Sample records for nickel metal hydride

  1. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  2. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  3. Identification of a new pseudo-binary hydroxide during calendar corrosion of (La, Mg)2Ni7-type hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries J. Monnier 1 , H. Chen 1 , S. Joiret2,3 , J-MH batteries have been extensively studied during calendar storage and cycling [6-8]. In these alloys To improve the performances of Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries, an important step is the understanding

  4. Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the negative electrode of the metal hydride electrodes. Three areas were investigated: corrosion inhibition through Zn additives to the electrolyte, the use of AB5 and AB2 alloy mixtures, and novel AB2...

  5. Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Adsorption of Hydrogen on and Absorption into Metal, Alloys, and Intermetallics, The Electrochemical Society, PV 97-16, p. 277. vn1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Page DEDICATION. lv ACKNOWLEGEMENTS . TABLE OF CONTENTS vnr LIST OF FIGURES. . LIST... of a new family of the intermetallic alloys containing one transition metal (4, 7, 8-10). The major family of such intermetallic alloys and their hydrides are listed in Table 1. 2 which also shows the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density...

  6. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  7. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...

  8. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  9. Advanced nickel-metal hydride cell development. Final report, September 1993--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hong S.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inert gas atomization using metal hydride alloys for a Ni/MH{sub x}cell was studied. Atomization of the alloys was demonstrated on a small production scale up to batch size of several kg. Relative performance of the atomized and nonatomized alloys was investigated for the electrode material in a Ni/MH{sub x} cell. The study included effects of charge-discharge rates, temperature, and particle size on cell voltage (polarization) and specific capacity. Results show that the specific capacity of the present atomized alloys was apprecialy smaller than that of the nonatomized powder, especially for initial cycles. Full activation of the atomized alloys oftentook several hundreds of cycles. However, no appreciable difference in discharge rate capability was observed with R10 and R12 alloys. Chemical compositions were indistinguishable, although the oxygen contents of the atomized alloys were always higher. Effects of Ni and Cu coating on alloy performance were studied after electroless coating; the coatings noticeably improved the electrode rate capability for all the alloys. The electrode polarization was esecially improved, but not the cycle life. Further studies are needed.

  10. A novel plating process for microencapsulating metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, H.H.; Vyas, B.; Zahurak, S.M.; Kammlott, G.W. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the lifetime of the metal hydride electrode has been the use of conventional electroless plating to produce a coating of copper or nickel on the surface of the metal hydride powders. In this paper, a novel method for microencapsulating the active electrode powders is presented. This new plating technique takes advantage of the reducing power of hydrogen already stored inside the metal hydride to plate a variety of metals onto metal hydride materials. This method greatly simplifies electroless plating for these powders, eliminating the need for stabilizers and additives typically required for conventional electroless plating solutions. Metals that can be electrolessly plated with stored hydrogen have been identified based on thermodynamic considerations. Experimentally, micrometers thick coatings of copper, silver, and nickel have been plated on several metal hydrides.

  11. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  12. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  13. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  14. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H{sub 2} gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe){sub 2}, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) was capable of reducing a variety of BX{sub 3} compounds having hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to HA of BEt{sub 3}. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, (HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +}), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities ({Delta}G{sub H{sup -}}{sup o}) of HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX{sub 3} compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX{sub 3} compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe){sub 2} was observed to transfer H{sup -} to BX{sub 3} compounds with X = H, OC{sub 6}F{sub 5} and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh){sub 3} is accompanied by formation of (BH{sub 3}){sub 2}-dmpe and (BH{sub 2}SPh){sub 2}-dmpe products that follow from reduction of multiple BSPh bonds and loss of a dmpe ligand from Co. Reactions between HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and B(SPh){sub 3} in the presence of triethylamine result in formation of Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh and Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3} with no loss of dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} with B(SPh){sub 3} under analogous conditions give Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe){sub 2}(SPh)]{sup +}. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe){sub 2} (dedpe = diethyldiphenyl(phosphino)ethane) from H{sub 2} and a base is also discussed; including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H{sub 2})Co(dedpe){sub 2}][BF{sub 4}].

  15. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Engineering Sciences Center Atoms to Continuum Proposed Virtual Center of Excellence Proposed Virtual Center of Excellence for Metal Hydride Development for Metal Hydride...

  16. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  17. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore »the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  18. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  19. Encapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration feed stock, not for low concentration ­ Hydrogen economy will need hydrogen recovery from lowEncapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation (Formerly Separation Membrane Development) DOE Hydrogen Program 2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation L. Kit Heung, Jim Congdon Savannah River Technology

  20. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  1. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  2. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  3. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)] [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE); Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V [University of the Western Cape, South Africa] [University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Pollet, Dr. B.G. [University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  4. New binding materials for metal hydride electrodes which permit good recyclability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, T.; Yasuda, N. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan). Development Center); Takeuchi, Y. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Project Dept.); Sakai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Miyamura, H.; Kuriyama, N.; Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoplastic elastomers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were used successfully as binding materials for metal hydride (MH) electrodes of a nickel-metal hydride battery. These binding materials have a rubber-like nature and are soluble in organic solvents. It was easy to remove the alloy powder from a used electrode for recycling. The battery performance depended on both the kind and amount of binding materials. The best discharge capacity and rate capability were obtained for MH electrodes containing 2--5 weight percent (w/o) SEBS. The particle size distributions for the alloy were examined successfully.

  5. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ELEMENTS) funding program, is developing a concept for high energy density thermochemical energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) using metal hydrides. These materials...

  6. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

  7. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  8. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  9. Sudbury: Nickel Smelting and Refining Nickel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Sudbury: Nickel Smelting and Refining Nickel Production o Toyota buys most of its nickel from Sudbury to produce its nickel- metal hydride batteries Used in cars such as the Toyota Prius SO2 Emissions o The smelting of nickel = large amount of SO2 released as byproduct 4 metric tons of SO2 per

  10. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  11. Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride) L. Kit Heung Savannah: The first is to produce a sol-gel encapsulated metal hydride packing material that will a) absorbs hydrogen may be that hydrogen must come from multiple sources. These sources will include renewable (solar

  12. Revêtements métalliques : Dépôts électrolytiques de nickel Metallic coatings : Electrodeposited coatings of nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revêtements métalliques : Dépôts électrolytiques de nickel Metallic coatings : Electrodeposited coatings of nickel

  13. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  14. Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelo, Steven James

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrides for Energy Storage. A.F. Andresen and A.J. Maeland,Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James Barcelo

  15. Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

  16. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  17. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  18. Ionic hydrogenations of hindered olefins at low temperature. Hydride transfer reactions of transition metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, R.M.; Song, J.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1994-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterically hindered olefins can be hydrogenated at -50[degree]C in dichloromethane using triflic acid (CF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]H) and a hydride donor. Mechanistic studies indicate that these reactions proceed by hydride transfer to the carbenium ion that is formed by protonation of the olefin. Olefins that form tertiary carbenium ions upon protonation are hydrogenated in high yields (90-100%). Styrenes generally produce lower yields of hydrogenated products (50-60%). Suitable hydride donors include HSiE[sub 3] and several transition metal carbonyl hydrides HW(CO)[sub 3]Cp, HW(CO)[sub 3]Cp[sup +], HMo-(CO)[sub 3]Cp, HMn(CO)[sub 5], HRe(CO)[sub 3], and HO[sub 3](CO)[sub 1]Cp*; Cp = [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 3]H[sub 5+], Cp* = [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]Me[sub 5]. A characteristic that is required for transition metal hydrides to be effective is that the cationic dihydrides (or dihydrogen complexes) that result from their protonation must have sufficient acidity to transfer a proton to the olefin, as well as sufficient thermal stability to avoid significant decomposition on the time scale of the hydrogenation reaction. Metal hydrides that fall due to insufficient stability of their protonated forms include HMo(CO)[sub 2](PPH[sub 3])Cp, HMo(CO)[sub 3]Cp*, and HFe(CO)[sub 2]Cp*. 62 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

  20. Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

  1. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF NICKEL HYDRIDE By J. W. CABLE, E. O. WOLLAN, and W. C. KOEHLER,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    460. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF NICKEL HYDRIDE By J. W. CABLE, E. O. WOLLAN, and W. C. KOEHLER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Résumé. 2014 L'hydrure de nickel est cubique à faces centrées. H occupe les sites octaédriques avec un rapport H/Ni égal à 0,6 ± 0,1. Abstract. 2014 Nickel

  2. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  3. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  4. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  5. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  6. air metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air metal hydride First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by...

  7. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

    2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

  8. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetalMetal

  9. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  10. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetal Hydride Laboratories

  11. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large of magnesium hydride. Keywords: A. hydrogen storage materials, thin films; C. EXAFS, NEXAFS, X-ray diffraction

  12. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windt, Norman F. (Paducah, KY); Williams, Joe L. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  13. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  14. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , nickel cadmium (Nicad), nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, silver button, mercury, magnesium carbon. Recycling rechargeable batteries Rechargeable batteries are often referred to as nickel cadmium, nickel Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmium

  15. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  16. Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY); Adzic, Gordana D. (Setauket, NY); Johnson, John R. (Calverton, NY); Vogt, Thomas (Cold Spring Harbor, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

  17. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  18. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  19. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idaho | DepartmentEnergy Steps to

  20. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,AwardGradsSites PendingAgreementsSteam Systems Steam

  1. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  2. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  3. Metallic coatings: autocatalytic (electroless) nickel-phosphorus alloy coatings: specification and test methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic coatings: autocatalytic (electroless) nickel-phosphorus alloy coatings: specification and test methods

  4. Effect of gold-nickel metallization microstructure on fluxless soldering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinque, R.B.; Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gold plating is used in the microelectronics industry to maintain the wettability of metal substrates. The nature of wetting during soldering of gold plated metals is discussed, and the results of experiments on the fluxless wettability and oxidation of gold plated nickel are described. The results suggest that electrodeposition of a thin gold plate (0.14 [mu]m) and the concurrent reduction of nickel oxide produce a gold-nickel system which will wet without flux. Oxidation of nickel was observed to occur via nickel out-diffusion and by direct exposure of the substrate through pinhole plating defects. Auger chemical analysis indicates that pinholes do not produce oxidation of the surrounding substrate area. 20 refs., 10 figs.

  5. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  6. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Two Wheeler with on-board Metal Hydride Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Two Wheeler with on-board Metal Hydride Storage K. Sapru*, S, as a transition, the hydrogen internal combustion engine can lead the way to a hydrogen economy, allowing of these can ease India's dependence on foreign oil, and also eliminate the drastic power shortage, which

  7. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination is an option but it requires well controlled gas exchange processes. Alternatively, and from many pointsElectrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  9. Mathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System Brendan David MacDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    storage technology, such as gasoline tanks and batteries, it is important to have fast reaction ratesMathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B.A.Sc., University of Waterloo, 2004 Supervisory

  10. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . and with allo s based on certain intermetall c compounds. Lanthanium penta-nicke , LaNis, is one of the earliest sUfh compounds to be widely studied, and others will be discussed shortIt. Its reaction with hydrogen can e represented by: LaNis + 3H2 = La... Hydride Alloy TYPBS OF HYDRIDIHG ALLOYS Outside of a few elemental metals (Pd, V, Hb and Mg) most hydride formers that are reversible under conditions of practicai interest are based on intermetallic compounds. These usually consist of a strong...

  11. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  12. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  13. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  14. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found to be predominantly...

  15. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, cold,'' process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility's metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  16. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, ``cold,`` process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility`s metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  17. alkali metal hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal complexes to cleave strong carbon Jones, William D. 4 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

  18. Theoretical Standard Model Rates of Proton to Neutron Conversions Near Metallic Hydride Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of radiation induced electron capture by protons or deuterons producing new ultra low momentum neutrons and neutrinos may be theoretically described within the standard field theoretical model of electroweak interactions. For protons or deuterons in the neighborhoods of surfaces of condensed matter metallic hydride cathodes, such conversions are determined in part by the collective plasma modes of the participating charged particles, e.g. electrons and protons. The radiation energy required for such low energy nuclear reactions may be supplied by the applied voltage required to push a strong charged current across a metallic hydride surface employed as a cathode within a chemical cell. The electroweak rates of the resulting ultra low momentum neutron production are computed from these considerations.

  19. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oller, Adriana R. [NiPERA, 2605 Meridian Parkway, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)], E-mail: aoller@nipera.org; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann [WIL Research Laboratories, LLC, 1407 George Road, Ashland, OH 44805 8946 (United States); Bates, Hudson K. [NiPERA, 2605 Meridian Parkway, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  20. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  1. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Metal Hydride Based Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, W.H. Jr.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a transient heat transfer analysis to model the heat transfer in the Pd/k packed column, and the impact of adding metallic foam.

  2. Electronic Structure of Nickel(II) and Zinc(II) Borohydrides from Spectroscopic Measurements and Computational Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Electronic Structure of Nickel(II) and Zinc(II) Borohydrides from Spectroscopic Measurements materials for solid phase hydrogen storage. In some cases, nickel and other transition metals can play a role in the catalytic decomposition of these solid phase hydrides.6 Nickel exhibits rich and varied

  3. LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  5. Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    - sition to a hydrogen economy.1 Solid-state storage in hydrogen-rich compounds, e.g., complex hydridesShort-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal-coverage Ti atoms on Al 111 as a model surface system for transition metal doped alanate hydrogen storage

  6. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl [Ames Laboratory; Schmidt, Frederick [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Frerichs, A.E. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Ament, Katherine A. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  7. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  8. Trends in the electron-phonon coupling parameter in some metallic hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, M.; Burger, J.P.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an evaluation of the electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda, using the McMillan formalism, for several classes of stoichiometric mono- and dihydrides with a metallic underlying fcc structure. We calculate the electronic term eta and use experimental estimates for the phonon energies when available. We derive systematic trends concerning both contributions to eta stemming, respectively, from the metallic site M and the hydrogen site H. We show that eta/sub H/ is generally small, but it may become large if the Fermi energy is in the metal s-p band as in the filled d-band transition-metal (TM) hydrides such as PdH; eta/sub H/ may also be large when a metal-hydrogen antibonding band crosses the Fermi level, a case which happens in AlH and may happen for some unstable dihydrides. The metallic contribution eta/sub M/ is calculated to be small for all stable mono- and dihydrides like PdH, NiH, ZrH/sub 2/, NbH/sub 2/, etc., but nothing in principle prevents this contribution from becoming as large as in some pure TM, if one sweeps the Fermi level through the whole metallic d band. Good agreement with the available experimental data is obtained concerning the occurrence of superconductivity in the compounds considered.

  9. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of thermodynamic quantities such as redox potentials and homolytic and heterolytic metal hydrogen bond energies is critical to the a priori design of molecular catalysts. In this paper we expound upon a density functional theory (DFT)-based isodesmic methodology for the accurate computation of the above quantities across a series of Ni(diphosphine)2 complexes compounds that are potential catalysts for production of H2 from protons and electrons, or oxidation of H2 to electrons and protons. Isodesmic schemes give relative free energies between the complex of interest and a reference system. A natural choice is to use as a reference a compound that shares similarities with the chemical species under study and for which the properties of interest have been measured with accuracy. However, this is not always possible as in the case of the Ni complexes considered here where data are experimentally available for only some species. To overcome this difficulty we employed a theoretical reference compound, Ni(PH3)4, which is amenable to highly accurate electron-correlated calculations, which allows one to explore thermodynamics properties even when no experimental input is accessible. The reliability of this reference is validated against the available thermodynamics data in acetonitrile solution. Overall the proposed protocol yields excellent accuracy for redox potentials (~ 0.10 eV of accuracy), for acidities (~1.5 pKa units of accuracy), for hydricities (~2 kcal/mol of accuracy), and for homolytic bond dissociation free energies (~ 1-2 kcal/mol of accuracy). The calculated thermodynamic properties are then analyzed for a broad set of Ni complexes. The power of the approach is demonstrated through the validation of previously reported linear correlations among properties. New correlations are revealed. It emerges that only two quantities, the Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(I)/Ni(0) redox potentials (which are easily accessible experimentally), suffice to predict with high confidence the energetics of all relevant species involved in the catalytic cycles for H2 oxidation and production. The approach is extendable to other transition metal complexes. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  10. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  11. Ductile filler metal alloys for welding nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); McNabb, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel aluminum alloys are welded utilizing a nickel based alloy containing zirconium but substantially free of titanium and niobium which reduces the tendency to crack.

  12. Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for Electron Transport G. V. Gibbs's)) have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the nickel sulfide minerals millerite, Ni

  13. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  14. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  15. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  16. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 â?? LiAlH4 â??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 â?? 0.3 MgH2 â?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 â?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 â?? 0.3 MgH2 â?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 â?? LiBH4 â?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

  17. Method for inhibiting alkali metal corrosion of nickel-containing alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVan, Jackson H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Selle, James E. (Westminster, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural components of nickel-containing alloys within molten alkali metal systems are protected against corrosion during the course of service by dissolving therein sufficient aluminum, silicon, or manganese to cause the formation and maintenance of a corrosion-resistant intermetallic reaction layer created by the interaction of the molten metal, selected metal, and alloy.

  18. LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert (La Mesa, CA); Surampudi, Subra Rao (Glendora, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Pasadena, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB.sub.(Z-Y) X.sub.(Y) is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB.sub.5 alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  19. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caballero, Alfonso

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and dig out of metallic nickel Alfonso Caballero,* a Juan P.on a CeO 2 thin film. The nickel particles of about 10–15 nm1 shows SEM images of the nickel particles before (top) and

  20. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydride is an attractive alternative to the traditional metal hydrides for the storage of hydrogen for its use as an energy source. Alanes use as the primary source of hydrogen has...

  1. Method Of Charging Maintenance-Free Nickel Metal Hydride Storage Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlureau, Thierry (Bordeaux, FR); Liska, Jean-Louis (Bordeaux, FR)

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of charging an industrial maintenance-free Ni-MH storage cell, the method comprising in combination a first stage at a constant current I.sub.1 lying in the range I.sub.c /10 to I.sub.c /2, and a second stage at a constant current I.sub.2 lying in the range I.sub.c /50 to I.sub.c /10, the changeover from the first stage to the second stage taking place when the time derivative of the temperature reaches a threshold value which varies as a function of the temperature at the time of the changeover.

