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Sample records for niamey niger pvc

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of large dust particles in the atmosphere around Niamey.

  3. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  4. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  5. AMF Deployment, Niamey, Niger, West Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive Azores Azores AntarcticaWest

  6. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Johnson, K; Mather, J; Randall, D

    2008-03-01

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties.

  7. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model Third Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; DA Randall; CJ Flynn

    2008-06-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. This report describes the aerosol optical depth (AOD) product.

  8. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model - First Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; D Randall

    2007-12-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. The first quarter milestone is ‘initial formulation of the algorithm to produce and make available, new continuous time series of retrieved cloud , aerosol and dust properties, based on results from the ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niger, Africa. The first quarter milestone has been achieved.

  9. Water, Cities, and Bodies: A Relational Understanding of Niamey, Niger.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hungerford, Hilary B.

    2012-05-31

    of the city, bodies are intimately implicated in struggles over natural resource governance, and power over water infrastructure is also about power over bodies. These relational understandings of cities and bodies are brought together to imagine new...

  10. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model Fourth Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; DA Randall; CJ Flynn

    2008-09-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. The first quarter milestone was the initial formulation of the algorithm for retrieval of these properties. The second quarter milestone included the time series of ARM-retrieved cloud properties and a year-long CCPP control simulation. The third quarter milestone included the time series of ARM-retrieved aerosol optical depth and a three-year CCPP control simulation. This final fourth quarter milestone includes the time-series of aerosol and dust properties and a decade-long CCPP control simulation.

  11. Niger, with new oil legislation, offers little drilled acreage for exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruneton, A. (Beicip, Rueil-Malmaison (FR))

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports on the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Niger has released acreage in East Niger to the international oil industry. Four blocks will be opened in a first step with no fixed time schedule for offers. The blocks are largely underexplored and are near significant oil indications. Niger, between Algeria and Nigeria, represents a transitional link between North Africa and Central Africa. The Republic of Niger, with the exception of its capital Niamey, is sparsely populated with 7 million people on a 1.3 million sq mile territory. Easy communications exist with neighboring Nigeria, Mali, and Chad. The arid climate allows for year round working conditions and easy access to opened areas.

  12. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  13. Technical Note Puncture protection of PVC geomembranes______________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PVC geomembranes and used to estimate the required mass per unit area of cushion geotextile required) to develop a design procedure for determining the mass per unit area of a cushion geotextile for 0.75 mm

  14. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: • wet?cleanable • anti?biofouling • waterproof • anti?corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  15. 1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    to rapid deterioration. Towards the end of that dec- ade, the former Spanish official standardization body ozone resistance tests on PVC-P geomembranes. In the Spanish Peninsula, the use of PVC-P geomembranes

  16. PLASTICIZER RETENTION IN PVC GEOMEMBRANES T. D. Stark1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 PLASTICIZER RETENTION IN PVC GEOMEMBRANES T. D. Stark1 , H. Choi2 , and P. W. Diebel3 1, Ontario, Canada, N1R 5T6; PH (519)623-1630; email: PDiebel@cgtower.com ABSTRACT: Plasticizers are used to make PVC flexible so it can be used as a geomembrane for containment purposes. Plasticizers can migrate

  17. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01

    such as direct heating and uv radiation exposure e (IZ). The PVC polymer chain contains weak sites that represent the initiating sites of chemical deter ioration. These sites are formed during polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer. Thus attempts...HEAVY METALS EMISSION FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF PVC A Thesis by MOHAMMED A. EL-AYYOUBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ag M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degas ee of' MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  18. Influence of plasticizer molecular weight on plasticizer retention in PVC geomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROOFS Influence of plasticizer molecular weight on plasticizer retention in PVC geomembranes T. D, accepted 31 October 2004 ABSTRACT: Plasticizers are used to make PVC flexible so it can be used as a geomembrane. Plasticizers can migrate from PVC geomembranes over time because of contact with air, liquid, and

  19. An Investigation Into the Potential for PVC Reduction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the people surrounding it at various stages of its life cycle. One possible alternative is another plastic into the liquid it is transporting, and the release of chlorine toxins into the atmosphere during recycling Consumption Rates 9 Table 4. Alternatives to PVC 10 iii #12;Glossary Plasticizer: Solvent added to a synthetic

  20. Niger: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNew Hampshire: Energy Resources JumpNgawhablog/2671Niger: Energy

  1. Niger: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNew Hampshire: Energy Resources JumpNgawhablog/2671Niger:

  2. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Robertkiri field, onshore Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magbagbeola, Olusola Akintayo

    2007-04-25

    -1 SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF NIGER DELTA, ROBERTKIRI FIELD, ONSHORE NIGERIA A Thesis by OLUSOLA AKINTAYO MAGBAGBEOLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Geology SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF NIGER DELTA, ROBERTKIRI FIELD, ONSHORE NIGERIA A Thesis by OLUSOLA AKINTAYO MAGBAGBEOLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  3. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Delta field, offshore Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owoyemi, Ajibola Olaoluwa

    2005-11-01

    -1 THE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF NIGER DELTA, DELTA FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA A Thesis by AJIBOLA OLAOLUWA DAVID OWOYEMI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2004 Major Subject: Geology SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF NIGER DELTA, DELTA FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA A Thesis by AJIBOLA OLAOLUWA DAVID OWOYEMI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  4. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  5. Geosynthetics International, 2003, 10, No. 2 Air channel testing of thermally bonded PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and recommend that destructive testing of PVC geomembranes be reduced and possibly discontinued length used in destructive tests. KEYWORDS: Geosynthetics, Peel strength, PVC geomembrane, Quality to long curing times. This can delay peel and shear testing of seams up to 24 h and also delay non

  6. NIAMEY DAILY RAINFALL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact: Janet Lambert4

  7. ARM - Niamey News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related Links AntarcticaNews from theWest

  8. The potential for environmental management to contribute to malaria vector control in western Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianotti, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Louise)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigated the potential for environmental management techniques to contribute to malaria vector control in Niger, with a case study on Banizoumbou village in western Niger. Numerical modeling was used to ...

  9. Surficial sediments of the continental rise and slope, Niger Delta, West Africa: properties and geology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobilka, David William

    1999-01-01

    The submarine portions of the Niger Delta, West Africa are undergoing active gravity tectonic deformation due to thick deposits of ductile shale overlain by paralic sands. Because the region is rich in hydrocarbon reserves, the subdermal Niger Delta...

  10. Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1 chemical communication cuticular hydrocarbon interspecific communication Lasius niger mutualism species covered with aphid cuticular hydrocarbons. Neutral control objects were antennated, but the ants quickly

  11. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  12. Investigation of PVC Pipe Failure at Terrell State Hospital – Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    At the request of Terrell State Hospital and MHMR, the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University investigated the failure of the PVC pipes serving the chilled water loop at Terrell State Hospital. There were two ...

  13. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangchan, Apinya [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: fengapd@ku.ac.th; Samart, Chanatip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  14. Artifacts as Social Conflict Resolution Mechanism in Traditional Urhobo Society of Nigeria's Niger Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diakparomre, Abel Mac

    2009-01-01

    State University in Abraka, Nigeria. He has a Master of FineNiger Delta region of Nigeria. Bibliography Aweto, Albertand Socialization Processes in Nigeria. ” Ethiope Research:

  15. Niger Delta basin oil and gas prospects evaluated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that an ambitious project to map African oil and gas prospects has produced its first findings in a report on the Niger Delta basin. In Nigeria, 73% of discoveries are smaller than 50 million bbl, with a 42% success rate for wildcats. There are 'out of round prospects off Nigeria, too, with a number of companies currently in discussions. Petroconsultants the there are further opportunities for exploration in the Northern Onshore Fringe Belt, which has an estimated potential of 500 million bbl of reserves. Three OPLs are open.

  16. Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst Sandra Bigota , Guy Louarnb , Nasreddine Kébir*a and Fabrice Burela a Normandie

  17. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01

    expression  profiles.   Mol.   Genet.   Genomics  279: Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus2006.  Aspergillus niger genomics: past, present and into 

  18. A geospatial analysis of market integration: the case of the 2004/5 food crisis in Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    2008; Eilerts 2007; Sanchez-Montero 2007). What is apparentAm J Agric Econ Sanchez-Montero M (2007) The 2005 Niger food

  19. Effect of application of molybdenum in maize-niger cropping System grown on acid soils of high altitude zone of Andhra Pradesh in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhupal, G Raj; Patnaik, M C; Singh, M V; Khadke, K M; Jagannadham, G

    2009-01-01

    cauliflower to molybdenum,lime and their residue on an acidto maize and niger,75% lime Requirement + soil Applicationha -1 to maize and niger,75% lime requirement + foliar Spray

  20. Relationships among oils and water compositions in Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, P.A.; George, G.O.; Barker, C.

    1987-10-01

    In some fields of the Tertiary Niger delta of Nigeria, heavy, asphaltic oil is found in shallow reservoirs and light, waxy oil is found in deeper reservoirs in the same field. Both oils appears to have had the same source. The change with depth from heavy to light oil is usually abrupt and occurs at a reservoir temperature between 150/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/ and 82/sup 0/C). In other areas similar degradation of oil has been ascribed to bacteria brought into the oil reservoir by invading meteoric water. In Nigeria, meteoric water is low in dissolved solids and high in bicarbonate, whereas connate water is saltier and contains more chloride. Samples of both types of oil and associated water from six fields were analyzed and compared with previously acquired analyses from these fields. No clear relationship between meteoric water and degraded oil was found. Degraded oil may occur with either meteoric or connate water, and undegraded oil is sometimes found with meteoric water. This suggests extensive secondary migration of oil from one structure to another as well as deep penetration of meteoric water. 14 figures, 1 table.

  1. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01

    of the great quantities of dilute gas in EDC-VCN and PVC plants, the combustion system cannot be self-supported and therefore additional fuel is necessary, resulting in a waste of combustibles and heat. 3. Due to the flame, flares need to be located away...CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OF VINYL CHLORIDE IN EDC-VCM AND PVC PLANTS AT MAIN SOURCE POINTS AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS A Thesis by DARIO ANTONIO PARRA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  2. Community participation and environmental decision-making in the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adomokai, Rosemary; Sheate, William R

    2004-07-01

    The participation of communities in the process of environmental decision-making in Nigeria and the Niger Delta region in particular is a relatively new process. There are many practical problems ranging from financial support, methods used and the willingness of identified stakeholders to participate. This paper seeks to highlight recent developments in community participation and environmental decision-making in the Niger Delta, using the EIA Decree of 1992 as a reference point. The EIA Decree of 1992 is the only legislation that refers to participation of the communities when environmental decisions are being made. The study reported here aimed to examine differences and similarities between the identified stakeholders interviewed in the research, in order to highlight areas of improvement that will encourage positive changes to the process and foster better relations between the stakeholders. The paper provides a brief background to community participation in the Niger Delta region and reports on the research approach adopted. Interviews with stakeholders in the EIA process were undertaken to provide a better understanding of public participation in practice under the EIA Decree. While participation was found to be now firmly on the agenda, there is still much to do to engender greater awareness of EIA and the potential benefits participation can hold.

  3. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected 915

  4. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Dust Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected 915Dust Observations

  5. Dynamic leakage of faults during differential depletion: Theory, models, and examples from the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, N.L.; Kaars Sijpestein, C.H.; Osai, L.N.; Okoli, O.C. (Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies of fault sealing have addressed possible fault leakage during secondary migration due to the effects of increased hydrocarbon-water capillary pressure, fracturing, or small-scale incremental fault movements. Of equal importance to production geologists is the failure and leakage of faults during field development due to differential depletion of adjacent fault blocks. This paper examines the unique problems associated with this dynamic leakage of faults. It is theoretically shown that the fault sealing mechanism, and the extent of the seal, directly influences the failure process which in turn results in a variety of favorable and unfavorable effects on field development. The qualitative models give considerable insight into such aspects as oil-column expansion and resaturation losses, interfault block aquifer support (with important implications to material balance calculations), possible leakage or spillage of oil across faults, and potential fault failure during (re)injection projects. Examples of dynamic fault leakage are presented from selected fields of the Niger delta.

