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Sample records for ngtdm regions reflective

  1. Seismic Reflection Results: Stewart Gulch Region, Boise, Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Seismic Reflection Results: Stewart Gulch Region, Boise, Idaho Report Prepared for The Terteling) Boise State University Boise, Idaho 83725 Technical Report BSU CGISS 96-04 1 December 1996 #12;SEISMIC REFLECTION RESULTS: STEWART GULCH REGION, BOISE, IDAHO 1 SEISMIC REFLECTION RESULTS: STEWART GULCH REGION

  2. Model documentation natural gas transmission and distribution model (NGTDM) of the national energy modeling system. Volume II: Model developer`s report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-03

    To partially fulfill the requirements for {open_quotes}Model Acceptance{close_quotes} as stipulated in EIA Standard 91-01-01 (effective February 3, 1991), the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting has conducted tests of the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) for the specific purpose of validating the forecasting model. This volume of the model documentation presents the results of {open_quotes}one-at-a-time{close_quotes} sensitivity tests conducted in support of this validation effort. The test results are presented in the following forms: (1) Tables of important model outputs for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented with respect to change in each input from the reference case; (2) Tables of percent changes from base case results for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (3) Tables of conditional sensitivities (percent change in output/percent change in input) for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (4) Finally, graphs presenting the percent change from base case results for each year of the forecast period are presented for selected key outputs. To conduct the sensitivity tests, two main assumptions are made in order to test the performance characteristics of the model itself and facilitate the understanding of the effects of the changes in the key input variables to the model on the selected key output variables: (1) responses to the amount demanded do not occur since there are no feedbacks of inputs from other NEMS models in the stand-alone NGTDM run. (2) All the export and import quantities from and to Canada and Mexico, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and exports are held fixed (i.e., there are no changes in imports and exports between the reference case and the sensitivity cases) throughout the forecast period.

  3. DIFFRACTION, REFRACTION, AND REFLECTION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED DURING ITS INTERACTIONS WITH REMOTE ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu; Zhao Ruijuan; Tian Zhanjun; Su Jiangtao; Li Hui; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2013-08-20

    We present observations of the diffraction, refraction, and reflection of a global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave propagating in the solar corona. These intriguing phenomena are observed when the wave interacts with two remote active regions, and together they exhibit properties of an EUV wave. When the wave approached AR11465, it became weaker and finally disappeared in the active region, but a few minutes later a new wavefront appeared behind the active region, and it was not concentric with the incoming wave. In addition, a reflected wave was also simultaneously observed on the wave incoming side. When the wave approached AR11459, it transmitted through the active region directly and without reflection. The formation of the new wavefront and the transmission could be explained with diffraction and refraction effects, respectively. We propose that the different behaviors observed during the interactions may be caused by different speed gradients at the boundaries of the two active regions. We find that the EUV wave formed ahead of a group of expanding loops a few minutes after the start of the loops' expansion, which represents the initiation of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). Based on these results, we conclude that the EUV wave should be a nonlinear magnetosonic wave or shock driven by the associated CME, which propagated faster than the ambient fast mode speed and gradually slowed down to an ordinary linear wave. Our observations support the hybrid model that includes both fast wave and slow non-wave components.

  4. Morphological features of tweeks and nighttime D region ionosphere at tweek reflection height from the observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % during summer season and about 19% and 18% occurrences during equinox and winter seasons. Maximum to that during equinox and winter. Seasonally, tweek (ionospheric) reflection height in the premidnight (18:00-00:00 LT) during winter is less as compared to that during equinox and summer. Annual (seasonal average

  5. Resonant infiltration of an opal: reflection lineshape and contribution from in-depth regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the resonant variation of the optical reflection on an infiltrated artificial opal made of transparent nanospheres. The resonant infiltration is considered as a perturbation in the frame of a previously described one-dimensional model based upon a stratified effective index. We show that for a thin slice of resonant medium, the resonant response oscillates with the position of this slice. We derive that for adequate conditions of incidence angle, this spatially oscillating behavior matches the geometrical periodicity of the opal, and hence the related density of resonant infiltration. Close to these matching conditions, the resonant response of the global infiltration varies sharply in amplitude and shape with the incidence angle and polarization. The corresponding resonant reflection originates from a rather deep infiltration, up to several wavelengths or layers of spheres. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the present predictions and our previous observations on an opal infiltrated wit...

  6. D:\modeldocs\2004\ngtdm\Ttoc1.wpd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2014(2004)

  7. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  8. Regional seismic reflection line, southern Illinois Basin, provides new data on Cambrian rift geometry, Hicks Dome genesis, and the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, C.J.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Taylor, C.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Heigold, P.C. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Detailed studies of the subsurface structure of the Cambrian Reelfoot rift (RFR) in the Midwestern US provide important insights into continental rifting processes and into the structural fabric of a zone of modern intracratonic seismicity (New Madrid zone). High-quality oil industry seismic reflection data show that in the area of transition between the RFR and the Rough Creek Graben (RCG) the geometry of the Cambrian rift system is that of a half-graben that thickens to the southeast. This contrasts with the northward-thickening half-graben observed to the east in the RCG and with the more symmetric graben to the south in the RFR. An 82.8-km segment of a northwest-southeast seismic reflection profile in southeastern Illinois and western Kentucky shows that near Hicks Dome, Illinois, Middle and Lower Cambrian syn-rift sedimentary rocks occupy about 0.35 s (two-way travel time) on the seismic reflection section (corresponding to a thickness of about 970 m). This stratigraphic interval occupies about 0.45 s (1,250 m) near the Ohio river and is thickest against the Tabb Fault System (TFS) in Kentucky, where it occupies 0.7 s (1,940 m). The seismic data show that in this part of the Cambrian rift the master fault was part of the TFS and that normal displacement on the TFS continued through middle Paleozoic time. The seismic data also provide new information on the late Paleozoic development of Hicks-Dome and the surrounding Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC) in southeastern Illinois and western Kentucky. A series of grabens and horsts in the FAFC document a late Paleozoic reactivation of the RFR. Comparison of the reflection data with surface mineralization patterns shows that in most cases mineralized graben-bounding faults clearly cut basement or are splays from faults that cut basement.

  9. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul (Naperville, IL); Para, Adam (St. Charles, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  10. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  11. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  12. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  13. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  14. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  15. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  16. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    The reflective WTLM prompts used in the seminar were developed by our research team or were adapted ..... Narrowing the gap between a vision of reform and teaching practice: Middle level teachers. ... Principles and standards for school.

  17. Partially Reflected Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Singer; Z. Schuss; D. Holcman

    2007-09-02

    The radiation (reaction, Robin) boundary condition for the continuum diffusion equation is widely used in chemical and biological applications to express reactive boundaries. The underlying trajectories of the diffusing particles are believed to be partially absorbed and partially reflected at the reactive boundary, however, the relation between the reaction (radiation) constant in the Robin boundary condition and the reflection probability is still unclear. In this paper we clarify the issue by finding the relation between the reaction (radiation) constant and the absorption probability of the diffusing trajectories at the boundary. We analyze the Euler scheme for the underlying It\\^o dynamics, which is assumed to have variable drift and diffusion tensor, with partial reflection at the boundary. Trajectories that cross the boundary are terminated with a given probability and otherwise are reflected in a normal or oblique direction. We use boundary layer analysis of the corresponding Wiener path integral to resolve the non-uniform convergence of the probability density function of the numerical scheme to the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with the Robin boundary condition, as the time step is decreased. We show that the Robin boundary condition is recovered in the limit iff trajectories are reflected in the co-normal direction. We find the relation of the reactive constant to the termination probability. We show the effect of using the new relation in numerical simulations.

  18. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge with reflection on writing prompts in mathematics .... 1283). PCK provides a knowledge base for teaching subject matter as well .... ideas did you add to your own mathematics or pedagogical knowledge base? .... Hopefully, I will be able to keep an eye on my terminology.

  19. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  20. Into the Desert: Reflections on the Gulf War 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Jeff

    2015-06-09

    Engel Presents his book, "Into the Desert: Reflections on the Gulf War," a reevaluation of the Gulf War's origins, the war itself, and its regional and long term impact on international relations.

  1. Reflective cracking of shear keys in multi-beam bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharpe, Graeme Peter

    2009-06-02

    strength to resist cracking from vehicular loads, but uneven temperature changes and shrinkage strains cause high tensile stresses in the shear key regions and lead to reflective cracking. The analyses showed the highest stresses were often times near...

  2. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  3. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    ;4/21/2010 2 Reflection configurations Reflection attributes Salt tectonics This profile from Germany displays

  4. Photoluminescence and reflectance measurements on annealed porous silicon implanted with nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photoluminescence and reflectance measurements on annealed porous silicon implanted with nitrogen and 1000 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) and reflectance measurements on the implanted samples for wavelengths. After annealing, the reflectance decreased in the UV region up to 600 °C. Above 800 °C

  5. Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns on Deep Seismic Reflection Data: A Preliminary Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    from bitmaps of images of processed reflection seismic profiles are analyzed to quantify the reflectivity patterns. The point process characteristics for two different regions of a deep seismic reflection or not seismic data processing schemes have significant difference in the behaviour of point process

  6. Reflection Survey At Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎WindRecycleBank|JemezLaney,SodaEnergy

  7. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  8. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  9. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  10. Reflectance of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for Xenon Scintillation Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, C; Pereira, A; Chepel, V; Lopes, M I; Solovov, V

    2009-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region (175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Fluoropolymers, namely ETFE, FEP and PFA were also measured.

  11. Continuous Wave Terahertz Reflection Imaging of Human Colorectal Tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Continuous Wave Terahertz Reflection Imaging of Human Colorectal Tissue Pallavi Doradlaa,b , Karim cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. The high sensitivity of THz radiation to water concentration

  12. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  13. Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future Print Reflecting on 2014, I'd first point to our impressive science (see many highlights...

  14. Understanding teacher beliefs with reflective tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karwan, Vanessa Ann

    2009-01-01

    fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learningBeliefs with Reflective Tools by Vanessa Ann Karwan Doctoraudio-visual technology as a tool for reflection in teacher

  15. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  16. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  17. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  18. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  19. Geophys. 1. R. astr. Soc. (1987),89,7-18 MT and reflection: an essential combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    1987-01-01

    ) studies and seismic reflection profiles conducted. Unfortunately, over many more regions the seismic of the magnetotelluric (MT) technique as having a vertical resolution equivalent to the seismic refraction method, in almost every case, be made wherever a seismic reflection survey is undertaken. Examples are shown from

  20. Measurements of Differential Reflectivity in Snowstorms and Warm Season Stratiform Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Earle R.

    The organized behavior of differential radar reflectivity (ZDR) is documented in the cold regions of a wide variety of stratiform precipitation types occurring in both winter and summer. The radar targets and attendant ...

  1. Reflection positivity in simplicial gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Schrader

    2015-10-21

    Within the context of piecewise linear manifolds we establish reflection positivity with a Hilbert action given in terms of the Regge curvature and a cosmological term. Using this positivity a Hilbert space for a quantum theory is constructed and some field operators and observables are given. The set-up allows to introduce time reversal though no time exists. All constructions are non-perturbative.

  2. Dobrushin Interfaces via Reflection Positivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senya Shlosman; Yvon Vignaud

    2007-04-13

    We study the interfaces separating different phases of 3D systems by means of the Reflection Positivity method. We treat discrete non-linear sigma-models, which exhibit power-law decay of correlations at low temperatures, and we prove the rigidity property of the interface. Our method is applicable to the Ising and Potts models, where it simplifies the derivation of some known results. The method also works for large-entropy systems of continuous spins.

  3. Reflections for quantum query algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben W. Reichardt

    2010-05-10

    We show that any boolean function can be evaluated optimally by a quantum query algorithm that alternates a certain fixed, input-independent reflection with a second reflection that coherently queries the input string. Originally introduced for solving the unstructured search problem, this two-reflections structure is therefore a universal feature of quantum algorithms. Our proof goes via the general adversary bound, a semi-definite program (SDP) that lower-bounds the quantum query complexity of a function. By a quantum algorithm for evaluating span programs, this lower bound is known to be tight up to a sub-logarithmic factor. The extra factor comes from converting a continuous-time query algorithm into a discrete-query algorithm. We give a direct and simplified quantum algorithm based on the dual SDP, with a bounded-error query complexity that matches the general adversary bound. Therefore, the general adversary lower bound is tight; it is in fact an SDP for quantum query complexity. This implies that the quantum query complexity of the composition f(g,...,g) of two boolean functions f and g matches the product of the query complexities of f and g, without a logarithmic factor for error reduction. It further shows that span programs are equivalent to quantum query algorithms.

  4. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  5. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-D rendering of apumptheDrivingREEEDecemberREFLECT HOME

  6. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-D rendering of apumptheDrivingREEEDecemberREFLECT

  7. A Reflective Symmetry Descriptor Michael Kazhdan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that it does. The objective of our work is to define a continuous measure of reflective symmetry (over any on the sphere in proportion to the measure of reflective symmetry about the #12;Fig. 1. A visualization vectors on the sphere in proportion to the measure of reflective symmetry about the plane through

  8. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  9. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  10. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  11. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  12. Does Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Listokin, Yair Jason

    2007-01-01

    =980422. Kamar, Ehud. 2006. “Does Shareholder Voting onDoes Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?contests. The literature that does exist is methodologically

  13. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janecek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

  14. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-04-29

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  15. High resolution seismic reflection to characterize small scale mechanisms of large scale natural dissolution in the Hutchinson Salt Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy, Brett

    2015-05-31

    High resolution seismic reflection imaging of the local scale processes along the eastern natural dissolution front of the Hutchinson Salt Member were correlated with its regional scale progression to define a more complete dissolution model...

  16. Regional Purchasing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * ImpactsandRegarding ConfinementRegional Partnerships

  17. April 15, 2010 Seismic Reflection IV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    Distance Migration Example 1 Migration Example 2 Migration Example 2 Migration "smiles" DEPTH SECTIONS' Dipping Reflections Move down dip and lengthen; dips become shallower We need to migrate reflections back to their original locations Migration #12;4/15/2010 2 A simple geometric method of migration is possible

  18. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Platts, David (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, David D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  19. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  20. Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1

  1. Jots : cultivating reflective learning in scratch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenbaum, Eric (Eric Ross)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces the Jots system, a new technology designed to engage children in reflective learning as they work on design projects. Jots enables children to create brief updates, or "jots," describing their ...

  2. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  3. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  4. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    P describe Green functions QO(u)* *). Note that the matrix is completely determined GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions

  5. Oblique reflections of internal gravity wave beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Hussain H. (Hussain Habibullah)

    2012-01-01

    We study nonlinear effects in reflections of internal gravity wave beams in a continuously stratified liquid which are incident upon a uniform slope at an oblique angle. Wave motion in a stratified fluid medium is unique ...

  6. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  7. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilka Brunner; Cornelius Schmidt-Colinet

    2015-08-18

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  8. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  9. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  10. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  11. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  12. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  13. Regional Summary Pacific Region Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Rim nations. As such, the management of the HMS fisheries s coordinated by the Pacific FisheryRegional Summary Pacific Region Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  14. Economic Disparities and Life Satisfaction in European Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    perspective is the evaluation of the effects of macro-variables that reflect the socio-economic environmentEconomic Disparities and Life Satisfaction in European Regions M. Grazia Pittau Æ Roberto Zelli Æ B.V. 2009 Abstract This paper investigates the role of economic variables in predicting regional

  15. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  16. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  17. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  18. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  19. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical...

  20. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection...

  1. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  2. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  3. Account of Nuclear Scattering at Volume Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2011-01-01

    For a particle traversing a bent crystal in the regime of volume reflection we evaluate the probability of interaction with atomic nuclei. Regardless of the continuous potential shape, this probability is found to differ from the corresponding value in an amorphous target by an amount proportional to the crystal bending radius, and the particle deflection angle. Based on this result, we evaluate the rate of inelastic nuclear interactions, and the final beam angular dispersion due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experiments. The impact of multiple Coulomb scattering on the mean volume reflection angle is also discussed.