  2. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  3. Variations of the infrared transmission properties with the metal{endash}insulator transition in thin films of the yttrium-hydride system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M. W.; Kuo, C. Y.; Lin, H. C.; Wang, H. C.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the variations of the infrared transmission spectra of yttrium-hydride films YH{sub x} during the hydrogen loading process for the frequency range 500{endash}4000 cm{minus}1. The results indicate that the transmittance slightly decreases in the dihydride phase, followed by a significant increase in the trihydride phase. In addition, the carrier concentration decreases, whereas the carrier relaxation time increases with hydrogen content. The hydrogen vibration modes at interstitial sites are completely screened in the dihydride phase. The screening effect decreases as the system goes through the metal{endash}insulator transition. Moreover, the screening effect can be continuously tuned by simply varying the hydrogen content in the yttrium-hydride system. Analysis indicates that the absorption intensity of the vibration mode depends on the carrier concentration. This effect can be used as a diagnostic tool for estimating the carrier concentration and hydrogen content in rare-earth hydrides. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Experimental determination of equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation between metal and silicate from 500 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    Experimental determination of equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation between metal and silicate.04& between equilibrated bulk silicate Earth and chondrites, indicating that Ni isotopes are not likely- lation process involving a well-mixed silicate reservoir. Ã? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1

  5. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  6. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  7. The effects of phosphorous donor ligand substitution on the reactivity of anionic group 6 transition metal carbonyl hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusk, Richard Jay

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in THP, followed by protonation with methanol, gave rise to a new group of chromium and tungsten hydrides, 7 HM(CO) P . The importance of the P-substituted hydr ides is enhanced 4 reactivity as well as the possibility of selective hydride transfer... found to be similar to those of the unsubstituted tungsten hydride. Reaction of this phosphite hydride with HC1, HOAc 7 (acetic acid), or phenol results in formation of W(CO)&(OAc)P(OMe) W(CO)&P(OMe) Cl , and (u-H)W (CO)S(P(OMe) ) , respectively...

  8. ALKYL, HYDRIDE, AND RELATED BIS (TRIMETHYLSILYL)-AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF THE 4f- AND 5f- BLOCK METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, R.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shifts to 1060 c m in the deuteride. The paramagnetic (u -The first step is hydride for deuteride exchange by way of a

  9. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  10. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  11. First-principles studies of phase stability and the structural and dynamical properties of metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.Y.

    1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We decided to investigate first the interaction of hydrogen with the 4d transition-metal series, with the first element being hcp Y. Because of the recent development of soft pseudopotentials, we chose to use the plane wave basis set to carry out the calculation. Since problems had been associated with the slow convergence in transition metals, we first tested the computational methods by studying the structural properties of Y; results were encouraging. We started the calculation of YH[sub x] with hydrogen occupying different interstitial sites.

  12. Hydrogen storage characteristics of nanograined free-standing magnesium–nickel films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    free-standing magnesium–nickel ?lms Matthew Rogers · StevenFree-standing magnesium–nickel (Mg–Ni) ?lms with extensivefree- standing magnesium–nickel ?lms. Magnesium hydride (MgH

  13. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan L.; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9 percent silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

  14. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  15. Possible hydride and methide transfer reactions: Reactions of Fe(CO){sub 4}R{sup -} (R=H, CH{sub 3}) and W(CO){sub 5}R{sup -} (R = H, CH{sub 3}, CL, Br, I) with metal carbonyl cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.; Striejewske, W.S.; Atwood, J.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactions of metal carbonyl cations (M(CO){sub 6}{sup +}, M = Mn, Re) with hydride-, methide- or halide-containing metal carbonyl anions Fe(CO){sub 4}R{sup -}, R = H, Me; W(CO){sub 5} (CH{sub 3}CN) and W(CO){sub 5}X{sup -}. In contrast, the tungsten hydride and methide complexes react, predominantly, by transfer of the hydride or methide to a carbonyl of the cation at a much faster rate. The iron hydride and methide complexes react by iron-based nucleophilicity involving a two-electron process.

  16. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  17. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  18. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  19. Schottky barrier height reduction for holes by Fermi level depinning using metal/nickel oxide/silicon contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Raisul, E-mail: raisul@stanford.edu; Shine, Gautam; Saraswat, Krishna C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental demonstration of Fermi level depinning using nickel oxide (NiO) as the insulator material in metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) contacts. Using this contact, we show less than 0.1?eV barrier height for holes in platinum/NiO/silicon (Pt/NiO/p-Si) contact. Overall, the pinning factor was improved from 0.08 (metal/Si) to 0.26 (metal/NiO/Si). The experimental results show good agreement with that obtained from theoretical calculation. NiO offers high conduction band offset and low valence band offset with Si. By reducing Schottky barrier height, this contact can be used as a carrier selective contact allowing hole transport but blocking electron transport, which is important for high efficiency in photonic applications such as photovoltaics and optical detectors.

  20. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  1. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  2. Sulfur resistance of Group VIII transition metal promoted nickel catalysts for synthesis gas methanation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlin, Kellee Hall

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their resistance to deactivation by Hxg. The nickel and promoters were adsorbed on the catalyst by a simple precipitation technique. To investigate catalyst activity and deactivation experimentally, a fixed bed tubular reactor was operated at atmospheric... AND PROCEDURE To investigate catalyst activity and deactivation experimentally, a fixed bed tubular reactor wae constructed for the synthesis gss methanation studies. The reactor system and supporting equipment are shown schematically in Figure 1, while...

  3. Relating metal binding to DNA binding in the nickel regulatory protein NikR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Christine M. (Christine Marie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of transition metals within the cell must be tightly regulated. If the concentration of a given transition metal is too low the cell may not be able to perform life-sustaining processes, while high levels ...

  4. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the anionic group 6B transition-metal hydrides. Convenient, in-situ-deuterium transfer reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaus, P.L.; Kao, S.C.; Darensbourg, M.Y.; Arndt, L.W.

    1984-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The facile exchange of hydrogen for detuerium in the anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides HM(CO)/sub 4/L/sup -/(M = Cr, W; L = CO P(OMe)/sub 3/) has been studied in THF/sub 4/ (tetrahydrofuran) with CH/sub 3/OD, D/sub 2/O, and CH/sub 3/CO/sub 2/D. This has provided a synthesis of the deuterides, DM(CO)/sub 4/L/sup -/, as well as a convenient in situ source of deuteride reducing reagents for organic halides. A number of such reductions are described, using /sup 2/H NMR to demonstrate both selectivity and stereospecificity for certain systems. The carbonyl region of the infrared spectra of the hydrides is not affected by deuteration of the hydrides, suggesting that the M-H or M-D vibrational modes are not coupled significantly to CO vibrations in these hydrides. The mechanism of the H/D exchange and of a related H/sub 2/ elimination reaction is discussed.

  5. Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrodesulfurization of Biphenyl-2-thiol with Nickel Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrodesulfurization of Biphenyl-2-thiol with Nickel Compounds Jorge@servidor.unam.mx Abstract: The reactivity of the nickel(I) dimer [(dippe)Ni(µ-H)]2 (1) with biphenyl-2-thiol was explored evolves to the terminal nickel-hydride [(dippe)Ni (1 -C-2-biphenyl)(H)] (4) and transient [(dippe)NiS] (5

  6. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  7. Quantum dissipative dynamics of adsorbates near metal surfaces: A surrogate Hamiltonian theory applied to hydrogen on nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Roi

    applied to hydrogen on nickel Roi Baer and Ronnie Kosloff Department of Physical Chemistry and the Fritz on nickel were studied. In the bulk the line shape is mostly influenced by nonadiabatic effects on nickel. A distinction between lattice modes that enhance the tunneling and ones that suppress

  8. Metal Hydrides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    applications is in the range of 1-10 atm and 25-120C. This is based on using the waste heat from the fuel cell to "release" the hydrogen from the media. In the near-term,...

  9. Metal Hydrides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay

  10. Stabilization of hexagonal close-packed metallic nickel for alumina-supported systems prepared from Ni(II) glycinate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Vicente [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Marceau, Eric [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: eric.marceau@upmc.fr; Beaunier, Patricia [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Che, Michel [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Institut Universitaire de France (France); Train, Cyrille [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Materiaux Moleculaires (UMR 7071 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The decomposition in flowing argon of the neutral complex [Ni{sup II}(glycinate){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] leads to a mixture of face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metallic nickel. The latter is the main phase when the Ni(II) complex is supported on alumina. Unlike most hexagonal Ni phases described earlier, and similar to hexagonal Ni{sub 3}C, the unit cell parameters (a=0.2493 and c=0.4084nm) lead to Ni-Ni distances equal to those encountered in fcc Ni. TEM shows that the nanoparticles are protected by graphite layers, whose elimination by heating in hydrogen results in transformation to the fcc phase and crystal growth. Magnetic measurements provide evidence of the coexistence of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. This result is in line with the broad size distribution observed by TEM and is interpreted on the basis of the metallic character of hcp Ni particles.

  11. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  12. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

  13. Thermodynamic Studies and Hydride Transfer Reactions from a Rhodium Complex to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Li, Jun; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Twamley, Brendan; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the use of transition-metal hydride complexes that can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H2 gas to form B–H bonds. Specifically, these studies are focused on providing a reliable and quantitative method for determining when hydride transfer from transition-metal hydrides to three-coordinate BX3 compounds will be favorable. This involves both experimental and theoretical determinations of hydride transfer abilities. Thermodynamic hydride donor abilities (?G°H-) were determined for HRh(dmpe)2 and HRh(depe)2, where dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) and depe = 1,2-bis(diethylphosphinoethane), on a previously established scale in acetonitrile. This hydride donor ability was used to determine the hydride donor ability of [HBEt3]? on this scale. Isodesmic reactions between [HBEt3]? and various BX3 complexes to form BEt3 and [HBX3]? were examined computationally to determine the relative hydride affinities of various BX3 compounds. The use of these scales of hydride donor abilities and hydride affinities for transition-metal hydrides and BX3 compounds is illustrated with a few selected reactions relevant to the regeneration of ammonia borane. Our findings indicate that it is possible to form B?H bonds from B?X bonds, and the extent to which BX3 compounds are reduced by transition-metal hydride complexes forming species containing multiple B?H bonds depends on the heterolytic B?X bond energy. An example is the reduction of B(SPh)3 using HRh(dmpe)2 in the presence of triethylamine to form Et3N-BH3 in high yields. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  14. Preparation of Mesoporous Silica Templated Metal Nanowire Films on Foamed Nickel Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Roger [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Bakker, Martin [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Havrilla, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Montoya, Velma [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Shamsuzzoha, Mohammed [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed for the formation of high surface area nanowire films on planar and three-dimensional metal electrodes. These nanowire films are formed via electrodeposition into a mesoporous silica film. The mesoporous silica films are formed by a sol-gel process using Pluronic tri-block copolymers to template mesopore formation on both planar and three-dimensional metal electrodes. Surface area increases of up to 120-fold have been observed in electrodes containing a templated film when compared to the same types of electrodes without the templated film.

  15. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  16. VOLUME 86, NUMBER 23 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 4 JUNE 2001 Light-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in a Switchable Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    possibility to tune yttrium hydride through the T 0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure of heavy metal ions incorporated into electrodeposited nickel oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, M.; Melendres, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Mansour, A.N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of heavy metal ions into simulated corrosion films has been investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The films were formed by electrodeposition of the appropriate oxide (hydroxide) onto a graphite substrate. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the local structure of the impurity ion. Results on the incorporation of Ce and Sr into surface films of Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiOOH are reported. Cathodically deposited Ni(OH){sub 2} was found to be mainly in the alpha form while anodically prepared NiOOH showed the presence of Ni{sup +2} and Ni{sup +4}. Cerium incorporated into Ni(OH){sub 2} exists as mixed Ce{sup +3} and Ce{sup +4} phases; a Ce{sup +4} species was found when Ce was codeposited with NiOOH. The structure of the Ce{sup +4} phase in anodic films appears similar to a Ce(OH){sub 4} standard. However, XAS, X-ray diffraction, and laser Raman measurements indicate that the latter chemical formulation is probably incorrect and that the material is really a disordered form of hydrous cerium oxide. The local structure of this material is similar to CeO{sub 2} but has much higher structural disorder. The significance of this finding on the question of the structure of Ce-based corrosion inhibitors in aluminum oxide films is pointed out. Moreover, the authors found it possible to form pure Ce oxide (hydroxide) films on graphite by both cathodic and anodic electrodeposition; their structures have also been elucidated. Strontium incorporated into nickel oxide films consists of Sr{sup +2} which is coordinated to oxygen atoms and is likely to exist as small domains of coprecipitated material.

  18. INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS, AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL GERMANOSILICIDE THIN FILMS By JOHN SAMUEL MOORE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED...................................................................................18 1.3 Nickel as a Silicidation Metal........................................................................25 2.1.2 Nickel-Silicon Binary System........................................................

  19. Electronic structures of transition metal to hydrogen bonds: oxidative addition of dihydrogen to a square planar rhodium complex and quantum mechanical prediction of the geometry of a metal hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpin, Carolyn F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and applications is dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen. Both the Heber process, in which nitrogen is converted to ammonia on an iron catalyst, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, in which carbon monoxide is converted to hydrocarbons over iron and cobalt catalysts... systems containing hydride ligands. This work presents a computational method for examining the energetics and structures of two systems. The reaction RhC1(CO)(PHs)z + Hz ~ (H)zRhC1(CO)(PHs)z was examined to a~plain why the oxidation of RhCI(CO...

  20. Modular hydride beds for mobile applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  1. First-principles studies of phase stability and the structural and dynamical properties of metal hydrides. Annual technical progress report, September 15, 1990--May 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.Y.

    1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We decided to investigate first the interaction of hydrogen with the 4d transition-metal series, with the first element being hcp Y. Because of the recent development of soft pseudopotentials, we chose to use the plane wave basis set to carry out the calculation. Since problems had been associated with the slow convergence in transition metals, we first tested the computational methods by studying the structural properties of Y; results were encouraging. We started the calculation of YH{sub x} with hydrogen occupying different interstitial sites.

  2. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  3. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Sealock, John L. (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.

  4. Inhibition of nickel precipitation by organic ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, H.L.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Grasso, D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewaters from electroplating are very complex due to the composition of the plating baths. A nickel plating bath typically consists of a nickel source (nickel chloride or nickel sulfate), complexing agents to solubilize nickel ions controlling their concentration in the solution, buffering agents to maintain pH, brighteners to improve brightness of the plated metal, stabilizers (inhibitors) to prevent undesired reactions, accelerators to enhance speed of reactions, wetting agents to reduce surface tension at the metal surface, and reducing agents (only for electroless nickel plating) to supply electrons for reduction of the nickel. Alkaline precipitation is the most common method of recovering nickel from wastewaters. However, organic constituents found in the wastewaters can mask or completely inhibit the precipitation of nickel. The objective of this study was to conduct an equilibrium study to explore the inhibition behavior of various organic ligands on nickel precipitation. This will lay the groundwork for development of technologies efficacious in the treatment of complexed nickel. The organic ligands used in this study are EDTA, triethanolamine (TEA), gluconate, and tartrate.

  5. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  6. Moessbauer studies of iron hydride at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, I.; Ingalls, R. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Brown, J.M.; Sato-Sorensen, Y. (Geophysics Program, AK-50, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Mills, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured {ital in} {ital situ} Moessbauer spectra of iron hydride made in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure and room temperature. The spectra show a sudden change at 3.5{plus minus}0.5 GPa from a single hyperfine pattern to a superposition of three. The former pattern results from normal {alpha}-iron with negligible hydrogen content, and the latter from residual {alpha}-iron plus newly formed iron hydride. Between 3.5 and 10.4 GPa, the extra hydride pattern have hyperfine fields for one ranging from 276 to 263 kOe, and the other, from 317 to 309 kOe. Both have isomer shifts of about 0.4 mm/sec, and negligible quadrupole splittings. X-ray studies on quenched samples have shown that iron hydride is of double hexagonal close-packed structure, whose two nonequivalent iron sites may account for the observation of two different patterns. Even allowing for the effect of volume expansion, the observed isomer shifts for the hydride are considerably more positive than those of other metallic phases of iron. At the same time, the hyperfine fields are slightly smaller than that of {alpha}-iron. As a possible explanation, one may expect a bonding of hydrogen with iron, which would result in a small reduction of 4{ital s} electrons, possibly accompanied by a small increase of 3{ital d} electrons compared with the neutral atom in metallic iron. The difference between the hyperfine fields in the two spectra are presumably due to the different symmetry at the two iron sites.

  7. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  8. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  9. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Goodwin, Gene M. (Lenior City, TN)

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys.

  10. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of foreign metal ions in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.A.; Scherson, D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Antonio, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Carr, R. (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States))

    1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aspects of the structural and electronic properties of hydrous oxide films of composite (9:1) Ni/Co and (9:1) Ni/Fe, prepared by electrodeposition, have been examined in alkaline electrolytes using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). An analysis of the X-ray absorption near the edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the Co and Fe K-edges of these composite hydrous oxides revealed that, regardless of the oxidation state of nickel sites in the films, the guest metal ions are present as Co[sup 3+] and Fe[sup 3+] and that the cobalt-oxygen distance d(Co-O) = 1.9 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom] and d(Fe-O) = 1.92 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom]. The latter values are in excellent agreement with d(Me-O) (Me = Co or Fe) in CoOOH and [beta]- and [gamma]-FeOOH, respectively, determined by conventional X-ray diffraction. Two clearly defined Me-Ni first coordination shells could be observed in the Fourier transforms (FT) of the K-edge EXAFS of the guest metal recorded at a potential at which both Ni[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 3+] sites are expected to be present. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Geogenic Nickel Speciation in Serpentine Soils and Its Relationship to Nickel Uptake in Hyperaccumulator Plants. Tuesday, November 3, 2009: 3:00 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Geogenic Nickel Speciation in Serpentine Soils and Its Relationship to Nickel Uptake to extract pollutants from soil. Some can accumulate up to 20g/kg nickel in dry shoot biomass. This ability can be utilized to economically remediate contaminated soils. Nickel is a transition metal that occurs

  12. Superior Performance of HIS-SelectTM HF Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Superior Performance of HIS-SelectTM HF Nickel Affinity Gel By John Dapron, Michael Harvey, Heidi by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), using nickel as the affinity ligand. Sigma-Aldrich has been expanding its line of specialty HIS-Select nickel chelate affinity media to meet the varied needs

  13. Thermodynamic properties of metal hydride nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bérubé, Vincent, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is considered a good energy carrier candidate for future automotive applications because of its high abundance and its potential role in a carbon-free cycle. The high gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities ...

