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Sample records for niamey niger pvc

  1. ARM - Niamey News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West AfricaNiamey News Niamey Deployment AMF Home Niamey Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments Rainfall Record (PDF) Publications List, (PDF) Experiment Planning RADAGAST Proposal Outreach Fact Sheets RADAGAST (PDF) Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa (PDF) Posters AMF Poster, French Version We're Going to Sample the Sky in Africa! News Campaign Images AMMA International News Niamey News Radar Wind Profiler Joins ARM Mobile Facility Instrument Suite May 15, 2006 W-Band Cloud Radar Added to

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of large dust particles in the atmosphere around Niamey.

  4. NIAMEY DAILY RAINFALL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 -2 -1 0 1 +2 +3 Average Normalized Departure () Time series (1941-2006) of normalized April-October rainfall departures () for Niamey (2.1666 o E, 13.4833 o N) in Niger...

  5. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Optical Depths ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of

  6. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  7. AMF Deployment, Niamey, Niger, West Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plots and Baseline Instruments Rainfall Record (PDF) Publications List, (PDF) Experiment Planning RADAGAST Proposal Outreach Fact Sheets RADAGAST (PDF) Annual Climate Cycle in...

  8. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Johnson, K; Mather, J; Randall, D

    2008-03-01

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties.

  9. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model Third Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; DA Randall; CJ Flynn

    2008-06-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. This report describes the aerosol optical depth (AOD) product.

  10. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model - First Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; D Randall

    2007-12-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. The first quarter milestone is initial formulation of the algorithm to produce and make available, new continuous time series of retrieved cloud , aerosol and dust properties, based on results from the ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niger, Africa. The first quarter milestone has been achieved.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. ... order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and ...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January ...

  13. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Dust Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dust Observations ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Niamey Dust Observations Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be

  14. Atmospheric Properties from the 2006 Niamey Deployment and Climate Simulation with a Geodesic Grid Coupled Climate Model Fourth Quarter 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JH Mather; DA Randall; CJ Flynn

    2008-09-30

    In 2008, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the metrics will deal with a decade-long control simulation using geodesic grid-coupled climate model. For ARM, the metrics will deal with observations associated with the 2006 deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger. Specifically, ARM has been asked to deliver data products for Niamey that describe cloud, aerosol, and dust properties. The first quarter milestone was the initial formulation of the algorithm for retrieval of these properties. The second quarter milestone included the time series of ARM-retrieved cloud properties and a year-long CCPP control simulation. The third quarter milestone included the time series of ARM-retrieved aerosol optical depth and a three-year CCPP control simulation. This final fourth quarter milestone includes the time-series of aerosol and dust properties and a decade-long CCPP control simulation.

  15. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fibers mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  16. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  17. ARM - 2008 Science Team Meeting Pictures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Larry Berg, ARM scientist (left), listens to a visiting scientist from Niamey, Niger, who participated in the mobile facility deployment in Niamey. Larry Berg, ARM...

  18. Niger | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Niger NNSA Supports IAEA Regional Training in Zambia on Management Practices for Uranium The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), European Commission and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) co-sponsored a training course in Livingstone, Zambia this week focusing on good management practices for uranium ore concentrate (UOC). The Zambia Radiation Protection Authority

  19. Niger-IAEA Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agency Sector Energy Topics Background analysis Website http:www-tc.iaea.orgtcwebt Program Start 2007 Country Niger Western Africa References IAEA Project Database1 IAEA...

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deployment-mean cloud and precipitation fraction during the AMF deployment at Niamey, Niger. The first international deployment of the AMF in Niamey, Niger,-one of the hottest...

  1. Niger: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tons 59 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 0 Cubic Meters (cu m) 149 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (bbl) 148 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Niger No...

  2. Niger: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Niger Population 17,138,707 GDP 6,022,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NE 3-letter ISO code NER Numeric ISO...

  3. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8, 9-12 Subject Wind Energy Summary This plan shows how to make a rugged and inexpensive classroom wind turbine that can be used for lab bench-based blade design experiments. While a few specialized parts are needed (a hub and DC motor), the rest of the components are easily found at most hardware stores. Curriculum Technology, Science

  4. PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scuero, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

  5. Niger-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Niger-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  6. Mobile Facility Records Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Records Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa Because dust can block incoming solar energy, and because solar energy drives weather and climate, scientists around the world...

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The sun, seen through a dusty atmosphere, sets at Niamey, the capital of Niger, which is located in the African Sahara. Anvil clouds that accompany thunderstorms....

  8. ARM - AMF Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF Data Available Data Plots View data plots from each deployment....

  9. ARM - AMF2 Organization and Contact Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF2 Organization and Contact Information The Argonne AMF2...

  10. ARM - AMF Contacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF Contacts Science AMF1 Site Scientist - Mark Miller, Rutgers...

  11. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility (AMF), an identical CCN instrument was deployed in 2005 during the AMF field campaign at Point Reyes, California, and is currently operating at Niamey, Niger, West Africa...

  12. ARM - AMF Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF Operations Members of the AMF1 installation team prepare the...

  13. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Instruments : Gan Island, Maldives Active Retired Active instruments...

  14. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment, and the ARM Mobile Facility's deployments at Point Reyes National Seashore and Niamey, Niger, West Africa. ARM researchers, including ARM's...

  15. Effect of radiation on properties of ENR/PVC/SiO{sub 2} membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, Nur Farahein Hadina; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Daik, Rusli; Ahmad, Ishak; Jamil, Suzereen; Lazim, Mohammad Azwan Mat; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2015-09-25

    In this study epoxidised natural rubber (ENR)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix was prepared by melt blending. The matrix was swelled in THF and silica as a filler was introduced to the solution to generate pore formation. The ENR/PVC/10 % SiO{sub 2} membrane was prepared using a casting knife technique. The membrane was irradiated using 2 MeV electron beam accelerator at a dose range of 10-100 kGy. The effect of electron beam irradiation of the membrane was studied by undergo characterization of Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR). Morphological studies showed that pores generated in ENR/PVC/10 % SiO{sub 2} membrane increased with the dosage of radiation. While FTIR analysis showed the presence of peak of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at 834 cm{sup −1}. There are no significant changes in the functional group before and after radiation.

  16. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  17. Diffusion of trichloroethylene through the threaded joints of PVC (polyvinylchloride) pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome, K.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-12-01

    The data engineers and scientists use to determine if the groundwater supply is contaminated are derived from analysis of samples taken largely from monitoring wells. For these data to be reliable several factors must be considered. One factor is the integrity of the monitoring well. In this project, emphasis has been placed on the potential impact on water quality caused by diffusion across the threaded joints of PVC pipe. In this study, the diffusion of trichloroethylene across several common types of threaded joints (i.e., square flush, modified ACME, modified ACME stub, and ACME) has been measured. Samples were obtained from the water inside the pipe sections and analyzed for trichloroethylene by gas chromatography. Breakthrough occurs within days of the samples being placed in the baths. The softened PVC joints of the pipes in the pure trichloroethylene split before the first sample interval of 1.5 weeks. The data show great variability in casting joints from the same manufacturer, and indicate a need for increased precision in the manufacturing of the PVC pipe joints. A one-dimensional diffusion model is used to determine an equivalent gap size through which the diffusion occurs. Flow rates through the threaded joints are calculated by using the equivalent gap width and a formula for flow through a rectangular duct running full. Comparison of the results of the gap size calculations and of the flow rates is presented. 20 refs., 13 figs. 11 tabs.

  18. ARM - VAP Product - sondeadjust

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired HFE M1 Browse Data Shouxian, Anhui, China retired NIM M1 Browse Data Niamey, Niger retired PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1...