  4. Emergence of exponentially small reflected waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volker Betz; Alain Joye; Stefan Teufel

    2008-04-23

    We study the time-dependent scattering of a quantum mechanical wave packet at a barrier for energies larger than the barrier height, in the semi-classical regime. More precisely, we are interested in the leading order of the exponentially small scattered part of the wave packet in the semiclassical parameter when the energy density of the incident wave is sharply peaked around some value. We prove that this reflected part has, to leading order, a Gaussian shape centered on the classical trajectory for all times soon after its birth time. We give explicit formulas and rigorous error bounds for the reflected wave for all of these times.

  5. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  6. CHAPTER 127 Bragg Reflection Breakwater: A New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    on the seabed can be an effective reflector of surface gravity waves. The reflected wave energy varies of the incident wave energy. Technical Issues At the onset of the research program, there were a num- ber Jenkins Technologies, Carpinteria, CA 2 Engineer, Naval Civil Engineering Lab, Port Hueneme, CA 3

  7. 3D tracking via body radio reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabelac, Zachary (Zachary E.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack does ...

  8. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  9. April 20, 2010 Seismic Reflection V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    ? Vertical Resolution How thin a layer can we resolve? Dependent on seismic wavelength Reflectors are barely is an example of a "fully interpreted" seismic profile. What is the event history here? #12;4/19/2010 3 Here4/19/2010 1 GG450 April 20, 2010 Seismic Reflection V Data Interpretation I Today's material comes

  10. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  11. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  12. A protocol for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using reflection scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos Hegyi, Gyorgy; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system using reflection measurements and to suggest a calibration protocol for precise and accurate reflection film dosimetry. Methods: A set of 14 Gafchromic EBT3 film pieces were irradiated to various doses ranging from 0 to 8 Gy and subsequently scanned using both the reflection and transmission mode. Scanning resolution varied from 50 to 508 dpi (0.5–0.05 mm/pixel). Both the red and green color channels of scanned images were used to relate the film response to the dose. A sensitivity, uncertainty, and accuracy analysis was performed for all scanning modes and color channels. The total uncertainty, along with the fitting and experimental uncertainty components, was identified and analyzed. A microscope resolution target was used to evaluate possible resolution losses under reflection scanning. The calibration range was optimized for reflection scanning in the low (<2 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) dose regions based on the reported results. Results: Reflection scanning using the red channel exhibited the highest sensitivity among all modes, being up to 150% higher than transmission mode in the red channel for the lowest dose level. Furthermore, there was no apparent loss in resolution between the two modes. However, higher uncertainties and reduced accuracy were observed for the red channel under reflection mode, especially at dose levels higher than 2 Gy. These uncertainties were mainly attributed to saturation effects which were translated in poor fitting results. By restricting the calibration to the 0–2 Gy dose range, the situation is reversed and the red reflection mode was superior to the transmission mode. For higher doses, the green channel in reflection mode presented comparable results to the red transmission. Conclusions: A two-color reflection scanning protocol can be suggested for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using the red channel for doses less than 2 Gy and the green channel for higher doses. The precision and accuracy are significantly improved in the low dose region following such a protocol.

  13. EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance spectrum of several paint samples in the special optically flat-bottomed cell so that the bottom is completely covered. Scan the reflectance

  14. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  15. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  16. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  17. Painleve VI, Rigid Tops and Reflection Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Levin; M. Olshanetsky; A. Zotov

    2006-06-01

    We show that the Painlev{\\'e} VI equation has an equivalent form of the non-autonomous Zhukovsky-Volterra gyrostat. This system is a generalization of the Euler top in $C^3$ and include the additional constant gyrostat momentum. The quantization of its autonomous version is achieved by the reflection equation. The corresponding quadratic algebra generalizes the Sklyanin algebra. As by product we define integrable XYZ spin chain on a finite lattice with new boundary conditions.

  18. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  19. Regional Transportation Coordination Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

    2006-01-01

    stream_source_info Golden Crescent Regional Transportation Coordination Study.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 357268 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Golden Crescent Regional Transportation Coordination... Study.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Golden Crescent Regional Transit i Regional Transportation Coordination Study: 7-County Golden Crescent Region Regional...

  20. Recent distribution of lead in the Indian Ocean reflects the impact of regional emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Echegoyen, Yolanda

    Humans have injected lead (Pb) massively into the earth surface environment in a temporally and spatially evolving pattern. A significant fraction is transported by the atmosphere into the surface ocean where we can observe ...

  1. Single-component reflecting objective for low-temperature spectroscopy in the entire visible region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties at all visible wavelengths. The performance of the objective immersed in superfluid helium optical signals, it is essential to collect photons using a large solid angle of detection. In low numerical aperture NA in a liquid-helium cryostat in the vicinity of a sample.1 In addition to achieving

  2. Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎WindRecycleBank|JemezLaney,

  3. NORTHWEST REGIONAL TECHNOLOGY CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NORTHWEST REGIONAL TECHNOLOGY CENTER for Homeland Security Northwest Regional Technology Center May 2015 | 1 AROUND THE REGION IN HOMELAND SECURITY The Northwest Regional Technology Center (NWRTC.S. Army Cyber Command; and Michael Echols, Director, Cyber Joint Program Management Office National

  4. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  5. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  6. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  7. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  8. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  9. Category:Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap Contact Properties JumpReflection Survey

  10. Conservation Regional ConservationRegional Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional ConservationRegional Conservation Update:Update?"" #12;slide 3 Northwest Power and Conservation Council PNW Energy Efficiency AchievementsPNW Energy Since 1978 Utility & BPASince 1978 Utility & BPA Programs, Energy Codes &Programs, Energy Codes

  11. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick ...

  12. Transmission and reflection properties of layered left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jianbing James, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the reflection and transmission properties of layered left-handed materials (LHM). In particular, the reflection properties of (LHM) slabs are studied for the Goos-Hanchen (GH) lateral shift ...

  13. THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INFORMATION O Box 7216, Austin TX 78713- 7216. Cover: The Tower, reflected in one of the Tower Garden ponds

  14. Computational 3D and reflectivity imaging with high photon efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Dongeek

    2014-01-01

    Imaging the 3D structure and reflectivity of a scene can be done using photon-counting detectors. Traditional imagers of this type typically require hundreds of detected photons per pixel for accurate 3D and reflectivity ...

  15. inside/out : mirrors for reflective, creative thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portocarrero, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    In this document I present three tools for reflective, creative thinking: Pillow-Talk, the NeverEnding Drawing Machine and Calliope. These tools make use of the "distorted mirror" metaphor for self-reflection. They are ...

  16. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Control of Regional and Global Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-09

    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary idea for regional and global weather control. He offers to cover cities, bad regions of country, full country or a continent by a thin closed film with control clarity located at a top limit of the Earth troposphere (4 - 6 km). The film is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric pressure and connected to ground by thin cables. It is known, the troposphere defines the Earth weather. Authors show this closed dome allows to do a full control of the weather in a given region (the day is always fine, the rain is only in night, no strong wind). The average Earth (white cloudy) reflectance equal 0.3 - 0.5. That means the Earth losses about 0.3 - 0.5 of a solar energy. The dome controls the clarity of film and converts the cold regions to subtropics and creates the hot deserts, desolate wildernesses to the prosperous regions with temperate climate. That is a realistic and the cheapest method of the weather control in the Earth at the current time. Key words: Global weather control, gigantic film dome, converting a cold region to subtropics, converting desolate wilderness to a prosperous region.

  18. On the Mechanism of the Volume Reflection of Relativistic Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalev, Gennady V

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of the volume reflection of positively and negatively charged relativistic particles in a bent crystal have been analyzed. It has been shown that the empty core effect is significant for the negatively charged particles. The average reflection angle of the negatively charged particles has been determined and the conditions for the observation of the reflection and refraction are discussed.

  19. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications John D. Pye1 , Clifford K. Ho2 2 6125 8778, john.pye@anu.edu.au. 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. ckho of the solar-weighted reflectivity of the receiver component in CSP systems. Such reflectivity measurement

  20. COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Date: August 2, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Date: August 2, 1999 Document Number: COS-08-0008 Revision for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Size Code Indent No Astronomy Revision A COS Coating Reflectivity Specfication University of Colorado at Boulder Page i Table

  1. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Vertical tectonics of the High Plateau region, Manihiki Plateau,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Pacific, from seismic stratigraphy Huirong-Anita Ai Æ Joann M. Stock Æ Robert Clayton Æ Bruce Luyendyk analyze new seismic reflection data acquired on cruise KIWI 12 over the High Plateau region of uplift, subsidence and faulting. These data are correlated with previous seismic reflection lines from

  2. Characteristics of convective cells over the coastal regions of southeast Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and cloud-to-ground lightning characteristics associated with convective cells were analyzed for mesoscate systems occurring over the coastal regions of southeast Texas during the ...

  3. Can medial temporal lobe regions distinguish true from false? An event-related functional MRI study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Anthony

    and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; and ¶Department, possibly reflecting semantic processing. Precuneus and lat- eral parietal regions were more activated. For example, a positron emission tomography (PET) study found that MTL activity during object recognition

  4. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  5. The evolution of total lightning and radar reflectivity characteristics of two mesoscale convective systems over Houston, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodapp, Charles Lee

    2009-05-15

    production of MCSs. The stratiform areas quadruple in size and the mean reflectivity values increase substantially by ~ 6 dB. As the stratiform region matures, VHF source density plots show a lightning pathway that slopes rearward and downward from the back...

  6. Harmonic generation by reflecting internal waves Bruce Rodenborn, D. Kiefer, H. P. Zhang, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmonic generation by reflecting internal waves Bruce Rodenborn, D. Kiefer, H. P. Zhang, and Harry 2011 The generation of internal gravity waves by tidal flow over topography is an important oceanic waves generated by tidal flow over topography. Near the generation region, the wave spectrum includes

  7. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  8. Regional Research Collaborations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional Research Collaborations Merrill Series on The Research Mission of Public Universities at Birmingham Regional Neuroscience Research Collaboration: The Alabama Experience Panel 1: Research ........................................................................................................5 Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Kansas Medical Center Evolution of Reproductive

  9. Northwest Regional Technology Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management and public safety professionals to define and prioritize technology needs. Coordinate and leadNorthwest Regional Technology Center for Homeland Security The Northwest Regional Technology Center and deployment of technologies that are effective homeland security solutions for the region, and accelerate

  10. Olympic Peninsula E3 Regional Summit on Environmental Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Olympic Peninsula E3 Regional Summit on Environmental Education What can we do today to ensure: Lay of the Land Reflecting on the current state of environmental education 1:45 PM Session 4 on Environmental Education. Contributors The Russell Family Foundation Paul and Debbie Brainerd Sierra Club

  11. Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.; Carle, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify a potential repository for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1 , Maxim Abashin2 , John Blair3 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 ethan

  13. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  14. Reflection and transmission coefficients of a fracture in transversely ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-28

    dependent reflection and transmission coefficients. On the other hand, velocity discontinuities generate an energy loss at the interface. The specific viscosity ...

  15. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  16. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic...

  17. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  18. Modelling of Reflective Propagating Slow-mode Wave in a Flaring Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X; Van Doorsselaere, T; Keppens, R; Xia, C

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating intensity disturbances have been observed in large coronal loops in EUV images over a decade, and are widely accepted to be slow magnetosonic waves. However, spectroscopic observations from Hinode/EIS revealed their association with persistent coronal upflows, making this interpretation debatable. We perform a 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulation to imitate the chromospheric evaporation and the following reflected patterns in a flare loop. Our model encompasses the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. We demonstrate that the quasi periodic propagating intensity variations captured by the synthesized \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory}/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 131, 94~\\AA~emission images match the previous observations well. With particle tracers in the simulation, we confirm that these quasi periodic propagating intensity variations consist of reflected slow mode waves and mass flows with an average speed of 310 km/s in an 80 Mm length loop with an average temperatu...

  19. Regional Test Centers (RTCs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has established five Regional Test Centers (RTCs) across the United States to independently validate the performance and reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems in different...

  20. All-reflective optical target illumination system with high numerical aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigler, Robert D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1978-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for providing illumination of a target focal region at high numerical aperture from a pair of co-axially, confluent collimated light beams. A target cavity is defined by a pair of opposed inner ellipsoidal reflectors having respective first focal points within a target region and second focal points at a vertex opening in the opposing reflector. Outwardly of each inner reflector is the opposed combination of a spherical reflector, and an outer generally ellipsoidal reflector having an aberrated first focal point coincident with the focus of the opposing spherical reflector and a second focal point coincident with the second focal point of the opposing inner ellipsoidal reflector through a vertex opening in the spherical reflector. The confluent collimated beams are incident through vertex openings in the outer ellipsoidal reflectors onto respective opposing spherical reflectors. Each beam is reflected by the associated spherical reflector onto the opposing outer ellipsoidal reflector and focused thereby onto the opposing inner ellipsoidal reflector, and then onto the target region.

  1. Regional Public Coordination Transportation Plan Texoma Region #22 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texoma Council of Governments

    2006-12-01

    .......................................................................................................... 6 Regional Geography and Demographics..................................................................................... 6 Regional Agencies Responsible for Transportation Planning.................................................. 6 Descriptions... of the Region?s Public Transportation Providers................................................. 7 Coordinated Transportation Plan..................................................................................................... 8 Coordination Actions...

  2. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  3. May 31, 2005 Reflection Of Microwave Pulses From Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 31, 2005 . Reflection Of Microwave Pulses From Acoustic Waves: Summary of Experimental of an acoustic wave as a reflecting virtual interface for propagating impulses. It is by now well accepted (e.g., see [2, 7, 11, 14]) that acoustic pressure waves will interact with electromagnetic signals in ways

  4. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  5. A 16-ELEMENT REFLECTION GRID AMPLIFIER Frederic Lecuyer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a reflection architecture, which should provide thermal per- formance superior to transmission grids. The grid spaced differential transistor pairs. All grid amplifiers to date have used a transmission architecture, which can double as a large metal heat sink. Otherwise, the operation of reflection grid amplifiers

  6. Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Erhard

    Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos a and Erhard Neher b, Department.loos@uibk.ac.at bemail: neher@uottawa.ca Abstract. We develop a general theory of reflection systems and, more specifically, partial root sys- tems which provide a unifying framework for finite root systems, Kac-Moody root

  7. Reflections on the future of democracy in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    Reflections on the future of democracy in Europe Contributions to The Future of Democracy in Europe of Political Affairs Council of Europe #12;French edition: Réflexions sur l'avenir de la démocratie en Europe reflect those of the Council of Europe. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced

  8. Optical reflection from the Bragg lattice of AsSb metal nanoinclusions in an AlGaAs matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushanov, V. I.; Chaldyshev, V. V., E-mail: chald.gvg@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhenskii, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The optical properties of metal-semiconductor metamaterials based on an AlGaAs matrix are studied. The specific feature of these materials is that there are As and AsSb nanoinclusion arrays which modify the dielectric properties of the material. These nanoinclusions are randomly arranged in the medium or form a Bragg structure with a reflectance peak at a wavelength close to 750 nm, corresponding to the transparency region of the matrix. The reflectance spectra are studied for s- and p-polarized light at different angles of incidence. It is shown that (i) As nanoinclusion arrays only slightly influence the optical properties of the medium in the wavelength range 700-900 nm, (ii) chaotic AsSb nanoinclusion arrays cause strong scattering of light, and (iii) the spatial periodicity in the arrangement of AsSb nanoinclusions is responsible for Bragg resonance in the optical reflection.

  9. Modeling regional power transfers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavicky, J.A.; Veselka, T.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Spot Market Network (SMN) model was used to estimate spot market transactions and prices between various North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions for summer on-peak situations. A preliminary analysis of new or proposed additions to the transmission network was performed. The effects of alternative exempt wholesale generator (EWG) options on spot market transactions and the transmission system are also studied. This paper presents the SMN regional modelling approach and summarizes simulation results. Although the paper focuses on a regional network representation, a discussion of how the SMN model was used to represent a detailed utility-level network is also presented.