  14. Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

  15. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  16. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W. (Albuquerque, NM); Leslie, William B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  17. argon hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    authors 2 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  18. aluminium hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Norman A. 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  19. automated hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mohammad 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  20. aluminum hydride phases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of 19 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  1. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2.1 PWRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2Actinides Multi-Recycling in PWR Using Hydride Fuels. InRecycling in Hydride Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering

  2. Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

  3. Intramolecular hydride migration from formyl to carbonyl and nitrene ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, L.; Brookhart, M.; Templeton, J.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction of [Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}(NPh)][PF{sub 6}] [Tp{prime} = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] with lithium borohydride at -40 {degrees}C generates Tp{prime}W(CO)(Nph)(CHO) (1), which undergoes hydride migration from carbon to nitrogen (at -70 {degrees}C, k{sub obs} = 7.2 x 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}, {Delta}G{sup {double_dagger}} = 16.5 kcal/mol, t{sub {1/2}} = 27 h) to form Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}(NHPh). Crossover experiments indicate that the hydride migration is intramolecular. The metal formyl intermediate is fluxional; hydride migration interconverts the formyl and carbonyl ligands. The rate constant for this degenerate migration is 40 s{sup -1} at -41 {degrees}C with {Delta}G{sup {double_dagger}} = 11.7 kcal/mol. The analogous acyl complex Tp{prime}W(CO)(Nph)[C(O)Ph] (3) has been synthesized from the reaction of [Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}-(NPh)][PF{sub 6}] with PhMgBr. 9 refs.

  4. Proposal to Lead the Virtual Center on Carbon Materials, and support the Chemical Hydrides Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanoscale carbons, SWNTs, MWNTs by laser vaporization, chemical vapor deposition, hot wire CVD, and arc-discharge methods. Experience with dopant and/or catalyst incorporation NREL Capabilities in Carbon Materials laser by transition metal hydride complexes (funded by DOE BES) Lead DOE lab for new SiH4 production process ­ pilot

  5. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 Abstract Complex hydrides, containing a minimum of 7 must be capable of being regenerated with a minimal energy penalty. It also must release the hydrogen of combinations of these transition metal compounds for use as catalysts. It was found that titanium and iron

  6. A non-isothermal model of a nickelmetal hydride cell , M. Mohammedb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) to avoid oxygen gas generation during over discharge and has extra capacity to avoid hydrogen gas generation during over- charge. Since the metal hydride material gradually loses capacity through usage due. The side reaction at the positive electrode is oxygen evolu- tion and at the negative electrode oxygen

  7. Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diller, Peter

    This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

  8. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of thin films for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provo, James L., E-mail: jlprovo@verizon.net [Consultant, J.L. Provo Consulting, Trinity, Florida 34655-7179 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important aspect of understanding industrial processing is to know the characteristics of the materials used in such processes. A study was performed to determine the effects of hydriding chamber material on the degree of hydriding for the commercial production of thin film hydride targets for various research universities, commercial companies, and government national laboratories. The goal was to increase the degree of hydriding of various thin film hydrides and to study the vacuum environment during air-exposure hydriding. For this purpose, dynamic residual gas analysis during deuterium gas hydride processing was utilized with erbium thin films, employing a special set-up for direct dynamic hydride gas sampling during processing at elevated temperature and full loading gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper–(1.83?wt.?%)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600?°C–1?h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported. Dynamic residual gas analysis comparisons during hydriding are presented for hydriding chambers made from (2) alumina (99.8 wt.?%), (3) copper (with an interior aluminum coating ?10 k Å thick, and (4) for a stainless-steel air-fired passivated (900?°C–1?h) chamber. Dynamic data with deuterium gas in the chamber at the hydriding temperature (450?°C) showed the presence and growth of water vapor (D{sub 2}O) and related mixed ion species(H{sub 2}O{sup +}, HDO{sup +}, D{sub 2}O{sup +}, and OD{sup +}) from hydrogen isotope exchange reactions during the 1?h process time. Peaks at mass-to-charge ratios (i.e., m/e) of 12(C{sup +}), 16(CD{sub 2}{sup +}), 17(CHD{sub 2}{sup +}), and 18(CD{sub 3}{sup +}, OD{sup +}) increased for approximately the first half hour of a 1?h hydriding process and then approach steady state. Mass-to-charge peaks at 19(HDO{sup +}) and 20(D{sub 2}O{sup +}) continue to increase throughout the process cycle. Using the m/e?=?20 (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (1)–Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be as a standard, the peak intensity from chamber (4)—stainless-steel (air-fired) was 7.1× higher, indicating that the surface of stainless-steel had a larger concentration of reactive oxygen and/or water than hydrogen. The (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (3)—Cu (interior Al coating) was 1.55× larger and chamber (2)—alumina(99.8%) was 1.33× higher than Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be. Thus copper–(1.83 wt.?%)beryllium was the best hydriding chamber material studied followed closely by the alumina (99.8 wt.?%) chamber. Gas take-up by Er occluder targets processed in Cu(1.83?wt.?%)Be hydriding chambers (i.e., gas/metal atomic ratios) correlate with the dynamic RGA data.

  9. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, J.L.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of hydrogenation is described using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions. 2 figs.

  10. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  11. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  12. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  13. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  14. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  15. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  16. Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells Priscilla Available online 24 November 2009 Keywords: MEC Electrohydrogenesis Hydrogen production Cathode Metal Nickel using a nickel powder (0.5­1 mm) and their performance was compared to conventional electrodes

  17. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  18. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  19. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF A NICKEL(II)-TRIPEPTIDE MIMIC OF NICKEL SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Amanda M.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The tripeptide asparagine-cysteine-cysteine (NCC) was found by the J. Laurence lab to bind nickel very tightly. In fact, NCC was serendipitously discovered as a metal-abstraction peptide tag (MAP-tag) because it was stripping nickel from a standard...

  1. Nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions and synthetic studies toward ent-dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol via an epoxide-opening cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Sze-Sze

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions. Nickel-catalyzed allene--aldehyde coupling and alkene--aldehyde coupling represent two methods of preparing allylic alcohols. Most asymmetric transition metal-catalyzed methods of ...

  2. High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, Patrick L. [Yale University] [Yale University

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

  3. arsenic hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2005-12-02 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  4. americium hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012-01-01 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  5. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Zirconium Hydride and Deuteride. Journal of Alloysof ThZr 2 hydrides and deuterides using X-ray and neutronX-ray Diffraction Deuteride - X-ray Diffraction Deuteride -

  6. Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Abstract: The two-step reaction between LiH and NH3BH3 in THF leads to the...

  7. Optimization of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuffler, Carter Alexander

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT aimed at investigating the potential benefits of hydride fuel use in light water reactors (LWRs). This pursuit involves ...

  8. Structure/Function Relationships in Nickel-Peptide Complexes: Impact of the Primary Coordination Sphere on Square-Planar Nickel Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    -cancer therapeutic, whereas nickel generates a catalytic antioxidant. The advantage of this tag is that it is extremely small, is composed of naturally occurring amino acids, and binds metal with unique geometry. Metal binds irreversibly at physiological p...

  9. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  10. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  11. Fabrication of nickel microbump on aluminum using electroless nickel plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, H.; Honma, H. [Kanto Gakuin Univ., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of nickel microbumps on an aluminum electrode using a nickel displacement and a direct nickel plating process was investigated. Electroless nickel plating reaction with hypophosphite as a reducing agent was not initiated on the aluminum substrate, because aluminum does not have catalytic action on the oxidation of hypophosphite. Accordingly, nickel was initially deposited on the aluminum using nickel displacement plating for the initiation of the electroless plating. Nickel bumps on the aluminum electrode were fabricated by treatment of the nickel displacement plating followed by electroless nickel plating. Nickel microbumps also can be formed on the aluminum electrode without the displacement plating process. Activation of the aluminum surface is an indispensable process to initiate electroless nickel plating. Uniform bumps 20 {micro}m wide and 15 {micro}m high with good configuration were obtained by direct nickel plating after being activated with dimethyl amine borane.

  12. Recycling Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Paperclips Supply Stores. Batteries accepted for recycling are: Alkaline, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Iron, and Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH). Toner Recycling In FY...

  13. Recycling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Paperclips Supply Stores. Batteries accepted for recycling are: Alkaline, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Iron, and Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH). Each self service...

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of nickel group dimers: Ni:, PdF, and Ptc Joe Ho,`) Mark L. Polak,b) Kent M. Ervin,C) and W. C. Lineberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    Photoelectron spectroscopy of nickel group dimers: Ni:, PdF, and Ptc Joe Ho,`) Mark L. Polak are tentatively assigned.Comparison of the nickel group dimers to the coinage metal dimers shedslight on the d orbital contribution to the metal bonding in the nickel group dimers. I. INTRODUCTION Spectroscopicstudy

  15. An electrochemical route for making porous nickel oxide electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, V.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous nickel oxide films were prepared by electrochemically precipitating nickel hydroxide and heating the hydroxide in air at 300 C. The resulting nickel oxide films behave as an electrochemical capacitor with a specific capacitance of 59 F/g electrode material. These nickel oxide films maintain high utilization at high rates of discharge (i.e., high power density) and have excellent cycle life. Porous cobalt oxide films were also synthesized. Although the specific capacitances of these films are approximately one-fifth that of the nickel oxide films, the results demonstrate the versatility of fabricating a wide range of porous metal oxide films using this electrochemical route for use in capacitor applications. Electrochemical capacitors have generated wide interest in recent years for use in high power applications (e.g., in a hybrid electric vehicle, where they are expected to work in conjunction with a conventional battery).

  16. HYDRIDE-RELATED DEGRADATION OF SNF CLADDING UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. McCoy

    2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose and scope of this analysis/model report is to analyze the degradation of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) cladding under repository conditions by the hydride-related metallurgical processes, such as delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride reorientation and hydrogen embrittlement, thereby providing a better understanding of the degradation process and clarifying which aspects of the process are known and which need further evaluation and investigation. The intended use is as an input to a more general analysis of cladding degradation.

  17. Waste water treatment and metal recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Waste water treatment and metal recovery Nickel catalysts for hydrogen production Nickel and single versions of which contained cobalt, chromium, carbon, molybdenum, tungsten, and nickel. In 1911 and 1912% on their stainless steel production. The company paid sizable dividends to its owners until it was dissolved

  18. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategy This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5...

  19. LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage...

  20. Computersimulationen martensitischer Phasenubergange in Eisen-Nickel-und Nickel-Aluminium-Legierungen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entel, P.

    Computersimulationen martensitischer Phasen¨uberg¨ange in Eisen-Nickel- und Nickel Molekulardynamik-Simulationen der martensitischen Umwandlungen in Eisen-Nickel- und Nickel Anpassung parametrisierter Funktionen an experimentelle Daten von Eisen, Nickel, Aluminium und NiAl gewonnen

  1. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for nickel metal hydride batteries including hysteresis” ,Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,modeling of lead acid batteries”, Applied Power Electronics

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Examination of C-CN Bond Activation of Benzonitrile Using Zerovalent Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Nickel Tu¨lay A. Ates¸in, Ting Li, Se´bastien Lachaize, Juventino J. García, and William D. JonesVersidad Nacional Auto´noma de Me´xico, Me´xico City, Me´xico D. F. 04510 ReceiVed May 9, 2008 The nickel(0 these transition states, those for the migration of the nickel metal between the carbon-carbon bonds of the phenyl

  3. Influence of Cobalt Nanoparticles' Incorporation on the Magnetic Properties of the Nickel Nanofibers: Cobalt-Doped Nickel Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    , magnetic refrigeration systems, and contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging carriers for drugsInfluence of Cobalt Nanoparticles' Incorporation on the Magnetic Properties of the Nickel, 2009 Among the common ferromagnetic metals, cobalt has distinct magnetic properties, so incorporation

  4. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing parameters. These contributing factors need to be recognized and a means to control them or separate their contributions will be required to obtain the desired information.

  5. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  6. crystal nickel a hree dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Zhenting 1 Department 2 Departmen ABSTRACT This pape crystal nickel a hree dimension photonic cryst polystyrene op silicon chips, volume fraction can be controlle nickel structure hen sacrificed volume fraction reports microm crystal structur or alumina she nickel microca microstructure further electrop volume

  7. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stable, the carbon aerogels are more widely available. For LiBH 4 confined in carbon aerogel, preliminary measurements of CH 4 formation during dehydrogenation showed that CH...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: metal hydride storage thermal-management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal-management issues ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications On March 29, 2013, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  9. annulus metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the infinite strip A which has zero Lebesgue measure rotation number. If the rotation number of f restricted of its rotation set. This is a partial solution to a conjecture of...

  10. Isotope exchange kinetics in metal hydrides I : TPLUG model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Rich; James, Scott Carlton; Nilson, Robert H.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional isobaric reactor model is used to simulate hydrogen isotope exchange processes taking place during flow through a powdered palladium bed. This simple model is designed to serve primarily as a platform for the initial development of detailed chemical mechanisms that can then be refined with the aid of more complex reactor descriptions. The one-dimensional model is based on the Sandia in-house code TPLUG, which solves a transient set of governing equations including an overall mass balance for the gas phase, material balances for all of the gas-phase and surface species, and an ideal gas equation of state. An energy equation can also be solved if thermodynamic properties for all of the species involved are known. The code is coupled with the Chemkin package to facilitate the incorporation of arbitrary multistep reaction mechanisms into the simulations. This capability is used here to test and optimize a basic mechanism describing the surface chemistry at or near the interface between the gas phase and a palladium particle. The mechanism includes reversible dissociative adsorptions of the three gas-phase species on the particle surface as well as atomic migrations between the surface and the bulk. The migration steps are more general than those used previously in that they do not require simultaneous movement of two atoms in opposite directions; this makes possible the creation and destruction of bulk vacancies and thus allows the model to account for variations in the bulk stoichiometry with isotopic composition. The optimization code APPSPACK is used to adjust the mass-action rate constants so as to achieve the best possible fit to a given set of experimental data, subject to a set of rigorous thermodynamic constraints. When data for nearly isothermal and isobaric deuterium-to-hydrogen (D {yields} H) and hydrogen-to-deuterium (H {yields} D) exchanges are fitted simultaneously, results for the former are excellent, while those for the latter show pronounced deviations at long times. These discrepancies can be overcome by postulating the presence of a surface poison such as carbon monoxide, but this explanation is highly speculative. When the method is applied to D {yields} H exchanges intentionally poisoned by known amounts of CO, the fitting results are noticeably degraded from those for the nominally CO-free system but are still tolerable. When TPLUG is used to simulate a blowdown-type experiment, which is characterized by large and rapid changes in both pressure and temperature, discrepancies are even more apparent. Thus, it can be concluded that the best use of TPLUG is not in simulating realistic exchange scenarios, but in extracting preliminary estimates for the kinetic parameters from experiments in which variations in temperature and pressure are intentionally minimized.

  11. ab5 metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Hydrogen Research, for providing me wreath a generous assistantship and a great environment to conduct my... continued interest in my research long after I left BNL....

  12. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:inEnergy Dual-Purpose Heat Transfer

  13. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergy NationalDepartment of31548 Vol. 77, No. 1032 of

  14. Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8. (8-89)p,Departtient,of EndrgyT:

  15. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & GasTechnicalMeetingand NorthernMessaging Strategies

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

  17. 888Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aserosol. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Areiron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (,100The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer

  18. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  19. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  20. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  1. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  2. Transient analysis of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trant, Jarrod Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project led by U. C. Berkeley for which MIT is to perform the thermal hydraulic and economic analyses. A parametric study has been performed to determine the optimum ...

  3. Comparison of various battery technologies for electric vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Blake Edward

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    four technologies; Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual...

  4. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  5. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  6. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Buono, Donald P. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  7. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Buono, Donald P. (Schenectady, NY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  8. Infiltration of nickel into alumina compact by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kyoda, Hideharu; Iwamoto, Takayuki [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni metal was electrodeposited into pores of an alumina compact in the aqueous solution of nickel nitrate/urea/ethylene glycol/ammonium sulfate. The Ni{sup 2+} ions in pores of the alumina compact deposited in proportion to t{sup 0.45}-t{sup 0.61} of deposition time (t) on Au electrode sputtered on the alumina surface. The deposition rate of Ni was higher for direct current than pulsed current Nickel grew dendritically in the alumina pores.

  9. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM IMPLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM, Switzerland Keywords: SLA treated titanium - bone-anchored dental implants - transmission and scanning electron microscopy - titanium hydride sub-surface layer - epitaxy Abstract Commercially pure titanium

  10. Synthesis and small molecule chemistry of the niobaziridine-hydride functional group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Joshua S

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity of the Niobaziridine-Hydride Functional Group The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the niobaziridine-hydride complex Nb(H)([eta]²-t- ]Bu(H)C=NAr)(N[Np]Ar)? (la-H; ...

  11. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  12. Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Cobalt–nickel Phosphide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Cobalt–nickel Phosphide Catalysts:Ni-rich Materials are Highly Active. Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Cobalt–nickel Phosphide Catalysts:Ni-rich Materials are...

  13. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  14. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

  16. Mechanisms of nickel sorption by a bacteriogenic birnessite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pena, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. A. (2001) Processes of nickel and cobalt uptake by achemistry of cobalt and nickel in lithiophorite and asbolaneMechanisms of nickel sorption by a bacteriogenic birnessite

  17. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004 791 Electroplated Metal Microstructures Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of multiwafer, MEMS devices. [1276] Index Terms--Copper, encapsulation, micromachining, nickel alloys, permalloy metallization of electroplated materials in polymer micromolds [9]. Electrodeposition has proven

  18. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  19. Complexation effects in the electrodeposition of nickel-iron alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huynh, T.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nickel-iron alloy electrodeposition system exhibits a phenomenon known as anomalous codeposition, where the less noble metal (Fe) deposits preferentially to the more noble metal (Ni). One explanation for this behavior is that ferrous hydroxide adsorbs to the surface of the electrode and inhibits the electrodeposition of the nickel. This mechanism is being tested through the use of {open_quotes}selective{close_quotes} complexing agents for Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The complexation behavior of these ions with acetate, chloroacetate,and aminoacetate ions is being characterized by potentiometric titration and polarographic measurements. The effect of these complexants on the electrodeposition of the alloys is also being studied.