  6. High resolution sequence stratigraphic and reservoir characterization studies of D-07, D-08 and E-01 sands, Block 2 Meren field, offshore Niger Delta 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esan, Adegbenga Oluwafemi

    2004-09-30

    was analyzed by Weber (1971). Stacher (1995), using a sequence stratigraphic approach, developed a hydrocarbon habitat model for the Niger Delta. The model, constructed from data in the central part of the Niger Delta related the deposition of the Akata... formations to relative sea- level changes. Pre-Miocene Akata shale was deposited in deep water during lowstands and is overlain by progradational Miocene Agbada strata. The Agbada Formation in the central portion of the delta was deposited on a shallow ramp...

  7. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

  8. The structure of the Offshore Niger Delta C. D. CONNORS1*, B. RADOVICH2, A. DANFORTH3 AND S. VENKATRAMAN4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Christopher D.

    of the structure and stratigraphy of the offshore Niger Delta from an interpretation of the new regional 2D seismic of the delta. The seismic data have optimal characteristics (long offset, long recording time, prestack depth imaging of the prodelta stratigraphy, and detachment levels. We interpreted several sequence boundaries

  9. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  10. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, West AfricaInstruments

  11. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, West

  12. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, WestGanges Valley,

  13. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, WestGanges

  14. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, WestGangesPoint Reyes

  15. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger, WestGangesPoint

  16. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger,

  17. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger,govSitesNorth Slope of

  18. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger,govSitesNorth Slope

  19. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger,govSitesNorth

  20. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey, Niger,govSitesNorthExtended

  1. Defining Niger Delta Soils – Are They Laterites?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, Funmilayo; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Ayotamuno, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    by rainwater and groundwater caused detrimental effect on soil structure. He noted that the rigidity of the soils matrix may become deflocculated when there is leaching out of salt which makes the soil particles to lose their inter-particle attractive forces... ://www.iiste.org/conference/upcoming-conferences-call-for-paper/ IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe...

  2. Niger-IAEA Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to:Inc Jump to:ofIAEA

  3. Impact of Codes on Potential PVC Duct System Solution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question "Do codes and standards get in the way of high performance?"

  4. Service Proveider's Optimal Pricing for PVC and SVC Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    at which the provider's net income is maximized is strongly influenced by the relationship between the service provider's net income, taking into account both revenue derived from customers and the costs with an example based on a web browsing application, using realistic cost and pricing information. 1.Introduction

  5. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at the Edge ofEnergy Program PeerAStudy -This

  6. Maa-Bara : catalyzing change in Nigeria's Niger delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okiomah, Ogheneruno E. (Ogheneruno Elo)

    2011-01-01

    Can architecture catalyze economic growth? This thesis serves as a design contribution to the war against poverty by proving that small-scale architectural interventions can propagate large-scale economic growth. It ...

  7. Water balance of sandy soils of Niger, West Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William Albert

    1987-01-01

    of Dr. Naraine Persaud. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Page vi TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION HYPOTHESES AND OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW vii i xiv 12 De Wit's Analysis... over the last 35 years (Brown and Wolf, 1986) (Fig. 2). Trends for the Sahel are very similar (Penning de Vries and Djiteye, 1982). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recently summarized current food production...

  8. Inhibition of extracellular protease secretion by Aspergillus niger using cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    , Forma Scientific Inc.) The spores were harvested by adding 20 mL of sterilized distilled water composition (g/L): 3 yeast extract, 3 malt extract, 5 peptone, and 10 dex- trose. Culture conditions Shake

  9. Markets slow to develop for Niger delta gas reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-27

    Nigeria produces a very high quality, light, sweet crude oil but with a large percentage of associated gas derived from a high gas-to-oil ratio. Official proved gas reserves, both associated and nonassociated, are 120 tcf. Proved and probable reserves are estimated as high as 300 tcf. The internal market for gas has only begun to develop since the 1980s, and as a result approximately 77% of associated gas production is flared. Domestic gas consumption is currently approximately 700 MMcfd and is projected to have a medium term potential of 1.450 bcfd. The article discusses resource development, gas markets, gas flaring, gas use programs, the Bonny LNG scheme, the gas reserve base, LNG project status, competition, and energy opportunities.

  10. LANDSCAPE SCALE CORRELATES OF FOX SQUIRREL (Sciurus niger) PRESENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jodice, Patrick

    . #12;DEDICATION This work is dedicated to the memory of two people who are not here to see it. My ABSTRACT .................................................................................... ii DEDICATION

  11. Mobile Facility Records Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission Mission Missionof EnergyJennings= a n iof

  12. Sustainable Initiative in Niger, August 2013: SO-LOGASustainable Initiative in Niger, August 2013: SO-LOGA Presented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    ) Water Cycle (Followed by Water Resources' Manager Talk) Global Warming Green House EffectGreen House Effect Solar System Conventional Sources of Power Types of Renewable Energies Solar Energy Passive

  13. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  15. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  16. UV degradation of hdpe and pvc geomembranes in laboratory exposure So Paulo State University (UNESP) -Ilha Solteira (Brazil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    University (UNESP) - Ilha Solteira (Brazil) Bueno, B.S. University of State of São Paulo (USP) at São Carlos (Brazil) Zornberg, J.G. University of Texas (UT) at Austin (USA) Keywords: UV degradation, weathering International Conference on Geosynthetics, Brazil, 2010 821 3 #12;were used like a guide: ASTM D638 (Standard

  17. Prey capture in the chain pickerel, Esox niger: correlations between feeding and locomotor behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauder, George V.

    shorter distances from the prey, had higher acceleration rates, and the velocity of mouth opening between midwater and comer strikes in the amplitude of mouth opening and hyoid depression: both were celle de I'abduction des muscles suspenseurs sont Cgalement supCrieures.L'amplitude des mouvements de la

  18. The Impact of Launching Surgery at the District Level in Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in resource-poor countries. ANZ J Surg 76:871–872 5. Krukmodel for rural surgery. ANZ J Surg 68:764–768 11. Humber N,

  19. Artifacts as Social Conflict Resolution Mechanism in Traditional Urhobo Society of Nigeria's Niger Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diakparomre, Abel Mac

    2009-01-01

    Agbarha, which traces primary migration from Benin and aBenin territory as the primary source of migration, with Ijo

  20. Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    of Illinois, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received synthases (PKSs) are the condensing enzymes that catalyze the formation of a myriad of aromatic polyketides

  1. Techniques for analyzing the effects of translocation on fox squirrels (Sciurus niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ten Brink, Craig Eric

    1996-01-01

    . This study took place on the Noble Foundation's Red River Demonstration and Research Farm (RRDRF) in Love County, Oklahoma, from May to October 1995, and was designed to develop a methodology to test the effect of translocation on fox squirrel populations...

  2. On farm yield and water use response of pearl millet to different management practices in Niger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manyame, Comfort

    2009-05-15

    school, and for his consistent guidance and help with my research and dissertation write up. His advice and support were invaluable throughout the course of this study. Many thanks also go to Drs. Bruno Gerard and Dougbedji Fatondji from... from ICRISAT field technician, Tahirou Saley. Mr. Ilyassou Oumarou assisted with soil analyses at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center Soil Physics lab. Dr Steve J. Twomlow of ICRISAT Zimbabwe introduced me to the ICRISAT family and later on strategically...

  3. Reuse of Drill Cutting Ash as a Stabilizing Agent for Niger Delta Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, F. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Ayotamuno, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    operations. The waste product is a mixture of drilling mud (type depends on the crude oil company), base fluid (water, oil, or synthetic-oil), and crude oil. The waste product is stock-piled according to source/company and treated accordingly... . This was followed by clean-up and separation into aliphatic and aromatic fractions in a 10mm chromatographic column. The aromatic fraction was then concentrated to 1ml, transferred into the vials and analysed using Agilent 6890N/5975C GC/MS previously calibrated...

  4. Niger-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to:Inc Jump to:ofIAEAPilot

  5. Niger-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:Information 3rd congressionalNearshore WindparkNexusNickL's

  6. Life Cycle of a Mesoscale Circular Gust Front Observed by a C-Band Doppler Radar in West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lothon, Marie

    On 10 July 2006, during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) campaign, a small convective system initiated over Niamey and propagated westward in the vicinity of ...

  7. Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    infrastructural investments for irrigation and hydroelectricity development. Climate change is a potential threat

  8. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01

    and Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Chemical Engineering,Biochemistry,  Institute  of  Chemical  Engineering, 

  9. Laboratory life-fertility table assessment and field biology of millet head miner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Niger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou Kadi Kadi, Hame

    1999-01-01

    and developmental rate. More millet head miners survived better when fed Bio-Serv® than any of the millet-based diets. Fed Bio-Serv® diet, survival from eggs to adults was greatest (5.4%) at 30C?. Developmental times from eggs to adults were longest (51.1-55.4 d...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Cement and Lateralite on the Engineering Properties of Niger Delta Soils for Pavement Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, F. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Meshida, E. A.; Ayotamuno, M. J.

    2015-05-13

    , Nigeria. 3 Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria. Authors’ contributions This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Author FMA designed the study, performed the laboratory analyses... for the standard curve was 0.990. Then about 5 g of the milled sample (~ 5 µm grain size) was used for the analysis. The test was done at the laboratory of FUGRO Nigeria Limited, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3.2 Analysis of Soil Properties Bulk samples were...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Cement and Lateralite on the Engineering Properties of Niger Delta Soils for Pavement Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, F. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Meshida, E. A.; Ayotamuno, M. J.

    2015-05-13

    not have the cementing capability of Portland cement, it however compared well to cement in affecting the engineering properties of the soils that will make them applicable as sub-base and base soils for pavement construction. Lateralite also... of test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purpose. British Standards Institution, London; 1990. 15. AASHTO T 131-06: Standard Method of Test for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle. American Association of State Highway...

  12. Educational Inequalities in the midst of widespread poverty; Diversity across Africa in primary school completion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Niger Nigeriab Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Niger NigeriaBoys Girls Gender gap a Mali Mozambique Madagascar Burkina

  13. Has Democracy Reduced Inequalities in Child Mortality? An analysis of 5 million births from 50 developing countries since 1970.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Antonio Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan Paraguay Indonesia Turkey Mali Ghana Cote d IvoireKyrgyzstan Bangladesh Niger Mali Ethiopia PhilippinesBangladesh Nigeria Niger Mali Uganda Philippines Turkey

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Tianyu, Arash Ahmadi, Jacob Sternig, Nicholas Beattie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation into Alternatives to PVC Drainage Pipelines APSC 261: Technology and Society I Instructor: Dr of plastics show HDPE, ABS, and recycled PVC are improvements to original PVC drain pipes in stormwater alternative to PVC for general applications; HDPE scores the best among the evaluated plastics in social

  15. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 39 (2015) 5664 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    , confronted to vegetation data collected in rangeland and cropland sites in the Sahel (Senegal, Niger, Mali

  16. Vice-Chancellor Provost & Vice-Principal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Engineering Chemistry Computer Science Civil Engineering Mathematics Mechanical Engineering Metallurgy PVC (Research & Knowledge Transfer) PVC (Education) College of Arts & Law College of Engineering & Materials Electronic, Electrical & Computer Engineering Physics & Astronomy SCHOOLS Biosciences Geography

  17. Anchored in Tradition Soaring with Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Hopper Calibrator Microcellular PVC Foam Puller SystemBarrel Polymer Pellets Pre- saturated with CO2 CO2 PVC Foam Puller SystemBarrel Polymer Pellets Pre- saturated with CO2 CO2 PRESSURE VESSEL Stage I

  18. Waste Management & Research172 Waste Manage Res 2003: 21: 172177

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    there is a growing trend to PVC. For example, 54% of window frames in Germany are made of PVC. In 1997 the production of PVC in Germany increased by 9%, the fastest growth rate of all plastics. The waste stream in Germany Menke Hiltrud Fiedler Heiner Zwahr MVR Müllverwertung Rugenberger Damm GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-09-06

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period April 1 through June 30, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The third quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. For all fixed sites (especially the TWP locale) and the AMF, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2006.

  20. Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960-2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkins, Zachary; Guzman, Andrew T; Simmons, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Greece Tunisia Togo Thailand Liberia Morocco Niger Cote d’Madagascar Rwanda Tunisia Liberia Cameroon Sri Lanka Tunisia

  1. TIMBER INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION REPORT ON EXPORT OF WOOD PRODUCTS, MAY 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghana. The ECOWAS market (mainly Nigeria, Senegal, Niger, Gambia, Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso and Togo,115 14,315,949 310 Niger 17,555 1,944,223 111 Niger 10,581 1,290,526 122 Mali 817 105,438 129 Mali 607

  2. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  4. The breakthrough time and permeation rate of three organic chemicals for selected glove combinations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binion, Pete Edwin

    1992-01-01

    rates and breakthrough times were determined for the five different glove combinations versus three test chemicals using the Miran-lA infrared analyzer in a closed loop system. The polymers tested were natural rubber (NR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC... time and permeation rate when tested against three different challenge chemicals. PVC gloves with nitrile liners appeared to provide the most protection time against breakthrough for all three chemicals. The PVC gloves showed excellent resistance...

