic anisotropy on the behavior of structures and rupture modes.

Prat, F.; Besson, J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Evry (France); Grange, M. [Framatome Nuclear Fuel, Lyon (France); Andrieu, E. [ENSCT, Toulouse (France). Lab. Materiaux

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Metal-ceramic joint assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(2002) 1080-703902.50 Summary: for arsenic species using hydride generation and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The detec- tion limit for As... by ASP Estimation of...

197

LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage * Thermodynamics * Kinetics * Recycle * WeightVolume Capacity * Durability Investigate...

198

Influence of an oxide layer on the hydride embrittlement in Zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

Hydrid embrittlement of zirconium and its alloy has been studied extensively. The common techniques used to hydride the specimens are electro-chemical and gaseous ones. During this operation, especially for cases of long duration, an oxide layer would form on the surface of specimens. The present paper reports on some evidence for the influence of this layer on the hydride embrittlement in Zircaloy-4. Tensile tests with or without this layer were performed on hydrided specimens. Metallographic and fractographic analyses were carried out in order to examine the fracture nature of this layer. An analysis based on the fracture mechanics was also proposed.

Bai, J.B. (Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay Malabry (France). Lab. MSS/MAT)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Studies on nickel nanoparticle attachment on surface modified carbon nanotubes by wet chemical method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wet chemical method is a relatively simple technique, which has been used for attaching nickel nanoparticles homogeneously on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The MWCNT was synthesised by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method. The surface of MWCNT was modified by treating with boiling conc. nitric acid. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in nickel nitrate solution were heat treated with particular heating rate of 8°C/min from room temperature to 100°C under argon atmosphere and soaked at this temperature for 1 h before heating to 500°C at 4C/min. The resultant product is found to be nanostructured nickel oxide attached to MWCNT. Subsequent reduction of the metal oxide in hydrogen atmosphere yielded nickel nanoparticles anchored to the surface of nanotubes. Chemical impregnation resulted in homogeneously dispersed nickel particles on the surface of oxidised MWCNT whereas in the case of unoxidised MWCNT uneven dispersion of nickel particle was observed. Results obtained on the characterisation of the products from XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX are presented. This simple method could allow large-scale production of functionalised MWCNT, which can be used as catalyst supports with high stability.

Jyoti Prakash; Ramani Venugopalan; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

Kang, D.

1991-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

202

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1. Introduction: Many kinetic studies have shown that sorption of metals on natural materials results in the for- tions ranged from 59 to 67 kJ mol-1 [2] while pesticide sorption on humic acid had an Ea value of 6.7 k

Sparks, Donald L.

203

Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices  

SciTech Connect

An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hydride blisters Formation, Characterization and Effect on the Fracture of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tubes Under Reactivity Initiated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

failure in 1983[2], when an axial crack developed in a CANDU pressure tube following an array of hydride

205

Organic Thin Film Magnet of Nickel-Tetracyanoethylene  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid organic-inorganic materials consisting of a transition metal and an organic compound, TCNE form a unique class of organic magnets denoted by M(TCNE){sub x}(where M = transition metals, and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene). The organic thin film magnet of nickel-tetracyanoethylene, Ni(TCNE){sub x} is deposited on sputtered clean gold substrate using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate chemical and electronic properties of Ni(TCNE){sub x} film. XPS derived film thickness and stoichiometry are found to be 6 nm and 1:2 ratio between Ni and TCNE resulting Ni(TCNE){sub 2} film, respectively. In addition, XPS results do not show any signature of the presence of pure metallic Ni or Ni-clustering in the Ni(TCNE){sub x} film.

Bhatt, Pramod; Yusuf, S. M. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

207

Hydride precipitation and its influence on mechanical properties of notched and unnotched Zircaloy-4 plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydride formation and its influence on the mechanical performance of hydrided Zircaloy-4 plates containing different hydrogen contents were studied at room temperature. For the unnotched plate samples with the hydrogen contents ranging from 25 to 850 wt. ppm, the hydrides exerted an insignificant effect on the tensile strength, while the ductility was severely degraded with increasing hydrogen content. The fracture mode and degree of embrittlement were strongly related to the hydrogen content. When the hydrogen content reached a level of 850 wt. ppm, the plate exhibited negligible ductility, resulting in almost completely brittle behavior. For the hydrided notched plate, the tensile stress concentration associated with the notch tip facilitated the hydride accumulation at the region near the notch tip and the premature crack propagation through the hydride fracture during hydriding. The final brittle through-thickness failure for this notched sample was mainly attributed to the formation of a continuous hydride network on the thickness section and the obtained very high hydrogen concentration (estimated to be 1965 wt. ppm).

Zhiyang Wang; Ulf Garbe; Huijun Li; Robert P. Harrison; Karl Toppler; Andrew J. Studer; Tim Palmer; Guillaume Planchenault

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Icosahedral structure in hydrogenated cobalt and nickel clusters  

SciTech Connect

Reactions with ammonia and with water are used to probe the geometrical structures of cobalt and nickel clusters that are saturated with hydrogen. Ammonia saturation experiments allow the determination of the number of primary NH{sub 3} binding sites on cluster surfaces, and this number shows a repeated minimization to values of 12 for many cluster sizes in the 50- to 200-atom size region. These sizes correspond to closed shells and subshells of icosahedra, suggesting that the ammoniated clusters have metal frameworks with icosahedral structure. The equilibrium reaction of the hydrogenated clusters with a single water molecule shows a pattern of local maxima in the cluster--water binding energy, with the maxima in most cases coming at clusters having one metal atom more than those showing minima in ammonia binding. This correlation suggests that nonammoniated clusters likewise have icosahedral structure, and is consistent with the nature of the metal--water interaction. Some of the larger clusters do not show clear evidence for icosahedral structure at room temperature, although they begin to do so at elevated temperature. Annealing experiments suggest that many of these clusters are icosahedral in their most stable configuration at room temperature, although the 147-atom nickel cluster is not. In general, hydrogenation enhances the icosahedral features in the ammonia and water binding patterns compared to those seen for bare clusters, and extends the cluster size region over which icosahedral structure is evident.

Klots, T.D.; Winter, B.J.; Parks, E.K.; Riley, S.J. (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (USA))

1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, andor CaH2) Composite Systems. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

210

SAFT 4{1/2} inch nickel hydrogen battery cells  

SciTech Connect

SAFT Advanced Batteries has now produced over 400 high capacity 4{1/2} inch Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells for flight programs. The 4.5 inch diameter, rabbit-ear cell design is designed to provide the anticipated energy required at the lowest practical weight. SAFT has incorporated into the design of the dry-powder nickel electrode, truly hermetic ceramic to metal seals, qualified terminal feedthroughs, high reliability mechanical design, composite pure platinum negative electrode, and zircar separator, plus more than 25 years experience in aerospace nickel cell technology, resulting in a 4{1/2} inch configuration with the 3{1/2} inch cell design carryover heritage. General performance requirements for GEO missions that SAFT cells meet are 15 years in orbit lifetime, 80% DOD, low mass to energy ratios, and flexible capacity by modifying number of electrodes in the stack. This design is qualified for geostationary orbits based on SAFT`s 3{1/2} inch qualification heritage, design verification, and cycling performed by customer Space Systems/LORAL in support of the INTELSAT VIIA and N-STAR flight programs.

Duquesne, D.; Lacout, B.; Sennet, A. [SAFT Advanced Batteries, Poitiers (France)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys  

SciTech Connect

Dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. ??-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and ??-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of ??-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type, morphology and distribution of the phases are thoroughly investigated. • Dissimilar welding is successfully performed without occurrence of any hot cracks.

Naffakh Moosavy, Homam, E-mail: homam_naffakh@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mapelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Massa 34, Milan 20156 (Italy)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Scha's Parallel Lines Bernhard Nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scha's Parallel Lines Bernhard Nickel May 10, 2010 1 Introduction Scha (1981) has a famous example) The single lines run parallel to the double lines. 3 Code for Figure 1 \\begin{figure} \\centering \\setlength{\\unitlength}{.5in} \\begin{picture}(6,4) % first square \\put(0,4){\\line(1,0){4}}% \\put(0,1){\\line(1,0){4}}% \\put(0

Nickel, Bernhard

213

Dissimilar-weld failure analysis and development. Comparative behavior of similar and dissimilar welds. Final report. [Welds of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using 2-1/4Cr-1Mo filler material; and austenitic to ferritic steel welds made by fusion welding alloy-800H to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using nickel base filler metal ERNiCr-3  

SciTech Connect

The 593/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F) stress rupture behavior of similar metal welds (SMWs) and dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) was investigated under cyclic load and cyclic temperature conditions to provide insight into the question, ''Why do DMWs fail sooner than SMWs in the fossil fuel boilers.'' The weld joints of interest were an all ferritic steel SMW made by fusion welding 2-1/4Cr-1Mo to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using 2-1/4Cr-1Mo filler metal and an austenitic to ferritic steel DMW made by fusion welding Alloy-800H to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using a nickel base filler metal ERNiCr-3. The stress rupture behavior obtained on cross weld specimens was similar for both types of welds with only a 20% reduction in rupture life for the DMW. For rupture times less than 1500 hours, failures occurred in the 2-1/4Cr-1Mo base metal whereas, for rupture times greater than 1500 hours, failures occurred in the 2-1/4Cr-1Mo heat affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ failures exhibited a more brittle appearance than the base metal failures for both types of welds and it appears that the life of both joints was limited by the stress rupture properties of the HAZ. These results support the hypothesis that increased residual stresses due to abrupt changes in hardness (strength) of metals involved are the major contributors to the reduction in life of DMWs as compared to SMWs. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Busboom, H.; Ring, P.J.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Hydride-phase formation and its influence on fatigue crack propagationbehavior in a Zircaloy-4 alloy  

SciTech Connect

The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of delta zirconium hydride ( -ZrH2) in the bulk, and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a pre-existing fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation were investigated. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip was measured using neutron diffraction. The combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are discussed.

Garlea, Elena [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Choo, H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Wang, G Y [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Clausen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Park, Jae-Sung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Stress-induced reorientation of hydrides and mechanical properties of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stress-induced reorientation of hydrides and its effect on the stress–strain response of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes were investigated. The reorientation of hydrides along the radial direction was most pronounced if the tube was cooled from 300 to 200 °C under circumferential loading. Reorientation occurred much less frequently at either higher (cooled from 400 to 300 °C) or lower (cooled from 200 to 100 °C) temperature range. The population of radial hydrides in R43H7 (which was cooled from 400 to 300 °C and maintained at 300 °C for 7 h) increased drastically during annealing at 300 °C, suggesting time dependent stress-aided dissolution of circumferential hydrides and reprecipitation of radial hydrides. The drastic decrease of the strength and the complete loss of the ductility were observed in R32AC and R43H7.

S.I. Hong; K.W. Lee

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

Zidan, Ragaiy

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

217

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

218

Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported...

219

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries....

220

Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biosensors Based on Carbon NanotubesNickel HexacyanoferrateGlucose Oxidase Nanocomposites. Biosensors Based on Carbon NanotubesNickel HexacyanoferrateGlucose Oxidase...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel Catalyst for Oxidation of Hydrogen. Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel Catalyst for...

222

Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Information Bridge Energy Citations Database Highlighted documents of Rare Earth Metal research in DOE databases Information Bridge - Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces DOE R&D Project Summaries - Structural and magnetic studies on heavy rare earth metals at high pressures using designer diamonds Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells Science.gov - H.R.4866 - Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 WorldWideScience.org - China produces most of the world's rare earth metals DOepatents - Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

225

Electrodialysis Treatment of Nickel Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The galvanic processes are one of the main activities contributing to metal discharges into the environment. A large volume of wastewater is generated that contains a high load of salts and metals and it must be ...

Tatiane Benvenuti; Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined. 3 figures.

Hunt, T.K.; Novak, R.F.

1991-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

227

Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Fate of Heavy Metals in Highway Stormwater Runoff: The Characterization of a Bioretention Basin in the Midwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The usual wear of automobiles and road surfaces deposits numerous environmental pollutants on roadways and parking lots, including heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead, nickel and cadmium. During rainfall and snow events, these metals are washed...

Lacy, Sarah

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Rapidly solidified magnesium: nickel alloys as hydrogen storage materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to high hydrogen capacity, good reversibility and low cost, magnesium hydride is one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials. However, the high desorption… (more)

Yi, Xiaodong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Søren Primdahl #12;ii Primdahl, Søren Nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells Thesis FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Twente

231

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

Abstract--This paper outlines the design of an autonomous flying vehicle (AFV) for use in researching formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a full suite of integrated peripherals. Today, Nickel- Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries can source more predators and efficiently forage for food [6]. Both the Air Force and NASA have identified autonomous

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

233

Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the battery chemistries discussed, only Li-ion shows the2008) battery researchers continue to develop Li-ionbattery chemistries: nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Burke, Andrew

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the battery chemistries discussed, only Li-ion shows the2008) battery researchers continue to develop Li-ionbattery chemistries: nickel- metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-

Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the battery chemistries discussed, only Li-ion shows the2008) battery researchers continue to develop Li-ionbattery chemistries: nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Technological assessment and evaluation of high power batteries and their commercial values  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery technology has the potential to compete with the more matured Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery technology in the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy storage market as it has higher specific ...

Teo, Seh Kiat

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides  

SciTech Connect

An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

240

The structure of nickel clusters  

SciTech Connect

The reactions of nickel clusters with ammonia and with water are used to probe cluster geometrical structure. Ammonia uptake experiments allow the determination of the number of preferred binding sites on cluster surfaces. This number shows pronounced minima in the 50- to 116- atom size range for many of the cluster sizes that appear as magic numbers in mass spectra of rare gas clusters. Since these magic numbers arise from closings of shells and subshells of the Mackay icosahedra, the correlation suggests that ammoniated nickel clusters in this size region also have icosahedral structure. Similar structure is found for ammoniated clusters smaller than {similar to}30 atoms, but is not seen for room temperature clusters in the vicinity of the third shell closing at 147 atoms. Icosahedral features do appear for the larger clusters at elevated temperatures. For many clusters above 50 atoms, prolonged exposure to ammonia causes a conversion from the icosahedral structure to some other structure that binds more ammonia molecules, and often the two structures are seen together. The equilibrium reaction of a single water molecule with the bare clusters probes the strength of the cluster--water bond. Enhanced water adsorption is often seen for clusters one atom larger than those showing minima in ammonia uptake, suggesting that these bare clusters likewise have icosahedral structure. The reasons for minima in ammonia uptake and maxima in water binding are discussed.