  19. ARM - AMF Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF Science Locale: Anywhere in the World The purpose of an ARM...

  20. ARM - Datastreams - mpl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Browse Plots Central Facility, Darwin, Australia retired ARM Mobile Facility NIM M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Niamey, Niger retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  1. ARM - AMF Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF Architecture The AMF1 sets up in Heselbach, Germany The AMF1...

  2. Newsletter Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    African Researcher Visits Oklahoma As a follow-up to the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) ... Niamey, Niger, to the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. Dr. ...

  3. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sunphotometer to Obtain Additional Aerosol Data in Niamey Bookmark and Share Located nearby the AMF ground instruments, the sunphotometer, in the foreground, requires an unobstructed hemispheric view of the sky to obtain its measurements. In early August, a new Cimel sunphotometer (CSPHOT) was deployed at the ARM Mobile Facility site in Niamey, Niger, as part of the ongoing RADAGAST field campaign. The CSPHOT measures the solar and sky radiance at various wavelengths in the visible and

  4. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  5. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-03-11

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly-(vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligandsmore » (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42 3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Lastly, adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.« less

  6. Sequence stratigraphic model of the Rio Grande Delta, south west Texas: Potential analog for the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, L.A.; Anderson, J.B.; Vail, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    A sequence stratigraphic model developed from the ancient Rio Grande Delta in South West Texas is suggested as an analog for the Niger Delta. The two delta systems are characterized by high sand bedloads, shale diapirism with associated listric normal faulting, and large amounts of tidal and wave influence forming lower coastal plains characterized by swamps and estuaries. The sequence stratigraphic model of the ancient Rio Grande delta is based on approximately 1200 kilometers of single channel, 15 cubic inch water gun data, lithologic descriptions from approximately 25 long cores (28-30 m) located in 17-94 meters water depth, three gamma ray logs, paleontologic data from two cores, and oxygen isotopic data from one core (152 meters in length and located in 94 meters water depth). The combined data indicate that considerable quantities of sand are sequestered on the continental shelf and point sourcing the slope. The Rio Grande sequence stratigraphic model provides an improved understanding of sand deposits on the shelf, of the role of sediment bypass during lowstands, and of the base of slope deposits formed by headward eroding canyons (?) or channels (?) located at the shelf break. This information regarding the distribution of sand in the Rio Grande system can provide valuable insight into the reservoir distribution in the Niger system, improving existing reservoir predictions.

  7. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - 03_McFarlane_AWG.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forcing of Saharan D t A l t Ni Ni Dust Aerosol at Niamey, Niger S. McFarlane, E. Kassianov, C. S. McFarlane, E. Kassianov, C. Flynn, D. Turner, T. Ackerman Flynn, D. Turner, T. Ackerman y y With contributions from J. Mather and J. Barnard With contributions from J. Mather and J. Barnard March 26, 2007 Aerosol Working Group AMF Deployment in Niamey Vertical distribution of radiative heating within atmosphere an important driver of atmospheric circulations ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in

  9. Identification of a classical mutant in the industrial host Aspergillus niger by systems genetics: LaeA is required for citric acid production and regulates the formation of some secondary metabolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.; Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

    2015-11-13

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. niger has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. As a result, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations.

  10. bedka_turner_poster.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties at Niamey, Niger Using Downwelling Infrared Radiance Data Sarah Bedka and Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin - Madison 2) Retrieving Aerosol Properties using AERI Simulated IR radiance for a kaolinite dust layer with r eff = 2 µm for a range of infrared optical depths. The dust particles were modeled as spheres. * MIXCRA was originally designed to retrieve mixed-phase cloud properties [Turner, JAM 2005] * Requires that each "phase" has

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 04_bedka_turner_awg_advertisement.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties at Niamey, Niger y g Using Downwelling Infrared Radiance Data Sarah Bedka and Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin Madison University of Wisconsin - Madison Aerosol working group breakout session M d 26 M h 2007 Monday 26 March 2007 ARM Science Team Meeting Monterey, California Background g * Airborne dust is common in the Sahel region f Af i of Africa * How important is this dust to the radiative balance and atmospheric heating in that balance and

  12. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 15, 2006 [Facility News] ARM Mobile Facility Begins Year-Long Deployment in Africa Bookmark and Share Beginning on January 9, the ARM Mobile Facility began officially collecting atmospheric data from a location at the airport in Niamey, Niger, Africa. As part of the RADAGAST field campaign, the AMF will measure the effects of absorbing aerosols from desert dust in the dry season, and the effects of deep convective clouds and associated moisture loadings on the transmission of atmospheric

  13. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31, 2005 [Facility News] Ancillary Site to Provide Key Data from Africa Bookmark and Share In January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) begins a year-long field campaign in Africa as part of a multi-year international experiment called the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The AMF will be placed at the airport in Niamey, Niger, well within view of the Global Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) geostationary satellite. Cloud and radiative property measurements collected by the AMF

  14. JeffersonSTM09.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS: Measurements of Aerosol Optical and AOS: Measurements of Aerosol Optical and Cloud-forming Properties Cloud-forming Properties Anne Jefferson and John Ogren NOAA Environmental Science Research Laboratory CIRES, University of Colorado ARM STM 2009 Aerosol Observing Systems In-situ surface measurements of aerosol optical, chemical, size, hygroscopic and cloud-forming properties * SGP - ARM central facility Lamont, OK *AMF - Pt Reyes, CA 3/2005 - 9/2005 - Niamey, Niger 12/2005-1/2007 - Murg

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  16. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results from the AMF deployment to Niamey, Niger Tony Slingo Environmental Systems Science Centre University of Reading, UK ARM Science Team meeting, Norfolk, Virginia, March 2008 * Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data and AMMA stations * Linked the ARM Mobile Facility with GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget instrument on Meteosat-8) and AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis), during 2006 * Also with the Dust And Biomass EXperiment (DABEX) in

  17. Identification of a classical mutant in the industrial host Aspergillus niger by systems genetics: LaeA is required for citric acid production and regulates the formation of some secondary metabolites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.; Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

    2015-11-13

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. nigermore » has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. As a result, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations.« less

  18. Aeromagnetic anomalies and discordant lineations beneath the Niger Delta: Implications for new fracture zones and multiple sea-floor spreading directions in the meso-Atlantic' Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babalola, O.O.; Gipson, M. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    An aeromagnetic contour map compiled over shallow water and onshore portions of the Nigerian continental margin, shows several elongate, long-wavelength anomaly closures with some alternating polarity, separated by steep gradient, NE lineations. The lineations are interpreted as new fracture zones or extensions of previously mapped ones. The NE trend in the western delta region is concordant with the fracture zone trends of the deeper Gulf of Guinea. Aeromagnetic lineations of the SE Niger Delta Basin however, discordantly trend ENE. Their termination against the former, is interpreted as evidence of early sea-floor spreading in a ENE-WSW direction in addition to the well documented NE-SW spreading of the Gulf of Guinea and the rest of the meso-Atlantic sea-floor; The geophysical crustal structure indicate the existence of two Early Cretaceous triple junctions beneath the Niger Delta Basin. The two triple-junctions further support the hypothesis that the African continent was a multi-plate system (in the Niger Delta region) during the early opening of the Atlantic.