  5. Common Indoor Sources of volatile organic compounds: emission rates and techniques for reducing consumer exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    categories. Latex paints contain organic solvents such assemivolatile organic compounds from waterborne paint - Theorganic compounds from PVC flooring, carpet and paint.

  6. The Visceral Beauty of Obsession: Ennio Morricone, Dario Argento, and Their Modern Vision of Mystery and Terror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bissett, John Sterling

    2012-01-01

    sporting the iconic giallo fedora and trench coat. “AnyonePVC) trenchcoats and fedora hats, have became intrinsicallyin the iconic gloves, fedora and trench coat associated with

  7. Sustaining Sherman Island: A Water Management and Agricultural Diversification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    B S J constructed from PVC encapsulated Styrofoam, which maybe recycled from Styrofoam used in packaging or other priorbuoyant force per volume of Styrofoam raft is approximately

  8. The Right to Life with Dignity: Economic and Social Rights Respect in the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolp, Felicity Ann

    2010-01-01

    Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania LuxembourgEritrea Brunei Darussalam Liberia Fiji South AfricaEthiopia Niger Somalia Eritrea Liberia Pakistan Timor-Leste

  9. The Right to Life with Dignity: Economic and Social Rights Respect in the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolp, Felicity Ann

    2010-01-01

    Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo,Bissau Chad Sierra Leone Comoros Vanuatu Afghanistan NigerBissau Freq. Swaziland Comoros Papua New Guinea Yemen, Rep.

  10. Women's Autonomy and Fertility: A Comparison of Sociocultural Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Botswana Cameroon Cape Verde Comoros Cote d'Ivoire AlgeriaChad Niger Nigeria Oman Comoros Cote d'Ivoire Djibouti Egypt

  11. Agreements --General/Regional 171 GENERAL/REGIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    ; United Kingdom; United States of America Convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary; Mauritania; Mexico; Morocco; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Niger; Norway; Pakistan; Panama; Papua

  12. THE GEOMETRY OF DISORDER: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF QUASICRYSTALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scitechservletspurl1015270 http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270 Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...

  13. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    servletspurl1015270","http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270", "Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...

  14. The francophone Africa blood transfusion research network: A five-year report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tagny, CT; Murphy, EL; Lefrère, JJ

    2013-01-01

    M. Razafimahefa), Mali (A. Ba, K. Bouréma, M. Cissé, A.among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteerGabon, Guinée, Madagascar, Mali, Maroc, Mauritanie, Niger,

  15. Experimental studies on remanence acquisition processes and regional geomagnetic field variability from archeointensity studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Ritayan

    2012-01-01

    Senegal and Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Latitudinalin the Region of Jenn´e, Mali. , volume 2 of Camb. Mono.Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 Season. University of

  16. DRAFT Version 0.1 April 11, 2006 A Strawman Design for the Long Wavelength Array Stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    The strawman antenna is the "big blade" design mounted on a pyramidal PVC structure as shown in Figure 1. Each.-- Strawman big blade antenna on a PVC pyramidal mount. The big blade antenna design appears to be usableDRAFT Version 0.1 ­ April 11, 2006 A Strawman Design for the Long Wavelength Array Stations Paul S

  17. Polyvinyl chloride film local isometric heat treatment for hidden 3D printing on polymer packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    on rigid polyvinyl chlo- ride (PVC) shrink films without any consumables, such as paints, primers reading. The results quantify the rate of internal stress relaxation in PVC shrink films at various stages without thermoplastic consumables by cold or hot stamping using vacuum or blow molding blanks from any

  18. 2010 Sap Production Season Northern New England/New YorkNorthern New England/New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Systems S Fl ithi I di id l T­ Sap Flow within Individual Trees ­ Efficiency Study (Plate Heat Exchanger.3% 92.3% 80 apYield(% 81.6% 60 70 Sa 60 New PE Used PE New PVC Used PVC Tubing Type NEW t bing is better

  19. Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95111 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95­111 © 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE: IMAGING MORPHOLOGY AND WETTING wetting behavior of wood-PVC composites in this study. Two-dimensional and time-dependent profiles

  20. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1 Copyright © 2003 by ASME 17th FBC 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion May COMBUSTION OF HIGH-PVC SOLID WASTE WITH HCl RECOVERY Loay Saeed, Antti Tohka, Ron Zevenhoven* Helsinki.zevenhoven@hut.fi * Corresponding author ABSTRACT A process for two-stage combustion of high-PVC solid waste with HCl recovery

  1. SPROVERSPROVER Surf Profiling Remotely OperatedSurf Profiling Remotely Operated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    "", 2 ft section of PVC piping as shell, 2 ft section of PVC piping as shell Optimal diameter and lengthWaterproof connectors #12;FLANGE DRAWINGSFLANGE DRAWINGS #12;INSTRUMENTATION HOUSINGINSTRUMENTATION HOUSING #12;HOUSING SUPPORT CAGEHOUSING SUPPORT CAGE Constructed out of two 3Constructed out of two 3"" x 72x 72"" xx

  2. Received: 25 August 1997/Accepted: 22 September 1997 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    as the mold insert. Fine replication by using Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) has been achieved. The commercial process uses electroplated nickel as the mold insert. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), which has a lower glass square (r.m.s.) roughness of PMMA is about 4 nm and that of PVC is about 10--15 nm. Defects including

  3. 57ime CONGRS CANADIEN DE GOTECHNIQUE 57TH CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL CONFERENCE 5ime CONGRS CONJOINT SCG/AIH-CNN 5TH JOINT CGS/IAH-CNC CONFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TO SYNTHETIC MSW LEACHATE Timothy D. Stark, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engrg., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana of flexible PVC geomembranes to leachate chemicals is an important factor when PVC geomembranes are being exposed to a synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate using ASTM D 5322. Changes in dimensional

  4. Montpellier 8 March 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    sample 835 Public works/construction 46% Arms and defence 38% Oil and gas 21% Banking and finance 15 Deforested areas (90-00, FAO) Nigeria Indonesia Camerun Madagascar Rep. Dem. Congo Niger Costa d 200 Sommatoria indici Nigeria Indonesia Camerun Madagascar Rep.Dem.Congo Niger Costad'Avorio Zimbabwe

  5. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2014; 3(6): 308-322

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2014; 3(6): 308-322 Published online January-957X (Print); ISSN: 2326-960X (Online) A system dynamics model for energy planning in Niger Yacouba Model for Energy Planning in Niger. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 6

  6. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Apr. 2004, p. 24742485 Vol. 70, No. 4 0099-2240/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.4.24742485.2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors, in- cluding in citric acid production. The molecular mechanisms through which Mn2 exerts effects on mor- phology and citric acid production in A. niger cultures have not been well defined, but our use of suppression

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-10-08

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1 - September 30, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF has been deployed to China, but the data have not yet been released. The fourth quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. The average exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. HFE represents the AMF statistics for the Shouxian, China, deployment in 2008. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow and Atqasuk sites; the SGP central facility; the TWP Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites; and the DMF at PNNL. In addition, the ACRF serves as a data repository for a long-term Arctic atmospheric observatory in Eureka, Canada (80 degrees 05 minutes N, 86 degrees 43 minutes W) as part of the multiagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Program. NOAA began providing instruments for the site in 2005, and currently cloud radar data are available. The intent of the site is to monitor the important components of the Arctic atmosphere, including clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, and local-scale atmospheric dynamics. Because of the similarity of ACRF NSA data streams and the important synergy that can be formed between a network of Arctic atmospheric observations, much of the SEARCH observatory data are archived in the ARM archive. Instruments will be added to the site over time. For more information, please visit http://www.db.arm.gov/data. The designation for the archived Eureka data is YEU and is now included in the ACRF user metrics. This quarterly report provides the cumulative numbers of visitors and user accounts by site for the period October 1, 2007 - September 30, 2008. Table 2 shows the summary of cumulative users for the period October 1, 2007 - September 30, 2008. For the fourth quarter of FY 2008, the overall number of users is down substantially (about 30%) from last quarter. Most of this decrease resulted from a reduction in the ACRF Infrastructure users (e.g., site visits, research accounts, on-site device accounts, etc.) associated with the AMF China deployment. While users had easy access to the previous AMF deployment in Germany that resulted in all-time high user statistics, physical and remote access to on-site accounts are extremely limited for the AMF deployment in China. Furthermore, AMF data have not yet been released from China to the Data Management Facility for processing, which affects Archive user statistics. However, Archive users are only down about 10% from last quarter. Anothe

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-05-22

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period January 1 - March 31, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation this quarter. The second quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. The average as well as the individual site values exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow and Atqasuk sites; the SGP central facility; the TWP Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites; and the DMF at PNNL. In addition, the ACRF serves as a data repository for a long-term Arctic atmospheric observatory in Eureka, Canada (80 degrees 05 minutes N, 86 degrees 43 minutes W) as part of the multiagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Program. NOAA began providing instruments for the site in 2005, and currently cloud radar data are available. The intent of the site is to monitor the important components of the Arctic atmosphere, including clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, and local-scale atmospheric dynamics. Because of the similarity of ACRF NSA data streams and the important synergy that can be formed between a network of Arctic atmospheric observations, much of the SEARCH observatory data are archived in the ARM archive. Instruments will be added to the site over time. For more information, please visit http://www.db.arm.gov/data. The designation for the archived Eureka data is YEU and is now included in the ACRF user metrics. This quarterly report provides the cumulative numbers of visitors and user accounts by site for the period April 1, 2007 - March 31, 2008. Table 2 shows the summary of cumulative users for the period April 1, 2007 - March 31, 2007. For the second quarter of FY 2008, the overall number of users was nearly as high as the last reporting period, in which a new record high for number of users was established. This quarter, a new record high was established for the number of user days, particularly due to the large number of field campaign activities in conjunction with the AMF deployment in Germany, as well as major field campaigns at the NSA and SGP sites. This quarter, 37% of the Archive users are ARM science-funded principal investigators and 23% of all other facility users are either ARM science-funded principal investigators or ACRF infrastructure personnel. For reporting purposes, the three ACRF sites and the AMF operate 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, and 52 weeks per year. Time is reported in days instead of hours. I

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-01-24

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 - December 31, 2007, for the fixed sites and the mobile site. The AMF has been deployed to Germany and this was the final operational quarter. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. Although the average exceeded our goal this quarter, a series of severe weather events (i.e., widespread ice storms) disrupted utility services, which affected the SGP performance measures. Some instruments were covered in ice and power and data communication lines were down for more than 10 days in some areas of Oklahoma and Kansas, which resulted in lost data at the SGP site. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. The AMF completed its mission at the end of this quarter in Haselback, Germany (FKB designation). NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request an account on the local site data system. The eight research computers are located at the Barrow and Atqasuk sites; the SGP central facility; the TWP Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites; the DMF at PNNL; and the AMF, currently in Germany. In addition, the ACRF serves as a data repository for a long-term Arctic atmospheric observatory in Eureka, Canada (80 degrees 05 minutes N, 86 degrees 43 minutes W) as part of the multiagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Program. NOAA began providing instruments for the site in 2005, and currently cloud radar data are available. The intent of the site is to monitor the important components of the Arctic atmosphere, including clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, and local-scale atmospheric dynamics. Due to the similarity of ACRF NSA data streams, and the important synergy that can be formed between a network of Arctic atmospheric observations, much of the SEARCH observatory data are archived in the ARM archive. Instruments will be added to the site over time. For more information, please visit http://www.db.arm.gov/data. The designation for the archived Eureka data is YEU and is now included in the ACRF user metrics. This quarterly report provides the cumulative numbers of visitors and user accounts by site for the period January 1, 2007 - December 31, 2007. Table 2 shows the summary of cumulative users for the period January 1, 2007 - December 31, 2007. For the first quarter of FY 2008, the overall number of users was up significantly from the last reporting period. For the fourth consecutive reporting period, a record high number of Archive users was recorded. In addition, the number of visitors and visitor days set a new record this reporting period particularly due to the large number of field campaign activities in conjunction with the AMF deployment in Germany. It is interesting to note this quarter that

  10. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  11. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,

  12. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,Manus Site-InactiveInstruments

  13. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,Manus

  14. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,ManusDarwin

  15. ARM - TCAP Field Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,ManusDarwinOverview Displays

  16. ARM - VAP Product - 10rlprofbe1news

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,ManusDarwinOverview

  17. ARM - VAP Product - 10rlprofbe1turn

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds,convection defined by theNiamey,ManusDarwinOverviewturn

  18. The effect of marbling and subcutaneous fat on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correale, Karen Kross

    1986-01-01

    in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-oxygen barrier (HOB) film and stored at 4+ice in the dark for up to 6 or 28 days, respectively. In a second experiment, beef strip loins of U. S. Choice were fabricated into steaks with subcutaneous fat present... characteristics of beef strip loin steaks packaged and stored in pVC or HOB film. Microbial distributions were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. on PVC-wrapped samples and by Lactobacillus spp. on samples packaged in HOB film by the end of the storage periods. Nean...