Parks, E.K.; Winter, B.J.; Klots, T.D.; Riley, S.J. (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Magnetism in iron and nickel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fluctuating local band theory of itinerant electron ferromagnetism in nickel and iron is investigated with the use of first-principles numerical calculations. In this theory the excitations predominantly responsible for the phase transition are fluctuations in the direction of local magnetization. The free energy in the presence of a fluctuation is evaluated numerically in the approximation that this direction changes in time and space slowly enough to justify the use of the static approximation and second-order perturbation theory. The energies and wave functions used to incorporate the band and wavevector dependence of the relevant interaction matrix elements were obtained by Slater-Koster fits to earlier ab initio self-consistent energy bands. Results for nickel and iron are obtained in terms of an effective classical Heisenberg exchange. This is compared with other theoretical calculations and available experimental data. From the numerical results, it is concluded that both quantum effects (the time dependence of the exchange field) and local-field effects are important to account for the transition temperature TC.

C. S. Wang; R. E. Prange; V. Korenman

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 plate; Part 1: Influence of microstructure on the hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 at 20[degree]C and 350[degree]C  

SciTech Connect

The hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 was studied at room temperature and 350 C. Sheet tensile specimens of two fabrication routes in the stress-relieved, recrystallized, and [beta]-treated states were hydrided with or without tensile stress. It was found generally that the effect on strength of increasing hydrogen content was not important. However, for the tensile tests at room temperature, there is a ductile-brittle transition when the hydrogen content is higher than a certain threshold. The prior thermomechanical treatment shifts this transition considerably. In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests, fractography, and fracture profile observations were carried out to determine the fracture micromechanisms and the microscopic processes. At 20 C, the fracture surfaces are characterized by voids and secondary cracks for low and medium hydrogen contents and by intergranular cracks and decohesion through the continuous hydride network for high hydrogen contents. This phenomenon disappears at 350 C, and the hydrogen seems to exert no more influence on the fracture micromechanism even for very high hydrogen contents (up to 1,500 wt ppm). A full-coverage model is proposed to estimate the critical hydrogen content that makes ZIRCALOY-4 totally brittle. The effect of microstructure on hydride embrittlement in different metallurgical states is thus explained according to the modeling. Special attention is devoted to relating the micromechanisms and the modeling in order to propose the possible measures needed to limit the hydride embrittlement effect.

Bai, J.B.; Prioul, C.; Francois, D. (Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds  

SciTech Connect

The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

244

Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based claddings (regarded as a barrier for containment of radioactive fission products and fuel) are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service in the reactor. The amount of hydrogen that the cladding picks up is primarily a function of the exact chemistry and microstructure of the claddings and reactor operating conditions, time-temperature history, and

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium hydrides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medicine 26 KV-tOOJHfe Metallurgy Department Summary: .3. Developaent of a Hydride Based Fuel Cell 32 4.4. Materials Research for Fuel Cell Application .. 33 4.5. Thin... . The...

246

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement ... Global Pharmaceutical Commercialization, Merck Manufacturing Division, Rahway, New Jersey, 07065 ... This article is part of the Safety of Chemical Processes 11 special issue. ...

Jamie M. McCabe Dunn; Alicia Duran-Capece; Brendan Meehan; James Ulis; Tetsuo Iwama; Guy Gloor; George Wong; Evan Bekos

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

247

Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt = Si and Ge)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of novel Li4Tt2D (Tt = Si and Ge) ternary hydrides were solved using neutron powder diffraction data. All hydrogen atoms were found to occupy Li6-octahedral interstices.

Wu, H.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Formation and Characterization of Hydride Blisters in Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a CANDU Zircaloy-2 pressure tube along an array of hydride blisters on the external surface is the material that replaced Zircaloy-2 alloy for pressure tubes in the CANDU reactors. In all these studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect

Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

\\{WS8e4\\} - EFFECT OF HYDRIDES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZIRCALOY-4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT In order to better understand the embrittlement of Zircaloy-4 by hydrides and the ductile-brittle transition on this alloy, Zircaloy-4 sheet tensile specimens in the stress-relieved, recrystallized and ? treated states were hydrided (10 to 1500 ppm wt H) and then tested at two temperatures (20°C, 350°C). Metallographic and fractographic analyses were carried out to determine the fracture micro-mechanisms. The results showed that, at 20°C, Zircaloy-4 undergoes a significant ductile to brittle transition for high hydrogen contents. Heat treatment shifts this transition (to zero elongation) considerably, from 1050 ppm wt H for the stress-relieved state to less than 250 ppm wt H for the ? treated state. However, at 350°C, Zircaloy-4 remains ductile up to hydrogen content higher than 1100 ppm wt. At 20°C, the fracture surfaces are characterized by voids and secondary cracks for low and medium hydrogen contents, and by intergranular crack and decohesion through the continuous hydride network for high hydrogen content. A model based on image analysis and hydride embrittlement micro-mechanism observations is used to calculate the upper-limit hydrogen content which makes Zircaloy-4 totally brittle. The difference between the mechanical behaviors of stress-relieved and recrystallized states is also explained. KEYWORDS Zircaloy-4, hydride embrittlement, ductile-brittle transition, cracked-hydride voids.

J.B. BAI; C. PRIOUL; D. FRANÇOIS

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fracture of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Sheet under Through-Thickness Crack Growth Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The failure of thin-wall components such as fuel cladding may be caused by crack initiation on the component surface and subsequent crack growth through its thickness. This study has determined the fracture toughness of hydrided cold-worked stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet subject to through-thickness crack growth at 25 deg. C. The experimental approach utilizes a novel procedure in which a narrow linear strip of brittle hydride blister across the specimen width creates a well-defined pre-crack upon initial loading. The subsequent crack growth resistance is then characterized by four-point bending of the specimen and an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. At room temperature, the through-thickness fracture toughness (K{sub Q}) is sensitive to the orientation of the hydride platelets, and K{sub Q} {approx_equal} 25 MPavm for crack growth through a mixed in-plane/out-of-plane hydride field. In contrast, K{sub Q} is much higher ({approx_equal} 75 MPavm) when the hydride platelets are oriented predominantly in the plane of the sheet (and therefore normal to both the crack plane and the crack growth direction). The implication of these fracture toughness values to the fracture strain behavior of hydrided Zircaloy-4 under through-thickness crack growth conditions is illustrated. (authors)

Raynaud, P.A.; Koss, D.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Motta, A.T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

253

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Dissolution Kinetics of Nickel Surface Precipitates on Clay Mineral and Oxide Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sorption under ambient environmental conditions. in brucite-like octahedral sheets with anions in the inter, brucite-like metal hydroxide precipi-percentage of total Ni sorption, decreased from 96 to 30% and 23 at pH 4 and 6. Nickel de-brucite-like hydroxide layers, (ii) Si-for-NO3 exchange in the interlay

Sparks, Donald L.

254

Radioactive Nickel-63 - ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Radioactive Nickel-63 Making Radioactive Nickel-63 ORNL-Supplied Nickel-63 Enables High-Sensitivity Explosives, Chemical Weapons, and Narcotics Detectors at Airports Explosives and narcotics detector. Detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry using ORNL 63Ni can now satisfy enhanced Homeland Security requirements at airports and other sensitive locations. When Transportation Security Administration (TSA) inspectors swipe a cloth over your luggage and then place it in an analyzer to check for explosives residue, they are using a device containing 63Ni, a radioactive isotope of nickel, made at ORNL. ORNL is the exclusive producer for 63Ni in North America and perhaps worldwide. "Our only competition would probably be Russia. They have high-flux research reactors and may well be supplying the material also,"

255

Elastic moduli of nickel and iron aluminides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELASTIC MODULI OF NICKEL AND IRON ALUMINIDES A Thesis by SREEDHAR MAN JIGANI Submitted to the Oifice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ELASTIC MODULI OF NICKEL AND IRON ALUMINIDES A Thesis by SREEDHAR MAN JIGANI Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Manjigani, Sreedhar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride ?-ZrH1.5 precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

Veena Tikare; Philippe Weck; Peter Schultz; Blythe Clark; John Mitchell; Michael Glazoff; Eric Homer

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ligand effects on the X-ray absorption of a nickel porphyrin complex: a simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.elsevier.com/locate/chemphys #12;where W l PP stands for the atomic absorption spectrum for the lth site: W l PP ÂĽ 1 2 1 X2 x R ZLigand effects on the X-ray absorption of a nickel porphyrin complex: a simulation study Luke Abstract We present a simulation of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectrum (XANES) of the metal porphyrin

Mukamel, Shaul

258

Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Die wasserstoffspeicherkapazität des Raney-Nickels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zusammenfassung Die elektrochemisch be- und entladbare Wasserstoffkapazität des Raney-Nickels hängt auch bei konstanter Oxydbedeckung und unverändertem Al-Gehalt stark von der Vorbehandlung ab. BET-Messungen ergeben, daß der Wasserstoffgehalt proportional zur BET-Oberfläche des Katalysators ist. Das Raney-Nickel speichert ca 0,00072 Ah/m2 bzw. 1 H-Atom pro Ni-Oberflächenatom. Die elektrochemisch reversible Speicherung von Wasserstoff mit Raney-Nickel kann deshalb als Adsorption des Wasserstoffs an der Oberfläche des Katalysators während der Beladung und als Oxydation der Wasserstoff-Bedeckung während der Entladung betrachtet werden. The electrochemically chargeable and dischargeable hydrogen capacity of the Raney-nickel catalyst was investigated at constant state of oxidation and constant aluminium concentration as a function of pretreatment. The present extensive BET measurements indicate that the amount of hydrogen sorbate is exactly proportional to the BET surface within the limit of measuring and calculating accuracy; quantitatively the relation is 0,00072 Ah/m2, corresponding to 1 H-atom per 1 Ni-atom of the inner surface. Thus the reversible part of the hydrogen sorption capacity of Raney nickel may be explained by sorption of hydrogen at the nickel BET surface, and subsequent anodic oxidation of this hydrogen coating layer under discharge.

H.H. Ewe

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Manual HVOF thermal spray repair of nickel aluminum bronze castings  

SciTech Connect

Manual high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray repairs were accomplished on a large nickel aluminum bronze propeller castings. The repairs were done on three different configurations of surface defects of up to 100 square inches and as deep as 90 mils. Nickel aluminum bronze alloy powder, sieve sized for the HVOF process, was sprayed. High quality, high coating density, repairs were achieved even on porous areas of the castings. Prior to performance of the repairs, a procedure was qualified in accordance with MIL-STD-1687 and a mock-up simulating the repair was produced. After HVOF spraying of the mock-up, the sprayed surface was sanded, milled, and drilled to determine how finishing of the actual castings would be done. After successful procedure qualification, the HVOF equipment was moved to the job site, metal masking was devised for the spray areas and grit blasting and manual HVOF spraying was done. Results of HVOF coating chemical analyses, bend tests, coating tensile bond strength tests, coating microscopic examinations, and mock-up evaluations are reported along with the spray procedures and techniques used in the repairs.

Brenna, R.T.; McCaw, R.L.; Pugh, J.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Weldability and microstructure development in nickel-base superalloys  

SciTech Connect

The integrity of nickel-base superalloy single-crystal welds depends on the weld cracking tendency, weld metal dendrite selection process, stray crystal formation, and macro- and microstructure development. These phenomena have been investigated in commercial nickel-base superalloy single crystal welds. During electron beam and laser beam welding, transverse and longitudinal weld cracking occurred. However, the weld cracking tendency was reduced with preheating. Most of the dendritic growth pattern development in these welds can be explained by a geometric model. However, the welds also contained misoriented stray crystals, which were frequently associated with weld cracks. The formation of stray crystals was related to thermal and constitutional supercooling effects. Fine-scale elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} phase was measured with atom-probe field-ion microscopy. Marked differences in partitioning characteristics in two welds were observed and are related to differences in cooling rates. In this paper, the modeling tools available to describe the above are reviewed.

David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids (shale oil, SRC, etc.) by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, R.H.

1985-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, R.H.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Inspection of Nickel Alloy Welds: Results from Five Year International Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission established and coordinated the international Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in dissimilar metal welds. Round-robin results showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound provide the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field.

Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

Production of hard metal-like wear protection coatings by CO2 laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protective coatings with hard metal-like wear properties could be obtained by laser beam surfacing of powder mixtures consisting of coarse-grained tungsten carbide and a nickel or cobalt hard alloy. The micros...

A. Techel; A. Luft; A. Müller; S. Nowotny

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Steam-methane reforming at low temperature on nickel-based catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, we report the activity results obtained in steam-methane reforming (SMR) at 500 and 600 °C using four nickel-based catalysts: (a) Ni/?-Al2O3 and Ni/SiO2, prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and (b) Ni–Zn–Al and Ni–Mg–Al, prepared by coprecipitation method. In all of the samples, the nickel load ranged between 7% and 9%. The catalytic activity in SMR at steady state followed the pattern: Ni–Mg–Al ? Ni–Zn–Al > Ni/?-Al2O3 > Ni/SiO2. According to characterization results, the interaction between Ni2+ species and support in precursor oxides was stronger in Ni–Mg–Al and Ni–Zn–Al than in Ni/?-Al2O3 and Ni/SiO2. After activation in H2 flow, large metal nickel particles with low or none interaction with the support were obtained in the case of Ni/?-Al2O3 and Ni/SiO2. On the contrary, small metal particles, between 3 and 6 nm, in high interaction with support were obtained in Ni–Zn–Al and Ni–Mg–Al catalysts. The metal phase formed in Ni–Mg–Al and Ni–Zn–Al was the most active and resistant to sintering under reaction conditions at T ? 600 °C. It was also found that carbon nanofibers were formed on Ni/?-Al2O3, Ni/SiO2 and Ni–Mg–Al catalysts during SMR at 600 °C. The amount and diameter of nanofibers formed on Ni–Mg–Al were lower than on catalysts prepared by impregnation method, which is in agreement with the relative sizes of metal nickel particles in each case. Amazingly, no filamentary carbon was detected on the used Ni–Zn–Al sample: only amorphous coke in low amounts was formed. This was attributed to the proper interaction of small metal nickel particles with the non-stoichiometric zinc aluminate-like phase formed after thermal treatments of catalyst precursor.

María A. Nieva; María M. Villaverde; Antonio Monzón; Teresita F. Garetto; Alberto J. Marchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

270

Carcinogenicity of Nickel Subsulfide for Respiratory Tract Mucosa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box Y, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 37830...cancers in nickel workers. Carcinogenicity...cancers in nickel workers. | Journal Article...Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

Tsutomu Yarita and Paul Nettesheim

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten times more active for ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and ninety times more active than the current state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts used in existing PEM fuel cells. This new variation of the platinum-nickel alloy is the most active oxygen-reducing catalyst ever reported.