  20. Complexation effects in the electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melville, A.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nickel-zinc alloy electrodeposition system exhibits a phenomenon known as anomalous codeposition, where the less noble metal (Zn) deposits preferentially to the more noble metal (Ni). One explanation for this behavior is that zinc hydroxide adsorbs to the surface of the electrode and inhibits the electrodeposition of the nickel. This mechanism is being tested through the use of {open_quotes}selective{close_quotes} complexing agents for Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. The complexation behavior of these ions with citrate, aspartate and pyrophosphate ions is being characterized by potentiometric titration and polarographic measurements. The effect of these complexants on the electrodeposition of the alloys is also being studied.

  1. Nickel Sequestration in a Kaolinite-Humic Acid Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Nickel Sequestration in a Kaolinite-Humic Acid Complex M A A R T E N N A C H T E G A A L * A N D D (with 2 carbon atoms at an average radial distance of 2.85 Å). A Ni-Al LDH precipitate phase was formed and otherfirstrowtransitionmetalsintostablesurfaceprecipitates is an important sequestration pathway for toxic metals in the environment, despite the presence

  2. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dennig, Corinne (Asnieres sur Seine, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Alcorta, Jose (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Dax, FR)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  3. Structure study on electrochromic films of nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Xingfang; Chen Xiaofeng; Song Xiangyun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Ceramics

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using HREM, the relationship between structure and electrochromic properties of rf diode sputtered nickel oxide films with good and poor electrochromic performance has been investigated. The experimental results indicate that all kinds of the films consist of cubic nickel oxide with nano-crystal structure. For the films having good electrochromic properties, the grain size ranges about 5--10 nm. In the films exhibiting poor performance, an amorphous phase of nickel oxide as a continuous phase existing in the film has been observed and the cubic nickel oxide grains appear as isolated islands existing in the amorphous phase. From the structural features of the films, it may be concluded that the grain boundary of nano-polycrystalline structure plays an important role in the electrochromic reaction and the grain boundary would act as channel for the injection and extraction of alkali metal ions and electrons during the coloring and bleaching process. So, it is important to control the structure of films in the deposition process to prepare the film with good electrochromic performance.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  5. Neutron diffraction studies of nickel-containing perovskite oxide catalysts exposed to autothermal reforming environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mawdsley, J. R.; Vaughey, J. T.; Krause, T. R.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Six nickel-containing perovskite oxides (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})M{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{+-}{delta}}, where x = 0 or 0.2 and M = Cr, Fe, or Mn were used to catalyze the autothermal reforming of isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) into a hydrogen-rich gas during short-term tests at 700 C. To determine the phase stability of the samples in the reducing environment of the reforming reactor, characterization studies of the as-prepared and tested perovskite samples were conducted using powder X-ray diffraction, powder neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. We determined that the reducing conditions of the microreactor caused metallic nickel to form in all six compositions. However, the extent of the nickel loss from the perovskite lattices varied: the chromium-containing compositions lost the least nickel, compared to the manganese- and iron-containing compositions, and the strontium-free compositions lost more nickel than their strontium-containing analogs. Five of the six perovskite compositions tested showed no breakdown of the perovskite lattice despite the loss of nickel from the B-sites, producing only the third example of a B-cation-deficient, 3d transition-metal-containing perovskite.

  6. Electron screening in nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further investigate electron screening phenomenon we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. Also, we have studied the decay of {sup 61}Cu produced in the reaction {sup 60}Ni(p,{gamma}), in order to find a possible decay rate perturbation by atomic electrons and found a small difference in half-life for metallic compared to oxide environment, respectively. The present results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energy and that it might also affect the decay rate.

  7. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  8. Electron screening in nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the interplay between nuclei and their surroundings we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. The presented results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energies.

  9. W.-L. Huang, Z. Ren, and C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Nickel vibrating micromechanical disk resonator with solid dielectric capacitive-transducer gap," Proceedings, 2006 IEEE Int. Frequency Control Symp., Miami, Florida, June 5-7, 2006, pp. 839-847.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Clark T.-C.

    W.-L. Huang, Z. Ren, and C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Nickel vibrating micromechanical disk resonator, Florida, June 5-7, 2006, pp. 839-847. Nickel Vibrating Micromechanical Disk Resonator With Solid in a low temperature nickel metal material and using a 30-nm nitride dielectric capacitive transducer has

  10. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  11. Logistic Tensor Factorization for Multi-Relational Data Maximilian Nickel nickel@dbs.ifi.lmu.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tresp, Volker

    Logistic Tensor Factorization for Multi-Relational Data Maximilian Nickel nickel or recommendation data (Nickel et al., 2012; Bordes et al., 2011; Bader et al., 2007; Rendle et al., 2010- able and easier to handle then general non-linear ap- proaches. Rescal (Nickel et al., 2011; 2012

  12. Modeling of a Nickel-Hydrogen Cell Phase Reactions in the Nickel Active Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of a Nickel-Hydrogen Cell Phase Reactions in the Nickel Active Material B. Wu and R. E of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA A nonisothermal model of a nickel-hydrogen cell has been developed with the consideration of multiple phases in the nickel active material. Important

  13. Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

  14. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  15. Nickel isotopes in stellar matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameel-Un Nabi

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopes of nickel play a key role during the silicon burning phase up to the presupernova phase of massive stars. Electron capture rates on these nickel isotopes are also important during the phase of core contraction. I present here the microscopic calculation of ground and excited states Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions for key nickel isotopes. The calculation is performed within the frame-work of pn-QRPA model. A judicious choice of model parameters, specially of the Gamow-Teller strength parameters and the deformation parameter, resulted in a much improved calculation of GT strength functions. The excited state GT distributions are much different from the corresponding ground-state distributions resulting in a failure of the Brink's hypothesis. The electron capture and positron decay rates on nickel isotopes are also calculated within the framework of pn-QRPA model relevant to the presupernova evolution of massive stars. The electron capture rates on odd-A isotopes of nickel are shown to have dominant contributions from parent excited states during as early as silicon burning phases. Comparison is being made with the large scale shell model calculation. During the silicon burning phases of massive stars the electron capture rates on $^{57,59}$Ni are around an order of magnitude bigger than shell model rates and can bear consequences for core-collapse simulators.

  16. Ground-state energy and relativistic corrections for positronium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Varga, Kalman [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Variational calculations of the ground state of positronium hydride (HPs) are reported, including various expectation values, electron-positron annihilation rates, and leading relativistic corrections to the total and dissociation energies. The calculations have been performed using a basis set of 4000 thoroughly optimized explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions. The relative accuracy of the variational energy upper bound is estimated to be of the order of 2x10{sup -10}, which is a significant improvement over previous nonrelativistic results.

  17. NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Søren Primdahl #12;ii Primdahl, Søren Nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells Thesis as Risø-R-1137(EN) ISBN 87-550-2605-2 (internet) #12;iii NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES

  18. Microcompression of nanocrystalline nickel B. E. Schuster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    on electrodeposited nanocrystalline nickel a material system where the grain size is much smaller than the specimenMicrocompression of nanocrystalline nickel B. E. Schuster Department of Mechanical Engineering of face-centered-cubic nanocrystalline nickel nano-Ni have been closely examined in recent years

  19. Intercrystalline density on nanocrystalline nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haasz, T.R.; Aust, K.T. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Palumbo, G. [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); El-Sherik, A.M.; Erb, U. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering] [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most methods currently available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials result in considerable residual porosity. Studies concerned with the novel structures and properties of these materials are thus compromised by the intrinsically high levels of porosity. As recently shown by Kristic et al., porosity can have a significant effect on fundamental materials properties such as Young`s modulus. One of the most promising techniques for the production of fully dense nanocrystalline materials is electrodeposition. In the present work, the residual porosity and density of nanostructured nickel produced by the electrodeposition method is assessed and discussed in light of the intrinsic intercrystalline density of nickel.

  20. Polymers near Metal Surfaces: Selective Adsorption and Global Conformations L. Delle Site,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    of a polycarbonate melt near a nickel surface as a model system for the interaction of polymers with metal surfaces- level modeling of polymers near metal surfaces. Liquid polycarbonate near a nickel surface is taken.g., production of compact disks). We combine ab initio calculations for the interaction of fragments of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate

  1. Synthesis of Thermal Interface Materials Made of Metal Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoth, Marion Odul

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    -Methly-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP). The metals used for this experiment were copper (Cu), tin (Sn), and nickel (Ni). The metal nanoparticles were seeded using functionalized MWCNTs as templates. Once seeded, the nanotubes and polymer composites were made...

  2. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, andor CaH2) Composite Systems. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

  3. Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Nivedita

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand...

  4. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  5. Phase transformations in nickel-rich nickel-titanium alloys : influence of strain-rate, temperature, thermomechanical treatment and nickel composition on the shape memory and superelastic characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adharapurapu, Raghavendra R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buehler, W.J. and R.C. Wiley, Nickel-base Alloys, in UnitedYork. Standard Terminology for nickel-titanium shape memoryinto martensite in iron-nickel alloys under stress. Z.

  6. Phase transformations in nickel-rich nickel-titanium alloys : influence of strain-rate, temperature, thermomechanical treatment and nickel composition on the shape memory and superelastic characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adharapurapu, Raghavendra R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Terminology for nickel-titanium shape memory alloys. ASTME. Ence, and J.P. Nielsen, Titanium-nickel phase diagram.pseudoelasticity in titanium-nickel alloys. Journal de

  7. Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

  8. Microstructure and hydriding studies of AB/sub 5/ hydrogen storage compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodell, P.D.; Sandrock, G.D.; Huston, E.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New data on the microstructure, pressure-composition-temperature, and absorption/desorption kinetics of AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides are presented. The most significant result to emerge from the investigation is that many of the AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides, especially the LaNi/sub 5/ related materials, show instantaneous absorption and desorption response in proportion to the amount of cooling or heating which is provided. Eight categories of materials were studied: reference alloys (LaNi/sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Al/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 3/Co/sub 2/); Ni second phase particles (LaNi/sub 5/ /sub 67/, LaNi/sub 7/, LaNi/sub 11/ /sub 3/); eutectoid microstructure (SmCo/sub 5/); other second phases (LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 8/Fe/sub 1/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 5/Cr/sub 1/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/Cr, LaNi/sub 4/Si; LaNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/); substitutional elements (LaNi/sub 4/Cu, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Pd/sub 0/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 7/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 3/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/C/sub 0/ /sub 2/, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 7/); surface active elements (LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/B/sub 0/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/S/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Se/sub 0/ /sub 1/); large diameter atom substitutions (Mg/sub 0/ /sub 1/La/sub 0/ /sub 9/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Sr/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ba/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/); other compositions (LaNi/sub 3/); and Pd plating (electroless plated samples and mechanically alloyed specimens).

  9. Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures M. H. Kuang and Z of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China Received 19 October 1999; accepted for publication 11 January 2000 Recent interest in the growth of aligned carbon nanotube films using transition metal catalysts has led

  10. Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

  11. Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, D.

    1991-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

  12. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  13. The calculated rovibronic spectrum of scandium hydride, ScH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson\\, Jonathan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structure of six low-lying electronic states of scandium hydride, $X\\,{}^{1}\\Sigma^+$, $a\\,{}^{3}\\Delta$, $b\\,{}^{3}\\Pi$, $A\\,{}^{1}\\Delta$ $c\\,{}^{3}\\Sigma^+$, and $B\\,{}^{1}\\Pi$, is studied using multi-reference configuration interaction as a function of bond length. Diagonal and off-diagonal dipole moment, spin-orbit coupling and electronic angular momentum curves are also computed. The results are benchmarked against experimental measurements and calculations on atomic scandium. The resulting curves are used to compute a line list of molecular ro-vibronic transitions for $^{45}$ScH.

  14. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  15. Proximity breakdown of hydrides in superconducting niobium cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanenko, A; Cooley, L D; Grassellino, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many modern and proposed future particle accelerators rely on superconducting radio frequency cavities made of bulk niobium as primary particle accelerating structures. Such cavities suffer from the anomalous field dependence of their quality factors Q0. High field degradation - so-called high field Q-slope - is yet unexplained even though an empirical cure is known. Here we propose a mechanism based on the presence of proximity-coupled niobium hydrides, which can explain this effect. Furthermore, the same mechanism can be present in any surface-sensitive experiments or superconducting devices involving niobium.

  16. Metal articles having ultrafine particles dispersed therein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.B.; Nadkarni, R.A.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a metal article of manufacture. It comprises: a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, iron, cadmium, chromium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, mercury, tungsten arsenic, manganese, iridium, indium, ruthenium, rhenium, rhodium, molybdenum, palladium, osmium and platinum; and a plurality of ultrafine particles.

  17. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  18. Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam, E-mail: homam_naffakh@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mapelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Massa 34, Milan 20156 (Italy)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. ??-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and ??-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of ??-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of ??- and ??-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type, morphology and distribution of the phases are thoroughly investigated. • Dissimilar welding is successfully performed without occurrence of any hot cracks.

  19. An XAFS Study of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeper, D.; Cheek, G; Pandya, K; O'Gragy, W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of metals from aqueous solutions has a successful history for many metals. However, some metals cannot be deposited from aqueous solutions because their potentials fall outside of the window of stability for water. Using ionic liquids for the electrodeposition of metals can avoid some of these difficulties because they have a larger region of stability than water. The electrochemical window can be tailored to fit a particular application by choosing appropriate anions and cations to form the melt. There is also the possibility to deposit pure metals without the oxides and hydrides that can form in aqueous solutions. The study of the structure of metal salts in ionic liquids is an important step towards achieving these goals.

  20. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides treated with hafnium or zirconium, boron and cerium to which have been added chromium to significantly improve high temperature ductility, creep resistance and oxidation properties in oxidizing environments.

  1. Evaluation of nickel flash smelting through piloting and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnas, S.R.; Koh, P.T.L. [CSIRO, Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Div. of Minerals; Kemori, N. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ehime (Japan)

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive study of the nickel flash smelting process has been undertaken. It is aimed at the optimization of the burner design to improve the smelting performance and to increase the throughput of the rebuilt furnace. A design-based mathematical model was developed to simulate the operation of the four burners and the reaction shaft of the flash furnace at Western Mining Corporation Ltd.`s Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter. A modified single burner version of the model was validated against data obtained from the pilot plant at the Pyrometallurgical Research Centre (PRC) of the Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.`s Toyo Smelter. The approach taken involved experimental measurements of key process parameters in the pilot plant and detailed numerical simulation of the fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion in the entire burner-shaft complex. Several burner designs have been tested experimentally at the pilot plant and theoretically through computer simulation. The main outcome of the study was the development of an experimentally validated mathematical model of the flash smelter providing a new powerful design tool. The insight gained about the process from the application of this tool led to the design of a more efficient nickel flash smelting process.

  2. Templated synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: Toward heterostructured nanocomposites for efficient hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Nicholas Cole [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of metals. Herein, we report a novel method for the scalable synthesis of silica templated zero-valent nickel particles (Ni?SiO{sub 2}) that hold promise for the synthesis of nickel nanorods for use in bimetallic heterostructures for hydrogen storage. Our synthesis proceeds by chemical reduction of a nickel-hydrazine complex with sodium borohydride followed by calcination under hydrogen gas to yield silica encapsulated nickel particles. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the general morphology of the resultant nanocapsules as well as the crystalline phases of the incorporated Ni{sup 0} nanocrystals. The structures display strong magnetic behavior at room temperature and preliminary data suggests nickel particle size can be controlled by varying the amount of nickel precursor used in the synthesis. Calcination under different environments and TEM analysis provides evidence for an atomic migration mechanism of particle formation. Ni?SiO{sub 2} nanocapsules were used as seeds to induce heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth within the nanocapsule via electroless nickel plating. Nickel nanoparticle growth occurs under high temperature alkaline conditions, however silica nanocapsule integrity is not maintained due to the incompatibility of silica with the growth conditions. Silica nanocapsule integrity is maintained under low temperature neutral conditions, but nickel particle growth is not observed. Through FTIR and UV/Vis analysis, we show the degree of crosslinking and condensation increases in calcined silica compared to as-synthesized silica. We propose the increased density of the silica nanocapsule hinders mass transfer of the bulky nickel precursor complex from solution and onto the surface of the “catalytic” zero-valent nickel seed within the nanocapsule cavity. Decreasing the density of the silica nanocapsule can be achieved through co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with an alkyl functionalized silane followed by calcination to remove the organic component or by chemical etching in alkaline solution, but will not be addressed in this thesis.

  3. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  4. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF HYDRIDE ANION, H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Oscar; Yang Zhibo; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Oscar.Martinez@colorado.ed, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@colorado.ed, E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@colorado.ed, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@colorado.ed, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@colorado.ed [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, 391 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0391 (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate constants were measured at 300 K for the reactions of the hydride anion, H{sup -}, with neutral molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}CN, CH{sub 3}OH, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}CHO, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}Cl, (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CCl, (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and D{sub 2} using a flowing-afterglow instrument. Experimental work was supplemented by ab initio calculations to provide insight into the viability of reaction pathways. Our reported rate constants should prove useful to models of astrophysical environments where conditions prevail for the existence of both H{sup -} and neutral species. The variety of neutral reactants studied includes representative species from prototypical chemical groups, effectively mapping reactivity trends for the hydride anion.

  5. Light-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in a Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, A. F. Th.; Roy, A. S.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Griessen, R.; Wijngaarden, R. J.; Koeman, N. J.

    2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare earth hydride films can be converted reversibly from metallic mirrors to insulating windows simply by changing the surrounding hydrogen gas pressure at room temperature. At low temperatures, in situ doping is not possible in this way as hydrogen cannot diffuse. However, our finding of persistent photoconductivity under ultraviolet illumination offers an attractive possibility to tune yttrium hydride through the T=0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall measurements are used to determine critical exponents. The unusually large value for the product of the static and dynamical critical exponents appears to signify the important role played by electron-electron interactions.