  19. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc.- WEA-2009-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  20. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals emission during the combustion and baling of polyvinyl chloride insulated copper wire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickard, David Paul

    1996-01-01

    was conducted and compared to the airborne dust samples collected during the baling process. From these results, occupational exposures to heavy metals during the reclamation of PVC insulated copper wire were assessed. Bulk ash and dust samples were ?aken...

  1. 17 March 2005 Harold G. Kirk Summary of nTOF11 Safety Meetings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    insulation Avoid flammable hydraulic oil No PVC's Radiation-Thomas Otto, Marco Silari Activated LN2 should be monitored (Vacuum ?) Estimate needed for entry lag time into TT2a after proton beam #12;

  2. Hybrid Publicly Verifiable Computation James Alderman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Hybrid Publicly Verifiable Computation James Alderman , Christian Janson, Carlos Cid , and Jason introduce Hybrid PVC (HPVC) which, with a single setup stage, provides a flexible solution to outsourced for such systems. Keywords-- Hybrid Publicly Verifiable Computation, Verifiable Delegable Computation, Dual

  3. Nutritional profile, carcass composition, and shelf-life of fresh ostrich meat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollok, Kevin Duane

    1998-01-01

    unaffected by diet. Steaks stored in vacuum-packages had higher positive odor and flavor aromatics and lower negative odor and flavor aromatics when compared to PVC over-wrap film....

  4. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Western Allied Mechanical, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  5. Investigations of Rhizobium biofilm formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujishige, Nancy A; Kapadia, Neel N; De Hoff, Peter L; Hirsch, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    on a glass slide buried in compost soil. Fluorescent image.on a glass slide buried in compost soil. Fluorescent image.organic matter, found in the compost. Bare spots on the PVC

  6. Current Empirical Premises of the Disclosure of the Secrets of Property Law: A Foundation and a Guideline for Future Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stenseth, Geir

    2009-01-01

    and PVC pipes filled  with peanut butter, ibid. , 1966.  zees initially  preferred peanut  butter  to juice.  When they got the  peanut  butter  in  possession, 

  7. Hingeless flow control over delta wing planforms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Edward Brian

    1999-01-01

    was evaluated as a possible replacement to conventional moving or hinged control surfaces. Testing was conducted with a 60-degree delta wing model incorporating Pneumatic Vortex Control (PVC) actuators. These actuators delivered high pressure jets of varying...

  8. Systems for optimizing the condition of beef carcasses for distribution over extended time periods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Ronald Douglas

    1974-01-01

    of simulated nitrogen gas atmospheres in comparison to normal air atmospheres for beef storage. Eighty beef sides were divided into quarters and subjected to one of eight treatments 48 hr postmortem. Two kinds of surface protection (unprotected vs. PVC film... wrapping), two rinsing treat- ments (200 ppm chlorine vs. no chlorine rinse), two types of atmos- phere (air vs. nitrogen gas) and two storage intervals (14 vs. 21 days) were compared. Analysis of variance revealed that wrapping in PVC film, rinsing...

  9. Comparative functionality of plasma protein isolate in meat food products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinblatt, Philip Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    /sa "an/polyethylene) and displayed under simulated retail light conditions (883 lux, 5'C, 8 hr per day) . Slice number six of each shoulder was placed on a flat styrofoam board and packaged in a polyvinyl chloride film (PVC) . These slices were... are reported as ppm. C= Control; STP = Sodium Tripoly Phosphate; PP = Plasma Protein. b Retail display (883 lux, 5'C, 8 hr per day). c PEP = polyethylene-coated kraft paper; PVC = polyvinyl chloride film; VP = impermeable laminated nylon...

  10. Comparison of systems for the distribution of lamb carcasses and wholesale cuts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatum, Joseph Daryl

    1976-01-01

    treatments -- vacuum pack- aging (VPI), heat seal closure; vacuum packaging (VPII) clip seal closure; carbon dioxide (C02) chilling, poly- ethylene bag; polyvinyl chlor1de (PVC) film wrapping- and stored for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days; while intact carcasses..., Wholesale cuts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments ? vacuum pack- aging (VPI), heat seal closure; vacuum packaging (VPII) clip seal closure; carbon dioxide (C02) chilling, poly- ethylene bag; polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film wrapping...

  11. Transoceanic shipment of variety meats as affected by chilling system and packaging method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawlik, Mary F.

    1986-01-01

    to extended fresh-chilled storage was more effective in maintaining product quality than packaging in either polyethylene (PE) bags or overwrap- ping with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film. In general, vacuum packaging resulted in less weight loss, less... the product (primal cuts and hindquarters) was protected with PVC film while the beef which was unpro- tected sustained greater degradation of muscle color after 7-11 days of transit. Marriott et al. (1977c) suggested that vacuum packaging increases color...

  12. Protesting the contest : election boycotts around the world, 1990-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaulieu, Emily Ann

    2006-01-01

    Faso Cambodia Cameroon Chad Comoros Congo (dropped) Cote d’violence Azerbaijan Cameroon Comoros Cote d’Ivoire GhanaPeru, Niger, Mali, Yemen, Ghana, Comoros, and Cameroon while

  13. Why is it so difficult to grow fuelwood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noronha, R.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of successful and unsuccessful woodlot programmes are cited from China, Korea, India, Tanzania and Niger and the role of social factors examined. Effective village forestry involves social, cultural, economic and local political factors. (Refs. 15).

  14. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 104 (2014) 4855 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger as a key enzyme in catalytic hydrolysis of inulin and production of high fructose syrup (HFS to hydrolyze inulin to produce primarily fructose with Corresponding author at: School of Biology, College

  15. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rev AC05 RL01830 TRN US201111 http www osti gov scitech servlets purl Comparative genomics of citric acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC versus enzyme producing CBS working...

  16. Crude oil, conflict and Christian witness in Nigeria: Baptist and Pentecostal perspectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osuigwe, Nkem Emerald

    2010-01-01

    : to investigate, describe and analyse Christian theological and socio-political consciousness within the context of oil and conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria from Baptist and Pentecostal perspectives; and to use the data to test the veracity...

  17. Water Rig 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.] production under subsistence farmer management on the sandy soils of southwestern Niger is faced with many challenges, including declining soil fertility, highly variable and ...

  18. Pronominal System and Reference in Pulaar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ba, Ibrahima

    2015-12-20

    This paper examines pronominal reference and the long-distance anaphor in Pulaar, a West African language spoken from Senegal to Niger and Cameroon. I am focusing on Toore, a dialect of Pulaar spoken in southern Senegal. ...

  19. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Investigation of the Settler Mortality Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albouy, David

    2006-01-01

    Sudan Egypt Madagascar Mali Niger Angola, Burkina Faso,French campaigns in western Mali, for which Curtin (1998)map on p. 77) – AJR assigned Mali a rate of 2940 from 1874,

  20. RMZ-M&G, Vol. 56, No. 3 pp. 254388 (2009) Ljubljana, September 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    PVDcoatedsteelsused for die-casting using various process parameters and techniques 254 Pojavi pri laserskem navarjanju and depositional environment of sand bodies within tomboy field, offshore western Niger Delta, Nigeria 284

  1. Quality of vacuum packaged lamb retail cuts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanstedt, Kristen Gae

    1982-01-01

    packaged wholesale cuts prior to cutting and packaging them 1n HOB f1lm did not affect muscle color. Chops and steaks packaged in PVC film became darker 1n color with increas1ng display time. Surface discoloration was not affected by the use... of previously vacuum packaged (PVP) cuts when packaged in HOB film but 1ncreased when packaged in PVC f1lm. The use of PVP cuts did not affect the overall appearance of rib or loin chops but HOB f1lm-pack- aged leg chops from PVP cuts had lower overall...

  2. Cutability, bacterial control and packaging effects on the merchandising of lamb 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varnadore, William Lee

    1972-01-01

    and increasing storage life, yet had no effect on the ultimate palat- abilityy of cooked lamb. Polyvinyl chloride film (PVC) effectively reduced carcass weight loss as shrinkage and improved the appearance of the subcutaneous fat cover. However, the use... in 7, 6 and 7 comparisons, 18 Table 4. Comparison of Bacterial Counts (log&0/ 1 in. Z) from Lamb Cuts in Experiment 2. Treatmenta Period of Day of Storageb retail dis la c (da s) 0 5 Chamber type, high vacuum, barrier bag Soft film wrap, PVC...

  3. A comparison of vacuum packaging systems for the distribution and storage of primal beef cuts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowling, Rodney Ames

    1974-01-01

    after two weeks, 3. 39X and 2. 37X after three weeks, and 4. 16X and 2. 59X after four weeks, respectively. Rape (1973) compared the use of PVC fi. lm, PVC film plus C02 chilling, loin parchment paper and vacuum packaging for extending the storage... package leakers than did those from the chamber-heat seal packaging system. Moreover, the differences 34 in package leaker rate and vacuum retention may be due to inherent differences in the films used rather than to the other aspects of the packaging...

  4. The effect of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of pork loin chops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Mara Kaye

    1988-01-01

    and low intramuscular fat were trimmed free of subcutaneous fat and then packaged and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for 0-6 days or in high oxygen barrier (HOB) film for 0-28 days at 4t1oC. In general, degr ee of marbling had no significant... effect (P)0. 05) on the aerobic plate count (APC) and did not result in major differences in the distribution of types in the microflora of pork loin chops. During storage of chops in PVC film, spp. became dominant in the microflora of chops; spp...

  5. Effect of acid decontamination on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Zisca

    1987-01-01

    ) a mixture of 1g L-lactic acid, 2$ acetic acid, 0. 25$ citric acid and 0. 1$ ascorbic acid on the microbiological and sensory properties of beef steaks was investigated. Steaks were displayed either in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for 0-6 d... treatments. ~LULQII~ s p p ~ g ~M~~~ s p p . , Coryneform bacteria and spp. were a dominant or major part of the microbial flora of acid-treated and control steaks that were displayed in PVC film. For beef steaks packaged and stored in HOB film, ~~ spp...

  6. Retail appearance and microbiological characteristics of vacuum packaged pork loin chops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrana, Julie Ann

    1982-01-01

    -permeable (PVC) film or a h1 gh oxygen-barrier film to be displayed 4 days or 2, 6, and 1 0 days, 0 + respectively, at 2 C - 2. At the end of the storage treatments, all loin sect1ons were fabr1cated into chops and d1splayed as described for the remaining... third of the loin sections . No consistently s1gnif1cant differences were observed 1n lean color among chops packaged w1th oxygen-permeable (PVC) film from the var1ous storage treatments except for day 0 when lean color scores were h1gher (P&. 05...

  7. Hot water decontamination of beef carcasses to increase microbiological safety and shelf-life 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barakate, Michelle Lee

    1991-01-01

    then fabricated into 36 steaks (6 from each loin). Three pairs of steaks from each loin were placed in 12. 5 x 21-mm foam display trays and overwrapped (UL Heat Sealing Equip. Co. , Model 104A, OH) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film (Prime Wrap II, Goodyear... displayed in PVC film at 4+ I'C were evaluated by a trained 4- member panel. Mean sensory scores of treated and control loins, rounds and steaks did not differ (P ) 0. 05). In trial I the carcass surfaces were sprayed with hot water which measured 82'C...