273

Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breakthrough Research on Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Wednesday, 28 February 2007 00:00 Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten times more active for ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and ninety times more active than the current state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts used in existing PEM fuel cells. This new variation of the platinum-nickel alloy is the most active oxygen-reducing catalyst ever reported.

274

Status of the International Cooperative Program for Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components - PINC  

SciTech Connect

Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has occurred world-wide in nuclear power plants and is seen as a serious issue. Crack samples show very tight and very complex cracks in the nickel-base weld metal and forgings that are difficult to detect, size, and characterize. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting a research program on non-destructive evaluation (NDE) reliability in detecting and characterizing PWSCC. This program is part of an international cooperative research project called the Program for the Inspection of Nickel-Alloy Components (PINC), led by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which has been set up to leverage efforts in several countries to address this significant and common problem. This work has the general goal of developing an understanding of the morphology of PWSCC and assessing the NDE responses from it.

Schuster, George J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moyer, Carol E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Structural Basis of Low-Affinity Nickel Binding to the Nickel-Responsive Transcription Factor NikR from Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Escherichia coli NikR regulates cellular nickel uptake by binding to the nik operon in the presence of nickel and blocking transcription of genes encoding the nickel uptake transporter. NikR has two binding affinities for ...

Phillips, Christine M.

276

Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document summarizes the progress for this Savannah Reiver National Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

277

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Proposal to Participate in the Carbon and Metal Hydride Virtual Centers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

278

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Efficient hydrogen storage is required for fuel cell vehicles to be competitive with those driven by internal combustion engines. Current methods of storage such as… (more)

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Interaction of electrons with light metal hydrides in the transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......light elements are partially subject to this limitation. To achieve a high hydrogen capacity (see http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage and http://www.nedo.go.jp/activities/FF_00518.html ), the majority of currently......

Yongming Wang; Takenobu Wakasugi; Shigehito Isobe; Naoyuki Hashimoto; Somei Ohnuki

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative awarded to Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have beencontrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogenThe application of electrochromic devices based on tungsten

Anders, Andre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - air metal hydride Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Mathematical Modelling of...

283

Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

284

Electronic structure of alkaline metal hydrides according to MO LCAO-SCF-CNDO cluster calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a quantum chemical study of compounds MH (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) in a cluster approximation. The calculations were performed by the MO LCAO-SCF- ... model systems of high-te...

E. A. Zharikova; A. I. Ermakov; R. P. Ozerov

285

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

affect the fundamental changes to electronic structure thatunderstood. A fundamental study of the electronic structure

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effect of a fluorinated nickel surface on the decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane  

SciTech Connect

Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) are a commercial class of lubricants widely used in computer and aerospace industries. This is a study of the degradation of a perfluorinated ether in the presence of a metal fluoride. Perfluorodiethoxymethane (PFDEM) is a PFPE analog. Temperature programmed desorption shows no contribution of PFDEM toward nickel fluoride on an NiF{sub 2} surface obtained by CF{sub 3}I adsorption. Higher coverages of nickel fluoride do not show any evidence of NiF{sub 2} contribution from PFDEM. The results do not agree with the idea that a fluorinated surface might induce decomposition of PFPEs, leading to addition fluoride formation on the surface. The metal fluoride bond strength is not a legitimate concern for decomposition of PFE lubricants. Impurity in PFPEs might be the cause of initial surface fluoridation leading to breakdown of PFPEs which could cause additional metal fluoride formation. It is clear that the reaction of PFPEs with metals does not involve a direct formation of a simple M-F bond; results do not show any C-F bond cleavage of the fluorinated ether and do not support a proposed autocatalytic mechanism.

Sreevidya, S.

1995-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

Low temperature iron- and nickel-catalyzed reactions leading to coalbed gas formation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon hydrogenolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in the presence of Fe/SiO{sub 2} and Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were evaluated as potential mechanisms contributing to natural gas formation in coalbeds. The hydrocarbons used as reactants in hydrogenolysis included butane, octane, 1-octene, and 1-dodecene. The reactions carried out in a laboratory batch reactor produced gas that contained methane concentrations greater than 90%, which resembles the composition of natural gas. Reaction temperatures were selected to resemble natural coalbed conditions. Evidence is presented to show that iron and nickel minerals, which can be present in coals at levels of 2,000 and 10 ppm, respectively, can become active under geologic conditions. The oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO) used as precursors of the active catalysts (Fe and Ni metals) were reduced at 200 C under a hydrogen atmosphere. Moessbauer spectroscopy showed that ca. 6% of the iron oxide was converted to the metal; in the case of nickel, oxygen titration showed that the extent of reduction to the metal was ca. 29%. The resultant fractions of the active metals in coals are adequate to catalyze generation of appreciable amounts of methane over geologic time.

Medina, J.C.; Butala, S.J.; Bartholomew, C.H.; Lee, M.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available we find log epsilon_Ni = 6.17 +/- 0.02 (statistical) +/- 0.05 (systematic), a downwards shift of 0.06 to 0.08 dex relative to previous 1D-based abundances. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downwards from log epsilon_O = 8.86 +/- 0.07 to 8.71 +/- 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, application of the best available gf-value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilon_O = 8.7.

Pat Scott; Martin Asplund; Nicolas Grevesse; A. Jacques Sauval

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks the fate of heavy metal contaminants in the soil environment. Past studies of heavy metal sorption kinetics. This study exannines Ni(II) sorption and desorption kinetics on the clay fraction (

Sparks, Donald L.

291

The influence of hydride blisters on the fracture of Zircaloy-4 O.N. Pierron a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.elsevier.com/locate/jnucmat Journal of Nuclear Materials 322 (2003) 21­35 #12;hydrogen embrittlement [15]. Such an effect becomes, and radiation damage [1]. As the cladding undergoes oxidation with the associated hydrogen pickup, the total amount of hydrogen increases, and hydride precipitates form pref- erentially near the outer (cooler

Motta, Arthur T.

292

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast charging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast to investigate transient thermal behavior of NiMH batteries. The thermal model uses integral transformation 2013 Available online 25 June 2013 Keywords: Battery thermal management Battery thermal model Fast

Bahrami, Majid

294

Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Freeman, R. R. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Espada, L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a temperature of less than 100 o C in order to be compatible with fuel cells and must have an installed hydrogen have reported the discovery of a number of catalysts that improve the reversing of the hydrogen release the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride. Mechanical incorporation of the catalyst

296

Notes on the photo-induced characteristics of transition metal-doped and undoped titanium dioxide thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­gel method using titanium n-butoxide, acetylacetone, and transition metal acetylacetonates as precursors dioxide with transition met- als such as iron [28], cobalt [29], nickel [30], manganese [31], chro- mium

Cirkva, Vladimir

297

Chapter 4 - Recycling Rare Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The industrial system now utilizes many more elements, especially rare metals, than was the case even a half century ago. Most are not mined for themselves but are obtained as by-products or “hitchhikers” of the more familiar industrial metals, such as iron, aluminum, copper, nickel, and zinc. This imposes a limit on the production of by-product metals. But in some cases, demand may increase much faster than new supply. This suggests a need for recycling. But the uses of these metals are often in products, such as cell phones, that are mass-produced but where the amount in each individual product is very small. Some uses are also inherently dissipative. This makes recycling very difficult in principle. It constitutes a serious challenge for the future economy. Prices will rise.

Robert U. Ayres; Gara Villalba Méndez; Laura Talens Peiró

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickel–M–alumina (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) aerogel catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts (denoted as NiMAE) with different second metal (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) were prepared by a single-step sol–gel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of second metal of mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activity for steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) was investigated. Textural and chemical properties of NiMAE catalysts were strongly influenced by the identity of second metal. Nickel species were highly dispersed on the surface of NiMAE catalysts through the formation of nickel aluminate phase. In the steam reforming of LNG, both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield decreased in the order of NiLaAE > NiCeAE > NiYAE > NiCsAE > NiNiAE > NiFeAE > NiCoAE > NiMgAE. Average nickel diameter of NiMAE catalysts was well correlated with LNG conversion and hydrogen yield over the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited the best catalytic performance due to its smallest average nickel diameter. Furthermore, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited a strong capability of facilitating heat and mass transfer of reactant and product during the steam reforming of LNG. Water–gas shift reaction governed the steam reforming reaction over NiLaAE catalyst under the steam-rich reaction condition (steam/carbon > 2).

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Yongju Bang; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

Muth, T.R. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

High weldability nickel-base superalloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This is a nickel-base superalloy with excellent weldability and high strength. Its composition consists essentially of, by weight percent, 10-20 iron, 57-63 nickel, 7-18 chromium, 4-6 molybdenum, 1-2 niobium, 0.2-0.8 silicon, 0.01-0.05 zirconium, 1.0-2.5 titanium, 1.0-2.5 aluminum, 0.02-0.06 carbon, and 0.002-0.015 boron. The weldability and strength of this alloy give it a variety of applications. The long-time structural stability of this alloy together with its low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, make it especially suitable for use as a duct material and controlling element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors.

Gibson, Robert C. (Ringwood, NJ); Korenko, Michael K. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of hydrogen on chromia and on some metal chromites  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of hydrogen and deuterium on samples of chromia and on nonstoichiometric zinc, cobalt, and manganese chromites (M/Cr atomic ratio 1:1; M = Zn, Co, Mn), previously activated in hydrogen and vacuum, was studied by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Parallel CO adsorption experiments indicate that all four catalysts are essentially in an oxide form after hydrogen adsorption. Only in the case of the cobalt compound are zerovalent centers observed. Terminal hydrides Cr-H are formed on chromia, whereas on the three chromites, both terminal and bridged hydride species, thought to be bonded to Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} centers, respectively, are observed. These assignments are based on the H(D) isotopic shift and on a comparison with the spectra of known hydride species of the same metals. The mechanism of formation of these adsorbed forms is briefly discussed.

Busca, G. (Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy March 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department's prime contractor, Fluor-B&W Portsmouth (FBP), managing the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP), issued a request for Expressions of Interest (EOI) seeking industry input to support the development of an acquisition strategy for potential disposition of DOE nickel. The EOI requests technical, financial, and product market information to review the feasibility of technologies capable of decontaminating the nickel to a level indistinguishable from what is commercially available, such that it could be safely recycled and reused. The EOI scope is for 6,400 tons of nickel to be recovered from the uranium enrichment process

303

DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy March 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department's prime contractor, Fluor-B&W Portsmouth (FBP), managing the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP), issued a request for Expressions of Interest (EOI) seeking industry input to support the development of an acquisition strategy for potential disposition of DOE nickel. The EOI requests technical, financial, and product market information to review the feasibility of technologies capable of decontaminating the nickel to a level indistinguishable from what is commercially available, such that it could be safely recycled and reused. The EOI scope is for 6,400 tons of nickel to be recovered from the uranium enrichment process

304

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted wet chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles is reported. ? Substituting water with non-aqueous media prevents the formation of nickel hydroxide. ? Size of particles decreased from 10 to 20 nm down to 2–4 nm by using multi-jet mode. ? Synthesized nanoparticles have diffraction patterns similar to amorphous materials. -- Abstract: In this study nickel nanoparticles were prepared via chemical reduction of nickel acetate using sodium borohydride using electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. This technique was used to spray a finely dispersed aerosol of nickel precursor solution into the reductive bath. Obtained particles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles and showed that applying EHDA technique to chemical reduction method results in producing smaller particles with narrower size distribution in comparison with conventional reductive precipitation method.

Barzegar Vishlaghi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzalipour Tabriz, M., E-mail: meisam.fa@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad Moradi, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Competitive adsorption effects in the electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys  

SciTech Connect

Two-step reaction mechanisms involving adsorbed monovalent intermediate ions for the electrodeposition of iron and nickel as single metals can be combined to form a predictive model for the codeposition of iron-nickel alloys. Inhibition of the more noble nickel in the presence of iron is caused by preferential surface coverage of the adsorbed iron intermediate resulting from a difference between the two elements in Tafel constant for the electrosorption step. The role of hydrolyzed cations and surface pH is investigated and methods for evaluating the influence of pH are explored. The analysis shows that changes in surface pH with potential are not necessary for iron-rich (anomalous) deposits, but that variations in pH from one electrolyte to another may influence deposit composition. The tendency toward iron-rich deposits with increasing overpotential exists in all systems, however, and can be prevented only by decreasing the iron concentration of the bath. An extension of the analysis to account for transport limitations in baths with low iron concentration is developed and calculations with the model are presented to illustrate the effects of current density and electrolyte convection under conditions similar to those investigated experimentally in the literature.

Matlosz, M. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, (Switzerland). Dept. des materiaux)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Non-Magnetic Films of Nickel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Properties of sputtered nickel films.—(1) Magnetic. These films, prepared by sputtering in hydrogen on to a cooled surface, with a 1000 volt d.c. generator, are initially non-magnetic, showing neither magneto-optic rotation nor tractive effects in a magnetic field. After heating to 300° or 400°C, however, they become strongly magentic and exhibit both these effects. Films much thicker than 120m?, or those sputtered with an induction coil, are likely to be magnetic from the start. (2) Crystal structure. X-ray spectrograms by the powder method show for the heat-treated (magnetic) film the face-centered cubic lattice as for ordinary nickel, but prove that the original non-magnetic film is amorphous. These facts suggest that ferro-magnetism in nickel, at any rate, is not a property of the individual atom as customarily supposed, but of the crystalline aggregate. A number of possible objections to this point of view are taken up and discussed. (3) Electric. The gain in magnetic properties on heat-treatment is accompanied by a decrease of resistance to a fraction (a fifth in one case) of its initial value. The original film also gives only about 1 percent of the Hall effect that it does after heat-treatment. (4) Color. Some films, particularly those deposited on a surface at liquid-air temperatures, display remarkable colors. On examination of the reflected light with a spectroscope, only a narrow spectral region is seen to be absent. If the nickel films are thin, covering with an optically dense liquid completely destroys the colors.

L. R. Ingersoll and S. S. De Vinney

1925-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

308

Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632  

SciTech Connect

CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M. [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)] [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Steam reforming of carbo-metallic oils  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650/sup 0/ F. + material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of nickel equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900/sup 0/ F. to about 1400/sup 0/ F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight. The coke-laden catalyst is separated from the resulting stream of hydrocarbons and regenerated by combustion of the coke with oxygen, the regenerated catalyst being characterized by deposited nickel in at least a partially oxidized state and a level of carbon on catalyst of about 0.25 percent by weight or less. The regenerated catalyst is contacted with a reducing gas under reducing conditions sufficient to reduce at least a portion of the oxidized nickel deposits to a reduced state and the regenerated catalyst with reduced nickel deposits is recycled to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed. Water is also introduced into the reactor conversion zone and the amount of water and the amount of reduced nickel on the recycled catalyst are sufficient to provide a steam reforming reaction so that hydrogen deficient components of the feed are converted to products having higher hydrogen to carbon ratios and the amount of feed converted to coke is reduced. The amount of deposited nickel on catalyst is preferably in the range from about 2,000 to about 20,000 ppm.

