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1

Jasper-Newton Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper-Newton Elec Coop, Inc Jasper-Newton Elec Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Jasper-Newton Elec Coop, Inc Place Texas Utility Id 9668 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC ERCOT Yes NERC SERC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Churches and Schools Service Commercial Farm and Home Services Residential General Service Commercial Large Power Service Industrial Security Lighting-100 W high pressure sodium Lighting Security Lighting-150 W high pressure sodium Lighting Security Lighting-400 W high pressure sodium Lighting

2

EA-1946: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon EA-1946: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion,...

3

BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION  

SciTech Connect

Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

John McDaniel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

John McDaniel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Jasper Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper Wind Jasper Wind Place Athens, Greece Sector Solar, Wind energy Product Athens-based wind and solar project developer. Coordinates 37.97615°, 23.736415° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.97615,"lon":23.736415,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Jasper County Rural E M C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper County Rural E M C Jump to: navigation, search Name Jasper County Rural E M C Place Indiana Utility Id 9665 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes...

7

Jasper, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper, Minnesota: Energy Resources Jasper, Minnesota: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.8499711°, -96.3986493° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.8499711,"lon":-96.3986493,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

8

Village of Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name Village of Polk Place Nebraska Utility Id 15346 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1080/kWh Commercial: $0.0997/kWh Industrial: $0.1060/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Village_of_Polk,_Nebraska_(Utility_Company)&oldid=412060

9

Jasper County REMC - Residential Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Jasper County REMC - Residential Residential Energy Efficiency Jasper County REMC - Residential Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Jasper County REMC - Residential Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Indiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator Recycling: $35 Heat Pump Water Heater: $400 Air-Source Heat Pumps: $250 - $1,500/unit (Power Moves rebate), $200 (REMC Bill Credit) Dual Fuel Heat Pumps: $1,500/unit Geothermal Heat Pumps: $1,500/unit (Power Moves rebate), $500 (REMC Bill Credit) Provider Jasper County REMC Jasper County REMC, in conjunction with Wabash Valley Power Association's Power Moves programs, offers a range of rebates to its residential

10

Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Place Minnesota Utility Id 3764 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial - Generator Commercial Commercial - Large Power Commercial Commercial - Three Phase Commercial Electric Dual Heat Residential Electric Dual Heat Short Term Rate Residential Residential Residential Security Lights - Metered Lighting Security Lights - Unmetered Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.0958/kWh

11

Polk-Burnett Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Place Wisconsin Utility Id 15344 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Off-Peak Dual Fuel Energy Commercial Off-Peak Interruptible Energy Commercial Off-Peak Storage Energy Commercial Residential, Seasonal-Single Phase Residential Residential, Seasonal-Three Phase Residential Seasonal, Commercial-Single Phase Commercial Seasonal, Commercial-Three Phase Commercial Security Lights 100-175W Security Light Lighting

12

Jasper Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy LLC Energy LLC Place Harrison, New York Zip 10528 Sector Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product String representation "Jasper Energy L ... greenpower”)." is too long. Coordinates 35.10917°, -85.143009° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.10917,"lon":-85.143009,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

13

A Community Responds to Collective Trauma: An Ecological Analysis of the James Byrd Murder in Jasper, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and disasters. College Station, Texas: Hazard Reduction andData.com. (2004). Jasper, Texas. Retrieved March 20, 2004Byrd Murder in Jasper, Texas Thomas Wicke Roxane Cohen

Wicke, Thomas; Silver, Roxane Cohen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Geothermal heat pumps at Fort Polk: Early results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Fort Polk, LA an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) is being converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under a performance contract. At the same time other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow water outlets, and attic insulation are being installed. If these contracts and this technology are to be used widely in US Department of Defense (DoD) facilities and other public buildings, better data from actual projects is the key. Being the first GHP project of this type and size, Fort Polk proved to be very challenging for all concerned. To get from RFP to start of construction took several years. This hard work by others created a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to address many of the due diligence issues that delayed the Fort Polk project. So that future projects can move faster, an evaluation has been undertaken to address the following barriers: absence of a documented large-scale demonstration of GHP energy, demand, and maintenance savings (a barrier to acceptance by federal customers, performance contractors, and investors); newness of large-scale facility capital renewal procurements at federal facilities under energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) or traditional appropriations (lack of case studies); and variability in current GHP design tools (increases risks and costs for federal customers, performance contractors, investors and designers). This paper presents early energy and demand savings results based on data collection through January 1996.

Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract  

SciTech Connect

The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Marshall Newton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marshall D. Newton Marshall D. Newton Senior Chemist Emeritus Chemistry Department Building 555 Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box 5000 Upton, NY 11973-5000 Phone: (631) 344-4366 FAX: (631) 344-5815 e-mail Marshall D. Newton Named Senior Scientist Emeritus Thermal, Photo- and Radiation-Induced Reactions in Condensed Media Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures RESEARCH INTERESTS Mechanistic analysis of electron transfer kinetics: thermal and photoinitiated; intra- and intermolecular; homogeneous and interfacial. Calculation of nonequilibrium solvation thermodynamics for electron transfer ( free energies and entropies) using quantum chemical techniques, molecular-level force fields, and dielectric continuum models. Formulation of compact electronic state spaces for modeling electron transfer, using optical spectroscopic data

17

Citing NEWTON!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON Ask A Scientist program is not copyrighted formally. However, in any written work, a citation should be given to validate and give credence to the written work as well as credit the source of information. NEWTON Ask A Scientist program is not copyrighted formally. However, in any written work, a citation should be given to validate and give credence to the written work as well as credit the source of information. The best approach should follow the suggested formats below: MLA Format: APA Format: The MLA Style includes these components: Author's name. Title of document. Online posting date. Online posting. Name of the forum. Date of access ‹URL›. MLA Example: Trach, Bob. "What Is Nanotechnology?" Online posting. 19 Sept. 2003. NEWTON Ask a Scientist. 10 Jan. 2010 ‹http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/chem03/chem03104.htm›. The APA Style includes these components: Author's name. (date of posting). Title of document. Message posted to URL