  19. Expression of the Aspergillus niger InuA gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae permits growth on the plant storage carbohydrate inulin at low enzymatic concentrations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Close, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The plant storage carbohydrate inulin represents an attractive biomass feedstock for fueling industrial scale bioconversion processes due to its low cost, ability for cultivation on arid and semi-arid lands, and amenability to consolidated bioprocessing applications. As a result, increasing efforts are emerging towards engineering industrially relevant microorganisms, such as yeast, to efficiently ferment inulin into high value fuels and chemicals. Although some strains of the industrially relevant yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae can naturally ferment inulin, the efficiency of this process is often supplemented through expression of exogenous inulinase enzymes that externally convert inulin into its more easily fermentable component monomericmore » sugars. Here, the effects of overexpressing the Aspergillus niger InuA inulinase enzyme in an S. cerevisiae strain incapable of endogenously fermenting inulin were evaluated to determine their impact on growth. Expression of the A. niger InuA inulinase enzyme permitted growth on otherwise intractable inulin substrates from both Dahlia tubers and Chicory root. Despite being in the top 10 secreted proteins, growth on inulin was not observed until 120 h post-inoculation and required the addition of 0.1 g fructose/l to initiate enzyme production in the absence of endogenous inulinase activity. High temperature/pressure pre-treatment of inulin prior to fermentation decreased this time to 24 h and removed the need for fructose addition. The pre-growth lag time on untreated inulin was attributed primarily to low enzymatic efficiency, with a maximum value of 0.13 0.02 U InuA/ml observed prior to the peak culture density of 2.65 0.03 g/l. Nevertheless, a minimum excreted enzymatic activity level of only 0.03 U InuA/ml was found to be required for sustained growth under laboratory conditions, suggesting that future metabolic engineering strategies can likely redirect carbon flow away from inulinase production and reorient

  20. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... As the crimping hub can be separated into two parts you can try different creative ways to attach blades to the hub. One of the best blades we ever saw was made from a pizza pie ...

  1. Expression of the Aspergillus niger InuA gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae permits growth on the plant storage carbohydrate inulin at low enzymatic concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The plant storage carbohydrate inulin represents an attractive biomass feedstock for fueling industrial scale bioconversion processes due to its low cost, ability for cultivation on arid and semi-arid lands, and amenability to consolidated bioprocessing applications. As a result, increasing efforts are emerging towards engineering industrially relevant microorganisms, such as yeast, to efficiently ferment inulin into high value fuels and chemicals. Although some strains of the industrially relevant yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae can naturally ferment inulin, the efficiency of this process is often supplemented through expression of exogenous inulinase enzymes that externally convert inulin into its more easily fermentable component monomeric sugars. Here, the effects of overexpressing the Aspergillus niger InuA inulinase enzyme in an S. cerevisiae strain incapable of endogenously fermenting inulin were evaluated to determine their impact on growth. Expression of the A. niger InuA inulinase enzyme permitted growth on otherwise intractable inulin substrates from both Dahlia tubers and Chicory root. Despite being in the top 10 secreted proteins, growth on inulin was not observed until 120 h post-inoculation and required the addition of 0.1 g fructose/l to initiate enzyme production in the absence of endogenous inulinase activity. High temperature/pressure pre-treatment of inulin prior to fermentation decreased this time to 24 h and removed the need for fructose addition. The pre-growth lag time on untreated inulin was attributed primarily to low enzymatic efficiency, with a maximum value of 0.13 0.02 U InuA/ml observed prior to the peak culture density of 2.65 0.03 g/l. Nevertheless, a minimum excreted enzymatic activity level of only 0.03 U InuA/ml was found to be required for sustained growth under laboratory conditions, suggesting that future metabolic engineering strategies can likely redirect carbon flow away from inulinase

  2. Impact of Codes on Potential PVC Duct System Solution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question "Do codes and standards get in the way of high performance?"

  3. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 31, 2009 [Facility News, Publications] African Collaborators Continue Data Analyses from Niamey Bookmark and Share During a recent gathering at the University of Niamey, SGP and African collaborators pause for a quick photo. From left to right: Dr. Zewdu Segele, SGP Site Scientist Postdoc; Professor Ibrah Sanda, Professor of Physics, University of Niamey; Dr. Pete Lamb, SGP Site Scientist; Professor Ben Mohamed, project lead from the University of Niamey; Hama Hamidou, a Niamey

  4. ARM TR-008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of the MWRP. AMF (Niamey) - RFI at Niamey causes frequent spikes in the MWRP data. A shift in the calibration of some channels occurred following an unplanned power outage in June. ...

  5. Niger-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  6. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  7. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  8. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... References Bulk Vertical Velocity Retrieval Comparison for Niamey & Black Forest Germany Composite Retrieved Velocity for 161 Hours updraft downdraft updraft downdraft Lhermitte ...

  9. Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

  10. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the ...

  11. ARM_Overview_black_43.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EUMETSAT NERCUK Met Office BAe 146 aircraft ARM Mobile Facility, deployed at Niamey Airport For further details see the other RADAGAST posters Publications: Miller, M.A. and A....

  12. ARM TR-008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... New solar panels have been shipped to Nauru. AMF (Niamey) - ... The sun was observed in the field of view around solar moon. ... for repair, it is cost effective and far quicker to ...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - arm_2007_slingo.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meeting, Monterey, March 2007 Results from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niamey Results from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niamey and the RADAGAST project Tony Slingo Environmental Systems Science Centre Tony Slingo, Environmental Systems Science Centre University of Reading * with important contributions from: p - Mark Miller and the AMF team - Richard Allan, Nazim Ali Bharmal, Gary Robinson, Jeff Settle (ESSC, UK) - Jim Haywood, Sean Milton and colleagues (UK Met Office) y g ( ) - Peter Lamb and

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-03-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 through December 31, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. For all fixed sites, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2007. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the current deployment in Niamey, Niger, Africa. PYE represents the AMF statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be

  15. Microsoft Word - S03965_FINAL 2014_PLF M&M Plan.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Casing, Sch 40-PVC, 2 in. ID. Hydrated Bentonite Pellets Concrete Seal Concrete Pad Filter ... Casing, Sch 40-PVC, 2 in. ID. Hydrated Bentonite Pellets Concrete Seal Concrete Pad ...

  16. ARM - Value-Added Products (VAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASI, AWR, ENA, FKB, GRW, HFE, MAO, NIM, NSA, PGH, PVC, PYE, SGP, SMT, TWP 2005.03.23 ... Properties AWR, FKB, GRW, HFE, MAO, NIM, NSA, PGH, PVC, PYE, SGP 1996.07.02 2016.09.30 ...

  17. Notice of Violation, Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Issued to Western Allied Mechnical, Inc. related to a PVC Pipe Explosion at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-09-06

    represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period April 1 through June 30, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The third quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. For all fixed sites (especially the TWP locale) and the AMF, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2006.

  19. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Comes the Thunder: Precursors to Local Rainfall in the West African Monsoon Download a printable PDF Submitter: Roeder, L. R., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Dione C, M Lothon, D Badiane, B Campistron, F Couvreau, F Guichard, and S Sall. 2013. "Phenomenology of Sahelian convection observed in Niamey during the early monsoon." Quarterly Journal Royal Meteorological Society, , . ACCEPTED.

  1. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dust Properties Derived from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Data in Niamey E. Kassianov, T. Ackerman, J. Barnard, C. Flynn, and S. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction One of the key uncertainties in the earth's radiation balance is the effect of dust on radiative fluxes (aerosol radiative forcing), which in turn affects climatic processes on both planetary and local scales (e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001; Sokolik et

  2. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background Climatology for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Mobile Facility Deployment in Niamey: Mean Annual Cycle and 2004-2005 Interannual Variability P.J. Lamb and M. Issa Lélé Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies The University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Abstract This study is comprised of two parts. The first part provides the long-term mean annual cycle context for the deployment of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) in

  3. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coast. Teacher background and assessment sheets are provided. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadssee-wind Download Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine This plan shows how...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    organic, physical and analytical chemistry (1) management of radioactive wastes, ... (1) purification (1) pvc (1) radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry ...