Myers, G.D.; Hettinger, W.P. Jr.; Kovach, S.M.; Zandona, O.J.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid nickel ii Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Magnetic and Electrically Conductive Fillers in a Polymer Matrix for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Summary: of nickel powder were used, namely nickel powder I and...

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium nickel arsenic Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and electrothermal Summary: , copper, nickel and palladium nitrates on the arsenic atomic absorption signal magnitude were examined... stabilisation of platform); C, nickel...

312

Effect of titania surface species on the chemisorption of CO and H/sub 2/ on polycrystalline nickel  

SciTech Connect

A submonolayer amount of titanium was deposited and subsequently oxidized in situ on a clean polycrystalline nickel foil in ultrahigh vacuum. Temperature-programmed desorption revealed the activation energy for CO desorption was reduced significantly by the presence of titania surface species. The titania-containing Ni surface showed three binding states for dissociative hydrogen adsorption. Adsorption into the strongest of these three states was an activated process. These results suggest the apparent suppression of CO and H/sub 2/ adsorption typically observed at 300 K for titania-supported group 8 metals may be due to the existence of titania species on the surfaces of the metal particles.

Raupp, G.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

1984-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

Aluminum Hydride - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Jason Graetz (Primary Contact), James Wegrzyn Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Building 815 Upton, NY 11973 Phone: (631) 344-3242 Email: graetz@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2011 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop onboard vehicle storage systems using aluminum hydride that meets all of DOE's targets for proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Produce aluminum hydride material with a hydrogen * storage capacity greater than 9.7% gravimetric (kg-H 2 /kg) and 0.13 kg-H 2 /L volumetric. Develop practical and economical processes for *

314

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation on a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Proton Binding to a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Etsuko Fujita, James F. Wishart, and Rudi van Eldik Inorg. Chem. 41, 1579-1583 (2002) [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The effect of pressure on proton binding to the racemic isomer of the cobalt(I) macrocycle, CoL+ (L = 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene), has been studied for a series of proton donors using pulse radiolysis techniques. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of CoL+ with proton donors decrease with increasing pKa of the donor acid, consistent with a reaction occurring via proton transfer. Whereas the corresponding volumes of activation (DVĂ˝) are rather small and negative for all acids (proton donors) with pKa values below 8.5, significantly larger negative

315

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide on nickel and tungsten films  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of carbonyl sulfide with evaporated nickel and tungsten films has been investigated in the temperature range 195-450 K using gas pressures ranging from 1 to 13 N m/sup -2/. Rapid but mainly associative chemisorption of COS occurred on both metals at 195 K. Further adsorption of COS on W at temperatures 293-450 K was extremely slow and accompanied by more CO desorption than COS adsorbed. Sulfidation of Ni film by COS occurred at temperatures greater than or equal to 293 K with the liberation of carbon monoxide. The rate of adsorption increased with temperature but was independent of COS pressure. The activation energy (E/sub x/) increased with extent (X) of sulfidation to a limiting value of 97 kJ mol/sup -1/. A linear relationship was obtained from the plot of E/sub x/ against 1/X, suggesting the applicability of Cabrera-Mott theory to the sulfidation of Ni film by COS. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Saleh, J.M.; Nasser, F.A.K.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

317

Disproportionation of carbon monoxide on supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The disproportionation of carbon monoxide was investigated mainly on a 5.5% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst by infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption. The reaction was found to be of first order with respect to the surface concentration of CO below 200/sup 0/C, while at 450/sup 0/C the reaction proceeded as a second order reaction for the pressure of CO. Results obtained with predeposited carbon indicated that the disproportionation reaction requires an ensemble of several nickel atoms. In agreement with this result, the disproportionation did not take place readily on a 1.1% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst on which a high dispersion of the metal was indicated by both infrared spectroscopy and the chemisorption of hydrogen. In the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) carbon monoxide desorbed in a single peak before 300/sup 0/C. Some of the carbon monoxide, however, underwent disproportionation during TPD and a carbon dioxide peak appeared at about 220/sup 0/C. Furthermore, carbon thus deposited on the surface was oxidized to carbon monoxide by oxygen supplied from the catalysts and gave a second peak of CO in TPD at temperatures higher than 300/sup 0/C. Possible sources of the oxygen were discussed.

Galuszka, J.; Chang, J.R.; Amenomiya, Y.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Removal of heavy metals from samples of residual sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitric acid leaching processes were evaluated for removal of heavy metals from samples of residual sludge from an industrial and municipal wastewater plant. The study showed that an acid:water ratio of 1:1 and a nitric acid concentration of 2 mol 1?1 gave efficient removal of 86.7%, 100% and 100% of copper, nickel and arsenic.

Jose Abrego

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Dehydrogenation of tetrahydrothiophene on nickel-zeolite catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Y zeolites for the preparation of nickel-containing catalysts makes it possible to increase the yield of thiophene up to 55–65% at a selectivity of 70–73% (450–500°C). The activity of nickel-zeo...

L. V. Manujlova; T. S. Sukhareva

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL’s MBM Framework for Review  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models (Homer et al., 2013; Tikare and Schultz, 2012). The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Michael Glazoff; Eric Homer

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

323

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Nickel and iron EXAFS of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum strain DSM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel and iron EXAFS of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum strain DSM ...

Neil R. Bastian; Gabriele. Diekert; Eric C. Niederhoffer; Boon Keng. Teo; Christopher T. Walsh; William H. Orme-Johnson

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A comprehensive review on the hydro metallurgical process for the production of nickel and copper powders by hydrogen reduction  

SciTech Connect

Production of nickel and copper powders from leach solutions and other aqueous streams by hydrogen reduction under pressure has been reviewed in the present paper. By optimising the optimum process condition, powders or composite materials of required specification could be produced from different types of acidic and alkaline solutions by coating nickel or copper powders on the secondary materials such as graphite, tungsten carbide and aluminium. The paper also highlights the kinetics of reduction and the use of various inorganic and organic additives to improve the quality of the powder on bench and commercial scale. Effect of various experimental factors such as pH of the solution, concentration of metals, particle size and nature of additives, operating condition of autoclave, etc. on the rate of reduction and quality of powder are also discussed.

Agrawal, A. [Non Ferrous Process Group, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)]. E-mail: archana@nmlindia.com; Kumar, V. [Non Ferrous Process Group, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Pandey, B.D. [Non Ferrous Process Group, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Sahu, K.K. [Non Ferrous Process Group, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

327

TEAM HEV ARC HITECTURE ENGIN E FU EL TRANS MISSION EN ERGY STOR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TEAM TEAM HEV ARC HITECTURE ENGIN E FU EL TRANS MISSION EN ERGY STOR AGE MO TOR Michigan Technological University Through-the-road Parallel 2.0-L 4 Cylinder Spark Ignition Reformulated Gasoline 4-speed Automatic COBASYS, Nickel Metal Hydride - 288V 50 kW Solectria AC Induction Transaxle Mississippi State University Through-the-road Parallel 1.9-L GM Direct Injection Turbo Diesel Bio Diesel (B20) GM F40 6-speed Manual Johnson Controls, Nickel Metal Hydride - 330V 45 kW Ballard Integrated Power Transaxle The Ohio State University Through-the-road Parallel 1.9-L GM Direct Injection Turbo Diesel Bio Diesel (B20) Aisin-Warner AF40 6-speed Automatic Transaxle Panasonic, Nickel Metal Hydride - 300V 67 kW Ballard AC Induction Transaxle /10.6 kW Kollmorgen Brushless DC Generator Pennsylvania State

328

Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure  

SciTech Connect

Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum specimens from 22 healthy hospital workers and 30 patients with end-stage renal disease treated by extracorporeal hemodialysis, who resided in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, a city with extensive nickel mines and smelters. Samples of tap water from Sudbury contained 109 +/- 46 micrograms Ni per L (P less than 0.01 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding water samples from Hartford, Connecticut). Serum nickel concentrations averaged 0.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms Ni per L in Sudbury hospital workers (P less than 0.05 vs 0.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding serums from 43 healthy hospital workers in Hartford). In serums collected post-treatment from Sudbury hemodialysis patients, nickel concentrations averaged 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms Ni per L, (i.e., 14-times the corresponding mean in Sudbury hospital workers, P less than 0.01), but were not significantly higher than the nickel concentrations in serums from 42 Hartford hemodialysis patients (7.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms Ni per L). This study confirms the presence of hypernickelemia in hemodialysis patients, but does not suggest that hemodialysis patients have significantly increased risk of nickel toxicity in Sudbury, compared to Hartford, despite the high nickel concentrations in Sudbury tap water. This favorable outcome attests to the efficient deionization of water used to prepare hemodialysis solutions in Sudbury.

Hopfer, S.M.; Fay, W.P.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic and methylated Ge, Sb and As species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic of both flow injection and batch hydride generation and couples it to an automated cryogenic trapping unit with detection by ICP-MS. The Teflon cryogenic trap was packed with 10 cm of SE-30 5% Chromosorb W-HP 80­100 mesh

Canberra, University of

330

ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T. van Duin, and William A. Goddard III*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. TFFMgH) for magnesium and magnesium hydride systems. The parameters for this force field were derived from fitting to quantum chemical (QM) data on magnesium clusters and on the equations of states for condensed phases

van Duin, Adri

331

Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At Different Mixed Spike Concentrations 200 150 a Cadmium p Copper Lead Q Nickel 0 Zinc L. O LI 1 00 O O O 50 10 Mixed Spike Concentration 100 FIGURE 12. Per Cent Of Metal Accounted For In Bastrop Soil At Different Mixed Spike Concentrations..., copper, lead, nickel, and zinc along with four soils native to Texas . The following questions The citations on the following pages follow the style of the Jo 1 fthE loentt~Eai i Diplo, A icS sty of Civil Engineers. directed the course of the study...

Covar, Andrew Prescott

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Copper and Nickel Partitioning with Nanoscale Goethite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Goethite is an ideal sorbent for investigations of metal partitioning with iron oxyhydroxides because it is the most abundant iron oxyhydroxide in sediments (Langmuir, 1997;… (more)

Danner, Kelsey Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Boronization of nickel and nickel clad materials for potential use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new low-cost, nickel clad bipolar plate concept is currently being developed for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Reported in this paper are the details of a powder-pack boronization process that would be used to establish a passivation layer on the electrolyte exposed surfaces of the bipolar plate in the final stage of manufacture. Results from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that under moderate boronization conditions a homogeneous Ni3B layer grows on the exposed surfaces of the nickel clad material, the thickness of which depends on the time and temperature of boronization according to a Wagner-type scale growth relationship. At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, a Ni2B overlayer forms on top of the Ni3B during boronization.

Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon; Coleman, J. E.; Yang, Z Gary

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

Metal Aminoboranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

335

Desorption of carbon monoxide from nickel using mercaptans  

SciTech Connect

An IR spectroscopic study on the displacement of carbon monoxide with 1-propyl, 2-propyl-, 1-butyl-, 2-butyl-, and tert.-butyl mercaptan from nickel foil and silica-supported nickel showed that at low carbon monoxide coverage on supported nickel, mercaptan adsorption initially converted bridged to linear carbon monoxide surface species. At higher mercaptan pressures, carbon monoxide desorbed into the gas phase. A small amount of carbon monoxide remained on the surface when the poisoned sample was evacuated, and additional carbon monoxide adsorbed when 5 mm Hg of carbon monoxide was added to the evacuated sample.

Neff, L.D.; Sturdivant, A.E.; Wallace, J.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford Motor Company Don Siegel dsiegel2@ford.com Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007) 1 Acknowledgements C. Wolverton V. Ozolins Computation Northwestern UCLA J. Yang A. Sudik Experiments Ford Ford 2 Computational Methodology * Atomistic computer simulations based on quantum mechanics (Density Functional Theory) * First-principles approach: - Only empirical input are crystal structure and fundamental physical constants - VASP code - PAW potentials - PW91 GGA - Temperature-dependent thermodynamic contributions evaluated within harmonic approximation * "Direct method" for construction of dynamical matrix

337

Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultrafast X-Ray Thomson Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brown, C. R. D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); AWE plc., Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Davis, P. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K. [CFSA, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Pelka, A.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Morphology and utilization of smooth hydrogen-evolving Raney nickel cathode coatings and porous sintered-nickel cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of the inner surfaces of hydrogen-evolving, porous, sintered-nickel electrodes and Raney nickel-coated electrodes was investigated and compared by steady-state voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, coulometric determination of catalyst surface, and scanning electron microscopy. Porous, sintered-nickel electrodes are shown to be utilized only to approximately 10%. On the time average, roughly 90% of the inner surface of these electrodes is gas-blanketed. Nanoporous, smooth Raney nickel coatings are divided by micron-scale cracks. The essential part of the catalytically active electrode surface of Raney nickel coatings is represented by the walls of nanopores whose diameter is around 2 nm. Tafel slopes of less than {minus}120 mV/dec, namely, {minus}50 to {minus}70 mV/dec, are measured at 50 {micro}m thick smooth Raney nickel coatings. These low Tafel slopes are explained by an increasing degree of nanopore utilization with increasing current density rising from less than 0.6 to {approximately}10% if the overpotential rises from {minus}30 to {minus}120 mV. The effect can be modeled for nanopores and is at variance with known micropore behavior under concentration polarization known for increased Tafel slopes. From pore modeling it follows also that in another type of Raney nickel coatings, the so-called composite coating composed of micrometer particles of Raney nickel, different from smooth Raney nickel coatings, the utilization of that part of particles which is contacted by the electrolyte is almost 100%. Since, as in sintered electrodes, only 10% of the particle surface are expected not to be gas-blanketed, the total utilization of composite coated nanoporous catalysts amounts to {approximately} 10%, independent of overpotential and current density.