18

Jasper County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper County, Georgia: Energy Resources Jasper County, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.3246924°, -83.7199136° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.3246924,"lon":-83.7199136,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

City of Jasper, Indiana (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jasper Jasper Place Indiana Utility Id 9667 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service Demand Commercial General Service Demand 2 Commercial General Service Small Commercial Municipal Street Light (100 W HPS) Lighting Municipal Street Light (1000 W HPS) Lighting Municipal Street Light (1000 W Mercury Vapor) Lighting Municipal Street Light (150 W HPS) Lighting Municipal Street Light (175 W Mercury Vapor) Lighting Municipal Street Light (250 W HPS) Lighting

20

Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

County Rural Pub Pwr Dist County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Place Nebraska Utility Id 15188 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cabin Residential City of Stromsburg - CYC 3/REV 8 Commercial Commercial Elec Space Heating - One Phase Commercial Commercial Elec Space Heating - Three Phase Commercial General Service CYC 2/REV1 - Three Phase Residential General Service CYC/Rev1 - Single Phase Residential Irrigation CYC 1 - Five 1/2 day - Single Phase Industrial

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, 7: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide cost-shared funding to RTI International (RTI) for its proposed project to demonstrate the precommercial scale-up of RTI's high-temperature syngas cleanup and carbon capture and sequestration technologies. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download October 13, 2011 EA-1867: Finding of No Significant Impact RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011)

22

City of Jasper, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Texas Texas Utility Id 9664 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Schedule 140-Residential service Residential Schedule 141-Commercial electrical service Commercial Schedule 142-Large light and power Commercial Schedule 143-Security lights Lighting Schedule 145-Industrial service Industrial Average Rates Residential: $0.1110/kWh Commercial: $0.1240/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=City_of_Jasper,_Texas_(Utility_Company)&oldid=409778

23

The NEWTON Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Now you can with our general search page Type in your question below, and see what a google search would return. Then, at the top, click NEWTON Search to see what a NEWTON...

24

Marshall D. Newton Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marshall D. Newton Marshall D. Newton Recent Publications 138. Modeling Donor/Acceptor Interactions: Combined Roles of Theory and Computation M. D. Newton Int. J. Quant. Chem. 77, 255-263 (2000) 139. Estimation of Electron Transfer Distances from AM1 Calculations S. F. Nelson and M. D. Newton J. Phys. Chem. A104, 10023-31 (2000) 140. An Informative Subtlety of Temperature-Jump or Coulostatic Responses for Surface-Attached Species J. F. Smalley, M. D. Newton and S. W. Fledberg Electrochem. Commun. 2, 832-38 (2000) 141. Electron Transfer: Theoretical Models and Computational Implementation M. D. Newton In Electron Transfer in Chemistry, Vol I, Ed., V. Balzani .; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: Weinhein, Germany, 2001, p3 142. Adiabatic Interfacial Electron Transfer over 26 Å through

25

LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the ... LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun July 08, 2003 Nevada Test Site, NV

26

Methodology for the evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Army and a private energy service company are developing a comprehensive energy efficiency project to upgrade the family housing at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The project includes converting the space conditioning systems of more than 4,000 housing units to geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps (GHPs). This interim report describes the methodology of the evaluation associated with this project, including the field monitoring that has been conducted at the base.

Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.; White, D.L.; Huang, H.L.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Tampa Electric Company Polk Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plant Carbon Capture Retrofit Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Industry Technology Demonstration Program on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS), an engineering study was conducted to evaluate the cost and performance impacts of various CCS schemes at the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station. The portion of the work presented here was funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IGCC with CCS demonstration program collaborative and focuses on novel CO2 capture and purification systems integrated...

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

The NEWTON Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON Ask-A-Scientist - Archive Search NEWTON Ask-A-Scientist - Archive Search * If you need help with web-engine searching practices, please see our hints below. Loading... Please wait... * Want to do a general web search and compare with NEWTON, please click here! Archive Areas by Subject Astronomy Archive Astronomy Botany Archive Botany Chemistry Archive Chemistry Computer Science Archive Computer Science Engineering Archive Engineering Environmental and Earth Science Archive Environmental and Earth Science General Science Archive General Science Topics Material Science Archive Material Science Mathematics Archive Mathematics Molecular Biology Archive Molecular Biology Physics Archive Physics Veterinary Science Archive Veterinary Science Weather Archive Weather Zoology Archive Zoology

29

Marshall D. Newton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marshall D. Newton Marshall D. Newton Picture of Marshall D. Newton Senior Chemist Mechanistic analysis of electron transfer kinetics: thermal and photoinitiated; intra- and intermolecular; homogeneous and interfacial. Calculation of nonequilibrium solvation thermodynamics for electron transfer ( free energies and entropies) using quantum chemical techniques, molecular-level force fields, and dielectric continuum models. Formulation of compact electronic state spaces for modeling electron transfer, using optical spectroscopic data Telephone #: (631) 344-4366 newton@bnl.gov B.A. Dartmouth College, 1961; M.A. Dartmough College, 1963; Ph.D. Harvard University, 1966 NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, Oxford University, Oxford, England, 1966-67; NIH Postdoctoral Fellow, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 1967-68;

30

Causal Newton Gravity Law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

Yury M. Zinoviev

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons learned  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk ESPC was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the ESPC has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other ESPCs in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the ESPC was engineered and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the US Army) and the energy services company (ESCO) which is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, ESCOs and investors in the implementation of future ESPCs. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gordon, R. [Applied Energy Management Techniques, Corvallis, OR (United States); Giffin, T. [SAIC/The Fleming Group, East Syracuse, NY (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana DOE/EA 1517  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

517 517 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Design and Construction of a Proposed Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana April 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Golden Field Office 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Environmental Assessment Design and Construction of a Proposed Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................IV GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................................ V UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................................. VII

33

Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project in Fort Polk's Utility Bills  