  6. DOE/ID-Number

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... 21, 2015 ACRONYMS ASME B&PVC American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CISCC Chloride Induced ...

  7. ARM - Instrument - smps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System (AOS). Locations ARM Mobile Facility MAO S1 Browse Data Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil; MAOS PVC S1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; MAOS retired retired ...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rest of the components are easily found at most hardware stores. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuilding-basic-pvc-wind-turbine Download What Does the Sun Give Us? (5...

  9. Boise State University 2014 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Fairbanks 2016 Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Team roster: Aditya Joshi , Computer Science; Angelina Teal Jonson, Mechanical Engineering; Aubrey Connors, Business ...

  10. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda...

  11. The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sites and an AERI is in operation as part of the ARM mobile facility currently in Niger, Africa. Recent upgrades in AERI instrumentation and enhancements in operational data...

  12. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new, portable atmospheric laboratory with sophisticated instruments and data systems in Niger, Africa, to gain a better understanding of the potential impacts of Saharan dust on...

  13. Preliminary Results of in-situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Optical and Water Uptake Properties from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger Jefferson, Anne NOAA CMDL Ogren, John NOAACMDL Category: Field Campaigns The second...

  14. Newsletter Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    world, including China, Japan, Australia, Niger, Africa, France, and Germany. ... the following results: * High-quality data sets of fair-weather cumulus, stratus, and deep ...

  15. THE GEOMETRY OF DISORDER: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF QUASICRYSTALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scitechservletspurl1015270 http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270 Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...

  16. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    servletspurl1015270","http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270", "Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_CINDY_VESTERGAARD_NMMSS May 2014 Prez...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    with development of triangular relationship between France, Niger, and China. - Bilats with India and China - Bilats with transit countries Inventory Control - Australia ...

  18. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject organic acids (2) aspergillus niger (1) bulk segregant analysis (1) filamentous fungi (1) gene regulation (1) genome sequencing (1) laea, ...

  20. Identification of a classical mutant in the industrial host Aspergillu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Since A. niger has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying ...

  1. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    series of retrieved dust properties, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. Lidar data survey Lidar profiles: fully-corrected MPL attenuated backscatter...

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-10-08

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1 - September 30, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF has been deployed to China, but the data have not yet been released. The fourth quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. The average exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. HFE represents the AMF statistics for the Shouxian, China, deployment in 2008. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-05-22

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period January 1 - March 31, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation this quarter. The second quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. The average as well as the individual site values exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-01-24

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 - December 31, 2007, for the fixed sites and the mobile site. The AMF has been deployed to Germany and this was the final operational quarter. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. Although the average exceeded our goal this quarter, a series of severe weather events (i.e., widespread ice storms) disrupted utility services, which affected the SGP performance measures. Some instruments were covered in ice and power and data communication lines were down for more than 10 days in some areas of Oklahoma and Kansas, which resulted in lost data at the SGP site. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. The AMF completed its mission at the end of this quarter in Haselback, Germany (FKB designation). NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE

  5. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  6. BBHRP Breakout Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nazim Ali Bharmal, Comparisons of measured and calculated divergence over Niamey 1:15-1:30 Zheng Liu, Heating rates from CloudSat/ARM 1:30-1:45 Mandana Khaiyer, Improvement of Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes over ARM Domains 1:45-2:00 Leslie Moy, Clear and All Sky TOA OLR Comparisons between RTM Calculations and CERES Observations 2:00-2:15 Lazaros Oreopoulos, Comparison of radiative transfer codes via BBHRP 2:15-2:30 Sally McFarlane, BBHRP Testbed for Cloud Retrieval Evaluation

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nazim Ali Bharmal, Comparisons of measured and calculated divergence over Niamey 1:15-1:30 Zheng Liu, Heating rates from CloudSat/ARM 1:30-1:45 Mandana Khaiyer, Improvement of Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes over ARM Domains 1:45-2:00 Leslie Moy, Clear and All Sky TOA OLR Comparisons between RTM Calculations and CERES Observations 2:00-2:15 Lazaros Oreopoulos, Comparison of radiative transfer codes via BBHRP 2:15-2:30 Sally McFarlane, BBHRP Testbed for Cloud Retrieval Evaluation

  8. Pneumatic Conveyance Device - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Height: 70 feet plus 1 inch diameter nozzle connected to 100 ft. of 2 inch diameter PVC hose - dust collector and barrel Nozzle annulus air supply and flow rate: 50 SCFM at 80...

  9. ARM - Datastreams - ecmwfflx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and others) retired PGH X1 Browse Data External Data (satellites and others) retired PVC X1 Browse Data External Data (satellites and others) retired PYE X1 Browse Data...

  10. ARM - Datastreams - ecmwfvar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and others) retired PGH X1 Browse Data External Data (satellites and others) retired PVC X1 Browse Data External Data (satellites and others) retired PYE X1 Browse Data...

  11. ARM - Instrument - sashe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF1 PGH M1 Browse Data ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired retired Originating...

  12. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc.- WEA-2009-02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Issued to Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  13. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Issued to Western Allied Mechanical, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  14. Solar collector panels (process-method). Rainwater collection and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, J.W.

    1981-10-15

    A process for producing panels for solar heating of potable water is described. The panels have PVC tubing flat-coiled into square or rectangular shapes. Also described is a cistern for collecting and storing rainwater. (LEW)

  15. ARM - Datastreams - tsiskyimage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Point Reyes, CA retired SBS M1 Browse Data Steamboat Springs CO, Valley Site; AMF2 retired TMP M1...

  16. ARM - Datastreams - skyrad20s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Point Reyes, CA retired SBS M1 Browse Data Steamboat Springs CO, Valley Site; AMF2 retired...

  17. ARM - Instrument - ccn

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Point Reyes, CA retired SBS S2 Browse Data Browse Plots Steamboat Springs CO, Christie Peak...

  18. ARM - Datastreams - nfov2ch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  19. ARM - Instrument - mwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plots ARIES Observatory, Nainital, Uttarkhand, India; AMF1 retired PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF1 retired PYE M1 Browse Data Browse Plots Point Reyes, CA...

  20. Image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 8 to, lining with a membrane material (PVC, hypalon, ... at the surface at the time of mixing and again at the ... They must have residence times in the Rustler sulfate units ...

  1. Evaluation Project 4492

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Sandia National LaboratoriesNew Mexico (SNLNM) proposes to install 7 new storm-water ... A 12-inch diameter PVC pipe would be placed in the ground to house the storm water ...

  2. ARM - Instrument - tracegas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Island, Azores, Portugal ARM Mobile Facility MAO S1 Browse Data Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil; MAOS PVC S1 Browse Data Browse Plots Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; MAOS retired...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rev AC05 RL01830 TRN US201111 http www osti gov scitech servlets purl Comparative genomics of citric acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC versus enzyme producing CBS working...

  4. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adieu to Niger, Guten Tag to Germany Bookmark and Share The AMF decommissioning team poses ... two weeks, the AMF decommissioning team packaged the AMF for subsequent uplift to Germany. ...

  5. Why is it so difficult to grow fuelwood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noronha, R.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of successful and unsuccessful woodlot programmes are cited from China, Korea, India, Tanzania and Niger and the role of social factors examined. Effective village forestry involves social, cultural, economic and local political factors. (Refs. 15).

  6. Enhanced citric acid production in aspergillus with inactivated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Provided herein are fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, having a dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase (Alg3) gene genetic inactivation, increased expression ...