Rausch, S.; Wendt, H. [TH Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Microsoft PowerPoint - Nickell.ppt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spring 2009 Technical Workshop Spring 2009 Technical Workshop U.S. DOE 2009 Congestion Study Bradley M Nickell, PE Renewable Integration and Planning Director Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee 2008 Study Results Today's Discussion â—Ź TEPPC Study Scenarios â—Ź 2008 Study Results â—Ź 2009 Study Requests â—Ź Related WECC Activities 2017 Renewable Energy Scenarios â—Ź 15% Renewables Case - PC4A â—Ź 15% Renewables plus 20% Energy Efficiency - PC4B â—Ź 15% Renewables plus 20% Energy Efficiency plus a $20 per ton CO2 adder - PC4C-3 3 2017 - Base Case â—Ź Loads - Member supplied 2017 Forecast â—Ź Transmission System - WECC base case 2016-2017 â—Ź Generation - All existing, plus LRS Category 1 and Category 2 generation. Sufficient RPS resources were added to meet minimum RPS requirements for 2017, which equates

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Theory of Hydride-Proton Transfer (HPT) Carbonyl Reduction by [Os(III)(tpy)(Cl)(NH=CHCH3)(NSAr)  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanical analysis reveals that carbonyl reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the imine-based reductant cis-[Os{sup III}(tpy)(Cl)(NH?CHCH{sub 3})(NSAr)] (2), which is accessible by reduction of the analogous nitrile, occurs by hydride-proton transfer (HPT) involving both the imine and sulfilimido ligands. In carbonyl reduction, water or alcohol is necessary to significantly lower the barrier for proton shuttling between ligands. The ?N(H)SAr group activates the carbonyl group through hydrogen bonding while the ?NC(H)CH{sub 3} ligand delivers the hydride.

Ess, Daniel H.; Schauer, Cynthia; Meyer, Thomas J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Quantifying the effect of metal-rich precipitates on minority carrier diffusion length in multicrystalline silicon using synchrotron-based  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantifying the effect of metal-rich precipitates on minority carrier diffusion length diffusion length of individual transition metal species in multicrystalline silicon. SR-XBIC, -XRF, and -XAS correlation between local concentrations of copper and nickel silicide precipitates and a decrease of minority

343

Hysteresis During Cycling of Nickel Hydroxide Active Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hysteresis During Cycling of Nickel Hydroxide Active Material Hysteresis During Cycling of Nickel Hydroxide Active Material Title Hysteresis During Cycling of Nickel Hydroxide Active Material Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2001 Authors Srinivasan, Venkat, John W. Weidner, and John S. Newman Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 148 Start Page A969 Issue 9 Pagination A969-A980 Date Published 04/2001 Abstract The nickel hydroxide electrode is known to exhibit a stable hysteresis loop, with the potential on charge being higher than that on discharge at every state-of-charge ~SOC!.What we show here is that this loop created during a complete charge and discharge ~i.e., boundary curves! is not sufficient to define the state of the system. Rather, internal paths within the boundary curves ~i.e., scanning

344

EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located 99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications Summary This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities at this time.

345

The nickel pipes of Vlakfontein and vicinity, western Transvaal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...feet of pneumaticand diamond drilling) on Vlaldontein and vicinity...the centrallylocatedVredefort dome within the Witwatersrand Basin...NICKEL PIPES' OF VLAKFONTEIN TAtum 4. Microscopicand Microprobe...ft. The orebody,proved by drilling,haddimensionsof about200...

C. F. Vermaak

346

Momentum Distribution of Electrons in Chromium, Iron, and Nickel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Compton profiles of the electron momentum distribution in chromium, iron, and nickel are calculated using the wave functions obtained from self-consistent linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals energy-band calculations. The results are compared with experiment.

J. Rath, C. S. Wang, R. A. Tawil, and J. Callaway

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Laser ignition of a heterogeneous nickel-aluminum system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ignition of a heterogeneous nickel—aluminum system by laser radiation is investigated experimentally. The ignition characteristics are investigated as a function of ... the samples. It is established that the...

Yu. S. Naiborodenko; V. M. Filatov

348

Commercialization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercialization Commercialization Commercialization See an example of these steps in the commercialization process of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries. See an example of these steps in the commercialization process of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries. Commercialization is the process by which technologies and innovations developed in the lab make their way to market. By licensing patents or using Energy Department facilities, researchers from the private sector and academia are able to take advantage of federal investments into basic science research, while researchers are able to ensure that their discoveries have a life beyond the lab. The Energy Department also helps entrepreneurs, small business owners and

349

Sound speed and thermophysical properties of liquid iron and nickel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An electrical-pulse-heating technique has been used to heat iron and nickel to high temperatures to measure thermophysical properties in the liquid state. A dynamic technique was used because static techniques, which are capable of greater precision, fail at a relatively low temperature. Measurements have been made, and results are shown for enthalpy, temperature, density, electrical resistivity, and sound speed up to 3950 K in iron and 4250 K in nickel.

R. S. Hixson; M. A. Winkler; M. L. Hodgdon

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Anthropogenic Nickel Cycle: Insights into Use, Trade, and Recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are two reasons: their construction technologies use nickel more than elsewhere, and nickel containing goods used in construction are much less traded than any others, particularly machinery. ... Environmental Science and Technology (2004), 38 (4), 1242-1252 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. ... While material flow analysis (MFA) has been widely used to characterize stocks and flows along technological life cycle within a specific geographical area, trade ... ...

Barbara K. Reck; Daniel B. Müller; Katherine Rostkowski; T. E. Graedel

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A non-destructive neutron scattering method was developed to precisely measure the uptake of total hydrogen in nuclear grade Ziraloy-4 cladding. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and H gas. By controlling the initial H gas pressure in the vessel and the temperature profile, target H concentrations from tens of ppm to a few thousands of wppm have been successfully achieved. Following H charging, the H content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method (VHE), by which the samples with desired H concentration were selected for the neutron study. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering (SANIS) were performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge national Laboratory (ORNL). Our study indicates that a very small amount ( 20 ppm) H in commercial Zr cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes for a wide range of H concentration by a nondestructive method. The H distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor, which is determined by calibration process with direct chemical analysis method on the specimen. This scale factor can be used for future test with unknown H concentration, thus provide a nondestructive method for absolute H concentration determination.

Yan, Yong [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mechanical Behavior Studies of Depleted Uranium in the Presence of Hydrides  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses critical issues related to aging in the presence of hydrides (UH{sub 3}) in DU and the subsequent effect on mechanical behavior. Rolled DU specimens with three different hydrogen concentrations and the as-rolled condition were studied. The texture measurements indicate that the hydrogen charging is affecting the initial as-rolled DU microstructure/texture. The macroscopic mechanical behavior suggests the existence of a threshold between the 0 wpmm H and 0.3 wppm H conditions. A VPSC simulation of the macroscopic strain-stress behavior, when taking into account only a texture effect, shows no agreement with the experiment. This suggests that the macroscopic mechanical behavior observed is indeed due to the presence of hydrogen/hydrides in the DU bulk. From the lattice strain variation it can be concluded that the hydrogen is affecting the magnitude and/or the nature of CRSS. The metallography indicates the specimens that underwent the hydrogen charging process, developed large grains and twinning, which were enhanced by the presence of hydrogen. Further studies using electron microscopy and modeling will be conducted to learn about the deformation mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior.

Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Bridges, R. L.; Powell, G. L.; Brown, d. W.; Sisneros, T. A.; Tome, C. N.; Vogel, S. C.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

353

Nuclear fusion in muonic molecules and in deuterated metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of the fusion reactions between hydrogen isotopes in muonic molecules is the first example of the accurate accounting of the nucleus charge screening by a muon in the fusion process. At LUNA installation the measurements of astrophysical reaction cross sections were extended down to collision energies of a few keV. The screening by atomic electrons of the target became substantial. The possibility to look over screening from unbound electrons is given by metal-hydrides used as targets in dd reaction measurements. The classical Debye screening in plasma, applied to quasi-free electrons in metal, provides an explanation of unexpectedly large screening potentials found for some metals in the research through the Periodic table of elements.

L. N. Bogdanova

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

355

OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aryl bromides and H 2 BN(iPr) 2 Scheme 2.7. Hydroboration oftransfer hydride to BH 2 -N(iPr) 2 Scheme 2.10. Conversionchloride with BH 2 -N(iPr) 2 Scheme 3; Aqueous quench of p-

Clary, Jacob William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM  

SciTech Connect

The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Potts­phase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Combustion Processes in the Zr-Co-H2 System and Synthesis of Hydrides of Intermetallic Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The researches on Zr2Co, ZrCo, ZrCo2 synthesis and hydriding in a self-propagating hightemperature synthesis — SHS mode are carried out. In IMC — hydrogen systems low temperature (350–500°C) and high temperature ...

H. G. Hakobyan; S. K. Dolukhanyan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Nickel-hydrogen voltage-efficiency model  

SciTech Connect

A model for providing voltage vs. current relationships and coulombic efficiency has been developed applicable to Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) batteries. The performance relationships can be used directly in dynamic electrical energy storage system models or customized by predicting the particular case of voltage as a function of applied current. The algorithm utilizes electrochemical models for competing cell reactions: a single Butler-Volmer equation for the main NiH{sub 2} reaction, and a Tafel relationship for oxygen generation. For the main NiH{sub 2} reaction, the dependence on state-of-charge is introduced via a Nerstian term containing concentrations of active materials present. Oxygen recombination and self-discharge are modeled as first order reactions. Model parameters are determined by a modified Marquardt algorithm to provide a best-fit of both voltage and pressure data to the physical model. The data fit is from electrical characterization tests which may include capacity measurements or repeated electrical cycling at specified depths-of-discharge or with particular regimens. It has been found that test performance data covering a wide domain of the independent variables (temperature, current, and state-of-charge) will produce a well-behaved model.

Hafen, D.P.; Armantrout, J.D. [Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

THE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

In coordinately unsaturated molecular metal complexes, carbon-hydrogen bonds of the peripheral ligands may, if the stereochemistry allows, closely approach a metal center so as to develop a three-center two-electron bond between the carbon, the hydrogen, and the metal atoms, C-H-M. In some instances, the interaction .is followed by a scission of the C-H bond whereby the metal is effectively oxidized and discrete M-H and M-C {sigma} bonds are forrned. This class of metal-hydrogen-carbon interactions and reactions is shown to be a common phenomenon in metal surface chemistry. Ultra high vacuum studies of nickel and platinum with simple organic molecules like olefins, and arenes are described. These surface chemistry studies were done as a function of surface crystallography and surface composition. The discussion is largely limited to the chemistry of methyl isocyanide, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene. Molecular orbital calculations are presented that support the experimental identification of the importance of C-H-M metal bonding for metal surfaces.

Muetterties, Earl L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

Cornie, James A. (North Chelmsford, MA); Kattamis, Theodoulos (Watertown, MA); Chambers, Brent V. (Cambridge, MA); Bond, Bruce E. (Bedford, MA); Varela, Raul H. (Canton, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys. 2 figs.

Cornie, J.A.; Kattamis, T.; Chambers, B.V.; Bond, B.E.; Varela, R.H.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Mass transfer and kinetic phenomena at the nickel hydroxide electrode  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film (10 to 40 nm thickness) nickel hydroxide intercalation electrodes were constructed using an electroprecipitation technique. Cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic step, and galvanostatic discharge experiments were performed and interpreted in terms of a macroscopic model treating the simultaneous mass transfer, kinetic, and thermodynamic phenomena occurring within the cell. The side reaction, oxygen evolution, exhibited irreversible Tafel behavior, with a proton concentration-dependent exchange current density of 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} [(c{sub 0} {minus} c)/c{sub 0}] A/cm{sup 2} on pure nickel hydroxide films, and a constant exchange current density of 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} A/cm{sup 2} on cobalt hydroxide-containing nickel hydroxide films. The apparent anodic transfer coefficient for the oxygen reaction is 0.49 on pure nickel hydroxide films and 0.42 on cobalt hydroxide-containing nickel hydroxide films. The apparent anodic transfer coefficient for the oxygen reaction is 0.49 on pure nickel hydroxide films and 0.42 on cobalt hydroxide-containing nickel hydroxide films. The intercalation reaction is described with a Butler-Volmer-type expression with a large, proton concentration-dependent exchange current density of 9.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} [c(c{sub 0} {minus} c)]{sup 1/2} A/cm{sup 2}, and anodic and cathodic apparent transfer coefficients of 0.5 for both electrode types. Here c and c{sub 0} have units of mol/cm{sup 3}. The proton diffusion coefficient in pure nickel hydroxide was found to depend on the proton concentration, with values ranging from 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} to 1.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s, with a concentration-averaged value of 3.417 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s. In cobalt hydroxide-containing nickel hydroxide, the values ranged from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} to 1.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s, with a concentration-averaged value of 8.402 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s.

Ta, K.P.; Newman, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Metal inks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

365

Electrodeposition and characterization of nanostructured black nickel selective absorber coatings for solar–thermal energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective coatings consisting of a bright nickel interlayer and black nickel overlayer for solar-to-thermal energy conversion have been electrodeposited onto stainless steel...2, NiOOH, Ni2O3..., NiO, water and m...

F. I. Lizama-Tzec; J. D. Macías…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride in a Solid-State Spin Register  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

\\emph{Ab initio} computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH$^+$. Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of $10^{-14}$ Hartree, which is ten orders of magnitude below desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides several important steps towards a fully scalable solid state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator.

Ya Wang; Florian Dolde; Jacob Biamonte; Ryan Babbush; Ville Bergholm; Sen Yang; Ingmar Jakobi; Philipp Neumann; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; James D. Whitfield; Jörg Wrachtrup

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

367

FeP precipitates in hydride?vapor phase epitaxially grown InP:Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe?doped InP was grown by hydride?vapor phase epitaxy.Doping levels up to 8×1018 cm?3 were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally performed photoluminescence measurements revealed a homogeneous distribution of electrically active Fe atoms. From microstructural investigations by analytical transmission electron microscopy spherical?shaped precipitates were detected in plan?view samples. These precipitates with diameters up to 13 nm are homogeneously arranged in the epilayer. For conglomerates of precipitates a distinct enrichment with Fe and P was measured by a comparative energy dispersive x?ray analysis. The lattice plane distances of the precipitates were deduced from the electron diffraction patterns and from high?resolution electron micrographs. A comparison with calculated values for different Fe–P alloys indicates that the precipitates consist mainly of orthorhombic FeP.

M. Luysberg; R. Göbel; H. Janning

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

RF sputtering for controlling dihydride and monohydride bond densities in amorphous silicon hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicone produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous solicone hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

Jeffery, F.R.; Shanks, H.R.

1980-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron (Richland, WA); Levy, Ira S. (Kennewick, WA); Trimble, Dennis J. (Kennewick, WA); Lanning, Donald D. (Kennewick, WA); Gerber, Franna S. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Prediction of a multicenter-bonded solid boron hydride for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A layered solid boron hydride structure (B2H2) consisting of a hexagonal boron network and bridge hydrogen which has a gravimetric capacity of 8wt% hydrogen is predicted. The structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of the proposed structure are investigated using first-principles electronic structure methods. The absence of soft phonon modes confirms the dynamical stability of the proposed structure. Charging the structure significantly softens hydrogen related phonon modes. Boron modes, in contrast, are either hardened or not significantly affected by electron doping. Furthermore, self-doping the structure considerably reduces the energy barrier against hydrogen release. These results suggest that electrochemical charging or self-doping mechanisms may facilitate hydrogen release while the underlying boron network remains intact for subsequent rehydrogenation.