SciTech Connect

Federal agencies have implemented many energy efficiency projects over the years with direct funding or alternative financing vehicles such as energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). While it is generally accepted that these projects save energy and costs, the savings are usually not obvious in the utility bills. This is true for many valid technical reasons, even when savings are verified in other ways to the highest degree of certainty. However, any perceived deficiency in the evidence for savings is problematic when auditors or other observers evaluate the outcome of energy projects and the achievements of energy management programs. This report discusses under what circumstances energy savings should or should not be evident in utility bills. In the special case of a large ESPC project at the Army's Fort Polk, the analysis of utility bills carried out by the authors does unequivocally confirm and quantify savings. The data requirements and methods for arriving at definitive answers through utility bill analysis are demonstrated in our discussion of the Fort Polk project. The following paragraphs address why the government generally should not expect to see savings from ESPC projects in their utility bills. We also review lessons learned and best practices for measurement and verification (M&V) that can assure best value for the government and are more practical, straightforward, and cost-effective than utility bill analysis.

Shonder, J.A.

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

Condition and Power Transfer Assessment of CenterPoint Energy's Polk-Garrott Pipe-Type Cable Circuit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes distributed fiber optic temperature sensing (DFOTS) on pipe-type cable circuits and the results of modifying and implementing EPRI's Dynamic Thermal Circuit Rating (DTCR) system on CenterPoint's Polk-Garrott pipe-type cable circuit in Houston, Texas.

2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

Newton.mws - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The su m of these two is 1/6 of a circle with radius=1/2 which has area 1/6 ...... 6 "" 1 "" {TEXT -1 51 "Newton: \\+ 1/2*3^(1/2) term 3 -781250000000000" }}{PARA 6...

36

Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

NONE

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

The evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an independent evaluation of an energy retrofit of 4,003 family housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana, under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Replacement of the heating, cooling, and water heating systems in these housing units with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) anchored the retrofit; low-flow shower heads and compact fluorescent lighting were also installed, as well as attic insulation where needed. Statistically valid findings indicate that the project will save 25.8 million kWh, or 32.5% of the pre-retrofit whole-community electrical consumption, and 100% of the whole-community natural gas previously used for space conditioning and water heating (260,000 therms) in a typical meteorological year. At the end-use level, the GHPs were found to save about 42% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption for heating, cooling, and water heating in housing units that were all-electric in the pre-retrofit period. This report also demonstrates an improved method of predicting energy savings. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-retrofit energy use data collected in the field, the method predicted actual energy savings on one of the electric feeders at Fort Polk with a very high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of this model was in turn dependent on data-calibrated models of the geothermal heat pump and ground heat exchanger that are described in this report. In addition this report documents the status of vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (BHEx) design methods at the time this project was designed, and demonstrates methods of using data collected from operating GHP systems to benchmark BHEx design methods against a detailed engineering model calibrated to date. The authors also discuss the ESPC`s structure and implementation and how the experience gained here can contribute to the success of future ESPCs.

Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Abstract for William Newton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Newton Newton Texas A&M University - Commerce The physics and observational consequences of the neutron star crust-core boundary layer A neutron star, of order 10km in radius, is believed to have a mostly solid outer layer, the crust, about 1km thick, and a fluid core comprising the remaining depth to the center. The theoretical study of the properties of matter at the boundary layer between crust and core is crucial to understanding certain observational phenomena such as pulsar glitches, quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray tails of SGR light curves, and potential gravitational waves from neutron star oscillation modes and deviations from axial symmetry from material accreted onto the surface. I will introduce the various ingredients to such studies: nuclei and exotic

39

Program on Technology Innovation: Tampa Electric Company Polk Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plant Carbon Capture Retrofit Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Industry Technology Demonstration Program on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS), an engineering study was conducted to evaluate the cost and performance impacts of various CCS schemes at the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station. The portion of the work presented here was funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technology Innovation Program and focuses on a comparison of chemical and physical solvent-based CO2 capture systems i...

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

2011 NNSS JASPER ORR Activity Report _July 18-28, 2011_ final  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NNSS-2011-07-28 NNSS-2011-07-28 Site: Nevada National Security Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Nevada National Security Site Operational Readiness Review of the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility Dates of Activity : 07/18/2011 - 07/28/2011 Report Preparer: William Macon Activity Description/Purpose: At the request of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Service Center, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) site lead for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) participated in the NNSA Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility Restart conducted on July 18-27, 2011.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station Unit Number 1. Annual report, January--December, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report satisfies the requirements of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-91MC27363, novated as of March 5, 1992, to provide an annual update report on the year`s activities associated with Tampa Electric Company`s 250 MW IGCC demonstration project for the year 1993. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Approximately 50% of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 900 F and passed through a moving bed of zinc-based sorbent which removes sulfur containing compounds from the syngas. The remaining portion of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 400 F for conventional acid gas removal. Sulfur-bearing compounds from both cleanup systems are sent to a conventional sulfuric acid plant to produce a marketable, high-purity sulfuric acid by-product. The cleaned medium-BTU syngas from these processes is routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the combustion section of the combustion turbine. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam at three pressure levels for use throughout the integrated process. A highly modular, microprocessor-based distributed control system (DCS) is being developed to provide continuous and sequential control for most of the equipment on PPS-1.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

NEWTON Teachers - Classroom and Curriculum Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feel free to click on the banner to explore the site. Welcome to the NEWTON Teachers NEWTON Teachers was developed by teachers for teachers. Here you can explore educational...

43

Investigation of Cooling and Dehumidification Energy Use and Indoor Thermal Conditions in Polk County Schools Permanent Replacement Classroom Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing enrollment in grades K-12 coupled with the spiraling costs of construction has pushed school boards to develop more cost-effective classrooms, from the perspective of initial cost, longterm energy consumption, and ease of maintenance. To this end, the Florida's Polk County School Board has developed a four-quad permanent replacement classroom building. Each classroom is equipped with a package terminal heat pump (PTHP) with a thermostat control with a four-hour crank timer. The objective of this research was to compare the energy consumption and interior conditions of the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) construction with an unvented roof assembly to that of the conventional metal framing and concrete panel buildings. Four buildings, 2 metal-framed and 2 AAC buildings with dehumidifiers were chosen for extensive testing and monitoring. The goal was to maintain a relative humidity of 50% as well as an interior temperature of 75oF.