  10. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  11. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  12. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vriddhachalam K. (Los Alamos, NM); Newnam, Brian E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 .mu.m, and preferably less than 100 .mu.m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 .mu.m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm .times.25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  13. Passive Exposure to Mobile Phones: Enhancement of Intensity by Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuyoshi Hondou; Takenori Ueda; Yasuhiro Sakata; Nobuto Tanigawa; Tetsu Suzuki; Taizo Kobayashi; Kensuke Ikeda

    2007-03-12

    In a recent Letter [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71, 432 (2002)], we reported a preliminary calculation and concluded that public exposure to mobile phones can be enhanced by microwave reflection in public spaces. In this paper, we confirm the significance of microwave reflection reported in our previous Letter by experimental and numerical studies. Furthermore, we show that "hot spots" often emerge in reflective areas, where the local exposure level is much higher than average. Such places include elevators, and we discuss other possible environments including trains, buses, cars, and airplanes. Our results indicate the risk of "passive exposure" to microwaves.

  14. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  15. Southeast Texas Region Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission

    2006-01-01

    REGION REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION PLAN PREPARED FOR THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NOVEMBER 2006 REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION PLAN NOVEMBER 2006 PAGE 1 Table of Contents... ....................................................................4 History of Regional Coordination of Public Transportation ..............................10 REGIONAL SERVICE COORDINATION PLANNING........................................................10 Lead Agency...

  16. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  17. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  18. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    build-up and permanent distortion Property Description Total solarbuild-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solarbuild-up (ASTM 1998). A black object absorbs most visible incident solar

  19. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    be described completely in terms of various "Gre* *en functions" of type Bn0. However, note that the Green GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions

  20. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  1. Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharan, Lavanya

    2005-01-01

    Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

  2. Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

  3. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary http O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male

  4. Theory of reflectivity properties of graphene-coated material plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Petrov, V M

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical description for the reflectivity properties of dielectric, metal and semiconductor plates coated with graphene is developed in the framework of the Dirac model. Graphene is described by the polarization tensor allowing the analytic continuation to the real frequency axis. The plate materials are described by the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivities. The general formulas for the reflection coefficients and reflectivities of the graphene-coated plates, as well as their asymptotic expressions at high and low frequencies, are derived. The developed theory is applied to the graphene-coated dielectric (fused silica), metal (Au and Ni), and semiconductor (Si with various charge carrier concentrations) plates. In all these cases the impact of graphene coating on the plate reflectivity properties is calculated over the wide frequency ranges. The obtained results can be used in many applications exploiting the graphene coatings, such as the optical detectors, transparent conductors, anti-reflec...

  5. Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughstun, Kurt

    Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered Biological Media- cally rigorous, physically correct description of the propagation of pulsed electromagnetic fields pulses through multilayered biological media consisting of three biological tissue layers rep- resenting

  6. Seismic Reflection Studies in Long Valley Caldera, Califomia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Ross A.; Deemer, Sharon J.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1991-03-10

    Seismic reflection studies in Long Valley caldera, California, indicate that seismic methods may be successfully employed to image certain types of features in young silicic caldera environments. However, near-surface geological conditions within...

  7. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (22.1 keV) x-rays, produced by petawatt class laser pulses interacting with a Kr gas jet and a silver foil, to measure the integrated crystal reflectivity of flat Highly...

  8. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Report SERI/TR-642-761, Solar Energy Research Institute,radiation Direct reflected solar energy from smooth surfaceshighest in the sky. The solar energy incident on a receiving

  9. Amplified total internal reflection: theory, analysis, and demonstration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagness, Susan C.

    : The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000). 10. Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, and Q a passive medium upon total internal reflection (TIR) from a gainy medium, has been the subject

  10. Amplified total internal reflection: theory, analysis, and demonstration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    : The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000). 10. Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, and Q amplification that occurs within a passive medium upon total internal reflection (TIR) from a gainy medium, has

  11. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  12. High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bunkowski; O. Burmeister; D. Friedrich; K. Danzmann; R. Schnabel

    2006-08-01

    We propose thin single-layer grating waveguide structures to be used as high-reflectivity, but low thermal noise, alternative to conventional coatings for gravitational wave detector test mass mirrors. Grating waveguide (GWG) coatings can show a reflectivity of up to 100% with an overall thickness of less than a wavelength. We theoretically investigate GWG coatings for 1064nm based on tantala (Ta2O5) on a Silica substrate focussing on broad spectral response and low thickness.

  13. Universal signal processing method for multimode reflective sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Robert Eugene

    1988-01-01

    UNIVERSAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHOD FOR MULTIMODE REFLECTIVE SENSORS A Thesis by ROBERT EUGENE LARSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering UNIVERSAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHOD FOR MULTIMODE REFLECTIVE SENSORS A Thesis by ROBERT EUGENE LARSON Approved as to style and content by: nry F. Taylor (Chair of Committee) hin Su...

  14. Active Reflection Absorption for a Three Dimensional Multidirectional Wave Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz Castro, Oscar

    2010-10-12

    set of independent wave paddles (flume wave makers) working together in parallel, using 2D ARA (1D filters) to create a multidirectional wavemaker with wave absorption capability. Therefore, no information on directionality of reflected waves... in considerable damping of the reflected waves is achieved compared to not using anything at all in a multidirectional wavemaker. Also the use of electronic analog filters, for the ARA loop, support these approaches. On the other hand, Fully-3D ARA systems...

  15. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  16. NV PFA Regional Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  17. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Regional Energy Baseline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01

    -09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy Use per Capita (1960-2009) US... SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System 1960-2009 Regional Energy...

  19. Uplifted supersymmetric Higgs region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogdan A. Dobrescu; Patrick J. Fox

    2010-05-26

    We show that the parameter space of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model includes a region where the down-type fermion masses are generated by the loop-induced couplings to the up-type Higgs doublet. In this region the down-type Higgs doublet does not acquire a vacuum expectation value at tree level, and has sizable couplings in the superpotential to the tau leptons and bottom quarks. Besides a light standard-like Higgs boson, the Higgs spectrum includes the nearly degenerate states of a heavy spin-0 doublet which can be produced through their couplings to the $b$ quark and decay predominantly into \\tau^+\\tau^- or \\tau\

  20. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companies eye growth Regional

  1. REGIONAL TRAVEL MAPS Philadelphia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    REGIONAL TRAVEL MAPS 2 hrs. 1 hr. 3 hrs. 4 hrs. 5 hrs. Philadelphia New York City Pittsburgh BostonReadingand Harrisburg 476 476 276 309 309 663 378 309 33 78 80 80 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Bethlehem Quakertown to Philadelphia Coast including Philadelphia (50 miles south) and New York City (90 miles northeast). Bethlehem

  2. Prince George Forest Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Prince George Forest Region Forest Resources & Practices Team May 1999 Note #PG-20 · ExtensionAssociate,UniversityofNorthern BritishColumbia 2 MSc, RPBio, Silvifauna Research, Prince George, BC 3 PhD, R.M. Sagar and Associates, Prince George, BC #12;Ministry of Forests, 5th Floor, 1011 - 4th Avenue, Prince George, BC V2L 3H9

  3. X-ray reflection spectra from ionized slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Ross; A. C. Fabian; A. J. Young

    1999-02-23

    X-ray reflection spectra are an important component in the X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei and Galactic black hole candidates. It is likely that reflection takes place from highly ionized surfaces of the accretion disc in some cases. This can lead to strong Comptonization of the emergent iron, and other, absorption and emission features. We present such reflection spectra here, computed in a self-consistent manner with the method described by Ross and Fabian. In particular we emphasise the range where the ionization parameter (the flux to density ratio) \\xi is around and above 10^4. Such spectra may be relevant to the observed spectral features found in black hole candidates such as Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard state.

  4. Total transmission and total reflection by zero index materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viet Cuong Nguyen; Lang Chen

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we achieved total transmission and reflection in a slab of zero index materials with defect(s). By controlling the defect's radius and dielectric constant, we can obtain total transmission and reflection of EM wave. The zero index materials, in this report, stand for materials with permittivity and permeability which are simultaneously equal to zero or so called matched impedance zero index materials. Along with theoretical calculations and simulation demonstrations, we also discuss about some possible applications for the proposed structure such as shielding or cloaking an object without restricting its view. We also suggest a way to control total transmission and reflection actively by using tunable refractive index materials such as liquid crystal and BST. The physics behind those phenomena is attributed to intrinsic properties of zero index materials: constant field inside zero index slab.

  5. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  6. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R. (Lenoir City, TN); Shapira, Hanna B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  8. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  9. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  10. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23{sup o}], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45{sup o}]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R*{sub g,0}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R*{sub g,0} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R*{sub g,0} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R*{sub g,0} to within about 0.01.

  11. The POLARBEAR Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Experiment and Anti-Reflection Coatings for Millimeter Wave Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quealy, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Flat Anti-Reflection Coating . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Anti-Kam Arnold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AR CoatingAnti-Reflection Coatings . . . . . 2.2.2 Signal and Mapping

  12. Neutron Reflectivity Study of Lipid Membranes Assembled on Ordered Nanocomposite and Nanoporous Silica Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Neutron Reflectivity Study of Lipid Membranes Assembled on Ordered Nanocomposite and Nanoporous on orderednanocompositeandnanoporoussilicathinfilmsbyfusionofsmallunilamellarvesicles.Thestructure of these membranes was investigated using neutron reflectivity. The underlying thin

  13. Millisecond time resolution neutron reflection from a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalgliesh, R.M.; Lau, Y.G.J.; Richardson, R.M.; Riley, D.J. [ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    The director reorientation of the liquid crystal 4,4' octyl cyanobiphenyl in the nematic phase under application of bursts of ac field have been observed using time-resolved neutron scattering in reflection geometry. The relaxation of the director has been shown to agree with existing theory, as determined by material and cell parameters. This result shows that it is possible to use neutron reflection measurements from buried interfaces to follow kinetic processes on a time scale comparable with the pulse length of the ISIS neutron source (20 ms)

  14. Rigorous bounds on Transmission, Reflection, and Bogoliubov coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of some basic mathematical tools of wide relevance to mathematical physics. Transmission and reflection coefficients are associated with quantum tunneling phenomena, while Bogoliubov coefficients are associated with the mathematically related problem of excitations of a parametric oscillator. While many approximation techniques for these quantities are known, very little is known about rigorous upper and lower bounds. In this thesis four separate problems relating to rigorous bounds on transmission, reflection and Bogoliubov coefficients are considered, divided into four separate themes: 1) Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients; 2) Bounding the greybody factors for Schwarzschild black holes; 3) Transformation probabilities and the Miller--Good transformation; 4) Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities.

  15. Regional Education Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGas SeparationsRelevantRegional

  16. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made interpretation of the Mt. Simon and Knox sections difficult. The data quality also gradually decreased moving westward across the state. To meet evolving project objectives, in 2012 the seismic data was re-processed using different techniques to enhance the signal quality thereby rendering a more coherent seismic profile for interpreters. It is believed that the seismic degradation could be caused by shallow natural gas deposits and Quaternary sediments (which include abandoned river and stream channels, former ponds, and swamps with peat deposits) that may have complicated or changed the seismic wavelet. Where previously limited by seismic coverage, the seismic profiles have provided valuable subsurface information across central Illinois. Some of the interpretations based on this survey included, but are not limited to: - Stratigraphy generally gently dips to the east from Morgan to Douglas County. - The Knox Supergroup roughly maintains its thickness. There is little evidence for faulting in the Knox. However, at least one resolvable fault penetrates the entire Knox section. - The Eau Claire Formation, the primary seal for the Mt. Simon Sandstone, appears to be continuous across the entire seismic profile. - The Mt. Simon Sandstone thins towards the western edge of the basin. As a result, the highly porous lowermost Mt. Simon section is absent in the western part of the state. - Overall basement dip is from west to east. - Basement topography shows evidence of basement highs with on-lapping patterns by Mt. Simon sediments. - There is evidence of faults within the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone and basement rock that are contemporaneous with Mt. Simon Sandstone deposition. These faults are not active and do not penetrate the Eau Claire Shale. It is believed that these faults are associated with a possible failed rifting event 750 to 560 million years ago during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  17. REFLECTIONS ON AUTISM Clarence E. Schutt, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFLECTIONS ON AUTISM Clarence E. Schutt, Ph.D. Autism was once a private matter. It was rare to encounter a person with autism. If one did, it was usually a family member or neighbor. Treatments were non by families. As studies began to include ever larger numbers of recognized cases, autism came to be described

  18. Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    in wireless networking technologies and the growing success of mobile computing devices, such as laptop the application becomes both more difficult and makes little sense. Mobile systems need to detect and adaptReflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications Licia Capra, Wolfgang Emmerich

  19. Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science Liesbeth De Mol "No paradigm, it is worthless Knuth used this story to explain how he considered mathematics and computer science to be distinct, for developing my thoughts on experimental mathematics and computer science. Of equal importance is the fact

  20. Internal Wave Reflection in Uniform Shear B. R. Sutherland ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Internal Wave Reflection in Uniform Shear B. R. Sutherland ? Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB T6G 2G1, Canada SUMMARY If non­hydrostatic internal waves are of sufficiently large amplitude, they undergo significant dispersion due to interactions between the waves

  1. Learning ProblemSolving Concepts by Reflecting on Problem Solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goel, Ashok

    Learning Problem­Solving Concepts by Reflecting on Problem Solving Eleni Stroulia and Ashok K. Goel Learning and problem solving are intimately related: problem solving determines the knowledge requirements of the reasoner which learning must fulfill, and learning enables improved problem­solving performance. Different

  2. Dynamic Behaviors of Plasma Reflection during Keyhole Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, YuMing

    Dynamic Behaviors of Plasma Reflection during Keyhole Arc Welding YuMing Zhang and Yi Ma Welding Engineering College of Engineering University of Kentucky #12;Keyhole Double-Sided Arc Welding Work PAW Torch: in any existing arc welding process? No ! Why Not in Keyhole PAW? No current through the keyhole ! Plasma

  3. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  4. Infra-red reflectance and emissivity spectra of nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maturilli, A; Kulakova, I I; Helbert, J

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance and emissivity spectra of nanodiamonds powder were measured in a dedicated setup at temperatures up to 873 K. The spectra are characterised by presence of sharp bands due to surface-bound functional groups. Thermal desorption of oxygen-containing groups lead to corresponding spectral changes. The maximal emissivity of nanodiamond powder reaches 0.985.

  5. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    , that the Green functions of type D n can be described completely in terms of various ``Green functions'' of typeGREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions associated

  6. Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing Michael M. Stark irradiance analytically from polygonal luminaires in polygonal environments has proven effective for direct- ally used edge-based solutions to the irradiance integral; our previous work pre- sented a vertex

  7. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01

    magnetron sputtering machine was used for producing a coating on a cleaved fiber end. Three different coating thicknesses of the TiO2 material [(150 i, 250 h, and 300 i)] for the low reflectance internal mirrors were tested. For the controllable low...