  6. Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, D.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH/sub 2/ and YH/sub 2/ were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH/sub 2/ cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 < x < 2.9 are presented which, as expected, indicate a more premature occupation of the octahedral sites in the larger LaH/sub 2/ lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH/sub 3/ is a small-band-gap semiconductor.

  7. Selective Electroless Nickel Plating of Particle Arrays on Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ilsoon

    Selective Electroless Nickel Plating of Particle Arrays on Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Ilsoon Lee Received June 30, 2003. Revised Manuscript Received September 25, 2003 Selective electroless nickel plating and particles. Selectively nickel-plated surfaces were characterized with optical microscopy, X

  8. Hydrogen dissociation catalyzed by carbon coated nickel nanoparticles: experiment and theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yermakov, A Ye; Uimin, M A; Lokteva, E S; Erokhin, A V; Schegoleva, N N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on combination of experimental measurements and first-principles calculations we report a novel carbon-based catalytic material and describe significant acceleration of the hydrogenation of magnesium at room temperature in presence of nickel nanoparticles wrapped in multilayer graphene. Increase of the rate of magnesium hydrogenation in contrast to the mix of graphite and nickel nanoparticles evidences intrinsic catalytic properties of explored nanocomposites. Results of simulations demonstrate that the doping from metal substrate and the presence of Stone-Wales defects turn multilayer graphene from chemically inert to chemically active mode. The role of the size of nanoparticles and temperature are also discussed.

  9. Mar 24th 2011 | from the print edition 0 40Like Battery technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    by electrodeposition--like nickel-plating a piece of steel. After that, the material is heated, to melt the polystyrene, nickel-metal hydride batteries were preferred for many applications. Even now, they are cheaper than, indeed, opalescent. The next stage is to fill the gaps between the spheres with nickel. This is done

  10. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

  11. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Electrochemical, Structural and Surface...

  12. Electroless (autocatalytic) nickel-cobalt thin films as solar control coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, S.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Selvam, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Tamilnadu (India); Anuradha, S.; Rajendran, S. [Alagappa Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the deposition of nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings by the electroless deposition technique for use as solar control coatings in architectural glazing of buildings. Electroless deposition is characterized by the autocatalytic deposition of a metal/alloy from an aqueous solution of its ions by interaction with a chemical reducing agent. The reducing agent provides electrons for the metal ions to be neutralized. The reduction is initiated by the catalyzed surface of the substrate and continued by the self catalytic activity of the deposited metal/alloy as long as the substrate is immersed in the electroless bath and operating conditions are maintained. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus thin films were deposited from a solution containing 15 g/l nickel sulphate, 5 g/l cobalt sulphate, 60 g/l ammonium citrate and 25 g/l sodium hypophosphite operating at 30 C, at a pH of 9.5 for two minutes. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings are found to satisfy the basic requirements of solar control coatings. Autocatalytic deposition technique offers the possibilities of producing large area coatings with low capital investment, stability and good adhesion to glass substrates.

  13. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  14. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  15. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  16. Technological assessment and evaluation of high power batteries and their commercial values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Seh Kiat

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery technology has the potential to compete with the more matured Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery technology in the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy storage market as it has higher specific ...

  17. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. (ed.) (Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Dowgiallo, E. (ed.) (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)); Halpert, G. (ed.) (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Matsuda, Y. (ed.) (Yamagushi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Takehara, Z.I. (ed.) (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  18. 1. MOST SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN POWER SOURCES Currently, Dr. Popov is professor at USC and Director of the Center for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Research Novel high performance anode materials were developed for Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and corrosion resistance. From this research one step electroless process was discovered for deposition of Ni

  19. Abstract--This paper outlines the design of an autonomous flying vehicle (AFV) for use in researching formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    with a full suite of integrated peripherals. Today, Nickel- Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries can source more predators and efficiently forage for food [6]. Both the Air Force and NASA have identified autonomous

  20. Synthesis, Properties, and Reactions of Trinuclear Macrocyclic Nickel(II) and Nickel(I) Complexes: Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 by Nickel(II) Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    FULL PAPER Synthesis, Properties, and Reactions of Trinuclear Macrocyclic Nickel(II) and Nickel(I) Complexes: Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 by Nickel(II) Complex Eun Young Lee,[a] Daewon Hong,[a] Han Woong Park,[a] and Myunghyun Paik Suh*[a] Keywords: Nickel / Macrocyclic compounds / Carbon dioxide

  1. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

    1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  2. Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel Catalyst for Oxidation of Hydrogen. Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel Catalyst for...

  3. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries....

  4. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel...

  5. Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ controlling precipitate formation is still needed. In this study, we have combined experimental data on nickel

  6. Conformational Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel Catalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation. Conformational Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel Catalysts for...

  7. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel...

  8. Metal-atom fluorescence from the quenching of metastable rare gases by metal carbonyls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, W.E.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flowing afterglow apparatus was used to study the metal fluorescence resulting from the quenching of metastable rare-gas states by metal carbonyls. The data from the quenching or argon, neon, and helium by iron and nickel carbonyl agreed well with a restricted degree of freedom model indicating a concerted bond-breaking dissociation.

  9. Effect of the composition of polypyrrole substrate on the electrodeposition of copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepel, M.; Chen, Y.M.; Stephenson, R. [State Univ. of New York, Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposition of copper and nickel on a variety of substrates including conductive polymer films with two different compositions has been studied. The enhancement of the copper and nickel electrodeposition rate was observed for composite polypyrrole films with cation-exchange properties in comparison to undoped polypyrrole films with anion-exchange properties. Significant enhancement of the nickel electrodeposition rate on both types of conductive polymer vs. the bare gold electrode was also found. An explanation of these effects is presented. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with 10 MHz AT-cut piezoelectrodes was used in this study. Use of the EQCM technique allowed for simultaneous monitoring of voltamperometric and resonance frequency vs. potential or time characteristics. The thickness of electropolymerized polypyrrole films as well as the amounts of electrodeposited metals were controlled by monitoring the EQCM resonant frequency. The nucleation density has been determined from scanning electron microscope experiments.

  10. Electroless plating of graphite with copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caturla, F.; Molina, F.; Molina-Sabio, M.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Esteban, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning in the European Union of gas-cooled nuclear reactors using graphite as the moderator will generate a large amount of irradiated graphite as waste. Graphite is a radioactive waste of relatively low activity and consequently the options considered for the management of the waste may include: (i) incineration, (ii) ocean bed disposal, (iii) deep geological disposal, and (iv) shallow land burial. In case the last is the selected mode, an appropriate conditioning procedure is necessary before final disposal, by covering the graphite with a material avoiding or reducing the emission of radionuclides to its surrounding. This work analyses the possibility of conditioning graphite pieces (with a large proportion of pores of different sizes up to 100 {micro}m) with a metal coating of copper or nickel produced by electroless plating, with the aim of completely isolating the graphite from its surrounding. Electroless plating with copper results in a very large proportion of pores filled or covered, but a fraction of the pores remain in the graphite, which decreases with increasing thickness of metal deposit. Furthermore, the copper plating is permeable to liquids and consequently the graphite does not become completely isolated from the surrounding. The percentage of porosity filled or covered by nickel deposits is similar to copper, but they are not permeable to liquids, at least when the thickness is relatively high, and consequently the access of the liquids to the graphite is rather limited. However, when electroless plating with copper is followed by nickel deposition the graphite becomes isolated from the exterior.

  11. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  12. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuhara, Howard (Hillsborough, CA)

    1990-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  13. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  14. Initiation of electroless nickel plating on copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flis, J.; Duquette, D.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidation rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.

  15. Proton Diffusion in Nickel Hydroxide Prediction of Active Material Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    to improve battery design and operation. Introduction Nickel hydroxide is the active material in rechargeable of protons, we used elec- trochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure D+ in planar nickel hydroxide films nickel batteries (e.g., Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, and Ni/H2). Nickel batteries are usually positive limited, meaning

  16. Micromachined Nickel Floating Element Shear Stress Sensor Array , J. Gallmanb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Robert D.

    Micromachined Nickel Floating Element Shear Stress Sensor Array Z. Zhaoa , J. Gallmanb , R. Whitea (Technic Copper FB) and patterned lithographically. A Nickel structural layer with varied thickness is deposited from a nickel sulfamate plating solution (Technic Nickel Sulfamate SemiBright) and patterned

  17. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B (SNL); Mitchell, J (SNL); Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride ?-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

  18. A Broadly Applicable Strategy for Entry into Homogeneous Nickel(0) Catalysts from Air-Stable Nickel(II) Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    A Broadly Applicable Strategy for Entry into Homogeneous Nickel(0) Catalysts from Air-Stable Nickel ABSTRACT: A series of air-stable nickel complexes of the form L2Ni(aryl) X (L = monodentate phosphine, X of precatalysts suitable for a wide variety of nickel-catalyzed transformations. These complexes are easily

  19. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are recycled. 33 Lead-acid batteries contain 60% to 80%because 96% of all lead-acid batteries are recycled. 34 Thislead-acid, nickel- cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion, plastic lithium ion (PLiON), and lithium metal batteries.

  20. Nickel vacancy behavior in the electrical conductance of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel vacancy behavior in electrical conductance is systematically investigated using various analysis methods on nickel oxide films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures. The results of Rutherford backscattering, x-ray diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the sputtered nickel oxide films are nickel-deficient. Through the deconvolution of Ni2p and O1s spectra in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the number of Ni{sup 3+} ions is found to increase with the O{sub 2} ratio during the deposition. According to the vacancy model, nickel vacancies created from the non-stoichiometry are concluded to produce Ni{sup 3+} ions which lead to an increment of the conductivity of the nickel oxide films due to the increase of the hole concentration.

  1. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 178 (2005) 25272532 Gas sorption properties of microporous metal organic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    , liquefaction, metal hydrides and porous carbon-based adsorbents, have various difficulties that must be overcome before large-scale commercialization can be considered [1]. Developing new storage materials of these porous materials are well-characterized pores, small pore dimension, high micropore volume, and high

  2. Nickel porphyrins for memory optical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Jia, Songling (Albuquerque, NM); Medforth, Craig (Vacaville, CA); Holten, Dewey (St. Louis, MO); Nelson, Nora Y. (Manteca, CA); Smith, Kevin M. (Davis, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a nickel-porphyrin derivative in a matrix, the nickel-porphyrin derivative comprising at least two conformational isomers, a lower-energy-state conformer and a higher-energy-state conformer, such that when the higher-energy-state conformer is generated from the lower-energy-state conformer following absorption of a photon of suitable energy, the time to return to the lower-energy-state conformer is greater than 40 nanoseconds at approximately room temperature. The nickel-porphyrin derivative is useful in optical memory applications.

  3. Aspects of electroless nickel plating on molybdenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkola, R.D.; Daugherty, C.E.; Harris, G.E.; Neff, W.A.; Owens, W.W.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for depositing an adherent coating of an electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy on molybdenum was developed. The required pretreatment processes included an anodic etch in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution, an anodic etch in a phosphonic acid solution, and an oxide stripping step in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution. Initiation of the electroless nickel plating was accomplished through a series of strikes in the nickel bath. Scale up from laboratory parts to large components involved optimization of parameters such as pretreat time, current density, anode to cathode ratio and strike time.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddick, Glen T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7397 c THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESSTHE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS92121. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS

  5. Increasing the thermoelectric figure of merit of tetrahedrites by Co-doping with nickel and zinc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, X; Morelli, DT; Morelli, DT; Xia, Y; Ozolins, V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by  Co-­? doping  with  Nickel  and  Zinc   Xu  Lu 1 ,  t 2g   states   of   nickel   indeed   lie   in   the  of   the   dopant  nickel  ions.  While  one  could  

  6. Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributed to electromethanogenic gas production. KEYWORDS: Biocathode, Carbon capturing and sequestration generation, we examined several cathode materials: plain graphite blocks, graphite blocks coated with carbon black or carbon black containing metals (platinum, stainless steel or nickel) or insoluble minerals

  7. Crystallographic studies of the metal-responsive transcription factor NikR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiter, Eric R. (Eric Robert)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal ion homeostasis is critical to the survival of all cells, because requirements for these essential nutrients must be balanced with their toxicity when present at elevated concentrations. Regulation of nickel ...

  8. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Rong (Richland, WA); Merz, Martin D. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  9. Inspection of Nickel Alloy Welds: Results from Five Year International Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission established and coordinated the international Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in dissimilar metal welds. Round-robin results showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound provide the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field.

  10. Electrodeposition of nickel-iron alloys: Regular codeposition induced by the presence of ethylenediamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St. Clair, J.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nickel-iron alloy electrodeposition system typically exhibits a phenomenon known as {open_quotes}anomalous codeposition{close_quotes}, where the less noble metal (Fe) deposits preferentially to the more noble metal (Ni). The addition of ethylenediamine to the bath changes the electrodeposition toward {open_quotes}regular codeposition{close_quotes}, i.e. less Fe and more Ni am found in the deposit. The impact of various electrodeposition parameters, including the concentrations of ferrous ion and ethylenediamine and the pH of the bath, on this change in behavior will be presented.

  11. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  12. Study of electroless nickel plating of ceramic particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deuis, R.L.; Subramanian, C.; Strafford, K.N.; Arora, P. [Univ. of South Australia (Australia)] [Univ. of South Australia (Australia); Yellup, J.M. [CSIRO, Woodville North, South Australia (Australia). Div. of Manufacturing Technology] [CSIRO, Woodville North, South Australia (Australia). Div. of Manufacturing Technology

    1995-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the production of aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC), the wettability of the reinforcement particulates by the matrix is an important factor. The manufacture of MMC reinforced with alumina particles require the use of specialized fabrication techniques such as rheocasting in order to achieve effective particle incorporation. Several surface treatments have been applied to alumina and other reinforcement particulates in order to modify particle wettability. The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition of Ni-P onto several ceramic particulate surfaces without the use of the conventional sensitization and activation steps. This nickel plating treatment, had the potential to improve the incorporation of alumina particles in aluminum melts, with respect to MMC formation by the plasma transferred arc (PTA) surfacing process.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of Surface Oxides and Hydrides on Niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Zasadzinski, B. Albee, S. Bishnoi, C. Cao, G. Ciovati, L.D. Cooley, D.C. Ford, Th. Proslier

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman microscopy/spectroscopy has been used in conjunction with AFM, tunneling and magnetic susceptibility to identify surface oxides and hydrides on annealed, recrystallized foils of high purity Nb and on single crystals of cavity grade Nb. Cold worked regions of the Nb foil as well as rough regions near grain boundaries showed clear evidence of ordered hydride phases which were identified by VASP phonon calculations. Cold worked regions also displayed enhanced surface paramagnetism. Surface enhanced Raman spectra have also been obtained using 1.0 nm Au depositon. The SERS spectra reveal hydride molecular species which are not observable by conventional Raman. These results indicate that Raman is a useful probe of Nb surfaces relevant for cavity performance

  14. XAFS Studies of Nickel And Sulfur Speciation in Residual Oil Fly-Ash Particulate Matters (ROFA PM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanaik, S.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Linak, W.P.; Miller, C.A.

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    XAFS spectroscopy has been employed to evaluate the effect of fuel compositions and combustion conditions on the amount, form, and distribution of sulfur and nickel in size-fractionated ROFA PM. Analysis of S K-edge XANES establish that sulfate is abundant in all PM. However, depending upon the combustion conditions, lesser amounts of thiophenic sulfur, metal sulfide, and elemental sulfur may also be observed. Least-squares fitting of Ni K-edge XANES reveals that most of the nickel in PM is present as bioavailable NiSO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O. The insoluble Ni mainly exists as a minor species, as nickel ferrite in PM{sub 2.5} (PM < 2.5 {micro}m) and nickel sulfide, NixSy in PM{sub 2.5+} (PM > 2.5 {micro}m). The Ni K-edge XANES results are in agreement with the EXAFS data. Such detailed speciation of Ni and S in PM is needed for determining their mobility, bioavailability, and reactivity, and hence, their role in PM toxicity. This information is also important for understanding the mechanism of PM formation, developing effective remediation measures, and providing criteria for identification of potential emission sources. Transition metals complexing with sulfur is ubiquitous in nature. Therefore, this information on metal sulfur complex can be critical to a large body of environmental literature.

  15. Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous Processing Systems -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900 Special Report:Spotlight: Bryantis here April and

  16. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  17. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1985-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids (shale oil, SRC, etc.) by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  18. Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

  19. A mechanistic study of aryl halide reactions with lithium aluminum hydride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Fu-Fan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A M:"CHA~JISTIC STUDv OF ARYL HALID RHAC IC~JS ' ITH LITHIUM ALUM 'J"M HYDRIDE A Thesis FU-FAJJ CHUI'JG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in nartial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCI- JC... August Jo80 Major Subject: Chemistry A MECHANISTIC STUDY OF ARYL HALIDE REACTIONS 1'IITH LITHIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE A Thesis by FU-FAN CHUNG Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) , . 7 1 (Member) (Member) i (Head...

  20. A mechanistic study of aryl halide reactions with lithium aluminum hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Fu-Fan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A M:"CHA~JISTIC STUDv OF ARYL HALID RHAC IC~JS ' ITH LITHIUM ALUM 'J"M HYDRIDE A Thesis FU-FAJJ CHUI'JG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in nartial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCI- JC... of this stud!y :a to investigate possibility o f a. fr ee r a . 1 ca machina=--. by;;h:ch ". thium alum'num hydride may reduce organic ccmnounds. evzcus results have irdicated that thc reductior of o-allylcxy- 'oenzene diazonium icn by . ributyltin hydrioe...

  1. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  2. Calculation of properties of crystalline lithium hydride using correlated wave function theory S. J. Nolan,1 M. J. Gillan,2,3 D. Alf,2,3,4 N. L. Allan,1 and F. R. Manby1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    . All calculated properties of lithium hydride and deuteride agree with empirical observations to within

  3. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting demonstration, an investigation of commercial markets for RSM, and refinement of methods to quantify isotopic elements.

  4. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution of Simple Alkenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsubara, Ryosuke

    This report describes a nickel-catalyzed allylic substitution process of simple alkenes whereby an important structural motif, a 1,4-diene, was prepared. The key to success is the use of an appropriate nickel–phosphine ...