Moyer, N. A.; Cummings, J. B.; Chasar, D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Newton, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Newton, Utah: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

46

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Dog Licking Behavior Name: Faith Status: other Grade: other Location: NA Country: South...

47

North Newton School Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newton School Corp Newton School Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name North Newton School Corp Facility North Newton School Corp Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner North Newton School Corp Developer Performance Services Energy Purchaser Net-metered Location Morocco IN Coordinates 41.03259745°, -87.42682815° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.03259745,"lon":-87.42682815,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

48

Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA  

SciTech Connect

At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Newton County Rural E M C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newton County Rural E M C Jump to: navigation, search Name Newton County Rural E M C Place Indiana Utility Id 13566 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes...

50

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Hot Air Balloon Shape and Altitude Name: Brit Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: CO Country: USA Date:...

51

A Newton-CG Augmented Lagrangian Method for Semidefinite Programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a Newton-CG augmented Lagrangian method for solving semidefinite programming (SDP) problems from the perspective of approximate semismooth Newton methods. In order to analyze the rate of convergence of our ...

Toh, Kim Chuan

52

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Dog Circling Name: Kalpak Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: India...

53

Observer and Particle Transformations and Newton's Laws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A frequently confused point in studies of symmetry violation is the distinction between observer and particle transformations. In this work, we consider a model in which a coefficient in the Standard-Model Extension leads to violations of rotation invariance in Newton's second law. The model highlights the distinction between observer and particle transformations.

T. H. Bertschinger; Natasha A. Flowers; Jay D. Tasson

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Using Newton's Law for Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model is introduced in which Newton's law is modified between matter and dark energy corpuscles (DECs). The model predicts that the DEC component is presently decelerating in its expansion at 14% of the magnitude of the matter expansion acceleration. In the future, expansion of the DEC universe will continue to decelerate.

Paul Frampton

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Newton, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Newton, MA) (Redirected from Newton, MA) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.3370413°, -71.2092214° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.3370413,"lon":-71.2092214,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

56

Modernizing Newton, to work at any speed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modification of three ideas underlying Newton's original world view, with only minor changes in context, might offer two advantages to introductory physics students. First, the students will experience less cognitive dissonance when they encounter relativistic effects. Secondly, the map-based Newtonian tools that they spend so much time learning about can be extended to high speeds, non-inertial frames, and even (locally, of course) to curved-spacetime.

P. Fraundorf

2001-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Nonconvergence of the plain Newton-min algorithm for linear ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 7, 2010 ... accounts on the use of interior point methods to solve linear ...... mineral precipitation-dissolution reactions by a semismooth Newton method.

58

Remark on Algorithm 702the updated truncated Newton minimization package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A truncated Newton minimization package, TNPACK, was described in ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 14, 1 (Mar. 1992), pp.46111. Modifications to enhance performance, especially for large-scale minimization of molecular ... Keywords: indefinite preconditioner, modified Cholesky factorization, molecular potential minimization, truncated Newton method

Dexuan Xie; Tamar Schlick

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Zoonotic Diseases between Cats and Humans Name: Steve Status: student Grade: 4-5 Location: NC Country: USA Date: Fall...

60

Investigating the Site of Newton's Laboratory in Trinity College, Cambridge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s Das Alche- mistenlaboratorium von Oberstockstall Ein Vor- bericht zum Stand des Forschungsprojekts. Mitteilungen der Fachgruppe der Geschichte der Chemie 7, 1992, 1119.] 15. Edleston J. (1850). Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes...

Spargo, P E

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

DOE/EA-1517: Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana (April 2005)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funding available to support a proposal by the Iroquois Bio-energy Company (IBEC), an Indiana limited liability company, to construct a fuel ethanol plant in Jasper County, Indiana (the proposed plant). Congress has acknowledged the merit of this project by providing specific funding through DOE. Consequently, DOE proposes to provide partial funding to IBEC to subsidize the design and construction of the proposed plant (the Proposed Action). In accordance with DOE and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations, DOE is required to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE facilities, operations, and related funding decisions. The proposal to use Federal funds to support the project requires DOE to address NEPA requirements and related environmental documentation and permitting requirements. In compliance with NEPA (42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq.) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR section 1021.330) and procedures, this environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Action and a No Action Alternative.

N /A

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

62

City of Newton, Illinois (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newton Newton Place Illinois Utility Id 13560 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0886/kWh Commercial: $0.0824/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=City_of_Newton,_Illinois_(Utility_Company)&oldid=410028" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases Utility Companies Organizations

63

September/October 1999 Operating in the Red Newton Apiaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September/October 1999 Operating in the Red Newton Apiaries Varroa and Apimondia Sticky Boards Pollinators Booklet UCD Trailer Warning Operating in the Red As with any other business, you cannot operate paralysis virus (SPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), and cloudy wing virus (CWV) all were involved

Hammock, Bruce D.

64

Fast LMS/Newton algorithms for stereophonic acoustic echo cancelation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new class of adaptive filtering algorithms to solve the stereophonic acoustic echo cancelation (AEC) problem in teleconferencing systems. While stereophonic AEC may be seen as a simple generalization of the well-known single-channel ... Keywords: LMS/Newton, adaptive filters, lattice orthogonalization, stereo acoustic echo cancellation (AEC)

Harsha I. K. Rao; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Quantum Corrections to Newton's Law in Resummed Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the elements of resummed quantum gravity, a new approach to quantum gravity based on the work of Feynman using the simplest example of a scalar field as the representative matter. We show that we get a UV finite quantum correction to Newton's law.