  8. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  9. Efficiency of perforated breakwater and associated energy dissipation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage

    2008-10-10

    generator is a Sea Sim Rolling Seal absorbing Wave maker (RSW 90- 85), a dry back, aluminium space frame, and PVC cased, modular, hinged flap wave maker. The flap is sealed by a low friction rolling seal and is driven by a precision, electronically...

  10. Efficiency of perforated breakwater and associated energy dissipation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage

    2009-05-15

    generator is a Sea Sim Rolling Seal absorbing Wave maker (RSW 90- 85), a dry back, aluminium space frame, and PVC cased, modular, hinged flap wave maker. The flap is sealed by a low friction rolling seal and is driven by a precision, electronically...

  11. North American Journal of Aquaculture 64:228231, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    supplies and a centrifugal pump to create a swim tunnel capable of producing ve- locities from 1 to 66 cm and trans- portation. We used a 0.13-hp (1 hp 746 W) centrifugal pump (Sweetwater, model SHE 1 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe to attach the head and tail reservoirs to the centrifugal pump (Figure 1). We

  12. Van der Waals equation, Maxwell construction, and Legendre transforms Markus Deserno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deserno, Markus

    in units of kBTc, and specific volume in units of the critical specific volume vc: T ~T = T/Tc , (3a) f with respect to volume, we can set c 1 without any effects. The scaled pressure ~p := p/pc := 8pvc/3k

  13. Volume4,Issue2 the infinite Photo courtesy: Scot Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    better jobs. LABOR MARKETS SOLSOURCE PROJECT A lightweight solar cooker and heater made from reflective ARSENIC FILTER A water-purification system made from iron nails, sand, gravel, plastic buckets, and PVC pipes. CLEAN WATER MEDICAL DEVICES ROBOPSY A low-cost tele-robotic biopsy device that uses imaging data

  14. Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROOFS Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes T. D. Stark1 and H. Choi2 1 flexible geomembranes, and to measure the methane gas transmission rate, permeance, and permeability). The measured methane gas permeability coefficient through a PVC geomembrane is 7.55 3 104 ml(STP).mil/m2.day

  15. Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical of welding two thin sheets of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with a heated pin, thus allowing construction of a relationship between the weld temperature and weld strength. Constructing a relationship between weld strength

  16. Particle Size Analysis, ITC, GeoScience Lab. 1 PARTICLE-SIZE ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & covering watch glasses, 11. Suction pump 12. 13 one liter PVC bottles, 13. Two splash bottles, 14. Rubber.0 g NaC03 in water in a 1 I volumetric flask and make to volume. Both chemicals should be dried

  17. Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering for study funded by Ekokem Oy Ab support funding (apurahoitus) 2002 Helsinki University of Technology Energy processes were mentioned. One problem is the complex composition of ASR, containing plastics such as PVC

  18. Groundwater Consumption by Phreatophytes in Mid-Continent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernes, Peter J.

    content in vadose zone monitored biweekly during growing season using neutron probe · Data collected at 6Groundwater Consumption by Phreatophytes in Mid-Continent Stream-Aquifer Systems Gerard Kluitenberg measurements Water Level Monitoring #12;· PVC access tubes with sealed bottoms installed near wells · Water

  19. Efficient use of irrigation water on turf-grasses is becoming more crucial in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of multiple turfgrass culti- vars in the stressful climate of the transi- tion zone. By shielding rainfall of turfgrasses were transplanted into clear polyethylene root tubes that were filled with fritted clay. Polyethylene tubes were then inserted into opaque PVC pipe (sleeves). Root growth is being monitored

  20. 1100 CommScope Place Hickory, NC 28603

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    EXPANDED POLYETHYLENE NOMINAL DIAMETER OVER DIELECTRIC: 0.180" (4.57 mm) SHIELD: 1 ST SHIELD: ALUMINUM Conductor Dielectric Aluminum Braided Shield PVC Jacket Bonded Aluminum Foil Shield Additional Aluminum Foil Shield CENTER CONDUCTOR: 18 AWG COPPER-CLAD STEEL NOMINAL DIAMETER: 0.040" (1.02 mm) DIELECTRIC: GAS

  1. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen List of Abbreviations 13.4.2002 Abb.-1 List of abbreviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Packaging-derived fuel #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen List of Abbreviations 13.4.2002 Abb.-3 PFBC Pressurised parts per million ppmv parts per million by volume PVC Poly vinyl chloride RDF Refuse-derived fuel RE bar) TBBPA Tetrabromo bisphenol A TDF Tyre-derived fuel (i.e. car tyre scrap) TEF Toxicity equivalence

  2. A performance vs. cost framework for evaluating DHT design tradeoffs under churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jinyang

    A performance vs. cost framework for evaluating DHT design tradeoffs under churn Jinyang Li, Jeremy tables (DHTs) incor- porate features to achieve low latency for lookup requests in the face of churn to understand which features are more important under churn. PVC analysis shows that the key to efficiently

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect of Fiber Type of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA e Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and natural fiber composites were

  4. Biomedical Engineering Research March. 2013, Vol. 2 Iss. 1, PP. 16-19 A Rapid, Quantitative Method to Characterize The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Radiation Biodosimetry, we have developed a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT) that is designed is to isolate mononuclear lymphocytes from whole blood samples in heparin-coated PVC capillary tubes using, the capillary tube is laser-cut below the band and the lymphocytes are released into filter-bottomed multi

  5. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C5, suppl6ment au nOIO, Tome 42, octobre 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by creep recovery of plasticized poly lvinyl chloride) (PVC)was tested in relation to applied stress- es the samples with a dose of 16.4 Mrad prior to creep testing. 3. Measurement of creep recovery and relaxation to study the strain recovery of a test sample, after the steady creep rate was attained, the load

  6. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  7. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Alan

    a c t The influence of human related actives such as oil and gas exploration, intensified logging- ment policies and the influence of the oil and gas industry on the economies of the states. High rates and ecolog- ically diverse forest system of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Relevant information

  8. Illegal logging e conflict timber: Strategie per l'Italia e per l'Europa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    Total sample 835 Public works/construction 46% Arms and defence 38% Oil and gas 21% Banking and finance Brasile -2.309 1 Niger -3,7 1 Nigeria 1,5* 1 Madagascar 99,30 1 Indonesia 724.237 2 Indonesia -1.312 2

  9. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  10. Stored Grain Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    of plastic produced annually by Nigeria alone (Ogunniyi, 1990). Given the growing interest in the technology, Base de Maradi, Niger The Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bag is a simple and effective technology for reducing grain losses to insects during postharvest storage. The technology was initially developed

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014WR016577

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    and energy fluxes, which maintains a stable hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecological state of a river delta is applied to the Wax Lake delta in the Louisiana coast of the U.S. and the Niger delta in West Africa the balance between subsidence due to compaction and new land formation due to sediment deposition from

  12. Forschung an Lepton Collidern Abbildung38: PhotographiedesHochfeld-MagnetteststandesamDESY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beschleu- nigers getroffen worden ist. Gleichzeitig wurde der X-FEL, der bisher ein Teil des TESLA Projekts Herbst des Jahres die Arbeit aufnahm. Der Linearbeschleuniger TESLA Im Jahr 2003 nahmen in der Gruppe FLC Konstruktion einer ers- ten Generation von Prototypen. Die Arbeiten um- fassten die Entwicklung und den Bau

  13. Urban fox squirrel ecology and management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCleery, Robert Alan

    2007-09-17

    I studied the habitat selection, survival, and anti-predator behaviors of the fox squirrel (Siurus niger) across the urban-rural gradient in College Station, Texas. From two years of tracking the radio locations of 82 fox squirrels, my data...

  14. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  15. Agreements --Africa 27 28 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    Agreements -- Africa 27 AFRICA #12;28 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements Congo of the Niger; and 6) rules for future occupation of the coast of the African continent #12;Agreements -- Africa Great Britain and France #12;Agreements -- Africa 31 Gash Total area: 40,000 km2 Area of Basin

  16. SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT (An Overview of Nigeria Experience)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT (An Overview of Nigeria Experience) By Asapo, E. S. (PhD) 20th Development. The Nigeria Experience. Conclusion. #12;Development that meets the needs of present generations, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda projected to increase

  17. Effect of glucose and pH on the microbial flora and sensory characteristics of normal and dark, firm, dry beef steaks displayed in polyvinyl chloride film and in vacuum packages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesser, Linda Kay

    1982-01-01

    either in PVC film or in high-oxygen barr1er f1lm and stored 1n reta11 display cases at 2 + 1 C for 0-6 days and 0-21 days, respectively. Modification of the meat surface had no s1gnificant effect on pH, numbers and types of m1croorganisms, lean color..., odor, or f di i tio. o do aa oo. d s. ~th h cta dom1nant and/or made up a cons1derable part of the microflora of normal and DFD beef steaks, with and without added glucose or acid, stored for 0-6 days in PVC film. Lactic aci d bacteria constituted a...

  18. The optimal thermo-optical properties and energy saving potential of adaptive glazing technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favoino, Fabio; Overend, Mauro; Jin, Qian

    2015-06-17

    system can be self-powered. An evolution of PEC is represented by photo-volta-chromic (PVC), which differs from PEC in that the photovoltaic and electrochromic functions can be separated, thereby facilitating its integration with building management sys... of adaptive or Responsive Building Elements and systems, which passively or actively adjust their thermo-optical properties or operation in a reversible way in order to adapt to changing outdoor/indoor environmental conditions (i.e. solar radiation, air...

  19. NH Agricultural Experiment Station -COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES & AGRICULTURE http://extension.unh.edu/Agric3 3 3 3 3 http://www.colsa.unh.edu/aes/3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    !on!raised!beds! covered!with!embossed!black!plastic!mulch.!!Low!tunnels!made!of!10'!PVC!bows!were!installed!over! the!additional!layer!of!greenhouse!poly!(6mil)!added!on!Dec!16.!The!plastic!was!removed!on!March!14! and!rowcover!was!removed!on!April!5+Tunnel+Environment.!The!low!tunnel!covered!with!1.25!oz/yd2 !rowcover!and!6!mil!plastic! provided

  20. Continuum particle-vibration coupling method in coordinate-space representation for finite nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhito Mizuyama; Gianluca Colò; Enrico Vigezzi

    2012-05-04

    In this paper we present a new formalism to implement the nuclear particle-vibration coupling (PVC) model. The key issue is the proper treatment of the continuum, that is allowed by the coordinate space representation. Our formalism, based on the use of zero-range interactions like the Skyrme forces, is microscopic and fully self-consistent. We apply it to the case of neutron single-particle states in $^{40}$Ca, $^{208}$Pb and $^{24}$O. The first two cases are meant to illustrate the comparison with the usual (i.e., discrete) PVC model. However, we stress that the present approach allows to calculate properly the effect of PVC on resonant states. We compare our results with those from experiments in which the particle transfer in the continuum region has been attempted. The latter case, namely $^{24}$O, is chosen as an example of a weakly-bound system. Such a nucleus, being double-magic and not displaying collective low-lying vibrational excitations, is characterized by quite pure neutron single-particle states around the Fermi surface.

  1. Towards Eco-friendly Database Management Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Willis

    2009-01-01

    Database management systems (DBMSs) have largely ignored the task of managing the energy consumed during query processing. Both economical and environmental factors now require that DBMSs pay close attention to energy consumption. In this paper we approach this issue by considering energy consumption as a first-class performance goal for query processing in a DBMS. We present two concrete techniques that can be used by a DBMS to directly manage the energy consumption. Both techniques trade energy consumption for performance. The first technique, called PVC, leverages the ability of modern processors to execute at lower processor voltage and frequency. The second technique, called QED, uses query aggregation to leverage common components of queries in a workload. Using experiments run on a commercial DBMS and MySQL, we show that PVC can reduce the processor energy consumption by 49% of the original consumption while increasing the response time by only 3%. On MySQL, PVC can reduce energy consumption by 20% wit...