  7. Category:Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. B Benin Burkina Faso C Cape Verde G Gambia Ghana G cont. Guinea Guinea-Bissau I Ivory Coast L Liberia M Mali N Niger Nigeria...

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Embodied Energy of Commercial Windows in the U.S. Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent Window Type (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) Aluminium 0.973 190.1 PVC-clad Wood 0.447 88.3 Wood 0.435 90.9 Vinyl (PVC) 0.557 111.7 Curtainwall Viewable Glazing 0.233 66.1 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Embodied Energy: Energy use includes extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and disposal of each material. Assumptions: Low rise building. Values are general estimations for the U.S. 60 year building

  9. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  10. Wind Tunnel Specifications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Tunnel Specifications Wind Tunnel Specifications This document shows the basic wind tunnel configuration. Please use these specifications when designing test turbines for the Collegiate Wind Competition. Wind Tunnel Specifications (191.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Collegiate Wind Competition 2014 Rules and Regulations Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 Rules and Regulations Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine

  11. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  12. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  13. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  14. FBP-DOE PPPO 17Aug2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... to grow U.S. 3.1% South Africa 0.9% Niger 6.8% Others 4.0% Canada 15.6% Australia 10.6% Namibia 7.3% Russia 5.9% Uzbekistan 4.2% Kazakhstan 37.6% China 2.5% Ukraine 1.5% 14 U ...

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Embodied Energy of Commercial Wood-Based Roof Assemblies in the U.S. Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) Glulam Joist with Plank Decking with EPDM membrane 0.16 11.05 with PVC membrane 0.25 20.70 with Modified bitumen membrane 0.25 21.78 with 4-Ply built-up roofing 0.43 41.49 with Steel Roofing 0.10 10.05 Wood I-Joist with WSP Decking with EPDM membrane 0.14 10.10 with PVC membrane 0.23 19.75 with Modified bitumen membrane 0.24 20.81 with 4-Ply built-up roofing

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Embodied Energy of Other Commercial Roof Assemblies in the U.S. Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) Precast Hollow-Core Concrete EPDM Membrane 0.17 21.23 PVC Membrane 0.26 30.89 Modified Bitumen Membrane 0.26 31.94 4-Ply Built-Up Roofing System 0.44 51.68 Steel Roofing System 0.11 20.24 Precast Double-T EPDM Membrane 0.15 17.42 PVC Membrane 0.24 27.05 Modified Bitumen Membrane 0.25 28.13 4-Ply Built-Up Roofing System 0.43 47.86 Steel Roofing System 0.10 16.42

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  18. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.J.; Cheng, S.C.J.; Tanis, R.

    1997-12-31

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project.

  19. Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa January 18, 2006 - 10:47am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is placing a new, portable atmospheric laboratory with sophisticated instruments and data systems in Niger, Africa, to gain a better understanding of the potential impacts of Saharan dust on global climate. Dust from Africa's

  20. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal, is 156 ft long and

  1. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

  2. Notice of Violation, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - WEA-2009-01 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - WEA-2009-01 Notice of Violation, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - WEA-2009-01 September 3, 2009 Issued to Stanford University related to a PVC Pipe Explosion at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory On September 3, 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health, Safety and Security's Office of Enforcement issued a Final Notice of Violation (WEA-2009-01) to Stanford University for violations of 10 C.F.R. 851

  3. Monitoring the fate of chlorine from MSW sampling through combustion. Part II. Combustion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domalski, E.S.; Churney, K.L.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Parris, R.M.; Chesler, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion measurements were carried out in a multi-kilogram capacity flow calorimeter on cellulose and cellulose/sand samples in 100% oxygen and several oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. Some measurements were made on cellulose/sand samples, which had 1 mass % of polyvinylchloride (PVC) as part of their composition, to study the conditions related to the formation/destruction of chlorinated organic compounds as combustion products. Qualitative identifications of a significant variety of chlorinated organic compounds have been made. 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Combustion characterization of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Lu, Huagang; Hyatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental thermal behavior of five materials (Illinois coal No. 6, Kentucky coal No. 9, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose, newspaper) has been investigated using the TGA/FTIR/MS system under the condition of combustion. The system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCI, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds during co-firing of coal with refuse derived fuels.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  8. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  9. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  10. Dust control in rubber and plastic plants. January 1973-March 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-March 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the prevention of employee respiratory and epidermal ailments due to contaminated atmospheres in rubber and plastics plants. Monitor techniques and contamination removal systems are described for such dust-emitting materials as colorants, glass fibers, ceramics, rock wool, PVC, rubbers, asbestos, lubricants, stabilizers, and fillers. Respiratory health-hazard test results, developments in dust controlling devices, and fire and explosion hazards are also examined. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 70 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  12. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-05-31

    The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

  13. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  14. Enhanced citric acid production in aspergillus with inactivated asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 3 (ALG3), and/or increased laeA expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-12-08

    Provided herein are fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, having a dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase (Alg3) gene genetic inactivation, increased expression of a loss of aflR expression A (Lae), or both. In some examples, such mutants have several phenotypes, including an increased production of citric acid relative to the parental strain. Methods of using the disclosed fungi to make citric acid are also provided, as are compositions and kits including the disclosed fungi.

  15. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  16. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the

  17. Structural Analysis of N- and O-glycans Using ZIC-HILIC/Dialysis Coupled to NMR Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Yi; Feng, Ju; Deng, Shuang; Cao, Li; Zhang, Qibin; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Zhaorui; Jiang, Yuxuan; Zink, Erika M.; Baker, Scott E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hu, Jian Z.; Wu, Si

    2014-11-19

    Protein glycosylation, an important and complex post-translational modification (PTM), is involved in various biological processes including the receptor-ligand and cell-cell interaction, and plays a crucial role in many biological functions. However, little is known about the glycan structures of important biological complex samples, and the conventional glycan enrichment strategy (i.e., size-exclusion column [SEC] separation,) prior to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection is time-consuming and tedious. In this study, we employed SEC, Zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC), and ZIC-HILIC coupled with dialysis strategies to enrich the glycopeptides from the pronase E digests of RNase B, followed by NMR analysis of the glycoconjugate. Our results suggest that the ZIC-HILIC enrichment coupled with dialysis is the most efficient, which was thus applied to the analysis of biological complex sample, the pronase E digest of the secreted proteins from the fungi Aspergillus niger. The NMR spectra revealed that the secreted proteins from A. niger contain both N-linked glycans with a high-mannose core and O-linked glycans bearing mannose and glucose with 1->3 and 1->6 linkages. In all, our study provides compelling evidence that ZIC-HILIC separation coupled to dialysis is superior to the commonly used SEC separation to prepare glycopeptides for the downstream NMR analysis, which could greatly facilitate the future NMR-based glycoproteomics research.

  18. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  19. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  20. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsalves, John M.

    1997-01-01

    A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

  1. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  2. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Soden, Jerry M.; Walraven, Jeremy A.; Pimentel, Alejandro A.

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  3. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SPRING ENERGIZED C-RINGS FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS CONTAINING TRITIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2007-10-23

    This paper describes the sealing performance testing and results of silver-plated inconel Spring Energized C-Rings used for tritium containment in radioactive shipping packagings. The test methodology used follows requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) summarized in ASME Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC), Section V, Article 10, Appendix IX (Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Hood Technique) and recommendations by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) described in ANSI N14.5-1997. The tests parameters bound the predicted structural and thermal responses from conditions defined in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71. The testing includes an evaluation of the effects of pressure, temperature, flange deflection, surface roughness, permeation, closure torque, torque sequencing and re-use on performance of metal C-Ring seals.