B. F. L. Ward

2004-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

66

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard Drive Field Separation Hard Drive Field Separation Name: Dan P. Status: other Age: 40s Location: NY Date: N/A Question: You have an excellent answer to the question of "How does a computers hard drive work...store and send data?" (see http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/newton/askasci/1995/compsci/CSI36.HTM) but could you explain further... What separates the magnetic field so that the hard drive knows the difference between a magnetic field that is one bit in size and a magnetic field that is 100 bits long? Are there spaces between each magnetic field? If so how can it tell the difference between a non-magnetic field that is one bit in size and a non-magnetic field that is 100 bits long? Replies: That is a good question. What really happens on a hard disk is a little more complicated than the simple magnetized-bit picture.

67

MHK Projects/Newton Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newton Bend Project Newton Bend Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.218,"lon":-90.9891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

68

City of Newton Falls, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newton Falls Newton Falls Place Ohio Utility Id 13563 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png COMM city owned equip inside city limits Commercial COMM city owned equip inside city limits interuptible electric service Commercial COMM city owned equip outside city limits Commercial COMM cust owned equip inside city limits Commercial COMM cust owned equip inside city limits interuptible electric service Commercial COMM cust owned equip outside city limits

69

Mpemba effect, Newton cooling law and heat transfer equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we suggest a simple theoretical solution of the Mpemba effect in full agreement with known experimental data. This solution follows simply as an especial approximation (linearization) of the usual heat (transfer) equation, precisely linearization of the second derivation of the space part of the temperature function (as it is well-known Newton cooling law can be considered as the effective approximation of the heat (transfer) equation for constant space part of the temperature function).

Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Optimization Online - A New Full-Newton step $O(n)$ Infeasible ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 9, 2008 ... A New Full-Newton step $O(n)$ Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for Semidefinite Optimization. Hossein Mansouri (H.Mansouri ***at***...

71

On inverse scattering at high energies for the multidimensional Newton equation in electromagnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the multidimensional (nonrelativistic) Newton equation in a static electromagnetic field $$\\ddot x = F(x,\\dot x), F(x,\\dot x)=-\

Alexandre Jollivet

2007-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Rippled Cosmological Dark Matter from Damped Oscillating Newton Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its General Relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation -> dark matter -> dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the General Relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favorably examined.

Aharon Davidson

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

Michel, Laurent; Motch, Christian [CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique, 11 rue de l'Universite, 67000 Strasbourg (France)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

74

Application of a New Adjoint Newton Algorithm to the 3D ARPS Storm-Scale Model Using Simulated Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adjoint Newton algorithm (ANA) is based on the first- and second-order adjoint techniques allowing one to obtain the Newton line search direction by integrating a tangent linear model backward in time (with negative time steps). Moreover, ...

Zhi Wang; Kelvin K. Droegemeier; L. White; I. M. Navon

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A Newton method using exact jacobians for solving fluid-structure coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims at introducing a partitioned Newton based method for solving nonlinear coupled systems arising in the numerical approximation of fluid-structure interaction problems. We provide a method which characteristic lies in the use of exact cross ... Keywords: ALE formulation, Fluid-structure interaction, Full coupled schemes, Haemodynamics, Navier-Stokes equations, Newton methods, Shape sensitivity analysis

Miguel ngel Fernndez; Marwan Moubachir

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beets and Bacteria Beets and Bacteria Name: Arlene Status: other Grade: 6-8 Location: IL Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: I found an experiment at the pbs.org/teachers website that evaluates different handwashing techniques by swabbing palms, nails, and in between fingers after different types of handwashing. These swabs are then "plated" on canned beets placed inside of a petri dish. Does this sound like a realistic and safe experiment for middle school students? NEWTON BBS does not recommend growing/culturing bacteria without the supervision of a microbiologist, and a properly equipped microbiology laboratory. Safety is our main concern! Growing dangerous bacteria species unknowingly is a real possibility and serious illness may occur without proper handling techniques. Furthermore, without proper bacterial disposal procedures such as an autoclave can guarantee, there is a danger to anyone who comes in contact after disposal.

77

The perihelion of Mercury advance calculated in Newton's theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three radii are associated with a circle: the "geodesic radius" R_1 which is the distance from circle's center to its perimeter, the "circumferential radius" R_2 which is the length of the perimeter divided by 2 pi and the "curvature radius" R_3 which is circle's curvature radius in the Frenet sense. In the flat Euclidean geometry it is R_1 = R_2 = R_3, but in a curved space these three radii are different. I show that although Newton's dynamics uses Euclidean geometry, its equations that describe circular motion in spherical gravity always unambiguously refer to one particular radius of the three --- geodesic, circumferential, or curvature. For example, the gravitational force is given by F = -GMm/(R_2)^2, and the centrifugal force by mv^2/R_3. Building on this, I derive a Newtonian formula for the perihelion of Mercury advance.

Marek A. Abramowicz

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

78

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Phases Plant Phases Name: Mansi Status: student Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Spring 2012 Question: What is the period between 2 reproductive phase of a perennial plant called? What happens in this phase?does plant after reproductive phase re-enters vegetative phase in perennial plants? Replies: Right, the question is ambiguous. Perhaps referring to vegetative and reproductive periods in plants? Of course, this all depends upon the plant species in question, and different for ferns and mosses (alternation of generations) vs. angiosperms and gymnosperms. The following might be helpful to the individual: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1514428 http://www.nios.ac.in/srsec314newE/PDFBIO.EL19.pdf NEWTON BBS Ask A Scientist service receives about 200-300 requests per day. If you did not receive an answer it could be due to one of the following reasons:

79

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nathan A. Unterman M.S. Nathan A. Unterman M.S. Email: nunterman@newton.dep.anl.gov FORMAL EDUCATION M.S. Science Teaching, 1988, DePaul University. Concentration in Secondary Science Curriculum Design. Courses included science content as well as curriculum design. B.S. Astronomy, 1975, University of Michigan. Minor in Physics and Mathematics, with courses including geology, meteorology, and chemistry. CONTINUING EDUCATION Illinois Oil and Natural Gas Education Conference 2012 Illinois Crude Oil and Natural Gas Core Energy Science and Math Curriculum Workshop 2012 Illinois Association of Aggregate Producers Rocks, Minerals, and Mining in Today's Society 2012 Illinois Coal Education Conference 2012 CERN High School Teachers International Program in high energy physics and physics education. Geneva, Switzerland 2011 Purdue University, Calumet ASM International Materials Science Camp 2011