  8. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary \\Lambda June. This document benefitted from helpful advice and references from Nora Sleumer and Timothy O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male, almost 20 years old, naive

  9. Restructuring the Social Sciences: Reflections from Harvard's Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    all learn, and our impact on the world are all greatly improved as a result. THE STATE OF SOCIAL research approach the impact of quantita- tive social science. It had a part in remaking most Fortune 500Restructuring the Social Sciences: Reflections from Harvard's Institute for Quantitative Social

  10. Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields Billy Chen, Hendrik P. A. Lensch present a technique that approximates the correct result of relighting from intermediate light source resolution in the light source positions is rather lim- ited. As a consequence, smoothly moving high- lights

  11. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future* Robert Conn Fusion Energy, "Opportunities and Directions in Fusion Energy Science for the Next Decade", held July 11-23, 1999 in Snowmass, Colorado. #12;2 Abstract History shows that all the major opportunities to advance fusion research were

  12. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  13. Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, John

    Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

  14. Waveform tomography at a groundwater contamination site: Surface reflection data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, R. Gerhard

    acoustic-waveform tomography to 45 2D seismic profiles to image the 3D geometry of a buried pale- ochannel the shallowest groundwater system in the study area. The 2D profiles were extracted from a 3D surface reflection the channel showed marked vertical and lat- eral velocity heterogeneity. Traveltime tomography and waveform

  15. Stochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    . Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A. Willsky #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR) · Both maps will have edges #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR measurement modelStochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance and Illumination Separation Ayres Fan

  16. Bragg reflection waveguides as integrated sources of entangled photon pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to design an electrically pumped entangled photon source. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 230Bragg reflection waveguides as integrated sources of entangled photon pairs Sergei V. Zhukovsky,1 of Physics and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario

  17. Seismic Reflection Interpretation Geology 556/764 Fall 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic Reflection Interpretation Geology 556/764 Fall 2015 This course is for graduate students seismic interpretation. (3 Credit Hours) EWS 201, 1:15 pm - 4:15 pm Tuesday Instructor: Jim Kellogg (7-4501) E-mail: kellogg@sc.edu Goals and Content of Course: Students will learn seismic interpretation

  18. Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals Karri Varis, Marco Mattila Optoelectronics from opals that are synthesized using polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres. © 2005 of self-organized opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5784­5793 (2000). 12. M. Bardosova and R. H

  19. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Discovery of Variable Iron Fluorescence from Reflection Nebulae in the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. P. Muno; F. K. Baganoff; W. N. Brandt; S. Park; M. R. Morris

    2006-11-21

    Based on three years of deep observations of the Galactic center with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we report the discovery of changes in the intensities and morphologies of two hard X-ray nebulosities. The nebulosities are dominated by fluorescent iron emission, and are coincident with molecular clouds. The morphological changes are manifest on parsec scales, which requires that these iron features are scattered X-rays from a 2 or 3-year-long outburst of a point source (either Sgr A* or an X-ray binary) with a luminosity of at least 1e37 erg/s. The variability precludes the hypotheses that these nebulae either are produced by keV electrons bombarding molecular clouds, or are iron-rich ejecta from supernovae. Moreover, the morphologies of the reflection nebulae implies that the dense regions of the clouds are filamentary, with widths of ~0.3 pc and lengths of ~2 pc.

  1. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  2. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  3. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  4. Oblique Shock Waves and Shock Reflection Department of Mathematics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dening

    are generated as solid projectile flies supersonically, or as a planar shock wave is reflected along a ramp. We of a regular shock reflection to Mach reflection. 1 Introduction Oblique shock waves are produced as airplane flies supersonically, or as shock waves are reflected at a planar solid surface. With other conditions

  5. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  6. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    regions of skin, burns, psoriasis, basal cell carcinomas andinto diseased states like psoriasis, eczema, basal celland cancer, conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis,

  7. 6, 1332313366, 2006 Regional pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials of major population centers M. G. Lawrence a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Regional pollution potentials. Lawrence (lawrence@mpch-mainz.mpg.de) 13323 #12;ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials

  8. Regional Summary Pacific Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bocaccio, Pacific ocean perch, cowcod, and darkblotched and widow rockfish are currently in rebuildingRegional Summary Pacific Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  9. Southern Region Watershed Management Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and technology transfer programs. #12;Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 and networking both internally and with other regional water resources management programs, promoted technology1 Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 to September 14, 2005 Terminal

  10. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01

    than solar reflectance, thermal emittance, or Energy-Star™Energy Conservation Code prescribes a minimum solar reflectance and thermal

  11. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory San Francisco Bay Region region. The com- bination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment of the spectrum, because it's here that almost 100% of the sun's energy reaches the surface. In con- trast, due

  12. Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H.; Cabrini, S.; Kevan, S.D.; Su, R.

    2011-02-03

    Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.

  13. Quantum Brownian motion near a point-like reflecting boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. De Lorenci; E. S. Moreira Jr.; M. M. Silva

    2014-07-07

    The Brownian motion of a test particle interacting with a quantum scalar field in the presence of a perfectly reflecting boundary is studied in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime. Particularly, the expressions for dispersions in velocity and position of the particle are explicitly derived and their behaviors examined. The results are similar to those corresponding to an electric charge interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field near a reflecting plane boundary, mainly regarding the divergent behavior of the dispersions at the origin (where the boundary is placed), and at the time interval corresponding to a round trip of a light pulse between the particle and the boundary. We close by addressing some effects of allowing the position of the particle to fluctuate.

  14. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  15. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  16. Methodology for predicting asphalt concrete overlay life against reflection cracking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayawickrama, Priyantha Warnasuriya

    1985-01-01

    METHODOLOGY FOR PREDICTING ASPHALT CONCRETE OVERLAY Lr 8 AGAINST REFLECTION CRACKING A Thesis by PRIYANTHA NARNASURIYA JAYAWICKRAMA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements.... Experimental investigations carried out at Ohio State University ( 1, 2, 3) and Texas A8M University ( 4, 5, 6 ) have verified the applicability of fracture mechanics principles in predicting fatigue life of asphalt TIP OF THE CRACX /~ // N/i OVERLAY OLD...

  17. Terminology relating to measurements taken on thin, reflecting films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This standard consists of terms and definitions pertaining to measurements taken on thin, reflecting films, such as found in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials. In particular, the terms are related to the standards in Section , which were generated by Committee E08 on Fatigue and Fracture. Terminology E 1823 Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing is applicable to this standard. 1.2 The terms are listed in alphabetical order.

  18. Reflection and Ducting of Gravity Waves Inside the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacGregor, K B

    2011-01-01

    Internal gravity waves excited by overshoot at the bottom of the convection zone can be influenced by rotation and by the strong toroidal magnetic field that is likely to be present in the solar tachocline. Using a simple Cartesian model, we show how waves with a vertical component of propagation can be reflected when traveling through a layer containing a horizontal magnetic field with a strength that varies with depth. This interaction can prevent a portion of the downward-traveling wave energy flux from reaching the deep solar interior. If a highly reflecting magnetized layer is located some distance below the convection zone base, a duct or wave guide can be set up, wherein vertical propagation is restricted by successive reflections at the upper and lower boundaries. The presence of both upward- and downward-traveling disturbances inside the duct leads to the existence of a set of horizontally propagating modes that have significantly enhanced amplitudes. We point out that the helical structure of these ...

  19. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (5–40 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  20. Inversion of seismic reflection traveltimes using a nonlinear optimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullammanappallil, S.K.; Louie, J.N. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present the use of a nonlinear optimization scheme called generalized simulated annealing to invert seismic reflection times for velocities, reflector depths, and lengths. A finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation computes reflection traveltimes through the velocity model and avoids ray tracing. They test the optimization scheme on synthetic models and compare it with results from a linearized inversion. The synthetic tests illustrate that, unlike linear inversion schemes, the results obtained by the optimization scheme are independent of the initial model. The annealing method has the ability to produce a suite of models that satisfy the data equally well. They make use of this property to determine the uncertainties associated with the model parameters obtained. Synthetic examples demonstrate that allowing the reflector length to vary, along with its position, helps the optimization process obtain a better solution. The authors put this to use in imaging the Garlock fault, whose geometry at depth is poorly known. They use reflection times picked from shot gathers recorded along COCORP Mojave Line 5 to invert for the Garlock fault and velocities within the Cantil Basin below Fremont Valley, California. The velocities within the basin obtained by their optimization scheme are consistent with earlier studies, though their results suggest that the basin might extend 1--2 km further south. The reconstructed reflector seems to suggest shallowing of the dip of the Garlock fault at depth.

  1. Texas State Planning Region 3 Report of Regional Transportation Coordination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nortex Regional Planning Commission

    2006-12-01

    stream_source_info Nortex Regional Transportation Coordination Plan.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 50110 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Nortex Regional Transportation Coordination Plan.pdf.txt Content... Transportation Coordination December 1, 2006 Submitted to The Texas Department of Transportation Mission To provide reliable, quality, coordinated, public transportation. Texas State Planning Region 3 Page 1 Table of Contents Table...

  2. Method and system for high power reflective optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Negres, Raluca A.

    2013-03-12

    A method of repairing damage in an optical element includes providing a laser system including at least one optical element having a coating layer having an incident light surface and directing a laser pulse from the laser system to impinge on the incident light surface. The method also includes sustaining damage to a portion of the incident light surface and melting the damaged portion of the incident light surface and a region adjacent to the damaged portion. The method further includes flowing material from the region adjacent the damaged portion to the damaged portion and solidifying the material in the damaged portion and the region adjacent to the damaged portion.

  3. Infragravity waves over topography: generation, dissipation, and reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomson, James M. (James McArthur)

    2006-01-01

    Ocean surface infragravity waves (periods from 20 to 200 s) observed along the southern California coast are shown to be sensitive to the bottom topography of the shelf region, where propagation is linear, and of the ...

  4. Use of double-layer ITO films in reflective contacts for blue and near-UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, L. K., E-mail: l.markov@mail.ioffe.ru; Smirnova, I. P.; Pavluchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V. [ZAO Innovation Company TETIS (Russian Federation); Zakheim, D. A.; Pavlov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The structural and optical properties of multilayer ITO/SiO{sub 2}/Ag composites are studied. In these composites, the ITO (indium-tin oxide) layer is produced by two different methods: electron-beam evaporation and a combined method including electron-beam evaporation and subsequent magnetron sputtering. It is shown that the reflectance of the composite based on the ITO film produced by electron-beam evaporation is substantially lower. This can be attributed to the strong absorption of light at both boundaries of the SiO{sub 2} layer, which results from the complex surface profile of ITO films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. Samples with a film deposited by the combined method have a reflectance of about 90% at normal light incidence, which, combined with their higher electrical conductivity, makes these samples advantageous for use as reflective contacts to the p-type region of AlInGaN light-emitting diodes of the flip-chip design.

  5. 2015 NHA Alaska Regional Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register today and join industry professionals for interactive discussions covering a variety of regional topics and a tour of the Eklutna lake Project.

  6. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium power system All emissions are displayed in short tons (not metric tons) The Pacific Northwest (PNW

  7. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Hilgenfeld, Rolf, E-mail: hilgenfeld@biochem.uni-luebeck.de [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of (China); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ?), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography.

  8. X-RAYING AN ACCRETION DISK IN REALTIME: THE EVOLUTION OF IONIZED REFLECTION DURING A SUPERBURST FROM 4U 1636-536

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Strohmayer, T. E., E-mail: l.keek@gatech.edu [X-Ray Astrophysics Lab, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    When a thermonuclear X-ray burst ignites on an accreting neutron star, the accretion disk undergoes sudden strong X-ray illumination, which can drive a range of processes in the disk. Observations of superbursts, with durations of several hours, provide the best opportunity to study these processes and to probe accretion physics. Using detailed models of X-ray reflection, we perform time resolved spectroscopy of the superburst observed from 4U 1636-536 in 2001 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The spectra are consistent with a blackbody reflecting off a photoionized accretion disk, with the ionization state dropping with time. The evolution of the reflection fraction indicates that the initial reflection occurs from a part of the disk at larger radius, subsequently transitioning to reflection from an inner region of the disk. Even though this superburst did not reach the Eddington limit, we find that a strong local absorber develops during the superburst. Including this event, only two superbursts have been observed by an instrument with sufficient collecting area to allow for this analysis. It highlights the exciting opportunity for future X-ray observatories to investigate the processes in accretion disks when illuminated by superbursts.

  9. Polarization Studies of Resonant Forbidden Reflections in Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, P.; Barois, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; McCoy, B. K.; Huang, C. C.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.

    2007-11-30

    We report the results of resonant x-ray diffraction experiments performed on thick films of a biaxial liquid crystal made of achiral bent-core molecules. Polarization properties of forbidden reflections are observed as a function of the sample rotation angle {phi} about the scattering vector Q for the first time on a fluid material. The experimental data are successfully analyzed within a tensor structure factor model by taking the nonperfect alignment of the liquid crystal into account. The local structure of the B{sub 2} mesophase is hence determined to be SmC{sub S}P{sub A}.

  10. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansuripur, Tobias S

    2013-01-01

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet Maxwell's equations admit only a convergent solution. By examining a Gaussian beam obliquely incident on such a cavity, we find that the "side-tail" of the beam leaks into the cavity and gives rise to a field that interferes with the main portion of the beam, which is ultimately responsible for the convergence of the field. This mechanism offers perspective for many phenomena, and we specifically discuss the implications for amplified total internal reflection.

  11. Graphene fish-scale array as controllable reflecting photonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriev, Victor; Prosvirnin, Sergey L

    2015-01-01

    We report resonant features of novel controllable reflectarray which consists of meander-like graphene strips placed on a metal-backed dielectric substrate. The structure manifests two kinds of resonances appeared as sharp deeps of reflectivity. The first one exists because the strips of periodic cells of the structure have resonant sizes for induced surface plasmon-polaritons. The second kind of resonances is defined by excitation of TM eigenwaves of the whole structure as a plane photonic crystal. The latter resonances do not depend on whether the strips of the unit cells have resonant sizes or not.

  12. Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection December 17, 2007 #12;Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection and the homotopy groups Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results #12

  13. V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

  14. Seismic reflection investigations of sinkholes beneath Interstate Highway 70 in Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steeples, Don W.; Knapp, Ralph W.; McElwee, Carl D.

    1986-02-01

    Seismic reflection studies were performed across actively developing sinkholes located astride Interstate Highway 70 in Russell County, Kansas. Results indicate that high?resolution seismic reflection surveys are useful in the subsurface...

  15. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  16. In situ characterization of soil properties using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waiser, Travis Heath

    2007-09-17

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid proximal-sensing method that is being used more and more in laboratory settings to measure soil properties. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy research that has been completed in laboratories shows...

  17. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  18. PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    AND COMMUNITIES PITTSBURGH, PA. | AUGUST 2013 #12;PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 32 PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (HAPs)/AIR TOXICS PREPARED BY AUTHORSPITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS (PRETA) REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR

  19. USDA Regional Conservation Partnership Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting applications for the Regional Conservation Partnership Program to identify and address natural resource objectives in balance with operational goals in order to benefit soil, water, wildlife, and related natural resources locally, regionally, and nationally.

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

  1. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L.

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  2. Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.

    2007-05-01

    An analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on a vehicle using solar-reflective paint and glazing.

  3. Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

  4. Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation -GEY 772/772L Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation - GEY 772/772L ­ Spring 2006 Room TEC 104 Processing, Yilmaz; and Practical Seismic Interpretation, Badley; A Lab Manual of Seismic Reflection the fundamentals of geologic interpretation of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data. The class provides hands

  5. A Kernel-Based Spatio-Temporal Dynamical Model for Nowcasting Weather Radar Reflectivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Kernel-Based Spatio-Temporal Dynamical Model for Nowcasting Weather Radar Reflectivities Ke Xu of the technique and its potential for nowcasting weather radar reflectivities. Key Words: Bayesian, dilation to nowcasting weather radar reflectivities into two general categories. The first is the use of simple

  6. Time Domain Reflectometry Surface Reflections for Dielectric Constant in Highly Conductive Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    Time Domain Reflectometry Surface Reflections for Dielectric Constant in Highly Conductive Soils reflectometry TDR mea- surement in highly conductive soils. It makes use of information contained in the TDR signal from the reflection at the surface of the soil rather than the reflection from the end

  7. Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon@illinois.edu Abstract: We present a two-axis electrostatic MEMS scanner with high- reflectivity monolithic. The reflective surfaces of the MEMS scanner are transfer-printed PC mirrors with low polarization dependence, low

  8. Anti-reflection coating for nitrogen-vacancy optical measurements T. K. Yeung,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Anti-reflection coating for nitrogen-vacancy optical measurements in diamond T. K. Yeung,1,2 D. Le-reflection (AR) coatings for optical excitation and fluorescence measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color. These AR coatings improve NV-diamond optical measurements by reducing optical reflection at the diamond

  9. High Spectral and Spatial Resolution Observations of the PDR Emission in the NGC2023 Reflection Nebula with SOFIA and APEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandell, G; Guesten, R; Requena-Torres, M A; Riquelme, D; Okada, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have mapped the NGC 2023 reflection nebula in [CII] and CO(11--10) with the heterodyne receiver GREAT on SOFIA and obtained slightly smaller maps in 13CO(3--2), CO(3--2), CO(4--3), CO(6--5), and CO(7--6) with APEX in Chile. We use these data to probe the morphology, kinematics, and physical conditions of the C II region, which is ionized by FUV radiation from the B2 star HD37903. The [CII] emission traces an ellipsoidal shell-like region at a position angle of ~ -50 deg, and is surrounded by a hot molecular shell. In the southeast, where the C II region expands into a dense, clumpy molecular cloud ridge, we see narrow and strong line emission from high-J CO lines, which comes from a thin, hot molecular shell surrounding the [CII] emission. The [CII] lines are broader and show photo evaporating gas flowing into the C II region. Based on the strength of the [13CII] F=2--1 line, the [CII] line appears to be somewhat optically thick over most of the nebula with an optical depth of a few. We model the physical ...