  4. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannell, Gary L.; Huth, Ralph J.; Hallum, Randall T.

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  5. GTA Welding Research and Development for Plutonium Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessions, C.E.

    2002-02-21

    This paper discusses the development of two welding systems that are used to contain actinide metals and oxides for long term storage. The systems are termed the bagless transfer system (BTS) and the outer container welder (OCW) system. The BTS is so named because it permits the containment of actinides without a polymeric package (i.e., bag). The development of these two systems was directed by Department of Energy Standard 3013, hereafter referred to as DOE 3013. This document defines the product and container requirements. In addition, it references national codes and standards for leak rates, ANSI N14.5, and design, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (BandPVC).

  6. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  8. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsalves, J.M.

    1997-09-30

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

  9. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings. 6 figs.

  10. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Hardee, Harry C.; Reynolds, Gerald D.; Steinfort, Terry D.

    1992-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers arranged in a vertical string. The transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings.

  11. Recent progress on preparation and properties of nanocomposites from recycled polymers: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zare, Yasser

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The article determines the current status of nanotechnology in polymer recycling. ► The addition of nanofillers to waste polymers, composites and blends is discussed. ► The future challenges in polymer recycling using nanoparticles are explained. - Abstract: Currently, the growing consumption of polymer products creates the large quantities of waste materials resulting in public concern in the environment and people life. Nanotechnology is assumed the important technology in the current century. Recently, many researchers have tried to develop this new science for polymer recycling. In this article, the application of different nanofillers in the recycled polymers such as PET, PP, HDPE, PVC, etc. and the attributed composites and blends is studied. The morphological, mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of prepared nanocomposites as well as the future challenges are extensively discussed. The present article determines the current status of nanotechnology in the polymer recycling which guide the future studies in this attractive field.

  12. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  13. Non-intrusive, high-resolution, real-time, two-dimensional imaging of multiphase materials using acoustic array sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassiède, M.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-04-15

    Two parallel multi-element ultrasonic acoustic arrays combined with sets of focal laws for acoustic signal generation and a classical tomographic inversion algorithm are used to generate real-time two-dimensional micro seismic acoustic images of multiphase materials. Proof of concept and calibration measurements were performed for single phase and two phase liquids, uniform polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates, and aluminum cylinders imbedded in PVC plates. Measurement artefacts, arising from the limited range of viewing angles, and the compromise between data acquisition rate and image quality are discussed. The angle range of scanning and the image resolution were varied, and the effects on the quality of the reproduction of the speed of sound profiles of model solids and liquids with known geometries and compositions were analysed in detail. The best image quality results were obtained for a scanning angle range of [−35°, 35°] at a step size of 2.5° post processed to generate images on a 40 μm square grid. The data acquisition time for high quality images with a 30 mm × 40 mm view field is 10 min. Representation of two-phase solids with large differences in speed of sound between phases and where one phase is dispersed in the form of macroscopic objects (greater than 1 mm in diameter) proved to be the most difficult to image accurately. Liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase boundaries, in micro porous solids by contrast, were more readily defined. Displacement of air by water and water by heptane in natural porous limestone provides illustrative kinetic examples. Measurement results with these realistic cases demonstrate the feasibility of the technique to monitor in real time and on the micrometer length scale local composition and flow of organic liquids in inorganic porous media, one of many envisioned engineering applications. Improvement of data acquisition rate is an area for future collaborative study.

  14. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Anthony James

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  15. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  16. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  17. An environmental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geerling, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

  18. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  19. Challenges in Whole-Genome Annotation of Pyrosequenced Eukaryotic Genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-04-17

    Pyrosequencing technologies such as 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina vastly lower the cost of nucleotide sequencing compared to the traditional Sanger method, and thus promise to greatly expand the number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. However, the new technologies also bring new challenges such as shorter reads and new kinds and higher rates of sequencing errors, which complicate genome assembly and gene prediction. At JGI we are deploying 454 technology for the sequencing and assembly of ever-larger eukaryotic genomes. Here we describe our first whole-genome annotation of a purely 454-sequenced fungal genome that is larger than a yeast (>30 Mbp). The pezizomycotine (filamentous ascomycote) Aspergillus carbonarius belongs to the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex, members of which are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as agricultural toxigens. Application of a modified version of the standard JGI Annotation Pipeline has so far predicted ~;;10k genes. ~;;12percent of these preliminary annotations suffer a potential frameshift error, which is somewhat higher than the ~;;9percent rate in the Sanger-sequenced and conventionally assembled and annotated genome of fellow Aspergillus section Nigri member A. niger. Also,>90percent of A. niger genes have potential homologs in the A. carbonarius preliminary annotation. Weconclude, and with further annotation and comparative analysis expect to confirm, that 454 sequencing strategies provide a promising substrate for annotation of modestly sized eukaryotic genomes. We will also present results of annotation of a number of other pyrosequenced fungal genomes of bioenergy interest.

  20. NOvA detector technology with intial performance from the surface prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muether, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  1. Intial performance from the NOvA surface prototype detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muether, M.; ,

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  2. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  3. Co-firing High Sulfur Coal with Refuse Derived Fuels. Technical Progress Report {number_sign}11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.; Lloyd, William G.

    1997-05-31

    The objective of this quarter of study was to prepare fuel pellets containing PVC, newspaper and plastics to be co-fired with coal in the AFBC combustor. The Western Kentucky University atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system requires the fuel to fall from a bunker into a lock-hopper, and from there into a mixing box where the fuel is auger-fed under pressure into the bottom of the fluidized bed. The fuel must flow freely out of the bunker and through the lock- hopper for proper feeding into the combustor. In order for the fuel to continuously fall through these units and into the mixing box during combustion, the density of the fuel and the size of the particles must meet certain requirements. The particles must be no larger than 3/8 inches in diameter and must have a density approaching that of coal. Loose materials such as sawdust, shredded paper products and most shredded plastics do not feed properly in the WKU AFBC system. Bridging and blockage of feed chutes result, even with constant vibration of parts of the feed mechanism. It is not possible to run the AFBC system powered solely by these loose materials.

  4. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  5. Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S.; Cappis, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent.

  6. Task 3 -- Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O.; Aulich, T.R.

    1997-09-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center is developing a technology for the thermal decomposition of high-organic-content, radionuclide-contaminated mixed wastes and spent (radioactive) ion-exchange resins from the nuclear power industry that will enable the separation and concentration of radionuclides as dry particulate solids and the generation of nonradioactive condensable and noncondensable gas products. Successful application of the technology will enable a significant volume reduction of radioactive waste and the production of an inexpensively disposable nonradioactive organic product. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate the commercial viability of a continuous thermal decomposition process that can fulfill the following requirements: separate radionuclides from radioactive waste streams containing a variety of types and levels of polymers, chlorinated species, and other organics, including rubber, oils, resins, and cellulosic-based materials; concentrate radionuclides in a homogeneous, dry particulate product that can be recovered, handled, and disposed of efficiently and safely; separate and recover any chlorine present (as PVC, chlorinated solvents, or inorganic chlorine) in the contaminated mixed-waste stream; and yield a nonradioactive, low-chlorine-content, condensable organic product that can be economically disposed. Progress is described.

  7. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-02-17

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muonmore » counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The mechanical setup, which allows access to the electronics for maintenance, is also described in addition to tests of the modules' response and integrity. As a result, the completed Unitary Cell has measured a number of air showers of which a first analysis of a sample event is included here.« less

  8. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  9. Elemental characterization of LL-MA radioactive waste packages with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Toure, M.; El Kanawati, W.; Eleon, C.