80

An XMM-Newton Observation of Abell 2597  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of the galaxy cluster Abell 2597. Results from both the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) are presented. From EPIC we obtain radial profiles of temperature, density and abundance, and use these to derive cooling time and entropy. We illustrate corrections to these profiles for projection and point spread function (PSF) effects. At the spatial resolution available to XMM-Newton, the temperature declines by around a factor of two in the central 150 kpc or so in radius, and the abundance increases from about one-fifth to over one-half solar. The cooling time is less than 10 Gyr inside a radius of 130 kpc. EPIC fits to the central region are consistent with a cooling flow of around 100 solar masses per year. Broad-band fits to the RGS spectra extracted from the central 2 arcmin are also consistent with a cooling flow of the same magnitude; with a preferred low-temperature cut-off of essentially zero. The data appear to suggest (albeit at low significance levels below formal detection limits) the presence of the important thermometer lines from Fe XVII at 15, 17 Angstrom rest wavelength, characteristic of gas at temperatures ~ 0.3 keV. The measured flux in each line is converted to a mass deposition estimate by comparison with a classical cooling flow model, and once again values at the level of 100 solar masses per year are obtained. These mass deposition rates, whilst lower than those of previous generations of X-ray observatories, are consistent with those obtained from UV data for this object. This raises the possibility of a classical cooling flow, at the level of around 100 solar masses per year, cooling from 4 keV by more than two orders of magnitude in temperature.

R. Glenn Morris; A. C. Fabian

2005-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Longest Day in Tropics Longest Day in Tropics Name: Owen Status: other Grade: other Country: Australia Date: Spring 2012 Question: I have checked the archive and it is not really answered there. http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01052.htm isthe closest link but does not really get to the crux of what I amasking below. Is the solstice still the longest day (in either hemisphere) if your location is between the Tropics? Some friends and I have been debating this. One faction argues that the solstice on 21 December is the longest day here in Cairns, QLD, Australia. the other faction claims that the longest days here are when the sun is directly overhead (we believe the days to be 28 November and 12 January here in Cairns) and that the days shorten between 28 November (zenith in CNS) and 21 December (solstice) ... then graduate/lengthen back to the maximum between 22 December until 12 January (our other zenith day as the sun moves back North) ... after which, they shorten again. can you please settle the debate (with an explanation).

82

Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL) for thermal-hydraulics applications ranging from grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) to multiphase flow subcooled boiling. Currently, Hydra-TH is based on the semi-implicit projection method, which provides an excellent platform for simulation of transient single-phase thermalhydraulics problems. This algorithm however is not efficient when applied for very slow or steady-state problems, as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant to nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require fully-implicit tightly-coupling algorithms. The major technical contribution of the present report is the formulation of fully-implicit projection algorithm which will fulfill this purpose. This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques.

Robert Nourgaliev; Mark Christon; J. Bakosi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

XMM-Newton study of 0.012thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in a sample of groups in the 0.012-0.024 redshift range, using XMM-Newton observations. We present measurements of temperature, entropy, pressure and iron abundance. Non-parametric fits are used to derive the mean properties of the sample and to study dispersion in the values of entropy and pressure. The scaling of the entropy at 0.2r500 matches well the results of Ponman et al. (2003). However, compared to cool clusters, the groups in our sample reveal larger entropy at inner radii and a substantially flatter slope in the entropy in the outskirts, compared to both the prediction of pure gravitational heating and to observations of clusters. This difference corresponds to the systematically flatter group surface brightness profiles, reported previously. The scaled pressure profiles can be well approximated with a Sersic model with n=4. We find that groups exhibit a systematically larger dispersion in pressure, compared to clusters of galaxies, while the dispersion in entropy is similar.

A. Finoguenov; T. J. Ponman; J. P. F. Osmond; M. Zimer

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

Ileana Martinez Astin-Polk Medal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ANSI will honor Ileana and other distinguished award recipients at the 2010 ANSI Leadership and Service Awards, a banquet and ceremony held ...

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

FIA-12-0061 - In the Matter of John P. Newton | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2-0061 - In the Matter of John P. Newton 2-0061 - In the Matter of John P. Newton FIA-12-0061 - In the Matter of John P. Newton On October 31, 2012, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from two Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determinations issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Information Resources (OIR). Specifically, the Appellant appealed OIR's decisions not to grant him a fee waiver and expedited processing of his FOIA requests. The OHA decided that the Appellant did not demonstrate that the information he sought from his FOIA request would contribute significantly to public understanding of government operations or activities or that the information concerned a time-sensitive matter. Therefore, the OHA denied the Appeal for expedited processing of the FOIA

86

A Newton-Krylov solution to the porous medium equations in the agree code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to improve the convergence of the AGREE code for porous medium, a Newton-Krylov solver was developed for steady state problems. The current three-equation system was expanded and then coupled using Newton's Method. Theoretical behavior predicts second order convergence, while actual behavior was highly nonlinear. The discontinuous derivatives found in both closure and empirical relationships prevented true second order convergence. Agreement between the current solution and new Exact Newton solution was well below the convergence criteria. While convergence time did not dramatically decrease, the required number of outer iterations was reduced by approximately an order of magnitude. GMRES was also used to solve problem, where ILU without fill-in was used to precondition the iterative solver, and the performance was slightly slower than the direct solution. (authors)

Ward, A. M.; Seker, V.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T. J. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radioligical Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Beginner's Guide to Newton INTRODUCTION There are two main library catalogues currently in use, the online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precise results, use a combination of search terms. Once the text has been entered you then need to select SEARCHING IN NEWTON A Newton Guided Search allows searching for combinations of search terms whilst below. This has three lines of boxes to enter the text you wish to search for. To retrieve the most

Keeler, James

88

Solving Nonlinear Solid Mechanics Problems with the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solution of the equations governing solid mechanics is often obtained via Newton's method. This approach can be problematic if the determination, storage, or solution cost associated with the Jacobian is high. These challenges are magnified for multiphysics applications with many coupled variables. Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods avoid many of the difficulties associated with the Jacobian by using a finite difference approximation. BISON is a parallel, object-oriented, nonlinear solid mechanics and multiphysics application that leverages JFNK methods. We overview JFNK, outline the capabilities of BISON, and demonstrate the effectiveness of JFNK for solid mechanics and solid mechanics coupled to other PDEs using a series of demonstration problems.