Tesfaye A. Abtew; Bi-ching Shih; Pratibha Dev; Vincent H. Crespi; Peihong Zhang

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A novel "Kabuto-like" nickel catalyst forms bioactive frameworks from low-cost phenol derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A novel "Kabuto-like" nickel catalyst forms bioactive developed a new nickel catalyst with a "Kabuto-like" structure that was found to catalyze the cross nickel catalyst to catalyze the cross-coupling reaction between carbonyl compounds and phenol derivatives

Takahashi, Ryo

373

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydroconversion of heavy crude oils using soluble metallic compounds in the presence of hydrogen or methane  

SciTech Connect

The hydroconversion of heavy crude oil was studied under thermal and catalytic conditions using soluble organo-metallic compounds of Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Ni, and Co as a catalyst precursors. All catalysts are effective for the hydroconversion, however, molybdenum and nickel compounds are preferred.

Morales, A.; Salazar, A.; Ovalles, C.; Filgueiras, E. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Experimental Study of In Situ Combustion with Tetralin and Metallic Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or metallic catalysts; the second run used heavy oil premixed with 3 wt% tetralin and 500ppm nickel catalyst; and the third run was with heavy oil premixed with 3 wt% tetralin and 500ppm iron catalyst. For the three runs, the cell production pressure was kept...

Palmer-Ikuku, Emuobonuvie

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

376

DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY  

SciTech Connect

A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

377

Superalloy Surface Treatment for Improved Metal Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superalloy Surface Treatment Superalloy Surface Treatment for Improved Metal Performance Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Method to Improve Superalloy Resistance by Surface Treatment." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview To produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power and aero turbines along with other essential components will have to operate at extreme temperatures and pressures. Currently advanced single crystal nickel-based superalloys are used in such extreme environments. Even though these components are coated with a bond

378

C:\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Nickel\March 2007\Eco-SSL for Nickel.wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-76 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 March 2007 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR NICKEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3.0 ECO-SSL FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4.0 ECO-SSL FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.0 ECO-SSL FOR AVIAN WILDLIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.1 Avian TRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.2 Estimation of Dose and Calculation of the Eco-SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.0 ECO-SSL FOR MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE .

379

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

Henriksen, G.L.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

GASAR porous metals process control  

SciTech Connect

GASAR porous metals are produced by melting under a partial pressure of hydrogen and then casting into a mold that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of solution and usually grows as quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front. Experiments with pure nickel have been carried out under processing conditions of varying H{sub 2} partial pressure, total pressure (H{sub 2} + Ar), and superheat. An analysis that considers heterogeneous bubble nucleation was developed that identifies processing conditions in which hydrogen bubbles are stable in the liquid before solidification. It is hypothesized that these conditions lead to low porosity because these bubbles float out of the melt and escape the advancing solidification front. Experimental data are shown to support this hypothesis.

Apprill, J.M.; Poirier, D.R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Maguire, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gutsch, T.C. [California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Process for the hydrotreatment of heavy hydrocarbons in the presence of reduced metals  

SciTech Connect

A heavy hydrocarbon charge containing sulfur, asphaltenes and/or resins is hydrotreated in the liquid phase at 250/sup 0/-500/sup 0/ C. under a pressure of 20-350 bars in the presence of a catalyst previously obtained by reacting an organic compound of a transition metal with an organic aluminum compound, in a hydrocarbon free of asphaltene and resin. The transition metal organic compound is advantageously an iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten or vanadium acetylacetonate or carboxylate.

Dinh, C.T.; Desvard, A.; Jacquin, Y.; Martino, G.

1984-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Synthesis and vibrational spectroscopic characterisation of nickel containing aurichalcite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopy complimented with supplementary infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterise a synthetic nickel substituted aurichalcite a zinc/nickel hydroxy carbonate, (Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+)5(CO3)2(OH)6. XRD patterns show high orientation and indicate the presence of some minor impurities. The diffraction patterns for the Ni-aurichalcite are well correlated with the standard reference patterns. EDAX analyses indicate variations in chemical composition of Zn/Ni ratios of ?20:1. The symmetry of the carbonate anion in aurichalcite is Cs and is composition dependent. This symmetry reduction results in multiple bands in both the symmetric stretching and bending regions. The intense band for the Ni-aurichalcite at 1070 cm?1 is assigned to the ?1(CO3)2? symmetric stretching mode. Three Raman bands assigned to the ?3(CO3)2? antisymmetric stretching modes are observed for Ni-aurichalcite at 1372, 1480 and 1543 cm?1. Multiple Raman bands are observed in the regions from 800 to 850 cm?1 and 720 to 750 cm?1, and are attributed to ?2 and ?4 bending modes confirming the reduction of the carbonate anion symmetry in the aurichalcite structure. This research proves that nickel containing aurichalcites can be synthesised in the laboratory thus mimicing the natural nickel containing aurichalcites.

Ray L. Frost; Ashley Locke; B. Jagannadha Reddy; Matt C. Hales

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae Z.R. Holan and B. Volesky" Department 22, 1993 Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales

Volesky, Bohumil

384

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage ... Use of hydrogen for transportation applications requires materials that not only store hydrogen at high density but that can operate reversibly at temperatures and pressures below approximately 100 °C and 10 bar, respectively. ... This composition is based on assuming the following complete hydrogenation reaction:which stores 2.6 wt % hydrogen. ...

Wen Li; John J. Vajo; Robert W. Cumberland; Ping Liu; Son-Jong Hwang; Chul Kim; Robert C. Bowman, Jr.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

385

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Mixed Pyrophyllite-Montmorillonite System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Mixed Pyrophyllite-Montmorillonite System E. J. Elzinga Surface the mechanism responsible for the initial stage of Ni sorption, and surface precipitation being the slower structure (EXAFS) data on sorption studies on Ni/clay systems revealed that the Ni sorption behavior

Sparks, Donald L.

386

Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); von Winbush, Samuel (Huntington, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Battery business boost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... year, A123 formed deals with the US car manufacturer Chrysler to make batteries for its electric cars. Other applications for A123 products include batteries for portable power tools and huge batteries ... batteries are not yet developed enough to be considered for use in its Prius hybrid electric car, preferring instead to keep using nickel metal hydride batteries. ...

Katharine Sanderson

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first part of a comprehensive summary of the literature on hydrogen isotope permeability through materials that do not readily form hydrides. While we mainly focus on pure metals with low permeabilities because of their importance to tritium containment, we also give data on higher-permeability materials such as iron, nickel, steels, and glasses.

Steward, S.A.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Nickel-Specific Response in the Transcriptional Regulator, 'Escherichia Coli'NikR  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the transcriptional repression of the Ni-specific permease encoded by the Pnik operon by Escherichia coli NikR using a LacZ reporter assay establish that the NikR response is specific to nickel in vivo. Toward understanding this metal ion-specific response, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of various M-NikR complexes (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I), and Zn(II)) was used to show that each high-affinity binding site metal adopts a unique structure, with Ni(II) and Cu(II) being the only two metal ions to feature planar four-coordinate complexes. The results are consistent with an allosteric mechanism whereby the geometry and ligand selection of the metal present in the high-affinity site induce a unique conformation in NikR that subsequently influences DNA binding. The influence of the high-affinity metal on protein structure was examined using hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Each NikR complex gives rise to differing amounts of H/D exchange; Zn(II)- and Co(II)-NikR are most like apo-NikR, while the exchange time course is substantially different for Ni(II) and to a lesser extent for Cu(II). In addition to the high-affinity metal binding site, E. coli NikR has a low-affinity metal-binding site that affects DNA binding affinity. We have characterized this low-affinity site using XAS in heterobimetallic complexes of NikR. When Cu(II) occupies the high-affinity site and Ni(II) occupies the low-affinity site, the Ni K-edge XAS spectra show that the Ni site is composed of six N/O-donors. A similar low-affinity site structure is found for the NikR complex when Co(II) occupies the low-affinity site and Ni(II) occupies the high-affinity site, except that one of the Co(II) ligands is a chloride derived from the buffer.

Leitch, S.; Bradley, M.J.; Rowe, J.L.; Chivers, P.T.; Maroney, M.J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Washington U., St. Louis

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

Nickel-Specific Response in the Transcriptional Regulator, Escherichia coli NikR  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the transcriptional repression of the Ni-specific permease encoded by the P{sub nik} operon by Escherichia coli NikR using a LacZ reporter assay establish that the NikR response is specific to nickel in vivo. Toward understanding this metal ion-specific response, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of various M-NikR complexes (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I), and Zn(II)) was used to show that each high-affinity binding site metal adopts a unique structure, with Ni(II) and Cu(II) being the only two metal ions to feature planar four-coordinate complexes. The results are consistent with an allosteric mechanism whereby the geometry and ligand selection of the metal present in the high-affinity site induce a unique conformation in NikR that subsequently influences DNA binding. The influence of the high-affinity metal on protein structure was examined using hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Each NikR complex gives rise to differing amounts of H/D exchange; Zn(II)- and Co(II)-NikR are most like apo-NikR, while the exchange time course is substantially different for Ni(II) and to a lesser extent for Cu(II). In addition to the high-affinity metal binding site, E. coli NikR has a low-affinity metal-binding site that affects DNA binding affinity. We have characterized this low-affinity site using XAS in heterobimetallic complexes of NikR. When Cu(II) occupies the high-affinity site and Ni(II) occupies the low-affinity site, the Ni K-edge XAS spectra show that the Ni site is composed of six N/O-donors. A similar low-affinity site structure is found for the NikR complex when Co(II) occupies the low-affinity site and Ni(II) occupies the high-affinity site, except that one of the Co(II) ligands is a chloride derived from the buffer.

Leitch,S.; Bradley, M.; Rowe, J.; Chivers, P.; Maroney, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effects of Additive Elements on the Phase Formation and Morphological Stability of Nickel Monosilicide Films  

SciTech Connect

Alloying elements can substantially affect the formation and morphological stability of nickel monosilicide. A comprehensive study of phase formation was performed on 24 Ni alloys with varying concentrations of alloying elements. Silicide films have been used for more than 15 years to contact the source, drain and gate of state-of-the-art complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. In the past, the addition of alloying elements was shown to improve the transformation from the high resistivity C49 to the low resistivity C54-TiSi{sub 2} phase and to allow for the control of surface and interface roughness of CoSi{sub 2} films as well as produce significant improvements with respect to agglomeration of the films. Using simultaneous time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance and light scattering measurements, we follow the formation of the silicide phases in real time during rapid thermal annealing. Additions to the Ni-Si system lead to modifications in the phase formation sequence at low temperatures (metal-rich phases), to variations in the formation temperatures of NiSi and NiSi{sub 2}, and to changes in the agglomeration behavior of the films formed. Of the 24 elements studied, additions of Mo, Re, Ta and W are amongst the most efficient to retard agglomeration while elements such as Pd, Pt and Rh are most efficient to retard the formation of NiSi{sub 2}.

Lavoie,C.; Detavernier, C.; Cabral, Jr. , C.; d'Heurle, F.; Kellock, A.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Harper, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

Stimetz, C.J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF A NICKEL(II)-TRIPEPTIDE MIMIC OF NICKEL SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. However, prior to this work, the structure and chemical reactivity of the nickel-peptide complex were undefined. The work presented herein involves structural and reactivity investigations of the MAP-tag bound with NiII in the dianionic complex [Ni-NCC]2...

Glass, Amanda M.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power  

SciTech Connect

A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers  

SciTech Connect

The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Draft Genome Sequence for Microbacterium laevaniformans Strain OR221, a Bacterium Tolerant to Metals, Nitrate, and Low pH  

SciTech Connect

Microbacterium laevaniformans strain OR221 was isolated from subsurface sediments obtained from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. It was characterized as a bacterium tolerant to heavy metals such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, as well as nitrate and low pH. We present its draft genome sequence.

Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Panikov, Nikolai [ORNL; Ariyawansa, Thilini [Northeastern University; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Epstein, Slava [Northeastern University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Subcritical Noise Measurements with a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Sphere  

SciTech Connect

Subcritical measurements were conducted with an a-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel hemishells using the 252Cf Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) method to provide criticality safety benchmark data. Measured configurations included a bare plutonium sphere as well as the plutonium sphere reflected by the following nickel thicknesses: 1.27, 2.54, 3.81, 5.08, and 7.62 cm. A certain ratio of spectral quantities was measured for each configuration which varies linearly with the keff of the system. In addition, two types of Monte Carlo calculations were employed: a modified version of MCNP to calculate the ratio of spectral quantities and a KCODE calculation. From the measured and computed quantities the multiplication of each configuration can be approximated. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis was then performed that includes uncertainties in the geometry and materials present in the system in addition to the uncertainties in the method and nuclear data.

Jesson D. Hutchinson; John D. Bess

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Deciphering the structure of nano-nickel composites  

SciTech Connect

A model has been developed to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. This model combines the theory of quantum mechanical tunneling with percolation theory to obtain macroscopic composite resistivity as a function of strain from quantum mechanical principles and statistical characterization of constituent morphology. It has been shown that a model incorporating quantum mechanical tunneling and percolation theory can be used to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. The predictions of this model qualitatively demonstrate the large drop in resistivity with strain that these composites exhibit. The quantitative accuracy of the model was shown to be usually within one order of magnitude. Further work must be done to obtain an empirical distribution of inter-nanostrand gap distances, the tunneling barrier height ({lambda}), and the fraction of conductive junctions as a function of strain for these composites.

Johnson, Oliver K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Sulfur poisoning of H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel  

SciTech Connect

New and previously published adsorption data for hydrogen and carbon monoxide on various fresh and presulfided nickel/alumina catalysts showed that at 298/sup 0/K, the fractional hydrogen uptake decreased linearly with sulfur coverage; that irreversible adsorption of carbon monoxide was higher on sulfided than on fresh catalysts at 190/sup 0/, 273/sup 0/, and 300/sup 0/K, probably as a result of nickel tetracarbonyl formation; and that substantial amounts of nickel tetracarbonyl were formed in the gas phase in the presence of sulfided catalysts, which caused significant loss of nickel. The formation of the nickel tetracarbonyl probably proceeded via stable subcarbonyl species. At carbon monoxide pressures of < 1 mm Hg, no carbon monoxide absorbed at room temperature, but at methanation temperature (473/sup 0/-673/sup 0/K), dissociative adsorption did take place. Chemisorption of carbon monoxide therefore, cannot be used to measure nickel dispersion on used catalysts.