  2. Griffith 3/2002 Specialty plates for Cryptococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    base (6.67g in 100ml water) 1g 5-FOA 6ml 100X Uracil (2mg/ml) Add water up to 500ml, mix, filter Bacto Agar 870mg URA dropout mix 100µl 10N NaOH (or 1 NaOH pellet) 500ml distilled water Mix solution) 1. Grind 70g Niger seeds (Thistle seeds; e.g. from Petco) in a blender 2. Add distilled water to 350

  3. People and Forests: a case study from Benin, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Erika Beth

    2012-05-31

    bring the Harmattan winds, which are the dry, dust-filled air from the Sahara. These winds, when in full presence, block the sun and drastically reduce the humidity and air temperature of Bénin, effectively creating winter. (Personal communication..., Burkina Faso, Niger, and 8 Nigeria. The Atlantic Ocean is the southernmost border of this nation. The southwest trade winds are nearly parallel with the coast at this point in the Bight of Benin (Booth, 1958, p. 60) (this “bight” is a further retracted...

  4. Ogmios 19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostler, Nicholas D M

    2002-01-01

    the Community, edited by Barbara Burnaby and Jon Reyhner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 Vanishing Footprints: Nomadic People Speak, Ann Perry, Anthony Swift ......... 2 1 Independent Cornish Language Study.. . . . 2... ) Marshall Lewis of the USA receives $800 to compile dictionary materials, a grammar outline, texts, videos O F performance foor the A n y i m e r e language of Niger-Congo, with some 60-70 speakers. (3) Suzanne Cook of Canada receives $800...

  5. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  6. Trans-Sahara pipe line would deliver Nigeria gas to Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenzler, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    Bechtel has made an in-house study of a natural gas transmission line extending from Nigeria to the Mediterranean and then on into Europe. Based upon the analysis, the pipeline project appears sufficiently viable to warrant further study. Perhaps the single most important element in design of pipelines crossing international borders is the political aspects involved in constructing, owning, and operating the line. These considerations not only effect the location of the pipeline, the manner of financing and ownership, but also whether the line will be constructed. The line crosses several international boundaries, depending upon the route selected. Each route crosses Niger. Case A crosses Algeria and into Tunisia where it ultimately would cross the Strait of Sicily into Italy. Case B crosses the Niger- Algerian border and then traverses Algeria to the Mediterranean where it is planned to connect to the Segamo pipeline and to link with the pipeline network in Spain. Case C crosses the countries of Niger, Mali, Mauritania, and into Morocco, and ultimately crosses the Mediterranean Sea close to the Strait of Gibraltar. Nigeria has proven natural gas reserves estimated to range from 2.5 to 4 trillion cu m (38 to 140 tcf).

  7. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal, is 156 ft long and bottoms at a depth of 106 ft bgs. The shallow perched water seen at LAWS-01 (at 80 ft) was not encountered. A scalloped PVC shield was installed to keep the hole open while permitting flexible liners to contact the borehole wall. It was initially instrumented with a color-reactive liner to locate water-producing fractures. That was later replaced by an absorbent liner to collect water from the vadose zone. The third hole (LAWS-03), drilled at an angle of 34{sup o} from horizontal, initially had a length of 136 ft and bottomed at a depth of 76 ft bgs. However, the PVC shield rotated during installation such that scallops were at the top and rock debris repeatedly fell in, preventing liner insertion. While pulling the scalloped PVC to replace it with a perforated PVC shield that did not require orientation, the scalloped PVC broke and only 85 ft was recovered. The hole was blocked at that position and could not be drilled out with the equipment available. Thus, LAWS-03 was completed at a length of 85 ft and a depth of 40 ft bgs. An absorbent liner was installed at the outset in preparation for the 2002 summer monsoon season. The entire monitoring site is enclosed inside a locked, 8-ft-high chainlink fence for security. The liners used in the angled boreholes carry electrical wire pairs to detect soil-moisture changes. Surface-water data are provided by stream gages above and below the weir site. Depth of ponding behind the weir is provided by a gage installed just behind the structure.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  9. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  10. The effects of thermal and hygroscopic loads on unsymmetric composite laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, George Ray

    1991-01-01

    in aging chambers. A schematic of these chambers is shown in Figure 18. The chamber consists of a PVC pipe 12. 75 inches in diameter and twenty-four inches in height. The pipe contains a stainless steel liner around which is wrapped a heater... as possible. Basically, the same argument holds for the torsion tests. The machine is set 32 to maintain a 0 lb axial load and adjusts the axial displacement accordingly. The torque of largest magnitude encountered during the tensile tests is around 3. 0...

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  12. An investigation of the burning rates of thin films of some selected composite propellants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Miles Lee

    1970-01-01

    at Atmospheric Pressure. 81 X11 LIST OF SYMI30LS p, s. l. a. p. s. i. g. I-unctions of heating rate and diffusional mixing rate for Fenn pyrolisis rate quation. Propellant film thickness (FIG 11) Unknown parameter in Fenn pyrolisis rate equation... and 510, 164 PETN PVC RDX ST Pen taerythri tol Tetrani trate Polyvinyl Chloride Cycl otrinethyl enetrini trari~ine Steel powder INTRODUCTION General The primary purpose of this study is to investigate ti? burning properties of a thin film...

  13. Combustion characterization of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Lu, Huagang; Hyatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental thermal behavior of five materials (Illinois coal No. 6, Kentucky coal No. 9, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose, newspaper) has been investigated using the TGA/FTIR/MS system under the condition of combustion. The system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCI, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds during co-firing of coal with refuse derived fuels.

  14. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  15. After the Conservation Reserve Program: Economic Decisions with Farming and Grazing in Mind 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cearley, Kenneth A.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Warminski , Patrick; Jones, DeDe; Kenny, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    windmill or electric submersible pump is necessary. The well costs at various depths and the windmill costs at various heights are pre- sented in Table 4. Estimated cost is based on 5-inch PVC casing and includes drilling, casing, capping, applying... gravel, packing, and digging a slush pit. The estimated costs include mill, tower, sucker rod, pipe removal and replacement, and cylinder pump. Annual repair costs of $50 to $75 per year include the changing of oil in the windmill twice a year along...

  16. Two phase mixing comparison, oil contamination comparison and manufacturing accuracy effect on calibration of slotted orifice meters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Sara A.

    2004-11-15

    the plates. The water is added in the PVC portion of the pipe that is connected just upstream of the acrylic test section. Figure 6 shows a diagram of the water flow. The water is supplied from a 0.756 m3 (26.7 ft3) tank. A pump draws the water.... iv DEDICATION This work is dedicated to Gregory E. and Theresa J. Sparks. Thank you for making arrangements so that I can always focus on schoolwork comfortably. Without your love, support, and encouragement it would have been really...

  17. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected rubber and plastic consumer products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraballo, Simon A.

    1992-01-01

    . . RECOMMENDATIONS. REFERENCES. APPENDIXES . . 1 2 4 4 6 8 8 12 12 15 18 19 19 25 27 28 30 30 31 49 59 60 79 85 87 88 90 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) APPENDIX A Rotameter Calibration Data and Curve.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX B Effects of Humidity on Ashes of U-S3 Rubber vs. PVC. APPENDIX C SAS Program for ANOVA. APPENDIX D Comparison of the Burning Rates for Materials V-S I, C-S2, U-S3 and RT-S5. VITA. PAGE 91 93 102 103 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Comparison...

  18. The Origin and Early Cultivation of Sorghums in Africa. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, J.A.; Kimber, C.T.; Miller, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    climatic change may have been desertification caused by over gra~ing. As the expansion and contraction of the savanna and semi-desert steppe regions north of the equator took place, the most advantageous habitats would have also moved north and south...-Bantu) from the area of eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon through the forests to Katanga, and later on to East Africa. The proto-Bantu were a Negroid stock closely related to the Niger-Congo peopl (if not actually of that stock). While originally...

  19. On the simulation of enzymatic digest patterns: the fragmentation of oligomeric and polymeric galacturonides by endo-polygalacturonase II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, J J; Williams, M A K; Hunt, Jonathan J; Cameron, Randall G; Williams, Martin A.K.

    2006-01-01

    A simulation methodology for predicting the time-course of enzymatic digestions is described. The model is based solely on the enzyme's subsite architecture and concomitant binding energies. This allows subsite binding energies to be used to predict the evolution of the relative amounts of different products during the digestion of arbitrary mixtures of oligomeric or polymeric substrates. The methodology has been specifically demonstrated by studying the fragmentation of a population of oligogalacturonides of varying degrees of polymerization, when digested by endo-polygalacturonase II (endo-PG II) from Aspergillus niger.

  20. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  1. Examining causes of poverty in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Garnett Murphy, II

    2009-06-02

    staggering: Niger (85.3 percent), Rwanda (84.6 percent), the Central African Republic (84.0 percent), Mali (90.6 percent), and Zambia (87.4 percent) (see World Bank Development Report, 2000/2001, Box 1.2, p. 17 and Table 4, pp. 280 - 281). Recently, a new... in the region have become net importers of food commodities? (Ehui and Pender 2005, p. 225). Other possible causes include factors such as low population density, which possibly leads to higher costs of transport, poor market integration, high natural...

  2. Institutions and the Volatility Curse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leong, Weishu; Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2011-07-10

    and 12 can be found in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Our sample also includes 32 out of the 34 OECD countries and 8 out of the 12 of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Thus our sample is very comprehensive... -Bissau Netherlands Tanzania Cameroon Guyana New Zealand Thailand Canada Haiti Nicaragua Togo Central African Rep. Honduras Niger Trinidad and Tobago Chad Hungary Nigeria Tunisia Chile India Norway Turkey China, People?s Rep. of Indonesia Oman Uganda Colombia Iran, I...

  3. Enhanced citric acid production in aspergillus with inactivated asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 3 (ALG3), and/or increased laeA expression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-12-08

    Provided herein are fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, having a dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase (Alg3) gene genetic inactivation, increased expression of a loss of aflR expression A (Lae), or both. In some examples, such mutants have several phenotypes, including an increased production of citric acid relative to the parental strain. Methods of using the disclosed fungi to make citric acid are also provided, as are compositions and kits including the disclosed fungi.

  4. Now Nigeria looked at fiscal terms, prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofurhie, M.A.; Amaechi, M.C.; Idowu, A.O. (Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., Lagos (NG))

    1991-11-25

    The allocation of funds among investment possibilities must of necessity include evaluation and ranking of alternatives. An essential prerequisite is a geophysical/geological evaluation followed by a reservoir/production analysis resulting in the prediction of recoverable reserves, reservoir performance, optimum method of development, and initial offtake return. An economic model of a typical Niger delta medium cost field with reserves of about 100 million bbl of oil under the royalty/tax system reveals that it is difficult to develop such a field when located offshore. This paper examines case histories involving smaller and larger field developments.

  5. Nigeria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNew Hampshire: Energy Resources JumpNgawhablog/2671Niger:Nigeria:

  6. Packaging laws motivate industry to draw up global recycling pacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiesche, E.S.

    1992-11-25

    Spurred by criticism that plastics contribute to the solid waste problem, some plastics industry associations are joining forces to find global solutions. For one, manufacturers of expanded polystyrene (EPS) protective foam packaging from the US, Germany, Austria, and Japan have entered an agreement to encourage the collection and recycling of postconsumer material. Meanwhile, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) makers from Japan, Europe, and North and South America met in September and agreed to develop systems and technology for PVC recycling as well as incineration. The EPS agreement was motivated by fears that packaging material made outside of Germany would not meet the country's new Packaging Ordinance, says a spokesman for the Association of Foam Packaging Recyclers (AFPR; Washington). AFPR chairman John O'Leary Jr., who is also president and CEO of Tuscarora Inc. (New Brighton, PA), says [open quotes]Some consumer product manufacturers in the US incorrectly believe that EPS protective foam packaging may not be acceptable in Germany.[close quotes] The agreement was signed by EPSY-Germany, EPSY-Austria, AFPR, and the Japan EPS Recycling Association. The AFPR is affiliated with the Society of the Plastics Industry (Washington).

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-05-31

    The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

  8. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the surface energy balance in the ECMWF model. It turns out that substantial errors exist in the radiative and turbulent fluxes in the Sahel. These energy budget errors are believed to be detrimental to the simulated flow over West Africa. This was the first time that such verification was possible. It is obvious that the radiative impact of aerosols needs further investigation.

  9. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsalves, J.M.

    1997-09-30

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

  10. Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crosley, S.M.; Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Newcomb, J.C.; Yosim, S.J. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level waste stream consisted of a slurry of concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, with a small amount of miscellaneous combustible components (PVC, TBP, kerosene, and ion exchange resins). The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the destruction of the organics, evaporation of the water, and conversion of the hazardous salts (hydroxide and nitrate) to non-hazardous sodium carbonate. Results of the tests are discussed and analyzed, and the possibilities of applying the MSO process to different waste streams at ORNL in the future are explored.