J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; R. L. Williamson; D. R. Gaston; M. R. Tonks

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The XMM-Newton observation of GRB 040106 : evidence for an afterglow in a wind environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the XMM-Newton observation of GRB 040106. From the X-ray spectral index and temporal decay, we argue that the afterglow is consistent with a fireball expanding in a wind environment. A constant density environment is excluded by the data. This is one of the very few cases in which this conclusion can be drawn.

B. Gendre; L. Piro; M. De Pasquale

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Newton-based approach for attributing tumor lethality in animal carcinogenicity studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new Newton-based approach is proposed for finding the global maximum of a nonlinear function subject to various inequality constraints. This method can be applied to nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation problems to attribute tumor lethality ... Keywords: Cause of death, Inequality constraint, Maximum likelihood, Optimization, Sacrifice

Hongshik Ahn; Hojin Moon; Sunyoung Kim; Ralph L. Kodell

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

On inverse problems for the multidimensional relativistic Newton equation at fixed energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider inverse scattering and inverse boundary value problems at sufficiently large and fixed energy for the multidimensional relativistic Newton equation with an external potential $V$, $V\\in C^2$. Using known results, we obtain, in particular, theorems of uniqueness.

Alexandre Jollivet

2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Landau energy levels for twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the Landau energy levels for twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time, i.e. we find the time-dependent energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenstates for an electron moving in uniform magnetic as well as in uniform electric external fields.

Daszkiewicz, Marcin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A modified smoothing and regularized Newton method for monotone second-order cone complementarity problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a globally and quadratically convergent Newton-type algorithm for solving monotone second-order cone complementarity problems (denoted by SOCCPs). This algorithm is based on smoothing and regularization techniques by incorporating ... Keywords: Convergence analysis, Numerical results, Regularization, Second-order cone complementarity problem, Smoothing method

Linjie Chen; Changfeng Ma

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Model of hydrogen atom for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define the model of hydrogen atom for twist-deformed acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time. Further, using time-dependent perturbation theory, we find in first step of iteration procedure the solution of corresponding Schroedinger equation as well as the probability of transition between two different energy-eigenstates.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

95

Jasper County REMC - Residential Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for more information. Heat Pump Water Heater: 2.0 EF Air Source Heat Pump (Package): SEER 14, HSPF 8 Air Source Heat Pump (Split): SEER 15, HSPF 8.5 Dual Fuel Heat Pump...

96

Parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov solution of the discrete ordinates method with flux limiters for 3D radiative transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study introduces a parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) general minimal residual (GMRES) solution for the discretized radiative transfer equation (RTE) in 3D, absorbing, emitting and scattering media. For the angular and spatial discretization ... Keywords: Collimated radiation, Discrete ordinates method (DOM) SN, Electromagnetic radiation, Flux limiters, General Minimal Residual (GMRES), Gram-Schmidt, Householder, Jacobian free Newton-Krylov (JFNK), Parallel MPI, Radiative transfer equation (RTE), TVD, Threads

William F. Godoy; Xu Liu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale wave functions calculations in Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect

We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density Functional Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.

Fattebert, J

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

98

Inverse scattering at fixed energy for the multidimensional Newton equation in short range radial potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the inverse scattering problem at fixed and sufficiently large energy for the nonrelativistic and relativistic Newton equation in $\\R^n$, $n \\ge 2$, with a smooth and short range electromagnetic field $(V,B)$. Using results of [Firsov, 1953] or [Keller-Kay-Shmoys, 1956] we obtain a uniqueness result when $B$ is assumed to be zero in a neighborhood of infinity and $V$ is assumed to be spherically symmetric in a neighborhood of infinity.

Alexandre Jollivet

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

99

From Cavendish to PLANCK: Constraining Newton's gravitational constant with CMB temperature and polarization anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

We present new constraints on cosmic variations of Newton's gravitational constant by making use of the latest CMB data from WMAP, BOOMERANG, CBI and ACBAR experiments and independent constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis. We found that current CMB data provide constraints at the {approx}10% level, that can be improved to {approx}3% by including big bang nucleosynthesis data. We show that future data expected from the Planck satellite could constrain G at the {approx}1.5% level while an ultimate, cosmic variance limited, CMB experiment could reach a precision of about 0.4%, competitive with current laboratory measurements.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Smoot, George F.; Zahn, Oliver [Physics Department, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome, Italy, and Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite' Paris Diderot - 75205 PARIS cedex 13 (Italy); Physics Department and INFN, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley California 94720 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

XMM-Newton Observations of NGC 247 and a Supersoft Ultraluminous X-ray Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a new XMM-Newton observation of NGC 247 from December 2009. The galaxy contains a supersoft, ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) whose spectrum consists of a thermal component with a temperature about 0.1 keV and a power-law tail with a photon index around 2.5. The thermal emission is absolutely the dominant component, contributing 96% of the total luminosity in the 0.3-10 keV band. Variability is detected at timescales of 100 s and longer with a $\

Jin, Jing; Kaaret, Philip; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The perihelion of Mercury advance and the light bending calculated in (enhanced) Newton's theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that results of a simple dynamical gedanken experiment interpreted according to standard Newton's gravitational theory, may reveal that three-dimensional space is curved. The experiment may be used to reconstruct the curved geometry of space, i.e. its non-Euclidean metric. The perihelion of Mercury advance and the light bending calculated from the Poisson equation and the equation of motion in the curved geometry have the correct (observed) values. Independently, we also show that Newtonian gravity theory may be enhanced to incorporate the curvature of three dimensional space by adding an extra equation which links the Ricci scalar with the density of matter. Like in Einstein's general relativity, matter is the source of curvature. In the spherically symmetric (vacuum) case, the metric of space 3gik that follows from this extra equation agrees, to the expected accuracy, with the metric measured by the Newtonian gedanken experiment mentioned above.