  6. Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches Andre M adsorption are involved. In the higher pH region (pH >7), nickel sorption becomes slow and does not seem

  7. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  8. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  9. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  10. Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratories (currently at University of Missouri St. Louis) Dr. Ragaiy Zidan Savannah River National Laboratory Dr. Donald Anton Savannah River National Laboratory Prof. Bruce Clemens Stanford University Dr-selection Lennie Klebanoff, Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94551 September/October 2007

  11. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have beencontrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogenThe application of electrochromic devices based on tungsten

  12. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    that for hydrogen produced from steam reforming of natural gas, are at best marginal relative to the competing technologies such as cryogenic, membrane and pressure s~ing adsorption systems. INTRODUCTION Hydrogen is one of the most important chemical species... commercial technologies for hydrogen recovery ar cryogenic separation, pressure swin adsorption CPSA) and membrane separ ation. The two former processes purify the stream by adsorbing 0 freezing out the non-hydrogen com ponents. Cryogenic systems have...

  13. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress for this Savannah Reiver National Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  14. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the third quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  15. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waste heat can be used for hot water or space heating in buildings (i.e. "cogen") Distributed FCPS if dehydrogenation heat can be supplied by waste heat (e.g. fuel cell) Requires less space than low pressure cH2

  17. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 Meeting FederalThorium,DepartmentGrid

  18. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 | DepartmentEnergyThermalDepartment of

  19. Preparation of Ag Schottky contacts on n-type GaN bulk crystals grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stübner, R., E-mail: ronald.stuebner@physik.tu-dresden.de; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J. [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank [Freiberger Compound Materials GmbH, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical properties of Schottky contacts on n-type GaN grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere with different N/Ga ratios by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were investigated. We show that tunneling of electrons from the conduction band of GaN to the metal is dominant in our samples. The quality of Schottky contacts does not only depend on surface preparation but also on the growth conditions of the crystals. Schottky contacts on these crystals show an increasing deterioration when higher N/Ga growth ratios are used. We correlate our results with the presence of negatively charged gallium vacancies in the samples. These charges compensate the positively charged donors and lead to a significant increase in series resistance.

  20. Mechanical and metallographic characterization of LIGA fabricated nickel and 80%Ni-20%Fe Permalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, T.R.; Buchheit, T.E.; Schmale, D.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bourcier, R.J. [Corning Inc., NY (United States). Photonic Technologies Div.

    1998-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A table top servohydraulic load frame equipped with a laser displacement measurement system was constructed for the mechanical characterization of LIGA fabricated electroforms. A drop in tensile specimen geometry which includes a pattern to identify gauge length via laser scanning has proven to provide a convenient means to monitor and characterize mechanical property variations arising during processing. In addition to tensile properties, hardness and metallurgical data were obtained for nickel deposit specimens of current density varying between 20 and 80 mA/cm{sup 2} from a sulfamate based bath. Data from 80/20 nickel-iron deposits is also presented for comparison. As expected, substantial mechanical property differences from bulk metal properties are observed as well as a dependence of material strength on current density which is supported by grain size variation. While elastic modulus values of the nickel electrodeposit are near 160 GPa, yield stress values vary by over 60%. A strong orientation in the metal electrodeposits as well as variations in nucleating and growth morphology present a concern for anisotropic and geometry dependent mechanical properties within and between different LIGA components.

  1. Nickel assisted healing of defective graphene S. Karoui,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nickel assisted healing of defective graphene S. Karoui,1 H. Amara,1 C. Bichara,2 and F. Ducastelle suggesting that their healing are thermally activated. We show that in presence of a nickel substrate we obtain a perfect graphene layer. The nickel-carbon chemical bonds keep breaking and reforming around

  2. Nickel Complexes DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804435

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Angewandte Chemie Nickel Complexes DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804435 A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)** Matthew Carnes, Daniela Buccella, Judy Y.-C. Chen, Arthur P. Ramirez, Nicholas J. TurroA, Weinheim Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 290 ­294 #12;Herein we describe the reaction of nickel(0

  3. Karl L. E. Nickel (1924 2009) Jurgen Garloff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    Karl L. E. Nickel (1924 ­ 2009) J¨urgen Garloff Konstanz, Germany garloff@htwg-konstanz.de DIE Fehler kleiner Epsi- lon Professor Dr. Karl Nickel, one of the founding fathers of interval computa- tions in Germany, died on January 1, 2009, a couple of weeks before his 85th birthday1 . Karl Nickel

  4. Nickel Electroplating for Nanostructure Mold Fabrication * Xiaohui Lin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Nickel Electroplating for Nanostructure Mold Fabrication * Xiaohui Lin1 , Xinyuan Dou1 , Xiaolong demonstrated a practical process of fabricating nickel molds for nanoimprinting. Dual-side polished glass is chosen as the substrate on which nickel nanostructures are successfully electroplated. Photonic crystal

  5. Black nickel selective absorber, optimization of parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinoglu, B.; Cercioglu, V.; Ecevit, A.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroplated black nickel selective absorber is one of the most commercially used element of solar energy systems. Electrodeposition parameters such as time of deposition, pH, current density, electrolyte temperature should be optimized to produce the most efficient selective absorber. The topology of the substrate material is very effective on selectivity and it should also be optimized. In this study, by controlling the conditions of electrodeposition black nickel selective absorbers are produced and their reflectivities are measured. The effects of the electrodeposition parameters together with the topology of the substrate, on the selective properties are investigated.

  6. On the role of mass-transport in electrodeposition of nickel-iron alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hessami, S.; Tobias, C.W.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the extensive use of nickel-iron, the mechanism of codeposition is not well understood. The interactions occurring during codeposition are such that nickel deposition is inhibited in the presence of iron, and the resulting alloy deposit has a much higher iron to nickel ratio than the electrolyte. This type of interactive deposition is an example of what has been termed anomalous codeposition, which is also used in describing electrodeposition of iron group elements (iron, cobalt, and nickel) with each other, or with zinc, tin, lead, and cadmium. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, a critical review of the literature is presented. Various interpretations and proposed mechanisms for the anomalous deposition of the iron-group alloys, particularly nickel-iron, is discussed. The major objectives of this review are to provide unambiguous definitions for various codeposition schemes, including the anomalous deposition itself, reflect on some of the more widely accepted hypothesis describing this phenomenon, and summarize the more recent results of other investigators in the field. To elucidate the electrodeposition mechanism of magnetic alloys, a mathematical model is developed in Chapter 3. The model is applied to a rotating disk electrode system, with well understood hydrodynamics, and incorporates homogeneous reactions of metal-hydroxide complexes. In Chapter 4, the model is further used to investigate the effect of buffering agents which are commonly used in electroplating baths. Our understanding of the mechanism of electrode processes depends on the accurate measurement of these concentrations. The interfacial value of pH is particularly important for electrodeposition of the iron-group alloys. In Chapters 5 and 6, an in-situ nonintrusive technique for surface pH measurement is investigated by theoretical and experimental methods.

  7. Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field Multi-Scale Engineering for Undergraduates program under grant number EEC-0754370 During Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a non-consumable tool-state welding process, much frictional heating and force is required of the tool. This steep demand on the tool

  9. First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James B.

    First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo Arne Lu, Pennsylvania 16802 Received 20 May 1996; accepted 24 July 1996 Accurate ground state energies comparable FN-DQMC method. The residual energy, the nodal error due to the error in the nodal structure

  10. Highly Reversible Open Framework Nanoscale Electrodes for Divalent Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible of protons and lithium ions into solid materials has led to the success of nickel metal hydride and lithium materials have been studied extensively.15,16,18,20-23 Electrodeposited PB thin films have demonstrated

  11. Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper includes a review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings and then presents recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel, HP 9-4-20 steel, and U-0.75 Ti are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel. 6 tables.

  12. Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings is given and recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates are presented. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel and HP 9-4-20 steel are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel.

  13. Threat of Hydride Re-orientation to Spent Fuel Integrity During Transportation Accidents: Myth or Reality?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashid, Joe [ANATECH, 5435 Oberlin Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Machiels, Albert [EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The source-term study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories nearly two decades ago for the spent fuel inventory known at the time, which was in the low-to-medium burnup range ({approx}35 GWd/MTU), showed that the effects of transportation accidents on spent fuel failures, and consequential radioactivity release to the environment, were relatively benign. However, with today's discharged fuel burnups routinely greater than 45 GWd/MTU, potential hydride reorientation during interim dry storage, and its effects on cladding properties, has become one of the primary concerns for spent fuel transportation. Laboratory tests of un-irradiated cladding specimens subjected to heat treatments promoting hydride dissolution followed by re-precipitation in the radial direction have shown that relatively moderate concentrations ({approx}70 ppm) of radial hydrides can significantly degrade cladding ductility, at least at room temperature. The absence of specific data that are relevant to high-burnup spent fuel under dry storage conditions have led to the conjecture, deduced from those tests, that massive cladding failures, possibly resulting in fuel reconfiguration, can be expected during cask drop events. Such conclusions are not borne out by the findings in this paper. The analysis results indicate that cladding failure is bi-modal: a state of failure initiation at the cladding ID remaining as part-wall damage with less than 2% probability of occurrence, and a through-wall failure at a probability of 1 E-5. These results indicate that spent fuel conditions that could promote the formation of radial hydrides during dry storage are not sufficient to produce radial hydrides concentrations of significant levels to cause major threat to spent fuel integrity. It is important to note in this regard that the through-wall cladding failure probability of 1 E-5 is of the same order of magnitude as calculated in the cited Sandia study for low burnup fuel. (authors)

  14. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  15. Structural Basis of Low-Affinity Nickel Binding to the Nickel-Responsive Transcription Factor NikR from Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Christine M.

    Escherichia coli NikR regulates cellular nickel uptake by binding to the nik operon in the presence of nickel and blocking transcription of genes encoding the nickel uptake transporter. NikR has two binding affinities for ...

  16. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  17. Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covar, Andrew Prescott

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters Affecting the Fate of Metals in Various Soils. (December 1975) Andrew Prescott Covar, B. S. , University of Texas at E1 Paso Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Calvin Woods In this study, the fate of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc... DETERMINATION OF WATER SOLUBLE, EXCHANGEABLE, ORGANIC BOUND, AND MINERAL ASSOCIATED METALS ? SPLIT I I PAGE 18 19 3 CADMIUM UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 4 COPPER UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 5 LEAD UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 6 NICKEL UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 7 ZINC UPTAKE BY SOIL...

  18. Delayed Nickel Decay in Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. C. McLaughlin; R. A. M. J. Wijers

    2002-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently observed emission lines in the X-ray afterglow of gamma ray bursts suggest that iron group elements are either produced in the gamma ray burst, or are present nearby. If this material is the product of a thermonuclear burn, then such material would be expected to be rich in Nickel-56. If the nickel remains partially ionized, this prevents the electron capture reaction normally associated with the decay of Nickel-56, dramatically increasing the decay timescale. Here we examine the consequences of rapid ejection of a fraction of a solar mass of iron group material from the center of a collapsar/hypernova. The exact rate of decay then depends on the details of the ionization and therefore the ejection process. Future observations of iron, nickel and cobalt lines can be used to diagnose the origin of these elements and to better understand the astrophysical site of gamma ray bursts. In this model, the X-ray lines of these iron-group elements could be detected in suspected hypernovae that did not produce an observable gamma ray burst due to beaming.

  19. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition. 4 figs.

  20. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition.

  1. On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pat Scott; Martin Asplund; Nicolas Grevesse; A. Jacques Sauval

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available we find log epsilon_Ni = 6.17 +/- 0.02 (statistical) +/- 0.05 (systematic), a downwards shift of 0.06 to 0.08 dex relative to previous 1D-based abundances. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downwards from log epsilon_O = 8.86 +/- 0.07 to 8.71 +/- 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, application of the best available gf-value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilon_O = 8.7.

  2. Hydrogenation of anthraquinone on metal-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, V.V.; Markaryan, G.L.; Chetina, O.V.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work studied the reaction of hydrogen activated on metal-containing catalysts (platinum black, Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (AP-15), and the hydride ZrNiH/sub 2.8/ with anthraquinone. The hydrogenation of anthraquinone bound into a strong donor-acceptor complex on the surface of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and AP-15 and physically absorbed on silica gel was investigated. Results indicated that under conditions of mechanical mixing of silica gel with catalysts containing platinum or hydrides of intermetallic compounds in an atmosphere of hydrogen, anthraquinone physically adsorbed on silica gel is able to undergo hydrogenation at temperature above 100/sup 0/ C with formation of anthracene.

  3. Frontispiece: origin of extraordinary stability of square-planar carbon atoms in surface carbides of cobalt and nickel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandula, A; Trinh, QT; Saeys, M; Alexandrova, AN

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbides of Cobalt and Nickel** Anjan Nandula, Quang Thangcarbides of cobalt and nickel are exception- ally stable,C binds to cobalt and nickel with a remarkable affinity,

  4. Origin of Extraordinary Stability of Square-Planar Carbon Atoms in Surface Carbides of Cobalt and Nickel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandula, A; Trinh, QT; Saeys, M; Alexandrova, AN

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbides of Cobalt and Nickel** Anjan Nandula, Quang Thangcarbides of cobalt and nickel are exception- ally stable,C binds to cobalt and nickel with a remarkable affinity,

  5. Thermal analysis of uranium zirconium hydride fuel using a lead-bismuth gap at LWR operating temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ensor, Brendan M. (Brendan Melvin)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next generation nuclear technology calls for more advanced fuels to maximize the effectiveness of new designs. A fuel currently being studied for use in advanced light water reactors (LWRs) is uranium zirconium hydride ...

  6. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  7. Experiences with polishing electroless nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J.; Taylor, J.S.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During recent years the bureaucracy has become increasingly rigid in demanding a mechanical observance of the minimum bid specified on the simplest terms. Qualifications of the vendor and specifications of the product are increasingly viewed as attempts to thwart the progress of the process toward minimum quality, Any such qualification or specification must be justified as to not only reasonableness but necessity. This provides the purpose of this paper, to record forever the existence of the wild dingleberry and to disclose its habits with respect to laps and the marvelous effects it has on the emotional state of the lappers. Among metal polishers, the term dingleberry refers to a type of nodule or wartlike structure sometimes seen in isolation and occasionally in considerable profusion particularly in chemically plated surfaces. 2 refs.

  8. J. Phys. F: Metal Phys., Vol. 7, No. 11, 1977. Printed in Great Britain. @ 1977 LElTER TO THE EDITOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    * - . I , I f---J:. I * , ' . 'J I ' / pias mon energy-loss satellites ~ ' ' ' ' l ' ' ! ' ' ' ' lw Watson and S Affrossmanz Department of Metallurgy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow Received 5 September 1977 Abstract. Binding energies for the core levels of scandium metal and its oxide and hydride

  9. Dissolution of Nickel Oxide in a Smelter Contaminated Soil. (S02-mcnear100330-Oral)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Dissolution of Nickel Oxide in a Smelter Contaminated Soil. (S02-mcnear100330-Oral) Abstract: Aerially dispersed nickel oxide particles from a nickel smelter were studied. SXRF mapping and SEM imaging XAFS and micro-XAFS analysis, indicates that nickel oxide (NiO) and nickel hydroxide (alpha -Ni(OH)2

  10. Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

  11. An experimental study of the solubility and thermodynamic properties of nickel in the system NIO + HCL + H?O 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Saulwood

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' were used to calculate the solubility of Ni-olivine. Calculations of fluid compositions in equilibrium with a variety of mineral assemblages indicate that nickel is not highly mobilized by chloride-bearing fluids in comparison with metals such as Fe... Knowledge of the solubilities of minerals and the properties of aqueous species in solutions is essential to understand the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits and amociated rocks. The behavior of aqueous species is reasonably well understood in simple...

  12. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  13. Energy Conversion DevicesEnergy Conversion Devices Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Development Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and disordered materials. Advances include: · Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, negative and positive-precious metal electrocatalysts for H2/air fuel cells. ECD: Catalyst Provider Twenty years of development electrodes based on non-precious metal electrocatalysts for H2/air fuel cells. #12;Evaluation programs exist

  14. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M. [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)] [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  15. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  16. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity – in particular for BWR’s, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR’s and BWR’s without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR’s and BWR’s were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density – on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR’s more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel – reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWR’s. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry – 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWR’s to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.

  17. Competitive adsorption effects in the electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlosz, M. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, (Switzerland). Dept. des materiaux)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-step reaction mechanisms involving adsorbed monovalent intermediate ions for the electrodeposition of iron and nickel as single metals can be combined to form a predictive model for the codeposition of iron-nickel alloys. Inhibition of the more noble nickel in the presence of iron is caused by preferential surface coverage of the adsorbed iron intermediate resulting from a difference between the two elements in Tafel constant for the electrosorption step. The role of hydrolyzed cations and surface pH is investigated and methods for evaluating the influence of pH are explored. The analysis shows that changes in surface pH with potential are not necessary for iron-rich (anomalous) deposits, but that variations in pH from one electrolyte to another may influence deposit composition. The tendency toward iron-rich deposits with increasing overpotential exists in all systems, however, and can be prevented only by decreasing the iron concentration of the bath. An extension of the analysis to account for transport limitations in baths with low iron concentration is developed and calculations with the model are presented to illustrate the effects of current density and electrolyte convection under conditions similar to those investigated experimentally in the literature.

  18. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  19. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  20. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  1. Engineering of the band gap and optical properties of thin films of yttrium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Chang Chuan; Mongstad, Trygve; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Karazhanov, Smagul, E-mail: smagulk@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of oxygen-containing yttrium hydride show photochromic effect at room temperature. In this work, we have studied structural and optical properties of the films deposited at different deposition pressures, discovering the possibility of engineering the optical band gap by variation of the oxygen content. In sum, the transparency of the films and the wavelength range of photons triggering the photochromic effect can be controlled by variation of the deposition pressure.

  2. A new family of metal chalogenide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajeshwar, K.; Tacconi, N.R. de [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of metal/semiconductor electrocomposite photoelectrodes is described for photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. These electrocomposites are prepared from an aqueous dispersion containing the targeted metal (in ionic form) and the semiconductor particles. Electrodeposition of the metal affords a matrix in which the semiconductor particles are occluded. This approach is illustrated for nickel/TiO{sub 2} and nickel/CdS model candidates. The influence of preparation variables (deposition potential, temperature, pH, semiconductor content) on the PEC behavior is described.