  11. The hypergeometric functions and their confluent forms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Jack Ellsworth

    1964-01-01

    of an Ordinary Point Z. I'he, latur&: of the Solution in t&uo . leighborhoou of a Singularity l:uci&s' Conditions 4. The Solution for l. urge Values of S. Totally pvc&hs& nn &:, quot io?s 6. The Analytic Continuation of &F'1(a, b;c;z) 7. The Confluent... ~ P zn ) na zn-1 + ) q zn ( anzn n n n n (1. 4) gquating co&&f ficients, we find 2 1P + 3 2pp I 1 lqp o ll (1. 53 (1. I&) and in general that -(n-1) na (n-1) a lp + (n-2) a -Zpl +' ' '+ alpn-2 + + a 2q + a &ql +. ~ . + alrl &+ a rr (1 ~ 7...

  12. Examining properties of multiple product production technologies and profit functions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nash, Elizabeth Kultgen

    1981-01-01

    . 3)), (2. 6) (2. 7) P VC p Y 1 + $ ( a Y h / 3 P I ) ( P h + P 1 F y h ) h=Z m + g (a Xj/aRj) (-Rj + P1FX ) j=l X3 = Yi by first order conditions ((2. 2) and (2. 3)), n PVC ~ = -Xj + g (aY1/aRj ) (Pi + P1Fy ' ) Rj . Yi m + g (a XA... /3 P 1 ) 0 -l 0 (axm/ar i) where HPVC is the Hessian of the primal problem. The solutions to these equations may be found as follows: (3. 6) 3Yh/3Pi = -HPVCPhp /det HPVC, 1 and h = 2, . . . , n, (3. 7) 3Xj/3Pi = -HPVC . . /det HPVC, 1 = 2...

  13. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  14. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings. 6 figs.

  15. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Gerald D. (Tijeras, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers arranged in a vertical string. The transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings.

  16. Laser-Driven Mini-Thrusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, Enrique; Lin Jun; Sinko, John; Kodgis, Lisa; Porter, Simon; Pakhomov, Andrew V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Larson, C. William; Mead, Franklin B. Jr. [Propulsion Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 (United States)

    2006-05-02

    Laser-driven mini-thrusters were studied using Delrin registered and PVC (Delrin registered is a registered trademark of DuPont) as propellants. TEA CO2 laser ({lambda} = 10.6 {mu}m) was used as a driving laser. Coupling coefficients were deduced from two independent techniques: force-time curves measured with a piezoelectric sensor and ballistic pendulum. Time-resolved ICCD images of the expanding plasma and combustion products were analyzed in order to determine the main process that generates the thrust. The measurements were also performed in a nitrogen atmosphere in order to test the combustion effects on thrust. A pinhole transmission experiment was performed for the study of the cut-off time when the ablation/air breakdown plasma becomes opaque to the incoming laser pulse.

  17. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  18. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  19. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannell, Gary L.; Huth, Ralph J.; Hallum, Randall T.

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  20. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyunyong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM); Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Pimentel, Alejandro A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  1. Nanomaterial modifications on conductivity of coal conveyer belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.C.; Zhang, Y.G.; Wang, T.T.; Yang, L.F.; Liu, S.M.; Yang, D.H.; Zhang, M.; Gao, X. [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    By analyzing the macro electrical properties and the microscopic structure from SEM of nanomaterials modified mine transmission belt samples. The influences of the filling process of inorganic nano particle-filled rubber and PVC polymer on the physical properties of coal transmission belt is reviewed, as well as PTC and NTC effect on the stability of the physical properties and stability of materials. Influence of nano-materials and polymer materials for rubber and temperature changes in the plastic filled refining process. Crosslinker and major filler changes in the amount and filled plastic chain time on the conductivity of coal conveyer belt is studied. Influence of cure temperature. Cure time on the mechanical performance is studied. The microscopic mechanism of macro conductivity change of conveyer belt is discussed.

  2. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  3. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  5. Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikporukpo, C.O.

    1985-04-01

    Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

  6. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L. [The Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1996-08-01

    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

  7. Challenges in Whole-Genome Annotation of Pyrosequenced Eukaryotic Genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-04-17

    Pyrosequencing technologies such as 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina vastly lower the cost of nucleotide sequencing compared to the traditional Sanger method, and thus promise to greatly expand the number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. However, the new technologies also bring new challenges such as shorter reads and new kinds and higher rates of sequencing errors, which complicate genome assembly and gene prediction. At JGI we are deploying 454 technology for the sequencing and assembly of ever-larger eukaryotic genomes. Here we describe our first whole-genome annotation of a purely 454-sequenced fungal genome that is larger than a yeast (>30 Mbp). The pezizomycotine (filamentous ascomycote) Aspergillus carbonarius belongs to the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex, members of which are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as agricultural toxigens. Application of a modified version of the standard JGI Annotation Pipeline has so far predicted ~;;10k genes. ~;;12percent of these preliminary annotations suffer a potential frameshift error, which is somewhat higher than the ~;;9percent rate in the Sanger-sequenced and conventionally assembled and annotated genome of fellow Aspergillus section Nigri member A. niger. Also,>90percent of A. niger genes have potential homologs in the A. carbonarius preliminary annotation. Weconclude, and with further annotation and comparative analysis expect to confirm, that 454 sequencing strategies provide a promising substrate for annotation of modestly sized eukaryotic genomes. We will also present results of annotation of a number of other pyrosequenced fungal genomes of bioenergy interest.

  8. Task 3 -- Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O.; Aulich, T.R.

    1997-09-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center is developing a technology for the thermal decomposition of high-organic-content, radionuclide-contaminated mixed wastes and spent (radioactive) ion-exchange resins from the nuclear power industry that will enable the separation and concentration of radionuclides as dry particulate solids and the generation of nonradioactive condensable and noncondensable gas products. Successful application of the technology will enable a significant volume reduction of radioactive waste and the production of an inexpensively disposable nonradioactive organic product. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate the commercial viability of a continuous thermal decomposition process that can fulfill the following requirements: separate radionuclides from radioactive waste streams containing a variety of types and levels of polymers, chlorinated species, and other organics, including rubber, oils, resins, and cellulosic-based materials; concentrate radionuclides in a homogeneous, dry particulate product that can be recovered, handled, and disposed of efficiently and safely; separate and recover any chlorine present (as PVC, chlorinated solvents, or inorganic chlorine) in the contaminated mixed-waste stream; and yield a nonradioactive, low-chlorine-content, condensable organic product that can be economically disposed. Progress is described.

  9. Precision Measurement of the Decay Rate of 7Be in Host Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nir-El; G. Haquin; Z. Yungreiss; M. Hass; G. Goldring; S. K. Chamoli; B. S. Nara Singh; S. Lakshmi; U. Koester; N. Champault; A. Dorsival; G. Georgiev; V. N. Fedoseyev; B. A. Marsh; D. Schumann; G. Heidenreich; S. Teichmann

    2006-12-03

    A controlled and precise determination of the cross-sections of the fusion reactions 7Be(p,gamma)8B and 3He(4He,gamma)7Be, which play an important role in determining the solar neutrino flux, necessitates the knowledge of a precise value of the electron-capture half-life of 7Be. This half-life may depend on the material hosting the 7Be atoms via small modifications of the electron density around the 7Be nucleus. In this brief communication we report on the measurement of 7Be implanted in four materials: copper, aluminum, sapphire and PVC. The four results are consistent with a null host dependence within two standard deviations and their weighted average of 53.236(39)d agrees very well with the adopted value in the literature, 53.22(6)d. The present results may exhibit a slight (0.22%) increase of the half-life at room temperature for metals compared to insulators that requires further studies.

  10. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Amendment 1 for Appendix B: Install flex-pipe on tank riser spools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-13

    This amendment to Appendix B contains the specific ALARA evaluations for installing flex-pipe on riser spools to accommodate ventilation duct connections to the north risers of each tank. The work will be a routine task that is part of the Equipment Installation and Mobilization phase of the project. The dose rates were estimated using the recent Radiological Surveillance Section radiological survey: SAAS-97-063S. Task B-6 has been added to the OHF Project ALARA review process to address a field decision to modify an approach to installing the tank ventilation system. The revised approach will incorporate 12-in. diameter, 36-in. long, stainless steel flex-pipe connected to each north riser spool to address the problem of pipe fitting multiple bends and turns expected with the 12-in. PVC duct. This improved approach will reduce the time necessary to install the duct system between the tanks and the ventilation skid. However, the task includes opening the 12-in. riser spool connections to replace the currently installed blind gaskets. Since a riser spool for each tank will be opened, there is a potential for significant personnel exposure and spread of contamination that will addressed through this ALARA review process.

  11. Intial performance from the NOvA surface prototype detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muether, M.; /Fermilab; ,

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  12. Particle-vibration coupling within covariant density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Litvinova; P. Ring; V. Tselyaev

    2007-05-08

    Covariant density functional theory, which has so far been applied only within the framework of static and time dependent mean field theory is extended to include Particle-Vibration Coupling (PVC) in a consistent way. Starting from a conventional energy functional we calculate the low-lying collective vibrations in Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) and construct an energy dependent self-energy for the Dyson equation. The resulting Bethe-Salpeter equation in the particle-hole ($ph$) channel is solved in the Time Blocking Approximation (TBA). No additional parameters are used and double counting is avoided by a proper subtraction method. The same energy functional, i.e. the same set of coupling constants, generates the Dirac-Hartree single-particle spectrum, the static part of the residual $ph$-interaction and the particle-phonon coupling vertices. Therefore a fully consistent description of nuclear excited states is developed. This method is applied for an investigation of damping phenomena in the spherical nuclei with closed shells $^{208}$Pb and $^{132}$Sn. Since the phonon coupling terms enrich the RRPA spectrum with a multitude of $ph\\otimes$phonon components a noticeable fragmentation of the giant resonances is found, which is in full agreement with experimental data and with results of the semi-phenomenological non-relativistic approach.

  13. Cleareye In-Ground and In-Concrete DIV Inspections: FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Morra, Marino; Knopik, Clint D.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Jones, Anthony M.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Good, Morris S.; Sorensen, Jerry B.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2012-01-23

    This report summarizes the results of a series of feasibility testing studies for in-ground and in-concrete imaging/detection technologies including radar imaging and acoustic time-of flight method. The objectives of this project are: (1) Design Information Verification (DIV) Tools for In-Concrete Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using holographic radar imaging (HRI), radar imaging, and acoustic time-of-flight (TOF) non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate and identify pipes and voids embedded in standard-density and high-density concrete walls that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; (2) DIV Tools for In-Ground Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using HRI and radar imaging non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate, and identify objects buried at various depths made of various materials (metal, plastic, wood, and concrete) and representing geometries that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; and (3) Based on the results of the studies, recommend the next steps needed to realize fieldable tools for in-concrete and in-ground inspections (including detection of deeply buried polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipes) that employ the technologies shown to be feasible.

  14. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  15. Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, E D S

    2013-01-01

    A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

  16. Elemental characterization of LL-MA radioactive waste packages with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Toure, M.; El Kanawati, W.; Eleon, C.

    2011-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R and D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages with analytical methods and with non-destructive nuclear measurements. This paper concerns fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique (APT), which brings 3D information about the waste material composition. The characterization of volume elements filled with iron, water, aluminium, and PVC in bituminized and fibre concrete LL-MA waste packages has been investigated with MCNP [1] and MODAR data analysis software [2]. APT provides usable information about major elements presents in the volumes of interest. However, neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei spreads the tagged neutron beam out of the targeted volume towards surrounding materials, reducing spatial selectivity. Simulation shows that small less than 1 L targets can be characterised up to the half-radius of a 225 L bituminized drum, the matrix of which is very rich in hydrogen. Deeper characterization in concrete is possible but limited by counting statistics due to photon attenuation in this dense matrix and, unless large inspection volumes are considered, by the lack of spatial selectivity of the tagged neutron beam due to neutron scattering. (authors)

  17. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  18. Task 3 - Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, Robert O.; Aulich, Ted R.