    2011-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R and D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages with analytical methods and with non-destructive nuclear measurements. This paper concerns fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique (APT), which brings 3D information about the waste material composition. The characterization of volume elements filled with iron, water, aluminium, and PVC in bituminized and fibre concrete LL-MA waste packages has been investigated with MCNP [1] and MODAR data analysis software [2]. APT provides usable information about major elements presents in the volumes of interest. However, neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei spreads the tagged neutron beam out of the targeted volume towards surrounding materials, reducing spatial selectivity. Simulation shows that small less than 1 L targets can be characterised up to the half-radius of a 225 L bituminized drum, the matrix of which is very rich in hydrogen. Deeper characterization in concrete is possible but limited by counting statistics due to photon attenuation in this dense matrix and, unless large inspection volumes are considered, by the lack of spatial selectivity of the tagged neutron beam due to neutron scattering. (authors)

  10. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  11. Cleareye In-Ground and In-Concrete DIV Inspections: FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Morra, Marino; Knopik, Clint D.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Jones, Anthony M.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Good, Morris S.; Sorensen, Jerry B.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2012-01-23

    This report summarizes the results of a series of feasibility testing studies for in-ground and in-concrete imaging/detection technologies including radar imaging and acoustic time-of flight method. The objectives of this project are: (1) Design Information Verification (DIV) Tools for In-Concrete Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using holographic radar imaging (HRI), radar imaging, and acoustic time-of-flight (TOF) non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate and identify pipes and voids embedded in standard-density and high-density concrete walls that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; (2) DIV Tools for In-Ground Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using HRI and radar imaging non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate, and identify objects buried at various depths made of various materials (metal, plastic, wood, and concrete) and representing geometries that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; and (3) Based on the results of the studies, recommend the next steps needed to realize fieldable tools for in-concrete and in-ground inspections (including detection of deeply buried polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipes) that employ the technologies shown to be feasible.

  12. Radiation Resistance of XLPE Nano-dielectrics for Advanced Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C; Polyzos, Georgios; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Leonard, Keith J; Sauers, Isidor

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in nuclear reactor safety, particularly as commercial reactors are approaching 40 years service and lifetime extensions are considered, as well as for new reactor building projects around the world. The materials that are currently used in cabling for instrumentation, reactor control, and communications include cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. While these materials show suitable radiation tolerance in laboratory tests, failures before their useful lifetime occur due to the combined environmental effects of radiation, temperature and moisture, or operation under abnormal conditions. In addition, the extended use of commercial reactors beyond their original service life places a greater demand on insulating materials to perform beyond their current ratings in these nuclear environments. Nanocomposite materials that are based on XLPE and other epoxy resins incorporating TiO2, MgO, SiO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles are being fabricated using a novel in-situ method established at ORNL to demonstrate materials with increased resistance to radiation. As novel nanocomposite dielectric materials are developed, characterization of the non-irradiated and irradiated nanodielectrics will lead to a knowledge base that allow for dielectric materials to be engineered with specific nanoparticle additions for maximum benefit to wide-variety of radiation environments found in nuclear reactors. This paper presents the initial findings on the development of XLPE-based SiO2 nano-composite dielectrics in the context of electrical performance and radiation degradation.

  13. Thermal depolymerization of plastics - PDU testing. Task 15. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The process development unit (PDU) test program is part of an ongoing effort at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to expand the base of knowledge for the thermal depolymerization of plastics process. This phase of the development effort, initiated after successful completion of a bench-scale program, has concentrated on maximizing liquid yield. The purposes of the PDU program were (1) to demonstrate the process on a commercially scalable unit, (2) to produce quantities of product that could be used to initiate discussions with potential end users, and (3) to gather engineering and yield data. Experimentation consisted of eleven test points on the PDU and seven on the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) bench-scale unit. Initial PDU tests (PO35-PO39) were carried out using a base blend, which consists of 60% high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 20% polypropylene (PP), and 20% polystyrene (PS) virgin resin pellets. Test PO39 used base blend with 5% polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The base blend decomposed to produce a flowable liquid, with liquid yields ranging from 33% to 45%. The next series of tests, PO40-PO44, used a postconsumer plastics feed. This material did not decompose as readily as the base blend and formed a very waxy, heavy liquid, with {open_quotes}liquid{close_quotes} yields ranging from 18% to 63% (low liquid yields are the result of using excess air in the natural gas burner in some tests in an attempt to increase gas residence time).

  14. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  15. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  16. Application of nonmarine genetic sequence stratigraphic concepts to reservoir characterization in the fluvial-lacustrine Westbourne Formation, Eromanga basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H.; Yeh, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Westbourne Formation identified five chronostratigraphic genetic units each separated by thin, but laterally extensive, shale markers interpreted as maximum lacustrine flooding surfaces. The flooding surfaces were primarily identified by their lateral persistence and high gamma-ray log response, but marked changes in bedding architecture across these surfaces also facilitated their identification. The changes in bedding architecture reflect reorganization of the depositional systems from one depositional episode to the next. The Westbourne Formation is interpreted as a series of fluvially-dominated lacustrine delta sequences. Although the genetic units generally display lobate to digitate sand body geometries, sediment transport directions between successive units is highly variable. The complex morphology of the distributary network and accompanying high degree of facies variability indicates shallow lacustrine sedimentation similar to that in the modern inland Niger River delta which provides a modern analog. Westbourne fluid flow trends were established by mapping water encroachment during field development, observing differential depletion in repeat formation test data, and monitoring production response to water shut-off workovers. The fluid flow trends emphasized the highly layered character of the Westbourne reservoirs and integrating these trends with the geologic architecture defined stratigraphic controls on Westbourne flow units. The stratigraphic framework proved essential for unraveling sediment transport patterns and thus, predicting reservoir sandstone distribution. The stratigraphic framework also provided the key to understanding water encroachment and pressure a depletion which, when combined with predicted sandstone geometries, identified several step-out drilling and recompletion opportunities.

  17. Application of nonmarine genetic sequence stratigraphic concepts to reservoir characterization in the fluvial-lacustrine Westbourne Formation, Eromanga basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H.; Yeh, J.

    1996-12-31

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Westbourne Formation identified five chronostratigraphic genetic units each separated by thin, but laterally extensive, shale markers interpreted as maximum lacustrine flooding surfaces. The flooding surfaces were primarily identified by their lateral persistence and high gamma-ray log response, but marked changes in bedding architecture across these surfaces also facilitated their identification. The changes in bedding architecture reflect reorganization of the depositional systems from one depositional episode to the next. The Westbourne Formation is interpreted as a series of fluvially-dominated lacustrine delta sequences. Although the genetic units generally display lobate to digitate sand body geometries, sediment transport directions between successive units is highly variable. The complex morphology of the distributary network and accompanying high degree of facies variability indicates shallow lacustrine sedimentation similar to that in the modern inland Niger River delta which provides a modern analog. Westbourne fluid flow trends were established by mapping water encroachment during field development, observing differential depletion in repeat formation test data, and monitoring production response to water shut-off workovers. The fluid flow trends emphasized the highly layered character of the Westbourne reservoirs and integrating these trends with the geologic architecture defined stratigraphic controls on Westbourne flow units. The stratigraphic framework proved essential for unraveling sediment transport patterns and thus, predicting reservoir sandstone distribution. The stratigraphic framework also provided the key to understanding water encroachment and pressure a depletion which, when combined with predicted sandstone geometries, identified several step-out drilling and recompletion opportunities.