Bartholomew, C.H.; Pannell, R.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

High-temperature fabricable nickel-iron aluminides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nickel-iron aluminides are described that are based on Ni.sub.3 Al, and have significant iron content, to which additions of hafnium, boron, carbon and cerium are made resulting in Ni.sub.3 Al base alloys that can be fabricated at higher temperatures than similar alloys previously developed. Further addition of molybdenum improves oxidation and cracking resistance. These alloys possess the advantages of ductility, hot fabricability, strength, and oxidation resistance.

Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

404

Electrochemical behavior of reactively sputtered iron-doped nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Iron-doped nickel oxide films were deposited by reactive sputtering from elemental and alloy targets in a 20% oxygen/argon atmosphere and were characterized for use as oxygen evolution catalysts. The incorporation of iron reduced the overpotential required for oxygen evolution by as much as 300 mV at a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} compared to undoped nickel oxide deposited under similar conditions. Tafel slopes were reduced from 95 mV/dec in undoped NiO{sub x} films to less than 40 mV/dec for films containing 1.6 to 5.6 mole percent (m/o) iron, indicating a change in the rate-limiting step from the primary discharge of OH{sup {minus}} ions to the recombination of oxygen radicals. Resistivity, structural, and compositional measurements indicate that high oxygen content is necessary to gain the full benefit of the iron dopant. Initial tests in KOH indicate excellent long-term stability. A film deposited from the FeNi alloy target, which exhibited low oxygen overpotentials and a Tafel slope of 35 mV/dec, had not degraded appreciably following more than 7,000 h of operation at an anodic current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}. Taken together, the low oxygen evolution reaction overpotentials, the excellent stability in KOH, and the relative insensitivity to iron content indicative that reactively sputtered iron-doped nickel oxide is promising as an oxygen catalyst.

Miller, E.L.; Rocheleau, R.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Metal Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems posed to plants by metal toxicity in the soils of the world are basically of two kinds. The first kind are of natural origin. These arise either as a consequence of the nature of the parent material f...

T. McNeilly

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Dendritic metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

ADSORPTIVE DESULFURIZATION OF LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS VIA NICKEL-BASED ADSORBENTS FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objectives of this work are to compare the adsorptive desulfurization capacity of several different types of nickel-based adsorbents and to identify ways for further… (more)

Clemons, Jennifer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ultralight Metallic Microlattices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a 100-nm-thick uniform conformal coating can be achieved, resulting in a cellular...Ultralight multiwalled carbon nanotube aerogel . ACS Nano 4 , 7293 ( 2010...self-propagating photopolymer waveguide prototyping, coating the template by electroless nickel plating...

T. A. Schaedler; A. J. Jacobsen; A. Torrents; A. E. Sorensen; J. Lian; J. R. Greer; L. Valdevit; W. B. Carter

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

410

The effect of parent metal properties on the performance of Lattice Block Material{trademark}  

SciTech Connect

Lattice Block Material{trademark}, or LBM{trademark} is a unique lightweight structure consisting of repeated cells with an internal node connected to, in the most common configuration, 14 ligaments. In its metallic version, this product is available in a variety of castable metals including aluminum alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys and steels. The relationship between LBM structural performance (strength and stiffness) and parent metal properties is investigated using compression tests in three primary orientations and 3-pt. bend tests. Analytical assessment of the LBM via finite element analysis shows reasonable agreement with experimental findings and provides predictions for LBM capabilities with different materials, unit cell sizes and ligament geometries.

Renauld, M.L.; Giamei, A.F.; Thompson, M.S. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States). Materials and Structures Technology Dept.; Priluck, J. [JAMCORP, Wilmington, MA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Material Flow Analysis of Scarce Metals: Sources, Functions, End-Uses and Aspects for Future Supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, it surveys the main sources of geologically scarce (byproduct) metals currently considered critical by one or other of several recent studies. ... One example is the use of phosphors based on scarce metals in LEDs now competing with older types of light for many applications such as automobile headlights and streetlights as well as interior lighting. ... (9) MFA has been used to study the industrial metabolism of major base metals (iron and steel, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) to quantify waste residuals generated by processing. ...

Laura Talens Peiró; Gara Villalba Méndez; Robert U. Ayres

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

Slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy of electron beam evaporated cobalt and nickel silicides  

SciTech Connect

Metal silicide thin films on single-crystal silicon substrates are the subject of much research, due to their applications as electrical contacts and interconnects, diffusion barriers, low resistance gates, and field-assisted positron moderators, among others. Defects within the silicide layer and/or at the silicide/silicon interface are detrimental to device performance, since they can act as traps for charge carriers, as well as positrons. Pinholes penetrating the film are another detriment particularly for cobalt silicide films, since they allow electrons to permeate the film, rather than travel ballistically, in addition to greatly increasing surface area for recombination events. A series of epitaxial cobalt and nickel silicide thin films, deposited via electron-beam evaporation and annealed at various temperatures, have been grown on single-crystal silicon (111) substrates, in an effort to establish a relationship between deposition and processing parameters and film quality. The films have been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, sputter depth profile Auger, and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy. The latter has been shown to both correlate and complement the traditional electron microscopy results.

Frost, R.L.; DeWald, A.B. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA)); Zaluzec, M.; Rigsbee, J.M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)); Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Competing, Coverage-Dependent Decomposition Pathways for C2Hy Species on Nickel (111) Jonathan E. Mueller,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reasons. Nickel is the primary catalyst in the steam reforming process for converting methane and water in which it typically selects for methane production.4 More recently, nickel has also been used extensively

Goddard III, William A.

414

Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities  

SciTech Connect

Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction and the number of shifts that could operate a year. Further study is warranted to better understand the metal air pollution levels in the community and if necessary, to evaluate the feasibility of emission controls and identify operational improvements and best management practices for this industry. This research adds two new aspects to the literature: identification of types and magnitude of metal particulate matter air pollutants associated with a previously unrecognized area source, metal recyclers and their potential risk to health. -- Highlights: • Air monitoring study in response to community complaints found metal contamination. • Metal recyclers found to potentially pose cancer from metal particulates • Chromium, nickel, cobalt and cadmium samples were detected in five metal recyclers. • These metals were not detected in background air samples. • Estimated increased cancer risk ranges from 1 in 1,000,000 to 8 in 10,000.

Raun, Loren, E-mail: raun@rice.edu [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States)] [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Pepple, Karl, E-mail: pepple.karl@epa.gov [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hoyt, Daniel, E-mail: hoyt.daniel@epa.gov [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States)] [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States); Richner, Donald, E-mail: Donald.Richner@houstontx.gov [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Blanco, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.blanco@houstontx.gov [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Li, Jiao, E-mail: jiao.li@rice.edu [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)] [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Determining the Heavy Metal Pollution in Mascara (Algeria) by Using Casuarina equisetifolia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. In this study, Casuarina equisetifolia needles were evaluated as the possible biomonitors of heavy metal air pollution in Mascara (Algeria). The needles were sampled from seven locations with different degrees of metal pollution (near roads) and from a control site. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and nickel were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The maximal values of these four metals were found in the samples collected near the roads and the minimal values were found in the control site. Furthermore, sites with high traffic density and frequency of cars stoppage showed high heavy metal concentrations. However, the comparison of concentrations of all metals showed that the zinc one had the highest concentration of all. The cluster analysis divided the selected sampling sites in three distinct clusters. With regard to the results of this study, Casuarina equisetifolia can be successfully applied in biomonitoring of air pollution. Key words: Casuarina equisetifolia, Mascara, biomonitors, pollution, heavy metals.

Lakhdari Aissa; Benabdeli Kéloufi

417

Supported nickel catalysts for low temperature methane steam reforming: comparison between metal additives and support modification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of Ag (1 wt%) and Au (1 wt%) on the catalytic properties of Ni/Al2O3 (7 wt% Ni) for methane steam reforming (MSR) was studied in parallel with...2 (6 wt%) and La2O3 (6 wt%) addition. The addition of 1 ...

Monica Dan; Maria Mihet; Alexandru R. Biris…

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Influence of dimensionality on deep tunneling rates: A study based on the hydrogen-nickel system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as hydrogen embrittlement, catalysis, and fuel storage.1 Moreover, tunneling draws fundamental interest sinceInfluence of dimensionality on deep tunneling rates: A study based on the hydrogen-nickel system hydrogen into a surface site of a nickel crystal is used to investigate deep tunneling phenomena. A method

Zeiri, Yehuda

419

Adsorption and Desorption of Hydrocarbons on a Supported Nickel Cracking Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hydrocarbons on a Supported Nickel Cracking Catalyst A. K. Galwey A study has been made...a high area supported nickel cracking catalyst. Measurements have been made of (i...adsorbed, after standard preparation of the catalyst, when a known volume of each hydrocarbon...

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Z. B. He et al., Nickel catalyst shape Etchant-induced shaping of nanoparticle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z. B. He et al., Nickel catalyst shape - 1 - Etchant-induced shaping of nanoparticle catalysts al., Nickel catalyst shape - 2 - Abstract Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) obtained by plasma show in this paper that the shape of Ni nanoparticle catalysts, and in turn the CNF properties, can

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reaktionshemmender Einfluß von Schwefel auf die Aufkohlung von Nickel in Methan-Wasserstoff-Gemischen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carburization of nickel in CH4-H2 and CH4-H2S-H2 gas mixtures was studied in a flow apparatus at 1060–1280 K applying the resistance-relaxation technique. The reaction of nickel with CH4 is found to be therma...

R. Kikowatz; G. Hörz

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

423

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 225 (2001) 337345 Irreversible magnetization in nickel nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this magnetic nanoparticle system. # 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 75.10.Nr; 75.50.KjJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 225 (2001) 337­345 Irreversible magnetization in nickel in revised form 20 October 2000 Abstract We report magnetic studies on nickel nanoparticle films of average

Zuo, Fulin

424

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a PyrophylliteMontmorillonite Mixture Evert J. Elzinga1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Pyrophyllite­Montmorillonite Mixture Evert J. Elzinga1 and Donald L-mail: elzinga@udel.edu Received October 6, 1998; accepted February 17, 1999 Nickel sorption on pyrophyllite in the overall Ni uptake in the clay mixture, and that neither sorption mechanism truly out-competed the other

Sparks, Donald L.

425

Directed Light Fabrication of Refractory Metals and Alloys  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work performed under Order No. FA0000020 AN Contract DE-AC12-76SN00052 for deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents the progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. 1. Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. 2. The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. 3. The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06{micro}m), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. 4. The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required.

Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Directed light fabrication of refractory metals and alloys  

SciTech Connect

This report covers deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. (1) Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. (2) The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. (3) The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06{micro}m), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. (4) The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required.

Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

1999-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Superoxide dismutase activity and novel reactions with hydrogen peroxide of histidine-containing nickel(II)-oligopeptide complexes and nickel(II)-induced structural changes in synthetic DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At physiologic pH values, histidine-containing nickel(II) oligopeptides reduced the flux of superoxide anion (O2) generated in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The postulated involvement of the Ni(III)/N...

E. Nieboer; R. T. Tom; F. E. Rossetto

428

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

Torsion Testing of Diffusion Bonded LIGA Formed Nickel  

SciTech Connect

A test technique has been devised which is suitable for the testing of the bond strength of batch diffusion bonded LIGA or DXRL defined structures. The method uses a torsion tester constructed with the aid of LIGA fabrication and distributed torsion specimens which also make use of the high aspect ratio nature of DXRL based processing. Measurements reveal achieved bond strengths of 130MPa between electroplated nickel with a bond temperature of 450 C at 7 ksi pressure which is a sufficiently low temperature to avoid mechanical strength degradation.

Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.

1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

431

Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

Flinn, J.E.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

432

Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H{sup -} ions.

Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T. [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory March 9, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking input from industry representatives on the safe disposition of approximately 15,300 tons of nickel scrap recovered from uranium enrichment process equipment at the Department's Oak Ridge, TN, and Paducah, KY, facilities. The Expression of Interest (EOI), released today, will assist in DOE's evaluation of restricted uses of its nickel material for controlled radiological applications. These restricted uses could include use in commercial nuclear power plants, DOE nuclear facilities, or by the U.S. Navy. The Department will solicit input through May 8, 2007.

434

DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory DOE Seeking Input on Alternative Uses of Nickel Inventory March 9, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking input from industry representatives on the safe disposition of approximately 15,300 tons of nickel scrap recovered from uranium enrichment process equipment at the Department's Oak Ridge, TN, and Paducah, KY, facilities. The Expression of Interest (EOI), released today, will assist in DOE's evaluation of restricted uses of its nickel material for controlled radiological applications. These restricted uses could include use in commercial nuclear power plants, DOE nuclear facilities, or by the U.S. Navy. The Department will solicit input through May 8, 2007.

435

The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of high oxidation state nickel fluorides  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this thesis has mainly addressed the challenge of the synthesis of thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides, which cannot be made by traditional thermal methods. A low-temperature approach towards the synthesis of such transition metal fluorides exploits the greater thermodynamic stability of high oxidation states in anions and involves the use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) as a solvent. The general method consists of combining an aHF soluble starting material (e.g., K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6}) with a Lewis fluoroacid (e.g., BF{sub 3}), which precipitates a neutral polymeric solid state fluoride: 2 K{sup +} + NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} + BF{sub 3} {r_arrow} NiF{sub 4} + 2 BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} + 2 K{sup +}. At room temperature, this reaction yields a different structural phase, with composition K{sub x}NiF{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.18). This material has a pseudo-hexagonal tungsten bronze structure (H{sub 0}-K{sub x}NiF{sub 3}), and is an ionic conductor, probably due to K{sup +} ions hosted in the lattice channels. R-NiF{sub 3} is capable of fluorinating a wide range of inorganic and organic substrates. These reactions have probably shed light on the mechanism of the Simons Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Process, an important industrial method of fluorinating organic compounds. It has long been speculated that NiF{sub 3} plays a role in the ECF process, which uses nickel electrodes in aHF solvent. K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} also fluorinates organic compounds in aHF, but interestingly, yields different fluorinated products. The reduction of R-NiF{sub 3} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} during fluorination reactions yields NiF{sub 2}. A method has been developed to regenerate NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} from NiF{sub 2}.