    1997-12-31

    Over the last 50 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has produced a wide variety of radioactive wastes from activities associated with nuclear defense and nuclear power generation. These wastes include low-level radioactive solid wastes, mixed wastes, and transuranic (TRU) wastes. A portion of these wastes consists of high- organic-content materials, such as resins, plastics, and other polymers; synthetic and natural rubbers; cellulosic-based materials; and oils, organic solvents, and chlorinated organic solvents. Many of these wastes contain hazardous and/or pyrophoric materials in addition to radioactive species. Physical forms of the waste include ion-exchange resins used to remove radioactive elements from nuclear reactor cooling water, lab equipment and tools (e.g., measurement and containment vessels, hoses, wrappings, equipment coverings and components, and countertops), oil products (e.g., vacuum pump and lubrication oils), bags and other storage containers (for liquids, solids, and gases), solvents, gloves, lab coats and anti-contamination clothing, and other items. Major polymer and chemical groups found in high-organic-content radioactive wastes include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), Teflon(TM), polystyrene (PS), nylon, latex, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), vinyl, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, nitriles, Tygon(R), butyl, and Tyvec(R).

  19. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  20. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  1. Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

    1981-02-01

    The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

  2. Ethnicity, petroeconomy, and national integration in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeri-Obidake, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the single glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.

  3. The application of seismic stratigraphic methods on exploration 3D seismic data to define a reservoir model in OPL 210, Deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragnhild, L.; Ventris, P. [Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01

    OPL 210 lies in deepwater on the northwestern flank of the Niger Delta. The partners in this block are Allied Energy and The Statoil and BP Alliance. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase and carries a 2 well commitment. At present the database comprises a 1 x 1 km grid of 2D seismic across the block, and 450 sq. km of 3D in an area of special interest. A larger 3D survey is planned for 1995. Little is known about the reservoir in the deep water, but we expect our main target to be ponded slope and basin turbidites. As such the bulk of the shelf well data available has little or no relevance to the play type likely to be encountered. Prior to drilling, seismic stratigraphy has been one of several methods used to generate a consistent predictive reservoir model. The excellent quality and high resolution of the 3D data have allowed identification and detailed description of several distinctive seismic facies. These facies are described in terms of their internal geometries and stacking patterns. The geometries are then interpreted based on a knowledge of depositional processes from analog slope settings. This enables a predictive model to be constructed for the distribution of reservoir within the observed facies. These predictions will be tested by one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater in mid 1995.

  4. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  5. Enigmatic compressional structures in an extensional province: Eku field, OML 67, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinones, M.; Evans, R. (Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)); Alofe, K.; Onyeise, B. (Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria))

    1996-01-01

    Acquisition of 3-D seismic data over OML 67-70 and a detailed reservoir description study done on the Eku field, have allowed identification of previously unrecognized compressional features. Situated within a depocenter between arcuate normal growth faults, the Eku structure consists of a shale-cored anticlinal fold and fold-and-thrust separated by a zone of lateral displacement. The crests of the folds have been eroded at a major unconformity at the base of the Qua Iboe shale (Early Pliocene). In the absence of definitive biostratigraphic data, correlations among the various fault-blocks are based on the character of sedimentary packages and sequences on wireline logs. Combined with analysis of the geometry of faults and folds, the correlations support a description of pulsatory movement of folding and faulting, that ultimately culminated in extensional reactivation of earlier regional extension and the not coincident. The effect of the anticipated reservoir sections, and deformation, both compressional, was gravity-driven and on shale detachments. A working hypothesis to explain the disparity in direction of earlier extension and subsequent compression is that thermal expansion that accompanied formation of the Cameroon volcanic line to the east of the Niger Delta in Miocene time, caused a change in the direction of structuring, allowing downslope gravity-driven compression to be superimposed on pre-existing extensional features.

  6. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between1×10?3and1×10?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.more »Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-1–10-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.1×10?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  7. Biochemical, raw, and cooked color characteristics of individual bovine muscles in oxygen permeable and modified atmosphere packages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mies, Patrick Daniel

    2004-09-30

    .07c 0.04d 0.20e 0.17fg 2 0.10d 0.19c 0.10cd 0.06e 0.21fg 3 0.06d 0.04c 0.09cd 0.10e 0.23fg 4 0.12d 0.09c 0.02d 0.23e 0.25fg 5 0.13d 0.05c 0.11cd 0.28de 0.24fg PVC a 0 0.04d 0.02c 0.03d 0.05e 0.02g 1 0.08d 0.03c 0.05d 0.10e 0....53def 1 0.55c 0.03c 0.29bcd 0.31de 1.59ab 2 1.01b 0.28bc 0.60b 0.19e 1.27bc 3 1.07b 0.67ab 0.64b 0.32de 2.00a 4 1.07b 1.05a 0.44bc 1.45a 1.65ab 5 1.67a 0.33bc 1.39a 1.68a 1.79a LOXDK a 0 0.08d 0.24c 0.06d 0.15e 0.22fg 1 0.11d 0...

  8. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  9. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M.; Balthazar, José M.; Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  10. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  11. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 ? 3 andmore » 1 × 10 ? 4 ?M Cs + , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5 ?M Cs + , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 ? 6 ?M Cs + , and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3. « less

  12. Neutron counting and gamma spectroscopy with PVT detectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean James; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2011-06-01

    Radiation portals normally incorporate a dedicated neutron counter and a gamma-ray detector with at least some spectroscopic capability. This paper describes the design and presents characterization data for a detection system called PVT-NG, which uses large polyvinyl toluene (PVT) detectors to monitor both types of radiation. The detector material is surrounded by polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which emits high-energy gamma rays following neutron capture reactions. Assessments based on high-energy gamma rays are well suited for the detection of neutron sources, particularly in border security applications, because few isotopes in the normal stream of commerce have significant gamma ray yields above 3 MeV. Therefore, an increased count rate for high-energy gamma rays is a strong indicator for the presence of a neutron source. The sensitivity of the PVT-NG sensor to bare {sup 252}Cf is 1.9 counts per second per nanogram (cps/ng) and the sensitivity for {sup 252}Cf surrounded by 2.5 cm of polyethylene is 2.3 cps/ng. The PVT-NG sensor is a proof-of-principal sensor that was not fully optimized. The neutron detector sensitivity could be improved, for instance, by using additional moderator. The PVT-NG detectors and associated electronics are designed to provide improved resolution, gain stability, and performance at high-count rates relative to PVT detectors in typical radiation portals. As well as addressing the needs for neutron detection, these characteristics are also desirable for analysis of the gamma-ray spectra. Accurate isotope identification results were obtained despite the common impression that the absence of photopeaks makes data collected by PVT detectors unsuitable for spectroscopic analysis. The PVT detectors in the PVT-NG unit are used for both gamma-ray and neutron detection, so the sensitive volume exceeds the volume of the detection elements in portals that use dedicated components to detect each type of radiation.

  13. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality control application in herbal medicine industries.

  14. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  15. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  16. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary; Friedman, Warren

    2007-08-01

    As part of the HUD American Healthy Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m2 in the bedroom plus 2 m2 in the living room of a nationally representative 1096 homes in the USA using the Mitest™ sampler. Five mg of sieved (300 µ pore, nylon mesh) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR for the 36 EPA Mold Panel Species. On this basis, an “environmental relative moldiness index” (ERMI) was created with values ranging from about -10 to 20 (lowest to highest). In order to try to reduce the cost of this analysis, the number of test species was reduced by selecting only those species with a national average concentration of 30 cell equivalents (CE) per mg dust or greater. Only 19 of 36 species met this criterion. (In 40% of the homes, an additional 46 species were quantified from the same dust sample. All of these species had average concentrations less than 30 CE per mg dust.) These 19 species were then categorized into two groups based on their coefficient of variation (CV). If the CV was > 9, the mold was placed in Category 1 (10/19) and the other molds were placed in Category 2 (9/19). Using these Categories, the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of three Category 2 molds (C. herbarum, A. alternata and C. cladosporioides Type 1) was subtracted from the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of the ten Category 1 molds (Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amsteldoami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum and Wallemia sebi). Assembling these values for the 1096 AHHS homes from lowest to highest produced the “American relative moldiness index” (ARMI). The correlation between the ERMI and ARMI values was 0.88. The ERMI or ARMI scales may be useful as a standard for mold exposure estimates in epidemiological studies.

  17. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  18. Ultrasonic Communication Project, Phase 1, FY1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, H.D.; Akerman, M.A.; Baylor, V.M.

    2000-06-01

    This Phase 1 project has been successful in identifying, exploring, and demonstrating methods for ultrasonic-based communication with an emphasis on the application of digital signal processing techniques. During the project, at the direction of the agency project monitor, particular attention was directed at sending and receiving ultrasonic data through air and through pipes that would be commonly found in buildings. Efforts were also focused on development of a method for transmitting computer files ultrasonically. New methods were identified and evaluated for ultrasonic communication. These methods are based on a technique called DFS. With DFS, individual alphanumeric characters are broken down into a sequence of bits, and each bit is used to generate a discrete ultrasonic frequency. Characters are then transmitted one-bit-at-a-time, and reconstructed by the receiver. This technique was put into practice through the development of LabVIEW{trademark}VIs. These VIs were integrated with specially developed electronic circuits to provide a system for demonstrating the transmission and reception/reconstruction of typed messages and computer files. Tests were performed to determine the envelope for ultrasound transmission through pipes (with and without water) versus through air. The practical aspects of connections, efficient electronics, impedance matching, and the effect of damping mechanisms were all investigated. These tests resulted in a considerable number of reference charts that illustrate the absorption of ultrasound through different pipe materials, both with and without water, as a function of distance. Ultrasound was found to be least attenuated by copper pipe and most attenuated by PVC pipe. Water in the pipe provides additional damping and attenuation of ultrasonic signals. Dramatic improvements are observed, however, in ultrasound signal strength if the transducers are directly coupled to the water, rather than simply attaching them to the outside of the pipe. A major accomplishment of this project was the development and integration of hardware and software into a fully functional ultrasonic communication system for demonstration purposes. The development of this system was a major deliverable of this project and has been successfully demonstrated to the program monitor. Major system considerations are discussed in this report, including signal conditioning electronics, speed and distance of transmission, triggering and noise filtering, and error checking. The methods employed by this system are believed to be capable of transmitting information over long distances (greater than 200 ft) under ideal conditions, and under extreme conditions if several improvements are made. Several improvements are suggested as follow-on work. Brief descriptions of these activities are given.

  19. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  20. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  1. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the effects of high CO2 waters on marine animals (Barry et al. 2008). This system is capable of controlling oxygen, pH, and temperature of seawater for use in studies of the physiological responses of animals under acidified conditions. We have investigated the tolerance of deep- and shallow-living crabs to high CO2 levels (Pane and Barry 2007; Pane et al. 2008), and are now working on brachiopods (Barry et al. in prep.) and a comparison of deep and shallow living sea urchins. This research program, supported in part by DoE has contributed to a number of other publications authored or co-authored by Barry (Caldeira et al. 2005; Brewer and Barry 2008; Barry et al. 2006, 2010a,b,c; National Research Council, in press; Hoffman et al. in press) as well as over 40 invited talks since 2004, including Congressional briefings and testimony at U.S. Senate Hearings on Ocean Acidification. Through the grant period, the research emphasis shifted from studies of the effects of direct deep-sea carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea animals, to a broader conceptual framework of the effects of ocean acidification (whether purposeful or passive) on the physiology and survival of deep and shallow living marine animals. We feel that this has been a very productive program and are grateful to DoE for its support.

  2. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar?L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  3. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the investigation of aircraft wiring is to evaluate the applicability of their various techniques to aircraft cables, after which they expect to identify a limited subset of techniques which are appropriate for each of the major aircraft wiring types. The techniques of initial interest in the studies of aging aircraft wire are as follows: optical microscopy; mandrel bend test; tensile test/elongation at break; density measurements; modulus profiling/(spatially-resolved micro-hardness); oxygen induction time/oxygen induction temperature (by differential scanning calorimetry); solvent-swelling/gel fraction; infrared spectroscopy (with chemical derivatization as warranted); chemiluminescence; thermo-oxidative wear-out assessment; The first two techniques are the simplest and quickest to apply; those further down the list tend to be more information rich and in some cases more sensitive, but also generally more specialized and more time consuming to run. Accordingly, the procedure will be to apply the simplest tests for purposes of preliminary screening of large numbers of samples. For any given material type, it can be expected that only a limited number of the other techniques will prove to be useful, and therefore, the more specialized techniques will be used on a limited number of selected samples. Samples of aircraft wiring have begun to be released to the authors in late April; they include in this report some limited and preliminary data on these materials.