  3. Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

  4. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Baudry, Michelle (Le Pontaroux, FR)

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  5. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF ARYL-OXYGEN BOND ACTIVATION IN A NICKEL(0) DIPHOSPHINE-ETHER COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    with nickel precursors was studied. A series of nickel(0) complexes containing nickel-arene interactions.1).1a,1b Quenching of the lithium species with an electrophilic species leads to the functionalization

  6. Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Carbamates and Sulfamates Using an Air-Stable Precatalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hie, Liana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, 130, 13848–13849. Nickel-catalyzed amination of arylgained popularity. 14 Using nickel, researchers have usedOF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Phenol Derivatives and Total Synthesis of Welwitindolinone Natural Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quasdorf, Kyle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic Synthesis, 2010. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-CouplingsMeeting. 2011, FUEL-99. Nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings ofSymposium. 2011 (poster). Nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings

  8. Cobalt and Nickel-Based Organometallic Chemistry of the [N]Phenylenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Robin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1984, 30, 1. 89) Gu, Z. Nickel-Catalyzed CycloadditionCobalt and Nickel-Based Organometallic Chemistry of the [N]Spring 2010 Cobalt and Nickel-Based Organometallic Chemistry

  9. Effect of Annealing on Hardness and the Modulus of Elasticity in Bulk Nanocrystalline Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrents, Anna; Yang, Heather; Mohamed, Farghalli A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Bulk Nanocrystalline Nickel ANNA TORRENTS, HEATHER YANG,Composition of (ED) nc-Nickel P S Cu Co B Ni balance 622—for monocrys- talline nickel at ambient temperature (S 11 =

  10. THE ORIGIN OF UNUSUAL DISLOCATION STRUCTURES OBSERVED IN ION-THINNED NICKEL OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, J.A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OBSERVED IN ION-THINNED NICKEL OXIDE J. A. Little, H.OBSERVED IN ION-THINNED NICKEL OXIDE By J. A. Little t , H.thinned single crystals of nickel oxide were examined and

  11. Electrochimica Acta xxx (2005) xxxxxx Electrochemical and AFM study of nickel nucleation mechanisms on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesic, Batric

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrodeposition was carried out from solutions with higher nickel concentrations. The clusters were also larger investigations. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Nickel electrodeposition; Ammonia; Nucleation [13,14] for nickel electrodeposition from acidicchloridesolutionscontaininghighnickelconcentration

  12. nouvelle-caldonie, terre de nickel rce au cours lev du nickel, la Nouvelle-Caldonie a travers la dernire crise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nouvelle-calédonie, terre de nickel 50 G râce au cours élevé du nickel, la Nouvelle Nouvelle-Calédonie aux besoins planétaires en nickel Bien qu'en termes de tonnage produit (1 400 000 tonnes en 2008) le nickel se situe en queue de peloton des métaux usuels (fer, aluminium, cuivre, manganèse

  13. Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Hanson, M.; Rice, S.; Sanders, P.

    2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate controlling sub process (e.g., cation diffusion, oxygen ingress).

  14. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for chemical and bio-sensing properties. Nickel hexacyanoferrate particles were electrodeposited on the porous CNT...

  15. alliages base nickel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 5 Machining of nickel based superalloys using coated PCBN tooling. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Following a comprehensive literature...

  16. Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between Nickel and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between Nickel and Selenium in NiZirconia SOFC Anodes and Comparison with Sulfur Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between...

  17. High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using...

  18. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjan, Ram, E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Rout, R. K., E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Srivastava, R., E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Chakravarthy, Y. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Patel, N. N. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Alex, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  19. acidic nickel laterite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational line shapes of hydrogen and deuterium Baer, Roi 255 J Mater Sci (2006) 41:72327239 7232 Squeeze Infiltration Processing of Nickel Coated Carbon Fiber Reinforced...

  20. acid nickel ii: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational line shapes of hydrogen and deuterium Baer, Roi 367 J Mater Sci (2006) 41:72327239 7232 Squeeze Infiltration Processing of Nickel Coated Carbon Fiber Reinforced...

  1. Soft-x-ray hollow fiber optics with inner metal coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Oyama, Tadaaki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass capillary with an inner metal coating is proposed to be used as soft-x-ray fiber optics in medical applications. Based on the results of theoretical calculations, nickel was chosen as the coating material for x rays radiated from a conventional x-ray tube. A nickel-coated capillary was fabricated by electroless deposition, and focusing and collimating effects were observed from measurements of the transmission efficiency of soft x rays. The transmission of a nickel-coated capillary with an inner diameter of 0.53 mm and a length of 300 mm was 10%, which is approximately double that of an uncoated glass capillary.

  2. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colfoque Cl, supplkrnent au no 4, Tome 38, Auril 1977, page Cl-333 METAL-OXIDES COMPOSITES FOR BaFe,,Ol PERMANENT MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the possibility of producing composites of Ba ferrite with various metals such as cobalt, nickel, iron, copper of a CO deposit with preferential orientation obtained by chemical reduction and electrodeposition. 2. CO

  3. Part IB Metals Course A: Worked Examples (2022)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2022-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the surface finish is good. A heat­resistant nickel base alloy cast using the lost wax process in which a wax model is surrounded by ceramic, the wax is then burnt off and the metal cast into the ceramic mould

  4. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL’s MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models (Homer et al., 2013; Tikare and Schultz, 2012). The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  5. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  6. THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT HYPERACCUMULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT HYPERACCUMULATION and Learning Company. #12;ii THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT

  7. Rare earth metal rich magnesium compounds RE{sub 4}NiMg (RE=Y, Pr-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu)-Synthesis, structure, and hydrogenation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuncel, Selcan [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Roquefere, Jean Gabriel; Stan, Cristina [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Bobet, Jean-Louis [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)], E-mail: bobet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr; Chevalier, Bernard [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)], E-mail: chevalie@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr; Gaudin, Etienne [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Rodewald, Ute Ch [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: pottgen@uni-muenster.de

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The rare earth metal rich compounds RE{sub 4}NiMg (RE=Y, Pr-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. All compounds were investigated by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals: Gd{sub 4}RhIn type, space group F4-bar 3m, Z=16, a=1367.6(2) pm for Y{sub 4}NiMg, a=1403.7(3) pm for Pr{sub 4}NiMg, a=1400.7(1) pm for Nd{sub 4}NiMg, a=1386.5(2) pm for Sm{sub 4}NiMg, a=1376.1(2) pm for Gd{sub 4}NiMg, a=1362.1(1) pm for Tb{sub 4}NiMg, a=1355.1(2) pm for Dy{sub 4}NiMg, a=1355.2(1) pm for Ho{sub 4}NiMg, a=1354.3(2) pm for Er{sub 4}NiMg, a=1342.9(3) pm for Tm{sub 4}NiMg, and a=1336.7(3) pm for Lu{sub 4}NiMg. The nickel atoms have trigonal prismatic rare earth coordination. These NiRE{sub 6} prisms are condensed via common edges to a three-dimensional network which leaves voids for Mg{sub 4} tetrahedra and the RE1 atoms which show only weak coordination to the nickel atoms. The single crystal data indicate two kinds of solid solutions. The RE1 positions reveal small RE1/Mg mixing and some compounds also show Ni/Mg mixing within the Mg{sub 4} tetrahedra. Y{sub 4}NiMg and Gd{sub 4}NiMg have been tested for hydrogenation. These compounds absorb up to eleven hydrogen atoms per formula unit under a hydrogen pressure of 1 MPa at room temperature. The structure of the metal atoms is maintained with only an increase of the lattice parameters ({delta}V/V{approx}22%) if the absorption is done at T<363 K as at higher temperature a decomposition into REH{sub 2}-REH{sub 3} hydrides occurred. Moreover, the hydrogenation affects drastically the magnetic properties of these intermetallics. For instance, Gd{sub 4}NiMg exhibits an antiferromagnetic behavior below T{sub N}=92 K whereas its hydride Gd{sub 4}NiMgH{sub 11} is paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. - Graphical abstract: The Mg{sub 4} and NiGd{sub 6} units in Gd{sub 4}NiMg and Gd{sub 4}NiMgH{sub x}.

  8. Metalization of lipid vesicles via electroless plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrar, W.T.; O'Brien, D.F.; Warshawsky, A.; Voycheck, C.L.

    1988-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The encapsulation of metallic particles and metallic oxides within lipid vesicles has recently been of interest for applications such as catalysis, water splitting, and magnetic control of spin coupling. In this communication the authors introduce the concept and practice of the deposition of metal on vesicles by using electroless plating techniques. Coordination of low valent transition metals to organic functional groups on the surface of the bilayer membrane provides a means of binding metal atoms to vesicles. Chemical reduction produced zero valent atoms which serve as sites for further metal deposition by the chemical reduction techniques of electroless plating. Specifically, this procedure involved the binding of a small amount of tetrachloropalladate to the vesicle bilayer, reduction of the palladium(II) to palladium(0), followed by the deposition of much larger amounts of metal from an electroless plating solution. Electroless plating solutions were used for the deposition of palladium, nickel, cobalt, or copper metal onto the catalytic palladium centers. Since the metallic particles were associated with the vesicles, colloids were formed that were stable in water for much longer periods than the control metal particles formed in water alone. If the vesicles were composed in part of unsaturated lipids, with the olefinic groups on the hydrocarbon chains, the initial evidence suggests the transition metal was directed into the bilayer, rather than staying on the surface.

  9. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide on nickel and tungsten films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, J.M.; Nasser, F.A.K.

    1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of carbonyl sulfide with evaporated nickel and tungsten films has been investigated in the temperature range 195-450 K using gas pressures ranging from 1 to 13 N m/sup -2/. Rapid but mainly associative chemisorption of COS occurred on both metals at 195 K. Further adsorption of COS on W at temperatures 293-450 K was extremely slow and accompanied by more CO desorption than COS adsorbed. Sulfidation of Ni film by COS occurred at temperatures greater than or equal to 293 K with the liberation of carbon monoxide. The rate of adsorption increased with temperature but was independent of COS pressure. The activation energy (E/sub x/) increased with extent (X) of sulfidation to a limiting value of 97 kJ mol/sup -1/. A linear relationship was obtained from the plot of E/sub x/ against 1/X, suggesting the applicability of Cabrera-Mott theory to the sulfidation of Ni film by COS. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  11. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Shinhoo (Wayland, MA); Selverian, John H. (Burlington, MA); Kim, Hans J. (Concord, MA); Dunn, Edmund M. (Lexington, MA); Kim, Kyung S. (Barrington, RI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof.

  12. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, S.; Selverian, J.H.; Kim, H.J.; Dunn, E.M.; Kim, K.S.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod is described. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof. 4 figs.

  13. Toxicity of nickel and nickel electroplating water to the freshwater cladoceran Moina macrocopa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.K.; Wong, P.K.; Tao, H. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effects of Ni{sup 2+} and other components of nickel electroplating water on the survival and reproductive capacity of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa, a common inhabitant of small ponds and rice paddies in Hong Kong and Southern China.

  14. Production of H2 at Fast Rates Using a Nickel Electrocatalyst in Water/Acetonitrile Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffert, Wesley A.; Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient production of molecular hydrogen for storage of energy from renewable sources is crucial for the development of wind and solar power. Hydrogenase enzymes in nature catalyze H2 production using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel) using precise delivery of protons to the metal center. Here we report a synthetic nickel complex containing proton relays, [Ni(PPh2NC6H4OH2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NC6H4OH2 = 1,5-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), that catalyzes the production of H2 in an aqueous environment with turnover frequencies of 750-170,000 s-1 at directly measured overpotentials of 310-470 mV. The remarkable performance of this catalyst in aqueous environments exceeds the requirements necessary for molecular catalytic production of H2 by energy derived from photovoltaic solar cells. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrido Pedrosa, Anne M. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: annemgp@yahoo.com; Souza, Marcelo J.B. [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao-SE (Brazil); Melo, Dulce M.A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Antonio S. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bifunctional catalysts consisting of cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite were synthesized by solvent excess impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption. The profiles of metal reduction on zeolite were obtained by temperature-programmed reduction. The catalytic properties of the bifunctional catalysts were verified by n-hexane hydroconversion. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analyses showed the presence of crystalline phases in HY zeolite and in samples after impregnation. A decrease in the micropore surface area was observed by nitrogen adsorption experiments and attributed to a reduction in the accessibility to micropores. The catalysts showed catalytic activity in the hydroconversion of n-hexane with selectivity to branched hydrocarbons. Such catalytic activity was related to the acid and metallic properties of the bifunctional catalysts used.

  16. Computational Benchmarking in Biomimetic Nickel, Copper, and Iron Complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brothers, Scott Michael

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    in the absence of experimental data. In this dissertation, such techniques serve to elucidate the observed reactivity or electronic character of both nickel and copper bound in square planar N?S? ligand fields, and of {Fe(NO)?} units, respectively. Nickel...

  17. Thermal conductivity of electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.D.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of specific heat, thermal diffusivity, density, and calculated thermal conductivity have been determined for a modified acid bath electroless nickel-12.7 wt% phosphorus alloy between 298 ad 423 K. Thermal conductivity values are about half those of pure nickel.

  18. Original article Differential nickel tolerance of mung bean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Differential nickel tolerance of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes, Orissa, India (Received 2 August 1997; accepted 2 September 1998) Abstract - Eight cultivars of mung bean cultivars of mung bean were ranked with respect to their tolerance to nickel: Dhauli > PDM-116 > LGG-407 > K

  19. Computational Benchmarking in Biomimetic Nickel, Copper, and Iron Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brothers, Scott Michael

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    in the absence of experimental data. In this dissertation, such techniques serve to elucidate the observed reactivity or electronic character of both nickel and copper bound in square planar N?S? ligand fields, and of {Fe(NO)?} units, respectively. Nickel...

  20. Effects of oxygen reduction on nickel deposition from unbuffered aqueous solutions. 2: Characterization of the electrode interface in electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, C.Q.; Lee, J.Y.; Lin, J.; Tan, K.L. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to the reactive electrodeposition of cobalt, porous nickel is not easily produced by electrodeposition from neutral aqueous solutions in the presence of dissolved oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the electrode surface detected the presence of a highly stable metal hydroxide layer of the same characteristics as precipitated Ni(OH){sub 2}. The hydroxide layer inhibits the nucleation of nickel nuclei and increases the irreversibility in electrodeposition. For reactive deposition to result in a porous deposit, the hydroxide layer should have only moderate stability so that it can be continuously removed and reinstated by interfacial chemical and electrochemical reactions. The surface Ni(OH){sub 2} formed in neutral solutions lacks the reactivity for such dynamism. Nonetheless, the stability of surface Ni(OH){sub 2} could be lowered by increasing the acidity of the deposition medium. Careful pH control seems to be a requirement for nickel reactive electrodeposition to produce porous metal deposits.

  1. High Variability of the Metal Content of Tree Growth Rings as Measured by Synchrotron Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Macfie, S.; Jones, K.; Feng, H.; Trembley, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation analysis was used to investigate the metal content of tree rings collected from paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh, on transects downwind from two metal smelters (nickel and copper). Individual trees reflected changes in ring metal content with time, which may be presumed to represent changes in local metal bioavailability. However, between-tree variations were large and no statistically significant differences in metal content as a function of time were found within or between sites. Although concentrations of both total and exchangeable copper and nickel in the soil increased with proximity to the respective smelter, this pattern was reflected only in the nickel content of rings near the nickel smelter; copper content did not vary with distance from either smelter. The sites did differ with respect to lead, manganese and zinc content of the rings, which may be related to pH. In conclusion, the variability between trees at each site suggests that dendroanalysis is a poor method for evaluating metal exposure at a large (site) scale. Tree ring metal content may be used to evaluate the metal uptake by individual trees but metal mobility in the stem makes it difficult to establish a reliable chronology.

  2. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Mary. H.; Welbourn, Rebecca J. L.; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M.

    2015-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    and cosurfactant on the protecting corrosion for nickel. Acta. Phys-Chim. Sin. 2000, 16, 899–905. (22) Vezvaie, M.; Noel, J. J.; Tun, Z.; Shoesmith, D. W. Hydrogen absorption into titanium under cathodic polarisation: an in-situ neutron reflometry and EIS study... , 378 (1), 152–158. (42) Wang, X.; Lee, S. Y.; Miller, K.; Stocker, I.; Clarke, S.; Casford, M.; Gutfreund, P.; Skoda, M. W. A. Cation bridging studied by specular neutron reflection. Langmuir 2013, 29, 5520–5527. (43) Aquino, L. I. A. J. A.; Tunega...

  3. Pulsed electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimmett, D.L.; Schwartz, M.; Nobe, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (US))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the effects of dc, pulse, and pulse reverse current waveforms on deposition of Fe-Ni alloys studied in unagitated solutions and with a rotating cylindrical electrode. A nickel sulfamate/ferrous chloride electrolyte system at pH 2 less than 2 A/dm{sup 2}. Pulse reverse plating led to a decrease in anomalous deposition at low current densities. Rotating cylindrical electrodes indicated significant mass transfer effects at high current densities. During pulse reverse plating an increase in anodic pulse magnitude decreased anomalous deposition; pulse frequency had its greatest effect in reducing anomalous deposition between 100 and 300 Hz.

  4. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, Erhard T. (5423 Vista Sandia, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  6. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Belharouak, Ilias; Genc, Arda; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Guangwen; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches are being made to enhance the performance of lithium ion batteries. Incorporating multi-valence transition metal ions into metal oxide cathodes has been identified as an essential approach to achieve the necessary high voltage and high capacity. However, the fundamental mechanism that limits their power rate and cycling stability remains unclear. The power rate strongly depends on the lithium ion drift speed in the cathode. Crystallographically, these transition metal-based cathodes frequently have a layered structure. In the classic wisdom, it is accepted that lithium ion travels swiftly within the layers moving out/in of the cathode during the charge/discharge. Here, we report the unexpected discovery of a thermodynamically driven, yet kinetically controlled, surface modification in the widely explored lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode material, which may inhibit the battery charge/discharge rate. We found that during cathode synthesis and processing before electrochemical cycling in the cell nickel can preferentially move along the fast diffusion channels and selectively segregate at the surface facets terminated with a mix of anions and cations. This segregation essentially blocks the otherwise fast out/in pathways for lithium ions during the charge/discharge. Therefore, it appears that the transition metal dopant may help to provide high capacity and/or high voltage, but can be located in a “wrong” location that blocks or slows lithium diffusion, limiting battery performance. In this circumstance, limitations in the properties of Li-ion batteries using these cathode materials can be determined more by the materials synthesis issues than by the operation within the battery itself.