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i)more »a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  11. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  12. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  13. Volume Reflection of a Proton Beam in a Bent Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Yu. M.; Petrunin, A. A.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Gelamkov, A. V.; Lapina, L. P.; Schetkovsky, A. I.; Vavilov, S. A.; Baranov, V. I.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Afonin, A. G.; Baranov, V. T.; Chepegin, V. N.; Guidi, V.; Vomiero, A.

    2006-10-06

    Volume reflection predicted in the mid-1980s by Taratin and Vorobiev has been observed for the first time in the interactions of a 70 GeV proton beam with a short bent crystal. Incident protons deviate from convex atomic planes in the bulk of the crystal as a result of coherent interaction with bent lattice around the tangency point of particle trajectory with a curved atomic plane. The deflection angle 2{theta}{sub R} was found to be (39.5{+-}2.0) {mu}rad, or (1.65{+-}0.08){theta}{sub c} in terms of the critical angle for channeling. The process has a large probability with respect to channeling and takes place in the angular range equal to the bend angle of atomic planes. It could possibly open new fields of application of crystals in high-energy particle beam optics.

  14. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  15. The reflecting surface of the MAGIC-II Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bastieri; J. Arnold; C. Baixeras; O. Citterio; F. Dazzi; B. De Lotto; M. Doro; M. Ghigo; E. Giro; F. Goebel; R. Kosyra; E. Lorenz; M. Mariotti; R. Mirzoyan; R. Paoletti; G. Pareschi; D. Pascoli; A. Pepato; L. Peruzzo; A. Saggion; P. Sartori; A. Sillanpää

    2007-09-10

    The MAGIC Collaboration is building a second telescope, MAGIC II, improving the design of the current MAGIC Telescope. MAGIC II is being built at 85 m of distance from MAGIC I, and will also feature a huge reflecting surface of ~240 m$^2$ of area. One of the improvement is the design for the mirror of MAGIC II, that are lighter and larger, being square of 1 m of side and weighting around 15 kg. For the development and production of the new mirrors, two different techniques, both reliable and affordable in price, were selected: the diamond milling of aluminium surfaces and the cold slumping of thin glass panes. As tests for the second one are still ongoing, we present a description of the diamond milling technique, and its application and performance to the produced mirrors.

  16. The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricchiazzi, P.; O'Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

    2005-03-18

    Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  17. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  18. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  19. Spectral snow-reflectance models for grain-size and liquid-water fraction in melting snow for the solar-reflected spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Spectral snow-reflectance models for grain-size and liquid- water fraction in melting snow.S.A. ABSTRACT. Two spectral snow-reflectance models that account for the effects of grain-size and liquid calculations are used to specify the essential optical properties of snow in the models.Two approaches

  20. RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 3B—Integration of Supply Chains III: Algal Biofuels Strategy RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed Kimberly Ogden, Professor, University of Arizona, Engineering Technical Lead, National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

  1. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  2. Mean first passage time for a small rotating trap inside a reflective disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin C. Tzou; Theodore Kolokolnikov

    2014-11-16

    We compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) for a Brownian particle inside a two-dimensional disk with reflective boundaries and a small interior trap that is rotating at a constant angular velocity. The inherent symmetry of the problem allows for a detailed analytic study of the situation. For a given angular velocity, we determine the optimal radius of rotation that minimizes the average MFPT over the disk. Several distinct regimes are observed, depending on the ratio between the angular velocity $\\omega$ and the trap size $\\varepsilon$, and several intricate transitions are analyzed using the tools of asymptotic analysis and Fourier series. For $\\omega \\sim \\mathcal{O}(1)$, we compute a critical value $\\omega_c>0$ such that the optimal trap location is at the origin whenever $\\omega \\omega_c $. In the regime $1 \\ll \\omega \\ll \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path approaches the boundary of the disk. However as $\\omega$ is further increased to $\\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$, the optimal trap path "jumps" closer to the origin. Finally for $\\omega \\gg \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path subdivides the disk into two regions of equal area. This simple geometry provides a good test case for future studies of MFPT with more complex trap motion.

  3. Regional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * ImpactsandRegarding Confinement Resonances Print3 AÇORIANO

  4. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  5. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  6. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-09-11

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  7. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  8. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  9. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  10. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Pérot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arisingmore »from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.« less

  11. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  13. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  15. Testing Vpin on Big Data Response to Reflecting on the Vpin Dispute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Kesheng

    2014-01-01

    Wu,  K. ,  et  al.   A  Big  Data  Approach  to  Analyzing  Testing VPIN on Big Data -- Response to “Reflecting on theTesting  VPIN  on  Big  Data    –  Response  to  “

  16. Sandia Energy - New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through direct measurements of the phase and amplitude of the reflected optical wave. The enhanced absorption and emission of transverse-electric dipoles placed close to...

  17. Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGee, Sasha

    OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

  18. Moving towards Decent Work. Labour in the Lula government: reflections on recent Brazilian experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    A inflexão do governo Lula: política econômica, crescimentoa política econômica do Governo Lula. São Paulo: Ed. UNESP,Decent Work* Labour in the Lula government: reflections on

  19. Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal ...

  20. Particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions in the heliosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsubouchi, K., E-mail: kent1@mac.com [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-21-1, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid simulations are performed to investigate the dynamics of both solar wind protons and interplanetary pickup ions (PUIs) around the corotating interaction region (CIR). The one-dimensional system is applied in order to focus on processes in the direction of CIR propagation. The CIR is bounded by forward and reverse shocks, which are responsible for particle acceleration. The effective acceleration of solar wind protons takes place when the reverse shock (fast wind side) favors a quasi-parallel regime. The diffusive process accounts for this acceleration, and particles can gain energy in a suprathermal range (on the order of 10 keV). In contrast, the PUI acceleration around the shock differs from the conventional model in which the motional electric field along the shock surface accelerates particles. Owing to their large gyroradius, PUIs can gyrate between the upstream and downstream, several proton inertial lengths away from the shock. This 'cross-shock' gyration results in a net velocity increase in the field-aligned component, indicating that the magnetic mirror force is responsible for acceleration. The PUIs that remain in the vicinity of the shock for a long duration (tens of gyroperiods) gain much energy and are reflected back toward the upstream. These reflected energetic PUIs move back and forth along the magnetic field between a pair of CIRs that are magnetically connected. The PUIs are repeatedly accelerated in each reflection, leading to a maximum energy gain close to 100 keV. This mechanism can be evaluated in terms of 'preacceleration' for the generation of anomalous cosmic rays.

  1. X-ray Reflection from Inhomogeneous Accretion Disks: II. Emission Line Variability and Implications for Reverberation Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. R. Ballantyne; N. J. Turner; A. J. Young

    2004-10-08

    One of the principal scientific objectives of the upcoming Constellation-X mission is to attempt to map the inner regions of accretion disks around black holes in Seyfert galaxies by reverberation mapping of the Fe K fluorescence line. This area of the disk is likely radiation pressure dominated and subject to various dynamical instabilities. Here, we show that density inhomogeneities in the disk atmosphere resulting from the photon bubble instability (PBI) can cause rapid changes in the X-ray reflection features, even when the illuminating flux is constant. Using a simulation of the development of the PBI, we find that, for the disk parameters chosen, the Fe K and O VIII Ly\\alpha lines vary on timescales as short as a few hundredths of an orbital time. In response to the changes in accretion disk structure, the Fe K equivalent width (EW) shows variations as large as ~100 eV. The magnitude and direction (positive or negative) of the changes depends on the ionization state of the atmosphere. The largest changes are found when the disk is moderately ionized. The O VIII EW varies by tens of eV, as well as exhibiting plenty of rapid, low-amplitude changes. This effect provides a natural explanation for some observed instances of short timescale Fe K variability which was uncorrelated with the continuum (e.g., Mrk 841). New predictions for Fe K reverberation mapping should be made which include the effects of this accretion disk driven line variability and a variable ionization state. Reflection spectra averaged over the evolution of the instability are well fit by constant density models in the 2-10 keV region.

  2. Coordinated Regional Public Transportation Plan: Heart of Texas Region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heart of Texas Council of Governments

    2006-12-01

    % Freestone 16.4% 11.4% Hill 17.1 11.1 Limestone 16.4% 11.3% McLennan 13.0% 9.7% HOTCOG Region 14.5% 10.2% State of Texas 9.9% 8.7% Section 2.2.4 ? Automobile Availability Despite the generally lower incomes, automobile availability within the Heart...% Falls 1.65 12.2% Freestone 1.82 6.2% Hill 1.78 5.9% Limestone 1.76 7.8% McLennan 1.68 8.3% HOTCOG Region 1.71 7.9% State of Texas 1.70 7.4% Section 2.3 ? Current Services This section describes the public transportation services currently provided...

  3. Regional geophysics, Cenozoic tectonics and geologic resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    adjoining regions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Regional geophysics, Cenozoic tectonics and geologic resources of the...

  4. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit July 9, 2015 8:30AM to 6:00PM EDT Renaissance...

  5. Thurston Regional Planning Council Helps Washingtonians Save...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thurston Regional Planning Council Helps Washingtonians Save on Travel Costs Thurston Regional Planning Council Helps Washingtonians Save on Travel Costs April 10, 2013 - 12:00am...

  6. Clean Cities Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards Clean Cities Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  7. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  8. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  9. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  10. Regional Partnerships | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnowRedox Shuttle Additive,Regional

  11. Reflection Of Microwave Pulses From Acoustic Waves: Summary of Experimental and Computational Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepler, Grace Martinelli

    Reflection Of Microwave Pulses From Acoustic Waves: Summary of Experimental and Computational to detect reflections of the electromagnetic wave off the acoustic wave front. To date, we have constructed. The circuitry and timing necessary to initiate an acoustic wave and synchronize it with the EM pulse have been

  12. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Montana Grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    1 Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from NMRI as a metric for estimating vegetation water content (VWC) and evaluate the normalization procedure Reflection Index (NMRI). It is a measure of vegetation water content (VWC) estimated from data archived

  13. Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting of nonspherical ice particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting investigates the relationship between ice water content (IWC) and equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) at 94 GHz. Baum, and A. J. Heymsfield (2008), Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar

  14. Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces Guillaume Bal systematically transport theoretic boundary conditions for acoustic wave reflection and transmission from a rough to energy transport in the high frequency limit and cal­ culate, in addition, the effect of the random rough

  15. Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 #12;2 Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light initially strikes a surface is equal to the angle at which light bounces off the same surface. In the diagram, light strikes a surface", this is an example of reflected light. Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed

  16. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY M. de Graaf,1 of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02206, doi aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space

  17. Seismic reflection imaging of the Mount Rose fault zone, Reno, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    . Lateral variations and offsets in late Quaternary stratigraphy in South Reno identified on four seismicSeismic reflection imaging of the Mount Rose fault zone, Reno, Nevada Project Award Number: # G09AP expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. #12;2 Abstract Five new high-resolution seismic reflection

  18. Seismic reflection imaging of thin, kimberlite dykes and sills: exploration and deposit characterization of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    Seismic reflection imaging of thin, kimberlite dykes and sills: exploration and deposit, in order to evaluate seismic reflection as a tool for subhorizontal kimberlite dyke/sill exploration for mine development purposes. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Seismic exploration

  19. Shallow structure from a seismic reflection profile across the Borah Peak, Idaho, fault scarp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1986-09-01

    A short 12-fold CDP seismic-reflection survey was performed along the road to Doublespring Pass across the fault scarp formed by the October 28, 1983, magnitude-7.3, Idaho earthquake. This high-resolution reflection survey was conducted to determine...

  20. A New Diffuse Reflecting Material with Applications Including Integrating Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cone, Michael Thomas

    2014-04-16

    of over 97% throughout the visible and near-infrared portion of the spectrum.6 However, the reflectance of all these barium sulfate materials drops considerably in the UV, with Spectrareflect’s reflectance at 250 nm being only 94%.? Spectralon....5 Experimental Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.6 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.7 UV-ICAM Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 vi 4. INTEGRATING...

  1. Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in high-reflectivity optical coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Deborah

    Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in high-reflectivity optical coatings Garrett D. Cole1,2 *, Wei and sensitivity are dictated by the excess mechanical damping of the high-reflectivity coatings that comprise at best been reduced by a factor of two. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm in optical coating technology

  2. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  3. The effect of anisotropic reflectance on imaging spectroscopy of snow properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    The effect of anisotropic reflectance on imaging spectroscopy of snow properties Thomas H. Paintera in revised form 19 September 2003; accepted 30 September 2003 Abstract How does snow's anisotropic directional reflectance affect the mapping of snow properties from imaging spectrometer data? This sensitivity

  4. Optical reflectivity of solid and liquid methane: Application to spectroscopy of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    's hydrocarbon lakes Kimberly A. Adams,1 Steven D. Jacobsen,1 Zhenxian Liu,2 Sylvia-Monique Thomas,1,3 Maddury revealed dark patches in the surface reflectance at 2 and 5 mm, interpreted as hydrocarbon lakes forming) on dynamic planetary surfaces requires laboratory reflectance ratio measurements at relevant temperatures

  5. Reflectivity and topography of cells grown on glass-coverslips measured with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovryn, Ben

    Reflectivity and topography of cells grown on glass-coverslips measured with phase-shifted laser the topography and reflection from calibration spheres and from stress fibers and adhesions in both fixed membrane topography," Cell. Biochem. Bio- phys. 1(3), 391­414 (2004). 11. J. T. Groves, R. Parthasarathy

  6. Autonomous buoy for seismic reflection data acquisition in the inaccessible parts of the Arctic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffersen, Yngve

    Autonomous buoy for seismic reflection data acquisition in the inaccessible parts of the Arctic Instrumentation, Bergen, Norway An autonomous buoy which collects seismic reflection data and transmits to shore of the seismic buoy (thick red, green and black lines). - we have successfully developed an autonomous buoy

  7. A shallow seismic reflection survey in basalts of the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1990-06-01

    recorded along a 500 m long line over a basalt, rhyolite, and sedimentary sequence in the Snake River Plain. Some shallow reflections at 40 to 50 ms on the field files are of exceptional quality with frequency exceeding 150 Hz. Reflections and refractions...

  8. To appear in ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucci, David J.

    To appear in ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections manipulation, mirrors, image manipulation, forgery detection, center of projection. ACM Reference Format: O'Brien, J. F., and Farid, H. 2012. Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections. ACM Trans

  9. Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part 2: reflectivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part 2: reflectivity measurements­111 (2006) (Electronic Imaging 2006) 19 Jan 2006 LBNL-59378 ABSTRACT The usual quantum efficiency (QE between 1 - R and the direct QE results. Keywords: CCD, quantum efficiency, reflectometer, reflectivity

  10. Influence of the atmosphere on remotely sensed reflection from vegetation surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmer, C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar radiation in a vegetation canopy is modelled equivalent to absorbing and scattering in a turbid medium with direction-dependent cross sections. Perturbations of plant reflection patterns due to atmospheric effects are computed at different altitudes and compared to the angular reflection characteristics caused by Lambertian surfaces of varying albedoes.