  18. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  19. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between110?3and110?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.moreAdditionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-110-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.110?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 312, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.less

  20. Stormwater/washwater treatment at petroleum bulk transfer facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilcote, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Aerated bioreactors that incorporate submerged, stationary, fixed-film biological treatment technology are ideal systems for treating stormwater/washwater flows containing biodegradable petroleum hydrocarbons. They present a small footprint. are resistant to shock loads, require minimal operator attention, generate a minimal amount of sloughed biomass, and are inexpensive to operate. The characteristics of the bioreactor include multiple cells to maximize performance. The multiple-cell configuration produces dispersed plug-flow hydraulics which, for first-order biodegradation kinetics, significantly improves the effluent quality over that produced from a single cell with the same total volume. Positive-displacement blowers are used to provide aeration via a fine-bubble, self-cleaning diffuser assembly located at the base of each cell. The cells are filled with structured PVC packing which provides 30 sq.ft. of surface area per cubic foot of reactor volume (95% void space). Microorganisms attach to this plastic surface and provide the biofilm for treatment. This arrangement allows a high concentration of microorganisms to exist in the reactor, which minimizes reactor volume. Nutrients in the form of a simple liquid fertilizer solution are mixed with the influence to provide appropriate levels of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbial metabolism. A case study from a petroleum bulk transfer facility shows the effectiveness of this technology for treating stormwater and washwater containing a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons. Removal efficiencies for the gasoline range of organics typically exceeded 99 percent. A typical capital cost for the full-scale treatment system was $73,000, with operating costs estimated at $0.85/1000 gallons treated.

  1. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Csmore » + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 − 3 and 1 × 10 − 4  M+ , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5  M+ , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 − 6  M+ , and a response slope of 57.7 mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  2. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  3. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  5. Neutron counting and gamma spectroscopy with PVT detectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean James; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2011-06-01

    Radiation portals normally incorporate a dedicated neutron counter and a gamma-ray detector with at least some spectroscopic capability. This paper describes the design and presents characterization data for a detection system called PVT-NG, which uses large polyvinyl toluene (PVT) detectors to monitor both types of radiation. The detector material is surrounded by polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which emits high-energy gamma rays following neutron capture reactions. Assessments based on high-energy gamma rays are well suited for the detection of neutron sources, particularly in border security applications, because few isotopes in the normal stream of commerce have significant gamma ray yields above 3 MeV. Therefore, an increased count rate for high-energy gamma rays is a strong indicator for the presence of a neutron source. The sensitivity of the PVT-NG sensor to bare {sup 252}Cf is 1.9 counts per second per nanogram (cps/ng) and the sensitivity for {sup 252}Cf surrounded by 2.5 cm of polyethylene is 2.3 cps/ng. The PVT-NG sensor is a proof-of-principal sensor that was not fully optimized. The neutron detector sensitivity could be improved, for instance, by using additional moderator. The PVT-NG detectors and associated electronics are designed to provide improved resolution, gain stability, and performance at high-count rates relative to PVT detectors in typical radiation portals. As well as addressing the needs for neutron detection, these characteristics are also desirable for analysis of the gamma-ray spectra. Accurate isotope identification results were obtained despite the common impression that the absence of photopeaks makes data collected by PVT detectors unsuitable for spectroscopic analysis. The PVT detectors in the PVT-NG unit are used for both gamma-ray and neutron detection, so the sensitive volume exceeds the volume of the detection elements in portals that use dedicated components to detect each type of radiation.

  6. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  7. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K. Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  8. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M.; Balthazar, José M.; Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  9. Geological and environmental remote sensing for international petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    Remote sensing allows the petroleum industry to make better and quicker interpretations of geological and environmental conditions in areas of present and future operations. Often remote sensing (including aerial photographs) is required because existing maps are out-of-date, too small of scale, or provide only limited information. Implementing remote sensing can lead to lower project costs and reduced risk. The same satellite and airborne data can be used effectively for both geological and environmental applications. For example, earth scientists can interpret new lithologic, structural, and geomorphic information from near-infrared and radar imagery in terrains as diverse as barren desert and tropical jungle. Environmental applications with these and other imagery include establishing baselines, assessing impact by documenting changes through time, and mapping land-use, habitat, and vegetation. Higher resolution sensors provide an up-to-date overview of onshore and offshore petroleum facilities, whereas sensors capable of oblique viewing can be used to generate topographic maps. Geological application in Yemen involved merging Landsat TM and SPOT imagery to obtain exceptional lithologic discrimination. In the Congo, a topographic map to plan field operations was interpreted from the overlapping radar strips. Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT, and Russian satellite images with new aerial photographs are being used in the Tengiz supergiant oil field of Kazakhstan to help establish an environmental baseline, generate a base map, locate wells, plan facilities, and support a geographical information system (GIS). In the Niger delta, Landsat TM and SPOT are being used to plan pipeline routes and seismic lines, and to monitor rapid shoreline changes and population growth. Accurate coastlines, facility locations, and shoreline types are being extracted from satellite images for use in oil spill models.

  10. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary; Friedman, Warren

    2007-08-01

    As part of the HUD American Healthy Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m2 in the bedroom plus 2 m2 in the living room of a nationally representative 1096 homes in the USA using the Mitest sampler. Five mg of sieved (300 pore, nylon mesh) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR for the 36 EPA Mold Panel Species. On this basis, an environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) was created with values ranging from about -10 to 20 (lowest to highest). In order to try to reduce the cost of this analysis, the number of test species was reduced by selecting only those species with a national average concentration of 30 cell equivalents (CE) per mg dust or greater. Only 19 of 36 species met this criterion. (In 40% of the homes, an additional 46 species were quantified from the same dust sample. All of these species had average concentrations less than 30 CE per mg dust.) These 19 species were then categorized into two groups based on their coefficient of variation (CV). If the CV was > 9, the mold was placed in Category 1 (10/19) and the other molds were placed in Category 2 (9/19). Using these Categories, the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of three Category 2 molds (C. herbarum, A. alternata and C. cladosporioides Type 1) was subtracted from the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of the ten Category 1 molds (Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amsteldoami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum and Wallemia sebi). Assembling these values for the 1096 AHHS homes from lowest to highest produced the American relative moldiness index (ARMI). The correlation between the ERMI and ARMI values was 0.88. The ERMI or ARMI scales may be useful as a standard for mold exposure estimates in epidemiological studies.

  11. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  12. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS

  13. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  14. Technical Review Report for the Model 9978-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00002, Revision 1, March 2009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, M

    2009-03-06

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), on the 'Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), Model 9978 B(M)F-96', Revision 1, March 2009 (S-SARP-G-00002). The Model 9978 Package complies with 10 CFR 71, and with 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material-1996 Edition (As Amended, 2000)-Safety Requirements', International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9978 Packaging is designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B&PVC). The review presented in this TRR was performed using the methods outlined in Revision 3 of the DOE's 'Packaging Review Guide (PRG) for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages'. The format of the SARP follows that specified in Revision 2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 7.9, i.e., 'Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packages for Radioactive Material'. Although the two documents are similar in their content, they are not identical. Formatting differences have been noted in this TRR, where appropriate. The Model 9978 Packaging is a single containment package, using a 5-inch containment vessel (5CV). It uses a nominal 35-gallon drum package design. In comparison, the Model 9977 Packaging uses a 6-inch containment vessel (6CV). The Model 9977 and Model 9978 Packagings were developed concurrently, and they were referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Material Package, Version 1 (GPFP). Both packagings use General Plastics FR-3716 polyurethane foam as insulation and as impact limiters. The 5CV is used as the Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) in the Model 9975-96 Packaging. The Model 9975-96 Packaging also has the 6CV as its Secondary Containment Vessel (SCV). In comparison, the Model 9975