  7. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  8. The Interactions and Exchanges of Metal-bound Sulfur Containing Ligands with Various Transition Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, William

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................... 11 3. M(CO) X ADDUCTS OF ZINC (II) AND CADMIUM (II) BIOMIMETIC COMPLEXES ..................................................................................................... 15 Conclusions for Section 3... ....... 26 Figure 4-1 The zinc-platinum adduct (a) and the metal exchange product (b) ... 29 Figure 4-2 Previously studied reactions of zinc and nickel biomimetic pathways 31 Figure 4-3 The ligand cannibalism of Zn-1?-Ac to form the diacetate...

  9. Nickel-free duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O. [ETH-Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Metallurgy] [ETH-Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that nitrogen-alloying in steel produces a variety of exceptional properties such as high strength, high ductility and, eventually, resistance to stress corrosion cracking. High-nitrogen steels (HNS), therefore, have recently been developed to enhance the strength and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, due to a low solubility of nitrogen in a liquid steel under atmospheric pressure, the production of such high-nitrogen alloys needs high-pressure facilities that cause an extra cost. A possible route of developing high-nitrogen alloys under atmospheric pressure is to choose a duplex microstructure, where the amount of austenite and ferrite phase is nearly equal. A much lower nitrogen content is needed to maintain a 50% austenite phase compared with the necessary addition of nitrogen to reach a 100% austenitic microstructure. In addition, duplex stainless steels (DSS) with 40--60% ferrite can significantly improve the SCC-resistance. The objective of this work was to develop a new group of nickel-free, high strength and corrosion resistant DSS. Nickel was completely replaced by nitrogen in order to enhance SCC resistance and reduce the alloying element cost. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cost analysis of new alloys are investigated in comparison with some commercial stainless steels.

  10. Encapsulation of Nickel Nanoparticles in Carbon Obtained by the Sonochemical Decomposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prozorov, Ruslan

    Encapsulation of Nickel Nanoparticles in Carbon Obtained by the Sonochemical Decomposition of Ni(C8 A new precursor for the sonochemical preparation of amorphous nickel, Ni(cyclooctadiene)2, yielded relatively large (200 nm) amorphous nanoparticles composed of nickel and carbon atoms. Small nickel particles

  11. The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UVVisible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UV of aqueous nickel chloride complexes is important for understanding and quantitatively evaluating nickel for dissolved nickel in perchlorate, triflic acid and sodium chloride solutions at temperatures up to 250 °C

  12. JOIJKUAL I)E I'HYSIQUE Diffusion study of oxygen implanted in nickel oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    JOIJKUAL I)E I'HYSIQUE Diffusion study of oxygen implanted in nickel oxide M. Meyer, S. Barbezat, C coefficients d'autodiffusion de I'oxygene dans l'oxyde de nickel, mesurkes rkemment, par Cchange isotopique implanted in nickel oxide; the experiments are carried out by annealing between 1 300 and 1 500 OC nickel

  13. Toxicity of Nickel to a Soil-Dwelling Springtail, Folsomia metaria (Collembola: Isotomidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkin, Steve

    Toxicity of Nickel to a Soil-Dwelling Springtail, Folsomia ¢metaria (Collembola: Isotomidae) Janeck. to nickel via soil caused signi®cant mortality and reduced growth and reproductive output. Nickel may and important organisms in the soil ecosystem, the eect of nickel has not previously been studied

  14. Theory of Hydride-Proton Transfer (HPT) Carbonyl Reduction by [Os(III)(tpy)(Cl)(NH=CHCH3)(NSAr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ess, Daniel H.; Schauer, Cynthia; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanical analysis reveals that carbonyl reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the imine-based reductant cis-[Os{sup III}(tpy)(Cl)(NH?CHCH{sub 3})(NSAr)] (2), which is accessible by reduction of the analogous nitrile, occurs by hydride-proton transfer (HPT) involving both the imine and sulfilimido ligands. In carbonyl reduction, water or alcohol is necessary to significantly lower the barrier for proton shuttling between ligands. The ?N(H)SAr group activates the carbonyl group through hydrogen bonding while the ?NC(H)CH{sub 3} ligand delivers the hydride.

  15. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  16. Master of Science project in advanced computational material physics Electrical conductivity of the correlated metal LaNiO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellsing, Bo

    Master of Science project in advanced computational material physics Electrical conductivity of the correlated metal LaNiO3 Lanthanum nickelate, LaNiO3, belongs to the class of materials named strongly correlated metals. Several properties of these materials can not be understood based on standard

  17. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Kansas City, MO)

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  18. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

  19. Figure and finish characterization of high performance metal mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Church, E.L. [Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most metal mirrors currently used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines to reflect soft x-rays are made of electroless nickel plate on an aluminum substrate. This material combination has allowed optical designers to incorporate exotic cylindrical aspheres into grazing incidence x-ray beam-handling systems by taking advantage of single-point diamond machining techniques. But the promise of high-quality electroless nickel surfaces has generally exceeded the performance. We will examine the evolution of electroless nickel surfaces through a study of the quality of mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source over the past seven years. We have developed techniques to assess surface quality based on the measurement of surface roughness and figure errors with optical profiling instruments. It is instructive to see how the quality of the surface is related to the complexity of the machine operations required to produce it.

  20. The distribution of potentially toxic heavy metals in the sediments of San Antonio Bay and the northwest Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefry, John Harold

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 123 sediment samples from 48 locations in the northwest Gulf of Mexico, including San Antonio Bay and the Mississippi River Delta, were acid leached and analyzed for iron, manganese, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel by atomic... of the river mouths, also showed slightly higher than expected levels of nickel, lead, and cadmium. The proposition that shell dredging operations in the bay remobilize significant quantities of toxic metals and make them available to the biota of the area...

  1. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  2. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  3. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  4. Rapid substitution of gold for aluminum metallization on integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasopoulos, A.V. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Li, J.; Josowicz, M.; Janata, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid procedure for substitution of gold for aluminum metallization on integrated solid-state circuits, such as solid-state chemical multisensor chips, has been developed. The final product consists of original aluminum overlaid with nickel and gold, both deposited by an electroless process. The final metallization is chemically inert and the resistance of the contacts remains ohmic and unchanged from the original value. The substitution can be performed either at the wafer or at the chip level. After the plasma etching, the metallization process takes only 25 min.

  5. Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Potts­phase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. Solidification/stabilization of simulated uranium and nickel contaminated sludges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramabhadran, Sanjay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research missions in nuclear energy conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy facilities have generated large volumes of mixed wastes with hazardous and radioactive components. Uranium and nickel are the primary contaminants of concern...

  7. Nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation: scope and mechanistic insight 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fordyce, Euan Alexander Fraser

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly diastereoselective nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation is described. Using Ni(acac)2 as a precatalyst and diethylzinc as a stoichiometric reductant, various ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds tethered through an amide or ester...

  8. Atomistic computer simulation analysis of nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engwall, Alison Michelle

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys are harder, stronger, more resistant to degradation, and safer to electrodeposit than chromium. Atomistic computer simulations have previously met with success in replicating the ...

  9. E.-H. HALL. 2014 On the rotational Coefficient in nickel and cobalt ( Coefficients de rotation du nickel et du cobalt); Philosophical Magazine, 5e srie, t. XII.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    509 E.-H. HALL. 2014 On the « rotational Coefficient in nickel and cobalt » ( Coefficients de rotation du nickel et du cobalt); Philosophical Magazine, 5e série, t. XII. p. 157; 1881. E.-H. HALL. 2014 pour le fer, le nickel, l'argent, l'or, le cobalt, l'aluminium, le magnésium; l'effet est bien moindre

  10. Performance of electroless nickel coated steel in oil field environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, R.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Details of test programs to establish the corrosion and erosion resistance of electroless nickel coating in saline/CO/sub 2//H/sub 2/S petroleum production environments at temperatures up to 180/sup 0/C (350 F) are presented, together with actual experience with their use. Data on heat treatment and deposit composition effects on electroless nickel corrosion in oil field services are given.

  11. Performance of Electroless Nickel coatings in oil field environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, R.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experience has shown functional Electroless Nickel to have outstanding resistance to corrosion and erosion in petroleum production facilities. Details of test programs to establish the performance of this coating in saline/CO/sub 2//H/sub 2/S environments at temperatures up to 180 C (350 F) are reported, together with actual experience with their use. Data also are presented on the effect of heat treatment and of deposit composition on the corrosion of Electroless Nickel in oil field services.

  12. In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

  13. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  14. Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

    2007-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

  15. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornie, James A. (North Chelmsford, MA); Kattamis, Theodoulos (Watertown, MA); Chambers, Brent V. (Cambridge, MA); Bond, Bruce E. (Bedford, MA); Varela, Raul H. (Canton, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

  16. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornie, J.A.; Kattamis, T.; Chambers, B.V.; Bond, B.E.; Varela, R.H.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys. 2 figs.

  17. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  18. Kinetic method for the determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys and in industrial solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, F.I.; Fedotova, I.A.; Ustinova, N.V.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the kinetic determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys, in ores and ore processing products containing down to 10/sup -8/%, and in waste solutions down to 0.01 mg/liter. The procedure for the kinetic determination of iridium based on the oxidation of mercury(I) and cerium(IV) is described. The applications of the schemes presented allows one to widen significantly the range of products to be analyzed, to determine iridium at a concentration of 10/sup -8/% in the presence of copper and noble metals, and to shorten the time required for the analysis.

  19. Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Transition in Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys and Updated Data and Correlations to Quantify the Effect of Aqueous Hydrogen on Primary Water SCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys 600 and X-750 have been shown to exhibit a maximum in primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility, when testing is conducted over a range of aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) levels. Contact electric resistance (CER) and corrosion coupon testing using nickel specimens has shown that the maximum in SCC susceptibility occurs in proximity to the nickel-nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition. The measured location of the Ni/NiO transition has been shown to vary with temperature, from 25 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 360 C to 4 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 288 C. New CER measurements show that the Ni/NiO transition is located at 2 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 260 C. An updated correlation of the phase transition is provided. The present work also reports CER testing conducted using an Alloy 600 specimen at 316 C. A large change in resistance occurred between 5 and 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}, similar to the results obtained at 316 C using a nickel specimen. This result adds confidence in applying the Ni/NiO transition measurements to Ni-Cr-Fe alloys. The understanding of the importance of the Ni/NiO transition to PWSCC has been used previously to quantify H{sub 2} effects on SCC growth rate (SCCGR). Specifically, the difference in the electrochemical potential (EcP) of the specimen or component from the Ni/NiO transition (i.e., EcP{sub Ni/NiO}-EcP) has been used as a correlating parameter. In the present work, these SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations, which were based on SCCGR data obtained at relatively high test temperatures (338 and 360 C), are evaluated via SCCGR tests at a reduced temperature (316 C). The 316 C data are in good agreement with the predictions, implying that the SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations extrapolate well to reduced temperatures. The SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations have been revised to reflect the updated Ni/NiO phase transition correlation. New data are presented for EN82H weld metal (also known as Alloy 82) at 338 C. Similar to other nickel alloys, SCC of EN82H is a function of the aqueous H{sub 2} level, with the SCCGR exhibiting a maximum near the Ni/NiO transition. For example, the SCCGR at 8 scc/kg H{sub 2} is {approx} 81 x higher than at 60 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The 8 scc/kg H{sub 2} condition is near the Ni/NiO transition (located at {approx} 14 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 338 C), while 60 scc/kg H{sub 2} is well into the nickel metal regime. A hydrogen-SCCGR correlation is provided for EN82H. The data and understanding obtained from the present work show that SCC can be mitigated by adjusting the aqueous H{sub 2} level. For example, SCCGR is typically minimized at relatively high aqueous H{sub 2} levels, that are well into the nickel metal regime (i.e., far from the Ni/NiO transition).

  20. Studies Pertaining to the Diastereoselective Fischer Indolization and Exploration of Aryl Carbamates in Nickel-Catalyzed Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesganaw, Tehetena

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relevant to Chapter Three: Nickel-Catalyzed Amination ofRelevant to Chapter Four: Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl2010, 66, 4687–4695. Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl

  1. Two cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: A rare clinical form of allergic contact stomatitis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Özkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O, Sayal A. The role of nickel accumulation and epithelialMA, Khakhria ML, Strange S. Nickel allergy associated with aTwo cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: A

  2. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  3. Mechanistic Insights into Hydride Transfer for Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 with Cobalt Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel; Raugei, Simone; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formate by Co(dmpe)2H can proceeds via direct hydride transfer or via CO2 coordination to Co followed by reductive elimination of formate. Both pathways have activation barriers consistent with experiment (~17.5 kcal/mol). Controlling the basicity of Co by ligand design is key to improve catalysis. The research by N.K., D.M.C. and A.M.A. was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by S.R. and M.D. was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  4. Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride in a Solid-State Spin Register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya Wang; Florian Dolde; Jacob Biamonte; Ryan Babbush; Ville Bergholm; Sen Yang; Ingmar Jakobi; Philipp Neumann; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; James D. Whitfield; Jörg Wrachtrup

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    \\emph{Ab initio} computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH$^+$. Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of $10^{-14}$ Hartree, which is ten orders of magnitude below desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides several important steps towards a fully scalable solid state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator.

  5. Predicting the Reactivity of Hydride Donors in Water: Thermodynamic Constants for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connelly, Samantha J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical reactivity of hydride complexes can be predicted by comparing bond strengths for homolytic and heterolytic cleavage of bonds to hydrogen. To determine these bond strengths, thermodynamic constants for H+, H•, H–, and H2 are essential and need to be used uniformly to enable the prediction of reactivity and equilibria. One of the largest challenges is quantifying the stability of solvated H– in water, which is discussed. Due to discrepancies in the literature for the constants used in water, we propose the use of a set of self-consistent constants with convenient standard states. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  6. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  7. Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Leaching of metals from ores. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the extraction of metals from ores by leaching. Topics include leaching of metals from ore heaps, mine tailings, smelter wastes, and sea nodules. Metals covered include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, silver, manganese, and cobalt. Bacterio-electric, biological-acid, and hydrogen peroxide leaching are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  10. Assessing nickel bioavailability in smelter-contaminated soils Jeffrey L. Everhart a,, David McNear Jr. a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Assessing nickel bioavailability in smelter-contaminated soils Jeffrey L. Everhart a,, David Mc: Nickel uptake; Bioavailability; Alyssum murale; Avena sativa; Hyperaccumulators; Phytoremediation 1

  11. Biodegradation of nickel-citrate and modulation of nickel toxicity by iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.; Joshi-Tope, G.A.; Dodge, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodegradation of 1:1 nickel:citric acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens proceeded after a lag (nearly 17h) at the rate of 11{+-}1 {mu}mol h{sup -1}, with only partial mineralization of the complex. The incomplete degradation of the complex was not attributed to changes in its structure, but was due to the toxicity of the Ni released. Addition of 1:1 Ni:citric acid inhibited glucose metabolism by the bacterium. The toxicity of the released Ni was evident only when it attained a threshold concentration of > 0.3 mM in the culture medium. Speciation calculations showed that Ni released after metabolism of the complex was present as Ni{sup 2+} ion and nickel carbonate. Addition of iron as a ferric hydroxide or 1:1 Fe:citric acid to 1:1 Ni:citric acid resulted in the complete metabolism of the Ni-citrate complex, with concurrent removal of the released Ni from solution by coprecipitation with iron. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, Jr., William F. (Richland, WA); Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  13. Flexible metal film with micro-and nanopatterns transferred by electrochemical deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if the film can bend or even can roll up. Generally, the metal film can be produced by electroless deposition film A nickel film ð25 mm � 30 mm � 2 mm� was chosen as master, which was cleaned by acetone, methanol

  14. ThreeDimensional Metallic Microstructures Fabricated by Soft Lithography and Microelectrodeposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitesides, Sue

    will require new approaches not drawn from existing tech­ nologies. Electroforming (electrodeposition structures by repairing any strain­induced defects with electrodeposition of ad­ ditional metal over bubblememorydevices, 11 thin­ film chip carriers, 2 and components for MEMS (nickel turbine rotor, 5 magnetic

  15. Three-Dimensional Metallic Microstructures Fabricated by Soft Lithography and Microelectrodeposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    existing tech- nologies. Electroforming (electrodeposition and electromachin- ing) is a technique with electrodeposition of ad- ditional metal over the damaged areas. Most techniques that are used in conjunction (nickel turbine rotor,5 magnetic microactuator,12 microgears, microvalves and pumps,13 capacitive

  16. A nonchromate method for refurbishment of worn metallic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dearnaley, G.; Badger, P. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); [Wear-Cote International Inc., Rock Island, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard chrome electrodeposition is a widely used method for building up worn metallic components, but regulations concerning hexavalent chromium effluent are making this process less acceptable. A new method is described in which electroless nickel with phosphorus is used in a closed-loop system in order to build up the worn surface, and an amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is bonded to this to provide a low-friction bearing surface. The combination is highly resistant to wear and corrosion.

  17. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for providing the depleted uranium used in this project. vi NOMENCLATURE ? Reaction Fraction ACV Atmosphere Containment Vessel AFCI Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative FCML Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory...

  18. ALKYL, HYDRIDE, AND RELATED BIS (TRIMETHYLSILYL)-AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF THE 4f- AND 5f- BLOCK METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, R.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is commonly found for europium and ytterbium, though somepreparative Method for the europium der­ ivative is shown (7). The chloroaaide of europium (III) is 2 EulN(SiMe ) ] +

  19. Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate Noriko U-lim- iting step for the formation of Ni­Al LDH is Al dissolu- Nickel contamination of soils is a serious

  20. Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability in Burkholderia multivorans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assays, we show that sub-millimolar concentrations of nickel (Ni