  11. A Reflective QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Reflective QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware Octavian Ciuhandu,murphyj}@eeng.dcu.ie ABSTRACT A new reflective QoS-enabled load management framework for component oriented middleware in complexity for the load management problem. Adaptive middleware offers the possibility of modifying

  12. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface

  13. Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental the potential impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability on shipboard remote-sensing above the sea surface by 8­18%, and remote-sensing reflectance by 12­24%. Variations in radio- metric

  14. {beta}{sub eff} measurements in reflected reactors using a Rossi-{alpha} technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doulin, V.A. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-01-20

    In this report the authors calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction equation for reflected reactors using the Rossi-{alpha} technique. They determine that the equation for the delayed neutron fraction is just as valid for reflected systems as it is for unreflected systems.

  15. Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells Li Chen for the formation of hemispherical structures as an omni-directional anti-reflection (omni-AR) coating in solar cell current in such hemispherical solar cells hence enhanced to 1.5 times of bulk silicon solar cells

  16. Narrowing of high power diode laser arrays using reflection feedback from an etalon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romalis, Mike

    Narrowing of high power diode laser arrays using reflection feedback from an etalon M. V. Romalisa for publication 27 June 2000 The spectrum of a high power multielement laser array is narrowed using reflection of the laser array is reduced by a factor of 2 with only 6% power loss. This reduction in FWHM is useful

  17. SWASH-BASED WAVE ENERGY REFLECTION ON NATURAL Rafael Almar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SWASH-BASED WAVE ENERGY REFLECTION ON NATURAL BEACHES Rafael Almar1 , Raimundo Ibaceta2 and the nature of reflected waves is crucial for various aspects of coastal science including energy balance others), have underlined the key role played by swash zone dynamics in controling the phase and energy

  18. Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    that palladium is capable of absorbing/desorbing large amounts of hydrogen reversibly, and this has been making reflectance hydrogen sensors Chinhua Wang, Andreas Mandelis,a) and Jose A. Garcia Photothermal dual photopyroelectric interference PPEI /optical reflectance OR solid-state hydrogen sensor system has

  19. Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Erhard

    Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher Abstract. We develop a general theory of reflection systems and, more specifically, partial root sys- tems which provide a unifying framework for finite root systems, Kac-Moody root systems, extended affine root systems

  20. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.3–14.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63?±?2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  1. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  2. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  3. Evolution of Magnetic Helicity and Energy Spectra of Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongqi; Sokoloff, D D

    2015-01-01

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field for estimating magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of individual active regions and the change of their spectral indices with the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral index of current helicity from 5/3 is analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than that of magnetic energy. There is no obvious relationship between the change of the normalized magnetic helicity and the integral scale of the magnetic field for individual active regions. The evolution of the spectral index reflects the development and distribution of various scales of magnetic structures in active regions. It is found that around solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper.

  4. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  5. Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Done; P. T. Zycki; D. A. Smith

    1997-12-17

    We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.

  6. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  7. DC High School Science Bowl Regionals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This event is the Washington, D.C. High School Regional competition for the US National Science Bowl. The regional competition is run by the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, and the...

  8. Region Type Checking for Core-Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Wei Ngan

    Region-based memory management offers several important advantages over garbage-collected heap, including real-time performance, better data locality and efficient use of limited memory. The concept of regions was first ...

  9. Introduction to Superconductivity Energy gap Andreev Reflection Theory Procedure and Results Conclusion A study of Andreev Reflection in Nb/Ge/Al

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    by Cooper pairs flows without resistance #12;Introduction to Superconductivity Energy gap Andreev Reflection that there was a minimum energy 2(T) required to break a Cooper pair into two quasiparticles. This energy gap (T) should > will enter the superconductor as quasiparticles. Electrons with energy Cooper pairs

  10. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, Jie; Li, Quan; Paterson, Daniel A; Storey, John M D; Imrie, Corrie T; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals with helicoidal molecular architecture are known for their ability to selectively reflect light with the wavelength that is determined by the periodicity of molecular orientations. Here we demonstrate that by using a cholesteric with oblique helicoidal(heliconical) structure, as opposed to the classic right-angle helicoid, one can vary the wavelength of selectively reflected light in a broad spectral range, from ultraviolet to visible and infrared (360-1520 nm for the same chemical composition) by simply adjusting the electric field applied parallel to the helicoidal axis. The effect exists in a wide temperature range (including the room temperatures) and thus can enable many applications that require dynamically controlled transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves, from energy-saving smart windows to tunable organic lasers, reflective color display, and transparent see-through displays.

  11. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Xiang; Yannian Li; Quan Li; Daniel A. Paterson; John M. D. Storey; Corrie T. Imrie; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-03-30

    Cholesteric liquid crystals with helicoidal molecular architecture are known for their ability to selectively reflect light with the wavelength that is determined by the periodicity of molecular orientations. Here we demonstrate that by using a cholesteric with oblique helicoidal(heliconical) structure, as opposed to the classic right-angle helicoid, one can vary the wavelength of selectively reflected light in a broad spectral range, from ultraviolet to visible and infrared (360-1520 nm for the same chemical composition) by simply adjusting the electric field applied parallel to the helicoidal axis. The effect exists in a wide temperature range (including the room temperatures) and thus can enable many applications that require dynamically controlled transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves, from energy-saving smart windows to tunable organic lasers, reflective color display, and transparent see-through displays.

  12. Pearls of Wisdom : technology for intentional reflection and learning in constructionist cooperatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Robbin Nicole, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    At the core of the constructionist learning paradigm is the idea that people learn through design experiences. However, in most settings, learners rarely revisit their work to reflect on design and learning processes. The ...

  13. Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM PERIODICALLY STRATIFIED from Periodically Stratified Media with Interfacial Slip, Geophysical Prospecting 31 phase propagation in some other direction. INTRODUCTION Geophysical media often exhibit anisotropic

  14. On-Line Measurement of Lubricant Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Reflection Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Harper, P.

    2004-02-26

    The ultrasonic reflectivity of a lubricant layer between two solid bodies depends on the ultrasonic frequency, the acoustic properties of the liquid and solid, and the layer thickness. In this paper, ultrasonic reflectivity measurements are used as a method for determining the thickness of lubricating films in bearing systems. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the outside of a bearing shell such that the wave is focused on the lubricant film layer. For a particular lubricant film the reflected pulse is processed to give a reflection coefficient spectrum. The lubricant film thickness is then obtained from either the layer stiffness or the resonant frequency. The method has been validated using static fluid wedges and the elastohydrodynamic film formed between a ball sliding on a flat. Film thickness values in the range 50-500 nm were recorded which agreed well with theoretical film formation predictions.

  15. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    energy-use effects of cool roofs on California commercialfrom the application of reflective roofs in two small non-saving potentials of light-colored roofs for residential and

  16. Suppressing nonphysical reflections in Green's function estimates using source-receiver interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suppressing nonphysical reflections in Green's function estimates using source-receiver interferometry Simon King1 and Andrew Curtis2 ABSTRACT Seismic interferometry retrieves the Green's function of sources. Theory requires that sources completely surround the two receivers, but constraints

  17. [19] OSCILLATIONMETHOD 211 breaks down, and the most intense reflections will be systematically un-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    intensities from crystals of large unit cell. The problems imposed by the need to analyze the digitized data of two perpendicular bent mirrors, providing glancing-angle reflection in horizontal and vertical planes

  18. Effects of Charge on Osmotic Reflection Coefficients of Macromolecules in Fibrous Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhalla, Gaurav

    A model based on continuum hydrodynamics and electrostatics was developed to predict the combined effects of molecular charge and size on the osmotic reflection coefficient (?[subscript o]) of a macromolecule in a fibrous ...

  19. Promoting Teacher Reflection To Enhance Head Start Teachers' Social-Emotional Practices: A Pilot Investigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Lynisha R

    2015-01-26

    This dissertation investigated the development and validation of a measure of reflection-focused problem solving (RFPS) consultation model and the effects of RFPS consultation on observed classroom social-emotional practices ...

  20. Acquisition and processing pitfall associated with the clipping of near-surface seismic reflection traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.; Steeples, Don W.; Malin, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    The processing of clipped seismic traces may produce high-frequency wavelets that can be misinterpreted as reflections in filtered shot gathers and common-midpoint (CMP) stacked sections. To illustrate this effect, a near-surface CMP seismic...

  1. The Impact of a Metacognitive Reflection Component in a Problem-Based Learning Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seifert, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-16

    This mixed methods dissertation explores the impact of metacognitive support (reflective journal entries and a think-aloud exercise) in a PBL (problem-based learning) unit. While students are developing a solution for a ...

  2. Recent advances in reflective optics for EUV/x-ray light sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent advances in reflective optics for EUVx-ray light sources Wednesday, June 24, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Regina Soufli, LLNL Program...

  3. A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Molly E

    2005-01-01

    An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

  4. Generating intense ultrashort radiation by reflecting an ultrashort laser pulse from a thin target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenmin [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-10-03

    Particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling demonstrate that the reflection of a single-cycle light pulse from a thin target can produce an ultrashort ultraintense electromagnetic field.

  5. A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

    2002-01-01

    . Various engineering reinforcing grids have been used in recent years to mitigate the occurrence and propagation of reflection cracking. Reinforcing grids made of fiberglass or polypropylene has been used for this purpose. The main objectives...

  6. Reflectance reduction of InP wafers after high-temperature annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    is beneficial for many devices, such as solar cells, LEDs, and sen- sors. Various methods of reflection unprocessed as the reference sample. Three quarters of one wafer were annealed in an oven at 350, 500, and 600

  7. Some reflections on 25 years of the Association for Behavior Analysis: Past, present, and future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Edward K.; Baer, Donald M.; Donald, M.; Favell, Judith E.; Glenn, Sigrid S.; Sigrid, S.; Hineline, Philip N.; Malott, Maria E.; Michael, Jack

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the discipline and profession of behavior analysis, as well as on the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA), on the occasion of the association's 25th anniversary. It is based on a panel session conducted...

  8. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill...

  9. Reflecting on the Invisible: Understanding End-User Perceptions of Ubiquitous Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Keith

    Reflecting on the Invisible: Understanding End-User Perceptions of Ubiquitous Computing Erika, ledantec, eaganj, keith}@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT How can designers of ubiquitous computing technologies): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION Evaluations of ubiquitous computing systems have typically examined the functional

  10. Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 Montpellier, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 poverty. Using a Maliansurvey thatincorporatesexceptionally detailed information on food consumption, we: poverty, food insecurity, caloric intake, household surveys, Mali 1 Introduction Estimating the number

  11. Reflection Space Image Based Rendering Brian Cabral, Marc Olano, Philip Nemec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olano, Marc

    Reflection Space Image Based Rendering Brian Cabral, Marc Olano, Philip Nemec SGI Abstract High to approximate the integral lighting equation. ¡ e-mail: ¢ cabral,olano,nemec£ @sgi.com Environment mapping

  12. Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes of Sphaeropsis sapinea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes between isolates representing different S. sapinea morphotypes, using multiple gene genealogies inferred from partial sequences of six protein-coding genes and six microsatellite loci. Genealogies generated

  13. Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal...

  14. Creating Representations for Continuously Moving Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of such moving regions are oil spills, forest fires, hurricanes, schools of fish, spreads of diseases, or armies

  15. The Road Map For Regional Coordinated Public Transportation West Texas/El Paso Region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Texas/El Paso Regional Coordinated Transportation Planning Coalition

    2006-12-01

    -1 THE ROAD MAP FOR REGIONAL COORDINATED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION West Texas/El Paso Region Regional Service Plan for Brewster, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis and Presidio Counties Submitted... by the West Texas/El Paso Regional Coordinated Transportation Planning Coalition Prepared by El Paso County Transit December 1, 2006 El Paso, Texas VAMONOS West Texas/El Paso Regional Service Plan 2 COORDINATED REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN...

  16. The effects of experiential learning with an emphasis on reflective writing on deep-level processing of agricultural leadership students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Copie D.

    2010-01-16

    are instrumental in the development of students. Experiential learning, and, more importantly, reflective writing are important components of college instructors? repertoires. Learning is not complete without proper reflection. The purpose of this study...

  17. Using Visible and Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Classify Soil Profiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Katrina Margarette

    2011-10-21

    AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Soil Science USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted...

  18. Calculation of infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHEN Wei-xi; LI Guo-hua; NIU Jin-zhen; GUO Chang-zhi

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the surface concentration and concentration profile of free carriers, the layer thickness and free carrier concentration of the homogeneous substrate on the infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type GaAs layers is analyzed by computer solutions of differential equations for the optical admittance. Computed spectra are reported for four different profiles and several substrate concentrations. Methods for evaluation of the measured reflection spectra and the limitation of this technique are discussed.

  19. Volume reflection in a bent crystal with purely parabolic inter-planar potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2009-01-01

    For trajectory of a particle undergoing volume reflection in a bent crystal an explicit expression is obtained, within the model of parabolic continuous potential in each inter-planar interval, and with the neglect of multiple scattering. For the case of bending radius well exceeding the critical value, a formula is derived for the final volume reflection angle in units of Lindhard's critical angle, and for the acquired beam angular spread.

  20. Design consistency and driver error as reflected by driver workload and accident rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Mark Douglas

    1992-01-01

    DESIGN CONSISTENCY AND DRIVER ERROR AS REFLECTED BY DRIVER WORKLOAD AND ACCIDENT RATES A Thesis by MARK DOUGLAS WOOLDRIDGE Approved as to style and content by: Daniel B. Fambro (Chair of Committee) Raymond A. Krammes (Member) Olga J.... Pendleton (Member) James T. P. Yao (Head of Department) May 1992 ABSTRACT Design Consistency and Driver Error as Reflected by Driver Workload and Accident Rates (May 1992) Mark Douglas Wooldridge, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory...

  1. Selection of linear-cavity fibre laser radiation using a reflection interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terentyev, V S; Simonov, V A [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We consider the use of a two-mirror multibeam reflection interferometer as a selector of linear-cavity single-mode fibre laser radiation and present experimental data on continuous wavelength tuning of an erbium-doped fibre laser. Conditions are found for single-longitudinal-mode operation of the fibre laser cavity using a reflection interferometer, with the possibility of broadband wavelength tuning. (control of laser pulse parameters)

  2. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  3. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16

    DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY A Dissertation by ALEJANDRO GARCIA URIBE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2009 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY A Dissertation by ALEJANDRO GARCIA URIBE...

  4. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

  5. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

    2006-03-23

    Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

  6. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  7. Reflection and transmission of light waves from the air-magnetoplasma interface: Spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borhanian, Jafar

    2015-03-15

    We have investigated the reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave from the air-magnetoplasma interface. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained for an arbitrary polarized incident wave. The spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts are discussed. The numerical results are presented to study the dependence of the reflection and transmission coefficients and IF shifts on relevant parameters of the system. The plasma and wave parameters can be used to control the reflection coefficients and IF shifts.

  8. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  9. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  10. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  11. The prehistoric diet and subsistence of the lower Pecos region, as reflected in coprolites from Baker Cave, Val Verde County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobolik, Kristin Dee

    1988-01-01

    1 1 i f ormes Anguillidae An uilla rostrata Longnose gar American eel Clupeiformes Clupeidae Dorosoma ce edianum a~ere e e e a e Cypri niformes Cyprinidae Cam ostoma anomalum Dionda diabo i a~credo a G~ila a dora H bo nathus nuchalis H...