Chacon, L.C. [Univ. of Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Kinetics of the steam reforming of methane with iron, nickel, and iron-nickel alloys as catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The steam reforming of methane on iron or nickel, CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O ..-->.. CO + 3H/sub 2/, can be regarded as a sequence of two reactions with adsorbed carbon as an intermediate species: CH/sub 4/ ..-->.. C(ads) + 2H/sub 2/, C(ads) + H/sub 2/O ..-->.. CO + H/sub 2/. As the first reaction is rate limiting, the following rate law can be applied to methane reforming catalysed by iron: v = k/sub 2//sup Fe/ a/sub 0//sup -n/ p/sub CH/sub 4///P/sub H/sub 2///sup 1/2/, 0.6 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 1.0. The oxygen activity a/sub 0/ on the catalyst surface is virtually determined by the ratio P/sub H/sub 2/O//P/sub H/sub 2// in the gas atmosphere. The above rate equation was confirmed by measurements in a flow apparatus for the temperature range 700 to 900/sup 0/C. In agreement with the reaction model the steady-state carbon activity on the iron surface and the steady-state carbon concentration in the iron catalyst are very low. With nickel as catalyst the reaction rate is much higher and independent of the oxygen activity on the catalyst surface. The rate equation reads: v = k/sub 2//sup Ni/ P/sub CH/sub 4//. Different partial reaction steps of the methane decomposition are rate determining on iron and nickel.

Muenster, P.; Grabke, H.J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes (kiss sleeving process)  

SciTech Connect

This process, the nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes, has been jointly developed under a Belgatom (Laborelec) and Framatome agreement with shared experience gained by both companies, industrial applications being under the responsibility of Framatome. Application of the coating in zones where residual stresses or cracks are present prevents contact between the primary water and the tube, which stops the stress corrosion process. In the Doel 2 plant, 91 tubes have been plated since 1985, and different sets of parameters have been used for comparison purposes. Among these tubes, 9 have been preventively plugged because of defective plating, 9 have been pulled out for laboratory examinations, 2 just after plating and 7 after 1 or 2 yr of service. There are 73 plated tubes still in service. From the tests that were performed, it was possible to select an optimized set of parameters guaranteeing the following properties: bridging of existing cracks and good behavior of the coating in relevant zones, good adhesion to the Inconel tube, high ductility, low residual stresses, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and low cobalt content. The licensability of this process is being completed. It is based first on the leak-before-break concept to determine the characteristics of the nickel plating, thickness in particular, and second on the inspectability of ultrasonic testing methods.

Michaut, B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils  

SciTech Connect

This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

Offermann, D

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nickel metal hydride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility  

SciTech Connect

Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Silica, Hybrid Silica, Hydride Silica and Non-Silica Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Marcon G., Tolon-Becerra A. Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region. Environmental...chromatography influence of sorbent character, mobile phase composition, and pH on retention of basic compounds. Journal of Chromatography......

Endler M. Borges

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method of Determining the Extent to which a Nickel Structure has been Attached by a Fluorine-Containing Gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attacked by a halogen containing gas to which it has been exposed which comprises preparing a quantity of water substantially free from dissolved oxygen, passing ammonia gas through a cuprammonium solution to produce ammonia substantially free from oxygen, dissolving said oxygen-free ammonia in said water to produce a saturated aqueous ammonia solution free from uncombined oxygen, treating at least a portion of said nickel structure of predetermined weight with said solution to dissolve nickel compounds from the surface of said structure without dissolving an appreciable amount of said nickel and analyzing the resulting solution to determine the quantity of said nickel compounds that was associated with said said portion of said structure to determine the proportion of combined nickel in said nickel structure.

Brusie, James P.

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

445

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}: Iron-containing complex hydride with high gravimetric hydrogen density  

SciTech Connect

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}, which has the highest gravimetric hydrogen density of iron-containing complex hydrides reported so far, is synthesized by hydrogenation of a powder mixture of iron and LiH above 6.1 GPa at 900?°C. In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that while kinetics require high temperature and thus high pressure for the synthesis, Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is expected to be thermodynamically stable slightly below room temperature at ambient pressure; further synthetic studies to suppress the kinetic effects may enable us to synthesize Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} at moderate pressures. Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} can be recovered at ambient conditions where Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is metastable.

Saitoh, Hiroyuki, E-mail: cyto@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Aoki, Katsutoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iijima, Yuki [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Naruki [Renewable Energy Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Fukushima 963-0215 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Development of nickel silicide for integrated circuit technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Continuous advancements in devices, materials and processes have resulted in integrated circuits with smaller device dimensions, higher functionality and higher speed. The complementary metal… (more)

Do, Phu H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

CO hydrogenation and adsorption studies on supported nickel SMSI catalysts. Technical report no. 42, 1 January-31 December 1985  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of CO by Ni/TiO2 and Ni/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was investigated at 25 and 125 C following low-temperature (LT = 250 C) and high-temperature (HT = 450 C) reduction. Infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the onset of nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)/sub 4/) formation under various conditions of temperature and pressure. The CO uptake data were modeled using the Langmuir equation for isothermal adsorption. Monolayer coverages and equilibrium constants for CO adsorption were obtained from the uptake data. Carbon monoxide monolayer coverages were not affected by the reduction temperature of either Ni/TiO/sub 2/ or Ni/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Methanation activity at 275C was approximately a factor of 2 greater for the Ni/TiO/sub 2/ (LT) than the NiTiO/sub 2/ (HT) catalyst. This correlated well with the relative strength of the CO-metal surface bond, which also decreased by a factor of approximately 2. These findings suggest that the enhanced methanation rate observed on TiO/sub 2/ supported catalysts is not due to the presence or absence of a strong metal-support interaction condition of the TiO/sub 2/ but to other properties of TiO/sub 2/ as compared to other supports.

Fang, S.M.; White, J.M.; Campione, T.J.; Ekerdt, J.G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Microstructural characteristics of the built up layer of a precipitation hardened nickel based superalloy by electrospark deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Buildup of precipitation hardened nickel base superalloys by electro spark deposition due to the low heat input of the process has many attractions. Characterization of the microstructure of the ESD built up layer of IN738LC over an as-cast base metal is accomplished in this work. The grain structure and solidification texture of the coating are investigated by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), optical and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the deposited layer is formed mainly through epitaxial nucleation and growth on the base metal structure while discontinuities acting as nucleation sites produce fine grains with independent orientations. It is shown that such independent grains can have a significant role in improving the integrity of the ESD built up layer, since they can act as crack arrest sites and make the coating more resistant to the propagation of liquation and solidification fissures. Moreover, it is found that nanosized ?? precipitates exist in the coating indicating the high tendency of ?? for precipitation even in the extremely high cooling rates involved in the ESD process. Hardness measurements indicated a higher hardness for the built up layer which is attributable to the finer microstructure of the coating.

M. Ebrahimnia; F. Malek Ghaini; Y.J. Xie; H. Shahverdi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The magnetic properties of the iron-rich, iron-nickel-zinc alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this density. The samples were again sealed in steel jackets with a 12 small amount of zinc to maintain the vapor pressure high enough to al- low the impregnated zinc to remain in the samples. The jacketed speci- 0 mens were heated to 1000 C for two hours.... This curve indicated that the coercive force is strongly affected by the zinc content of the al- loy. Fig, 12 is a plot of hardness against nickel content. The 10 w/o Zn al'loys gave the greatest hardness with low nickel content. As the nickel content...

Gupton, Paul Stephen

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Sulfur poisoning of H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel  

SciTech Connect

Effects of H/sub 2/S on adsorption of H/sub 2/ and CO on unsupported nickel are: H/sub 2/ adsorption at 298/sup 0/K and CO adsorption at 190/sup 0/K were lowered by presulfiding; and irreversible CO adsorption at 298/sup 0/K was decreased, whereas reversible adsorption was increased after presulfiding, the stoichiometry in the latter case suggesting the formation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/. Recent studies indicate a similar, but even more complex behavior in the case of supported nickel. These effects of sulfur poisoning on H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel are described and discussed.

Bartholomew, C.H.; Pannell, R.B.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nickel Ferrite Aerogels with Monodisperse Nanoscale Building Blocks—The Importance of Processing Temperature and Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel Ferrite Aerogels with Monodisperse Nanoscale Building Blocks—The Importance of Processing Temperature and Atmosphere ... Using two-step (air/argon) thermal processing, sol?gel-derived nickel?iron oxide aerogels are transformed into monodisperse, networked nanocrystalline magnetic oxides of NiFe2O4 with particle diameters that can be ripened with increasing temperature under argon to 4.6, 6.4, and 8.8 nm. ... nickel ferrites; magnetic nanomaterials; nanoarchitectures; aerogels; sol?gel chemistry; single magnetic domains; thermal processing ...

Katherine A. Pettigrew; Jeffrey W. Long; Everett E. Carpenter; Colin C. Baker; Justin C. Lytle; Christopher N. Chervin; Michael S. Logan; Rhonda M. Stroud; Debra R. Rolison

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

Micrographic detection of plastic deformation in nickel base alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting low levels of plastic deformation in metal articles comprising electrolytically etching a flow free surface of the metal article with nital at a current density of less than about 0.1 amp/cm.sup.2 and microscopically examining the etched surface to determine the presence of alternating striations. The presence of striations indicates plastic deformation in the article.

Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Bibb, Albert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91 - 7700 of 31,917 results. 91 - 7700 of 31,917 results. Article Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries The Energy Department funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of... http://energy.gov/articles/steps-commercialization-nickel-metal-hydride-batteries-0 Download Design, Performance, and Sustainability of Engineered Covers for Uranium Mill Tailings Proceedings of the Workshop on Long-Term Performance Monitoring of Metals and Radionuclides in the Subsurface: Strategies, Tools, and Case Studies. U.S. Geological Survey.April 21 and 22, 2004,... http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/design-performance-and-sustainability-engineered-covers-uranium-mill

457

Carbon and carbon monoxide hydrogenation on nickel: support effects  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenation of carbon, deposited on nickel catalysts by CO disproportionation, was investigated by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) for four oxide supports, alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), silica (SiO/sub 2/), titanium oxide (TiO/sub 2/), and SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was measured by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) for comparison. The rate of carbon hydrogenation to methane was found to be independent of the support and an average activation energy of 42 kJ/mol was estimated. In contrast, the rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was very sensitive to the catalyst support. Nickel (Ni) supported on TiO/sub 2/ exhibited the highest specific activity, and two distinct sites for methanation were observed on Ni/TiO/sub 2/ and Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The lowest specific activities were observed for Ni/SiO/sub 2/ and Ni/SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. For all catalysts, carbon hydrogenation occurred at a lower temperature than carbon monoxide hydrogenation. For both TPR and TPSR, small amounts of ethane were formed and at a lower temperature than methane. The amount of less-active, ..beta..-carbon observed in TPSR experiments was very small on all catalysts. These results indicate that at high coverages, carbon hydrogenation does not depend on the support, and thus it is not rate-determining for CO hydrogenation in excess hydrogen. The support is also shown to change the specific rate of carbon monoxide methanation; activity differences seen in steady-state experiments are not just due to differences in site densities. 5 figures, 5 tables.

Ozdogan, S.Z.; Gochis, P.D.; Falconer, J.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

Soma, Takako

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

Rovibronically selected and resolved two-color laser photoionization and photoelectron study of nickel carbide cation  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a two-color laser photoionization and photoelectron study of nickel carbide (NiC) and its cation (NiC{sup +}). By preparing NiC in a single rovibronic level of an intermediate vibronic state via visible laser excitation prior to ultraviolet laser photoionization, we have measured the photoionization efficiency spectrum of NiC near its ionization threshold, covering the formation of NiC{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +};v{sup +}=0-3). We have also obtained well-resolved rotational transitions for the v{sup +}=0 and 1 vibrational bands of the NiC{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) ground state. The assignment of rotational transitions observed between the neutral NiC intermediate state and the NiC{sup +} ion ground state has allowed the direct determination of a highly precise value for the ionization energy of NiC, IE(NiC)=67 525.1{+-}0.5 cm{sup -1} (8.372 05{+-}0.000 06 eV). This experiment also provides reliable values for the vibrational spacing [{Delta}G(1/2)=859.5{+-}0.5 cm{sup -1}], rotational constants (B{sub e}{sup +}=0.6395{+-}0.0018 cm{sup -1} and {alpha}{sub e}{sup +}=0.0097{+-}0.0009 cm{sup -1}), and equilibrium bond distance (r{sub e}{sup +}=1.628 A) for the NiC{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) ground state. The experimental results presented here are valuable for benchmarking the development of more reliable ab initio quantum computation procedures for energetic and spectroscopic calculations of transition metal-containing molecules.

Chang, Yih Chung [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Shi Xiaoyu; Ng, C. Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lau, Kai-Chung [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yin Qingzhu [Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Liou, H. T. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

2010-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway  

SciTech Connect

Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yi-Chuang [Department of Nursing, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Nursing, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Chang [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Yu, E-mail: mt037@mail.fy.edu.tw [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Reinforced nickel catalysts for steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

XRD, mercury porosimetry, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and electron microscopy were used to study peculiarities of the formation of reinforced composite nickel catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by sin...

Zaliya A. Sabirova; Marianna M. Danilova…

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Steam Reforming of Methane Over Nickel: Development of a Multi-Step Surface Reaction Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed multi-step reaction mechanism is developed for modeling steam reforming of methane over nickel-based catalysts. The mechanism also ... tested by simulating experimental investigations of SR of methane ...

L. Maier; B. Schädel; K. Herrera Delgado; S. Tischer; O. Deutschmann

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fabrication and tribological properties of superhydrophobic nickel films with positive and negative biomimetic microtextures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel (Ni) films with positive and negative textured surfaces of lotus and rice leaf patterns were fabricated through an inexpensive and effective method. The as-prepared Ni films were superhydrophobic and ex...

Ying Wang; Jing Yang; Xiaobao Guo; Qiang Zhang; Jingyu Wang; Jianning Ding…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Dispersion and Characterization of Nickel Nanostrands in Thermoset and Thermoplastic Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel Nanostrands (NiNS) are nano-particles that are highly branched and have a high aspect ratio. These particles show promise as excellent additives to composites when electrical conductivity is desired. Unfortunately, there is very little...

Whalen, Casey Allen

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

465

Partage du nickel entre serpentine et brucite au cours de la serpentinisation du péridot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When nickeliferous peridot is submitted to a serpentinisation reaction with formation of brucite, the peridotic nickel is partitioned between the two minerals (serpentine and brucite) with a distribution coeffici...

Alain Perruchot

466

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise (Ris Orangis, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

468

Synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(-caprolactone) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(lactide) in melt with magnesium hydride as catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)-graft-poly(lactide) in melt with magnesium hydride as catalyst Nadia Guerrouani, André Mas* , François Schué UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2%) was investigated using MgH2 environmental catalyst and melt-grown ring opening polymerization (ROP) of -caprolactone (CL) and L- lactide (LA), that avoiding undesirable toxic catalyst and solvent. The ability of Mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z