  12. Conditions for reflection and transmission of an ion acoustic soliton in a dusty plasma with variable charge dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Tomar, Renu; Dahiya, Raj P.

    2014-07-15

    Modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves in order to examine the soliton reflection and its transmission through an inhomogeneous plasma comprising ions, dust grains with fluctuating charge and two types of electrons, namely nonisothermal electrons and isothermal electrons. All the mKdV equations are coupled at the point of reflection and solved for the reflected soliton. Unlike others, a relation is established between the velocity shifts of the incident, reflected and transmitted solitons, and based on a critical value of the shift of incident soliton the strengths of the soliton reflection and transmission are talked about. Conditions are obtained for the soliton reflection and its transmission, and a comparative study is made for the two cases of fixed and fluctuating charges on the dust grains.

  13. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-05-19

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for mostmore »wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.« less

  14. High reflectance and low stress Mo2C/Be multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A material for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayers that will reflect at about 11.3 nm, have a high reflectance, low stress, and high thermal and radiation stability. The material consists of alternating layers of Mo.sub.2 C and Be deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a substrate, such as silicon. In one example a Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer gave 65.2% reflectance at 11.25 nm measured at 5 degrees off normal incidence angle, and consisted of 70 bilayers with a deposition period of 5.78 nm, and was deposited at 0.83 mTorr argon (Ar) sputtering pressure, with the first and last layers being Be. The stress of the multilayer is tensile and only +88 MPa, compared to +330 MPa of a Mo/Be multilayers of the same thickness. The Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer was capped with carbon which produced an increase in reflectivity of about 7% over a similar multilayer with no carbon capping material, thus raising the reflectivity from 58.3% to over 65%. The multilayers were formed using either Mo.sub.2 C or Be as the first and last layers, and initial testing has shown the formation of beryllium carbide at the interfaces between the layers which both stabilizes and has a smoothing effect, and appear to be smoother than the interfaces in Mo/Be multilayers.

  15. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for most wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.

  16. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  17. Magnetorefractive effect in manganites with a colossal magnetoresistance in the visible spectral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P., E-mail: suhorukov@imp.uran.ru; Telegin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A. B., E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Gan'shina, E. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV)/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (EHU), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica (Spain); Herranz, G. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB)-CSIC (Spain); Caicedo, J. M. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV)/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (EHU), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica (Spain); Yurasov, A. N. [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University) (Russian Federation); Bessonov, V. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Kaul', A. R.; Gorbenko, O. Yu.; Korsakov, I. E. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The magnetotransmission, magnetoreflection, and magnetoresistance of the La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.9}Ag{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial films have been investigated. It has been found that the films exhibit a significant magnetorefractive effect in the case of reflection and transmission of light in the fundamental absorption region both in the vicinity of the Curie temperature and at low temperatures. It has been shown that the magnetorefractive effect in the infrared spectral region of the manganites is determined by a high-frequency response to magnetoresistance, whereas the magnetorefractive effect in the visible spectral region of these materials is associated with a change in the electronic structure in response to a magnetic field, which, in turn, leads to a change in the electron density of states, the probability of interband optical transitions, and the shift of light absorption bands. The obtained values of the magnetotransmittance and magnetoreflectance in the visible spectral region are less than those observed in the infrared region of the spectrum, but they are several times greater than the linear magneto-optical effects. As a result, the magnetorefractive effect, which is a nongyrotropic phenomenon, makes it possible to avoid the use of light analyzers and polarizers in optical circuits.

  18. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report covers the states that largely fall into the Southeastern Reliability Corporation (SERC) region: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

  19. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report Jump to: navigation, search...

  20. Enforcement Policy Statement: Compliance Period for Regional...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    conservation standards for residential furnaces, central air conditioners, and heat pumps, including regional standards for different product types in indicated States. 76 FR...

  1. Enforcement Policy Statement: Regional Standards Enforcement...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    set forth amended energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps, including regional standards in certain States. 76 FR 37408. DOE has initiated a...

  2. Northwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  3. Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  4. Hedge cities : gambling on regional futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorett, Mark, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Environmental degradation, automobile dependence, anticipated rapid population growth and spatial inequity have combined to form the basis for recent North American regional plans advocating a physical alternative to ...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MIDWEST REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS MIDWEST REGION November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 1. Bulk Power Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 D. Retail Access

  6. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Virginia Blue Ridge And Piedmont Provinces Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northwest Region Workshop, held in Seattle July 15, 2011.

  8. Regional weather modeling on parallel computers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillie, C.; Michalakes, J.; Skalin, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; NOAA Forecast Systems Lab.; Norwegian Meteorological Inst.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue on 'regional weather models' complements the October 1995 special issue on 'climate and weather modeling', which focused on global models. In this introduction we review the similarities and differences between regional and global atmospheric models. Next, the structure of regional models is described and we consider how the basic algorithms applied in these models influence the parallelization strategy. Finally, we give a brief overview of the eight articles in this issue and discuss some remaining challenges in the area of adapting regional weather models to parallel computers.

  9. Northeast Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  10. Regional Resource Centers for Innovation Brochure (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogsland, J.

    2000-09-14

    This brochure describes OIT's Regional Resource Centers for Innovation (RCIs), which provide the Innovation and Invention program grantees and other small business energy innovators commercialization assistance.

  11. Regional characteristics, tilt domains, and extensional history...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report Number 303 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Regional characteristics, tilt domains, and extensional history of the...

  12. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft x-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric M; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-04-05

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft x-ray reflectivity using linear s and p polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of x-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft x-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and is independent of the film thickness.

  13. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  14. Model solution for volume reflection of relativistic particles in a bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2010-10-15

    For volume reflection process in a bent crystal, exact analytic expressions for positively- and negatively-charged particle trajectories are obtained within a model of parabolic continuous potential in each interplanar interval, with the neglect of incoherent multiple scattering. In the limit of the crystal bending radius greatly exceeding the critical value, asymptotic formulas are obtained for the particle mean deflection angle in units of Lindhard's critical angle, and for the final beam profile. Volume reflection of negatively charged particles is shown to contain effects of rainbow scattering and orbiting, whereas with positively charged particles none of these effects arise within the given model. The model predictions are compared with experimental results and numerical simulations. Estimates of the volume reflection mean angle and the final beam profile robustness under multiple scattering are performed.

  15. Studying atmosphere-dominated hot Jupiter Kepler phase curves: Evidence that inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection is common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shporer, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We identify 3 Kepler transiting planet systems, Kepler-7, Kepler-12, and Kepler-41, whose orbital phase-folded light curves are dominated by planetary atmospheric processes including thermal emission and reflected light, while the impact of non-atmospheric (i.e. gravitational) processes, including beaming (Doppler boosting) and tidal ellipsoidal distortion, is negligible. Therefore, those systems allow a direct view of their atmospheres without being hampered by the approximations used in the inclusion of both atmospheric and non-atmospheric processes when modeling the phase curve shape. Here we analyze Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b atmosphere based on their Kepler phase curve, while the analysis of Kepler-7b was presented elsewhere. The model we used efficiently computes reflection and thermal emission contributions to the phase curve, including inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection due to longitudinally varying cloud coverage. We confirm Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b show a westward phase shift between the brightest...

  16. High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    2000-02-23

    The success of bandgap engineering has made high efficiency broadband multi-junction solar cells possible with photo-response out to the band edge of Ge. Modeling has been conducted which suggests that current double layer anti-reflection coating technology is not adequate for these devices in certain cases. Approaches for the development of higher performance anti-reflection coatings are examined. A new AR coating structure based on the use of Herpin equivalent layers is presented. Optical modeling suggests a decrease in the solar weighted reflectance of over 2.5{percent} absolute as a result. This structure requires no additional optical material development and characterization because no new optical materials are necessary. Experimental results and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  17. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find themore »condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.« less

  18. Ion-acoustic shocks with reflected ions: modeling and PIC simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liseykina, T; Vshivkov, V; Malkov, M

    2015-01-01

    Non-relativistic collisionless shock waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless shocks, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modeling of an ion-acoustic collisionless shock based on one-dimensional (1D) kinetic approximation both for electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is made on the shock-reflected ions as the main driver of shock dissipation. The reflection efficiency, velocity distribution of reflected particles and the shock electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the shock parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed.

  19. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  20. Thermo-acoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, P

    2008-01-01

    Thermo-acoustic wave propagation and reflection near liquid-gas critical point is studied, and our results are compared to a recent ultra-sensitive interferometry measurement in near-critical CO2 [Y. Miura et al. Phys. Rev. E 74, 010101(2006)], which suggests the dominance of the thermo-acoustic nature of the piston effect on the time scale of microseconds. New features regarding the reflection patterns of thermo-acoustic waves near the critical point are revealed by proper inclusion of the critically diverging bulk viscosity.

  1. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  2. Mitigation of substrate defects in reflective reticles using sequential coating and annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkanimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A buffer-layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The buffer-layer is formed by either a multilayer deposited on the substrate or by a plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coatings deposited on the substrate. The plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coating may comprise multilayer and single layer coatings. The multilayer deposited and annealed buffer layer coatings may be of the same or different material than the reflecting coating thereafter deposited on the buffer-layer.

  3. Volume Reflection Dependence of 400 GeV/c Protons on the Bent Crystal Curvature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Vomiero, A.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Milan, R.; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Ambrosi, G.; Zuccon, P.; Bertucci, B.; Burger, W. J.; Duranti, M.; Cavoto, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Iacoangeli, F.; Pisano, S.; Luci, C.

    2008-12-05

    The trend of volume reflection parameters (deflection angle and efficiency) in a bent (110) silicon crystal has been investigated as a function of the crystal curvature with 400 GeV/c protons on the H8 beam line at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. This Letter describes the analysis performed at six different curvatures showing that the optimal radius for volume reflection is approximately 10 times greater than the critical radius for channeling. A strong scattering of the beam by the planar potential is also observed for a bend radius close to the critical one.

  4. On the absence of simultaneous reflection and transmission in integrable impurity systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. A. Castro-Alvaredo; A. Fring; F. Göhmann

    2002-06-01

    We establish that the Yang-Baxter equations in the presence of an impurity can in general only admit solutions of simultaneous tranmission and reflection when the transmission and reflection amplitudes commute in the defect degrees of freedom with an additional exchange of the corresponding rapidities. In the absence of defect degrees of freedom we show in complete generality, that the only exceptions to this are theories which possess rapidity independent bulk scattering matrices. In particular bulk theories with diagonal scattering matrices, can only be the free Boson and Fermion, the Federbush model and their generalizations. These anyonic solutions do not admit the possibility of excited impurity states.

  5. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagin, K. Yu., E-mail: vagin@sci.lebedev.ru; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function.

  6. The detectability of extrasolar planet surroundings - I. Reflected-light photometry of unresolved rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Arnold; Jean Schneider

    2004-06-09

    It is expected that the next generation of high-contrast imaging instruments will deliver the first unresolved image of an extrasolar planet. The emitted thermal infrared light from the planet should show no phase effect assuming the planet is in thermal equilibrium. But the reflected visible light will vary versus the phase angle. Here, we study the photometric variation of the reflected light versus the orbital phase of a ringed extrasolar planet. We show that a ring around an extrasolar planet, both obviously unresolved, can be detected by its specific photometric signature. A simple quantitative model is discussed, taking into account the basic optical and geometrical properties of the ringed planet.

  7. Detectability of planetary rings around an extrasolar planet from reflected-light photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Arnold; J. Schneider

    2005-10-19

    The next generation of high-contrast imaging instruments will provide the first unresolved image of an extrasolar planet. While the emitted infrared light from the planet in thermal equilibrium should show almost no phase effect, the reflected visible light will vary with the orbital phase angle. We study the photometric variation of the reflected light with orbital phase of a ringed extrasolar planet. We show that a ring around an extrasolar planet, both obviously unresolved, can be detected by its specific photometric signature. Keywords: Stars: planetary systems -- Planets: rings -- Extrasolar planet characterization

  8. Dispositional reflections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17

    In this dissertation, I explicate how scholars implicate themselves in the subfield of organizational communication studies by engaging in antinomic language-games which make the conduct of research (and textwork in ...

  9. Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Regional Networks for...

  10. Roadmap: Associate of Arts Regional College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Associate of Arts [RE-AA-AA] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 12-Mar-12/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major GPA Overall GPA 61 2.000 2.000 #12;Roadmap: Associate of Arts [RE-AA-AA] Regional College Catalog Year

  11. Roadmap: Associate of Arts Regional College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Associate of Arts [RE-AA-AA] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 27-Feb-13/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major.000 #12;Roadmap: Associate of Arts [RE-AA-AA] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 2 of 2 | Last

  12. Roadmap: Associate of Science Regional College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Associate of Science [RE-AS-AS] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 27-Feb-13/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study.000 #12;Roadmap: Associate of Science [RE-AS-AS] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 2 of 2

  13. Roadmap: Associate of Science Regional College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Associate of Science [RE-AS-AS] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 12-Mar-12/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study GPA Overall GPA 61 2.000 2.000 #12;Roadmap: Associate of Science [RE-AS-AS] Regional College Catalog

  14. Lateral boundary errors in regional numerical weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?umer, Slobodan

    Lateral boundary errors in regional numerical weather prediction models Author: Ana Car Advisor, they describe evolution of atmospher - weather forecast. Every NWP model solves the same system of equations (1: assoc. prof. dr. Nedjeljka Zagar January 5, 2015 Abstract Regional models are used in many national

  15. Regional Analysis of Impediments to Fair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    participated in the HUD Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant. This grant was awarded to Salt Lake to this effort was the local HUD office. Kelly Jorgenson, Pauline Zvonkovic, and Michele Hutchins were invaluable included representatives from: Salt Lake HUD office, Wasatch Front Regional Council (MPO), Mountainland

  16. Future Regional Climates Jason Evans,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Chapter 9 Future Regional Climates Jason Evans,a John McGregorb , and Kendal McGuffiec a Climate of Dynamical Downscaling 235 9.3.1.6. Future Development in Dynamical Downscaling 235 9.3.2. Statistical' Future Climate and Its Probability 242 9.5. Achieving Regional Climate Predictions 243 9.5.1. Water

  17. IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Andreas

    IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

  18. Defect Band Luminescence Intensity Reversal as Related to Application of Anti-Reflection Coating on mc-Si PV Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrey, H.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is widely used to identify defective regions within mc-Si PV cells. Recent PL imaging investigations of defect band luminescence (DBL) in mc-Si have revealed a perplexing phenomenon. Namely, the reversal of the DBL intensity in various regions of mc-Si PV material upon the application of a SiNx:H anti-reflective coating (ARC). Regions with low DBL intensity before ARC application often exhibit high DBL intensity afterwards, and the converse is also true. PL imaging alone cannot explain this effect. We have used high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques to elucidate the origin of the DBL intensity reversal. Multiple sub-bandgap energy levels were identified that change in peak position and intensity upon the application of the ARC. Using this data, in addition to EBIC contrast information, we provide an explanation for the DBL intensity reversal based on the interaction of the detected energy levels with the SiNx:H ARC application. Multiple investigations have suggested that this is a global problem for mc-Si PV cells. Our results have the potential to provide mc-Si PV producers a pathway to increased efficiencies through defect mitigation strategies.

  19. Theoretical analysis of reflected ray error from surface slope error and their application to the solar concentrated collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Surface slope error of concentrator is one of the main factors to influence the performance of the solar concentrated collectors which cause deviation of reflected ray and reduce the intercepted radiation. This paper presents the general equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error from slope error through geometry optics, applying the equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error for 5 kinds of solar concentrated reflector, provide typical results. The results indicate that the slope error is transferred to the reflected ray in more than 2 folds when the incidence angle is more than 0. The equation for reflected ray error is generally fit for all reflection surfaces, and can also be applied to control the error in designing an abaxial optical system.

  20. The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages An Experimental and Numerical Analysis by Dr associate under the supervision of Professor Surendra P. Shah at the Center for Advanced Cement

  1. Reflective responsibility for risk: a critical view of software and information systems development risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Montfort University

    evaluation of future states because the future is by definition unknown. Risks as known uncertaintiesReflective responsibility for risk: a critical view of software and information systems development risk management Bernd Carsten Stahl Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Centre for Computing

  2. SEQUOIA 2000 --A REFLECTION ON THE FIRST THREE YEARS Michael Stonebraker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    SEQUOIA 2000 -- A REFLECTION ON THE FIRST THREE YEARS Michael Stonebraker EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Abstract This paper describes the SEQUOIA 2000 project and its 2000 project is to build a better computing environment for Global Change Researchers, hereafter

  3. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving with examples from diagnosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Teije, Annette

    Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving with examples from diagnosis Annette ten problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configurationof problem solving methods for a particular prob­ lem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper

  4. Determining the Density Profile of Confined Polymer Brushes with Neutron Reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhl, Tonya L.

    , University of South Florida, Florida 33620 3 Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE-12, MS H805Determining the Density Profile of Confined Polymer Brushes with Neutron Reflectivity W. A. HAMILTON,1 G. S. SMITH,1 N. A. ALCANTAR,2 J. MAJEWSKI,3 R. G. TOOMEY,4 T. L. KUHL5 1 Center for Neutron

  5. Infrared reflectance and transmission spectra in II-VI alloys and superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talwar, Devki N.

    Room temperature measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) reflectance spectra are reported for the polar optical phonons in a series of bulk Cd[subscript x]Zn[subscript 1?x]Te (0 ? x ? 1) and CdSe[subscript x]Te[subscript ...

  6. Campus Sustainability Plan "UCSC's commitment to sustainability reflects one of our most closely held campus values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Campus Sustainability Plan "UCSC's commitment to sustainability reflects one of our most closely, which inspired faculty and staff to join in. Today, sustainability is a campuswide commitment, and our, Chancellor 2013­16 #12;2 1 From the Chancellor-- UC Santa Cruz is serious about sustainability, and our

  7. Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryzhik, Lenya

    Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces Guillaume Bal \\Lambda Joseph B. Keller y George Papanicolaou z Leonid Ryzhik x February 13, 1999 Abstract Transport transport in the high frequency limit, and the Born expansion is used to calculate the effect of the random

  8. Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces Guillaume Bal \\Lambda Joseph B. Keller y George Papanicolaou z Leonid Ryzhik x March 8, 1999 Abstract Transport transport in the high frequency limit, and the Born expansion is used to calculate the effect of the random

  9. Recovering Spectral Reflectance under Commonly Available Lighting Conditions Jun Jiang and Jinwei Gu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Jinwei

    Recovering Spectral Reflectance under Commonly Available Lighting Conditions Jun Jiang and Jinwei light- ing conditions, such as daylight at different times over a day, camera flash and ambient light, and fluorescent and tungsten light. Our approach does not require camera spec- tral sensitivities or the spectra

  10. Human lightness perception is guided by simple assumptions about reflectance and lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard

    Human lightness perception is guided by simple assumptions about reflectance and lighting Richard F 0009, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3 ABSTRACT Lightness constancy is the remarkable ability of human successful approaches to understanding lightness perception that have developed along independent paths

  11. The effect of multiply reflected molecules in free molecule flow over a general body 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gordon Lee

    1993-01-01

    reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90' concave wedge were compared...

  12. An adaptive phase space method with application to reflection traveltime tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    the traveltimes of seismic waves produced by earthquakes. It also arises in exploration geophysics, in particular seismology in determining the inner structure of Earth by measuring at different seismic stations, hydrocarbon exploration. For instance in marine reflection seismology the data is collected on a ship

  13. AC 2007-504: NASA OPPORTUNITIES FOR FACULTY AT MINORITY INSTITUTIONS: REFLECTIONS OF NASA ADMINISTRATOR FELLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, Louis J.

    AC 2007-504: NASA OPPORTUNITIES FOR FACULTY AT MINORITY INSTITUTIONS: REFLECTIONS OF NASA. leverett@utep.edu http://research.utep.edu/pacelab Paul Racette, NASA As an adventurous adolescent, Paul sensing and instrument calibration. For these efforts and accomplishments Paul received the NASA Medal

  14. High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Michael C.

    High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans Michael C concentrations were explored for three deep-water chondrichthyans (Etmopterus princeps, Cen- troscymnus position in the trophic web (as indicated by differences in d15 N). Mercury is a major contaminant

  15. High-amplitude reflection packets (HARPs) of the Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Jason Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examination of seismic data from the deep-water Gulf of Mexico reveals the presence of High-Amplitude Reflection Packets (HARPs). An analog study conducted by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 155 identified and described Amazon Fan HARPs as a stacked...

  16. First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal for designing laser cavities, spectrographs and adaptive optics retinal imaging systems. The use, range respectively. This is discussed using examples from adaptive optics retinal imaging systems. The performance

  17. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D. Van de Ven Arthur G. Erdman University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Department 111 Church. Previous work measuring optical properties for this purpose placed little importance on the light

  18. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    of the matrix P give Green functions Q # (u)). Note that the matrix# is completely determined by the property characters, is completely dominated by Green functions. Thanks to Lusztig [L3], similar facts hold in generalGREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n) TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department

  19. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    P give Green functions QO(u)). No* *te that the matrix is completely determined by the property to the values at unipotent elements of unipotent characters, is completely domi* *nated by Green functions GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n

  20. Comments on theory of volume reflection and radiation in bent crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical results on charged particle interaction with planarly oriented thin bent crystals are reviewed, with the emphasis on dynamics in the continuous potential. Influence of boundary conditions on the volume-reflected beam profile is discussed. Basic properties of coherent bremsstrahlung in a bent crystal are highlighted.

  1. Former Assistant Secretary Reflects on Career High Point Leading EM: 'Well Worth the Effort'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – In an occasional EM Update series, we feature interviews with former EM Assistant Secretaries to reflect on their achievements and challenges in the world’s largest nuclear cleanup and to discuss endeavors in life after EM.

  2. The effect of an additional reflection in a precedence effect Matthew J. Goupell,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litovsky, Ruth

    , 1990; Shinn-Cunningham et al., 1993; Tollin and Henning, 1998; Stellmack et al., 1999; Litovsky reflections (see Blauert, 1997; Litovsky et al., 1999 for reviews). The perceived locations of the sources in the location of the lag, called "lag discrimination suppression" (Litovsky et al., 1999; Litovsky and Shinn

  3. Seismic reflections and electrical conductivity: A case of Holmes's curious dog?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    at depth (and thus could have caused high electrical conductivity) but were expelled during uplift (WoodsSeismic reflections and electrical conductivity: A case of Holmes's curious dog? Frederick A. Cook-crustal seismic reflectors and areas of high electrical conductivity coincide over a wide area. Re- flective

  4. Martine Kaluszynski The return of the dangerous man1. Reflections on the idea of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Martine Kaluszynski The return of the dangerous man1. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses Abstract In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law of recidivating and pose a particular danger based on serious personality problems. The law regarding security

  5. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction study of dehydrogenation process of Pd coated Mg nanoblades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, USA Received 23 March 2008; accepted,2 Hydrogen has been con- sidered as one of the promising alternative energy resources due to its abundanceIn situ reflection high energy electron diffraction study of dehydrogenation process of Pd coated

  6. REFLECT: Supporting Active Listening and Grounding on the Web through Restatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    , March 19­23, 2011, Hangzhou, China. ACM XXX-X-XXXXX-XXX-X/XX/XX. Travis Kriplean Computer Science & Eng the creative energy, emotion, and intelligence of many, are important for moving us toward institutional political, is often hyperbolic. Our hypothesis is that reflective discourse's fragility and elusiveness

  7. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Reflecting tidal wave beams and local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    were generated locally by a propagating beam of internal tidal energy which had originatedUnder consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Reflecting tidal wave beams and local generation mecha- nism: tidal flow over steep topography forces a propagating beam of internal tidal wave

  8. National Center for Digital Government Reflections on The Fog of (Cyber)War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    National Center for Digital Government Reflections on The Fog of (Cyber)War Diego. These assertions are: (a) Cyberspace is a new operational domain for waging war; (b) Cyber warfare can be as severe, it aims at reconnecting the idea of "fog of war" to its Clausewitzian roots, highlighting the importance

  9. PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR MONITORING CEREBRAL BLOOD OXYGENATION USING DUAL-WAVELENGTH OPTICAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    the light reflectance measurement experiments in a neck tissue model with a submerged CCA/JV blood vessel monitoring of blood oxygenation state in the human brain is of paramount importance in the frontier of human in space will typically experience headward fluid shift: a condition where fluid in tissue and blood begins

  10. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating that such a film exists and is caused by the deposition of iron and sodium atoms on the ice grain from iron

  11. Short Communication Categorical effects in fricative perception are reflected in cortical source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    modeling a b s t r a c t Previous research in speech perception has shown that category information affects that these phonological cate- gories strongly influence how speech is perceived: category information allows for betterShort Communication Categorical effects in fricative perception are reflected in cortical source

  12. Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect Jianyi Yang with an X junction was designed and fabricated by using the thermo-optic effect of polyimide materials and fabricated the TIR TO switch us- ing polyimide materials. The TO effect of polymeric materials is negative, i

  13. Detecting voids in a 0.6 m coal seam, 7 m deep, using seismic reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south ...

  14. Low light reflectance may explain the attraction of birds to defoliated trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Low light reflectance may explain the attraction of birds to defoliated trees Elina Ma¨ntyla¨, Tero autumnata) in nontest branches. Species, age, or sex of the experimental bird or lighting (ultraviolet [UV light than the herbivore trees, whereas no such difference was found in the shadier forest patch trees

  15. Camera and Light Calibration from Reflections on a Sphere Dirk Schnieders, Kwan-Yee K. Wong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

    Camera and Light Calibration from Reflections on a Sphere Dirk Schnieders, Kwan-Yee K. Wong for recovering light directions and camera parameters using a single sphere. Traditional methods for estimating light directions using spheres either assume both the radius and center of the sphere being known

  16. Limits for light intensification by reflection from relativistic plasma mirrors A. A. Solodov,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limits for light intensification by reflection from relativistic plasma mirrors A. A. Solodov,a V of those pulses. The combination of these effects would result in dramatic light intensification toward to be proportional to exp - Ec/E ,4 where Ec = m2 c3 e = 1.32 1016 V cm , 1 where c is the speed of light in vacuum

  17. The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Aristofanis Pallikaris,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cones, even when all the photopigment was bleached. To help understand what produces this spatial reflectance changes over time appear to be independent from cone to cone. These temporal changes are present to estimate cone spacing. Yellott3 has demon- strated that the power spectra of in vitro images of the cone

  18. Complete Bilayer Adsorption Of C16TAB On The Surface Of Mica Using Neutron Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, L. R.; Browning, K. L.; Truscott, C. L.; Clifton, L. A.; Clarke, S. M.

    2015-05-05

    In this work we present neutron reflection data from an alkylammonium surfactant (C16TAB) at the mica/water interface. The system is studied in situ in a non-invasive manner and indicates the formation of a complete adsorbed bilayer with little...

  19. Vol. 4, No. 10, 2005 Reflection-based implementation of Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Vol. 4, No. 10, 2005 Reflection-based implementation of Java extensions: the double-dispatch use of Java without modifying the language nor the virtual machine. In this paper, we present the advan- tages these principles have been applied to develop an efficient and general double-dispatch solution for Java, and we

  20. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection (OI-RD) microscope, a form of polarization-modulated imaging ellipsometer, for label on the polarizer­ compensator­sample­analyzer scheme and under the off-null condition, a polarization-modulated OI

  1. Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    in California's climate (Akbari et al., 1991, 1992, 1997). In Florida, field research by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) since 1993 has quantified the impact of reflective roof coatings on sub-metered air conditioning (AC) consumption in tests in a dozen...

  2. Method Comparison For Estimation Of Distributed Parameters In Permittivity Models Using Reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;1 Introduction There is a current interest in the integration of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for both static matrix composites. In order to model the reflectance, one must specify a model for the complex have hypothesized that as the CMC under study (a ceramic matrix with a silicon carbide fiber

  3. Non-Reflecting Internal Wave Beam Propagation in the Deep Ocean Roger Grimshaw1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). Here we analyze theoretically the penetration of internal waves in an ocean with continuousNon-Reflecting Internal Wave Beam Propagation in the Deep Ocean Roger Grimshaw1) , Efim Pelinovsky1 2008 Using linear internal wave theory for an ocean stratified by both density and current, we identify

  4. Chemical Wave Packet Propagation, Reflection, and Spreading Lingfa Yang and Irving R. Epstein*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Chemical Wave Packet Propagation, Reflection, and Spreading Lingfa Yang and Irving R. Epstein 02454-9110 ReceiVed: May 8, 2002; In Final Form: July 10, 2002 Chemical waves can travel in well-defined packets. Two types of phase wave packets, distinguished by whether their component waves move toward

  5. Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes Nathalie.favretto@univ-pau.fr 211 route du Bourg, 64230 Beyrie-en-Béarn, France Keywords Fresnel volume, Interface Fresnel zone Abstract The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of accounting for the Fresnel volume (FV

  6. Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelopoulou, Elli

    Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou a new, physics-based specularity detection method, which de- pends on the Fresnel term of the specular to the Fresnel term at various wave- lengths. We then use mean-shift analysis to segment the im- age based

  7. Evaluation of infiltration in layered pavements using surface GPR reflection techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Evaluation of infiltration in layered pavements using surface GPR reflection techniques K. Grotea and guiding pavement maintenance, is greatly influenced by soil water content. In this study, ground content in sub-asphalt aggregate layers during an extended infiltration experiment. Water was injected

  8. Experiments on the Effect of Ground Reflections on Supersonic Jet Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Experiments on the Effect of Ground Reflections on Supersonic Jet Noise Dennis K. Mc aeroacoustic facility of supersonic jet noise with and without a ground plane in close proximity to the jet sources within the jet column. This distribution was developed from phased microphone array measurements

  9. On the Rossi-{alpha} measurement of {beta}{sub eff} in reflected reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doulin, V.A. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-03-13

    In unreflected reactors, the probability of detecting chain-related counts is given by the well known Rossi-{alpha} expression. Using this the author derives an expression for the effective delayed neutron fraction, {beta}. He demonstrates that this expression for {beta} is equally applicable for a reflected systems in which two alphas are experimentally observed.

  10. Wave runup and reflection from coastal structures in depth-limited conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Joel Robert

    1998-01-01

    An experimental hydrodynamic study was undertaken to phics. investigate the effects of depth-limited conditions on wave sunup and reflection from coastal structures. The tests were carried out in a two-dimensional wave flume with a mild 1 235 slope...

  11. Reconstruction of the Reflection Coefficient and Interface in Homogeneous Medium by Means of Gaussian Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Gaussian Jets A.P.Katchalov 1 , V.V. Zalipaev 2 1 V.A.Steklov Mathematical Institute, St Gaussian jet de- scribed as a high-frequency non-stationary localized asymptotic solution (wave package). The parameters of the medium above the interface are known. Measuring the intensity of the reflected Gaussian jet

  12. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  13. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  14. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than when attributed on a production basis. Second, when attributing emissions on a consumption basisThe CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions

  15. Northwest Regional Technology Center, January 2014 Page 1 of 2 Around The Region In Homeland Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northwest Regional Technology Center, January 2014 Page 1 of 2 Around The Region In Homeland Security January 2014 The Northwest Regional Technology Center (NWRTC) is a virtual resource center resolutions to seek out growth opportunities both personally and professionally. Conveniently the Disaster

  16. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  17. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  18. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinowski, Michael E.

    2005-01-25

    The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

  19. Tri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity and wide bandwidth for 25 to 50 nm extreme ultraviolet light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquila, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    and testing ofEUV multilayer coatings for the AtmosphericTri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity andthe bandwidth of multilayer coatings. The simplest method to

  20. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.