M. A. Abramowicz; G. F. R. Ellis J. Horak; M. Wielgus

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fluid preconditioning for Newton-Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [Chen et al, J. Comput. Phys., 230 (2011) 7018]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron-ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

Chen, Guangye; Leibs, Christopher A; Knoll, Dana A; Taitano, William

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Multiple Attractor in Newton -Leipnik System, Peak to Peak dynamics and Chaos Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chaotic properties of Newton-Leipnik system are discussed from the view point of strange attractors. Previously, two strange attractors of this system were illustrated which occured from two different initial conditions under the same parameter condition. It is found that above system also exhibits multiple attractors under different parameter values but same initial condition and we have shown the existence of three other strange attractors with varying dimensionality under different parametric conditions. The properties of these attractors are then analyzed on the basis of Lyapunov exponents, power spectra, recurrence analysis and peak-to-peak dynamics. The peak-to-peak dynamics relies on the low dimensionality of the chaotic attractor and allows to approximately model the system. Peak-to-peak plot along with return-time plot are then effectively used to solve the optimal control problem of the system which reverts the system to a periodic situation.

Biswambhar Rakshit; Papri Saha; A. Roy Chowdhury

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

104

The XMM-Newton bright serendipitous survey. Identification and optical spectral properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AIMS: We present the optical classification and redshift of 348 X-ray selected sources from the XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey (XBS) which contains a total of 400 objects (identification level = 87%). About 240 are new identifications. In particular, we discuss in detail the classification criteria adopted for the Active Galactic Nuclei population. METHODS: By means of systematic spectroscopic campaigns and through the literature search we have collected an optical spectrum for the large majority of the sources in the XBS survey and applied a well-defined classification ``flow-chart''. RESULTS: We find that the AGN represent the most numerous population at the flux limit of the XBS survey (~10^-13 erg cm^-2 s^-1) constituting 80% of the XBS sources selected in the 0.5-4.5 keV energy band and 95% of the ``hard'' (4.5-7.5 keV) selected objects. Galactic sources populate significantly the 0.5-4.5 keV sample (17%) and only marginally (3%) the 4.5-7.5 keV sample. The remaining sources in both samples are c...

Caccianiga, A; Della Ceca, R; MacCacaro, T; Cocchia, F; Barcons, X; Carrera, F J; Matute, I; McMahon, R G; Page, M J; Pietsch, W; Sbarufatti, B; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Application of Newton's optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It is characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed. A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy is also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This procedure is based on the sensitivity theory applied to the determination of zones for the secondary voltage/reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states.

Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S. (Electric Power Board of Serbia, Belgrade (YU)); Calovic, M.S. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (YU)); Ristanovic, P. (Institute Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (YU))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The temperature and distribution of gas in CL 0016+16 measured with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of a 37 ks observation of CL 0016+16 with the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument. Within 1.5 arcmin of the cluster centre we measure a gas temperature of kT = 9.13^{+0.24}_{-0.22} keV and an abundance of 0.22^{+0.04}_{-0.03} times the solar value (1 sigma uncertainties). This significant improvement over previous measurements has allowed us to revise the estimate of the Hubble constant based on CL 0016+16 to 68 +/- 8 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} (random error only), close to the value from the Hubble Space Telescope distance-scale project. The total gravitating mass within a radius of 248 kpc of the cluster centre is in good agreement with that found from gravitational lensing over the same region, supporting the assumption of isothermal gas in hydrostatic equilibrium. The gas mass fraction of 0.13 +/- 0.02 is in remarkable agreement with that given by cosmological parameters for the Universe as a whole, suggesting that CL 0016+16 is a fair sample of the matter content of the Universe. While there is no spec...

Birkinshaw, M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

XMM-Newton observations of the Perseus Cluster I: The temperature and surface brightness structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present preliminary results of the XMM-Newton 50 ksec observation of the Perseus cluster. The global east/west asymmetry of the gas temperature and surface brightness distributions, approximately aligned with the chain of bright galaxies, suggests an ongoing merger, although the modest degree of the observed asymmetry certainly excludes a major merger interpretation. The chain of galaxies probably traces the filament along which accretion has started some time ago and is continuing at the present time. A cold and dense (low entropy) cluster core like Perseus is probably well "protected" against the penetration of the gas of infalling groups and poor clusters whereas in non-cooling core clusters like Coma and A1367, infalling subclusters can penetrate deeply into the core region. In Perseus, gas associated with infalling groups may be stripped completely at the outskirts of the main cluster and only compression waves (shocks) may reach the central regions. We argue that the passage of such a wave(s) can qualitatively explain the overall horseshoe shaped appearance of the gas temperature map (the hot horseshoe surrounds the colder, low entropy core) as well as other features of the Perseus cluster core. As compression waves traverse the cluster core, they can induce oscillatory motion of the cluster gas which can generate multiple sharp "edges", on opposite sides or the central galaxy. Gas motions induced by mergers may be a natural way to explain the high frequency of "edges" seen in clusters with cooling cores.

E. Churazov; W. Forman; C. Jones; H. Bhringer

2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

108

An XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically active binary cluster A1750  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from the XMM-Newton observation of the binary cluster A1750 at z = 0.086. We have performed a detailed study of the surface brightness, temperature and entropy distribution and confirm that the two main clusters of the system (A1750 N and A1750 C) have just started to interact. From the temperature distribution, we calculate that they are likely to merge sometime in the next 1 Gyr. The more massive cluster, A1750 C, displays a more complicated temperature structure than expected. We detect a hot region associated with a density jump ~450 kpc east of the cluster centre, which appears to be a shock wave. This shock is not connected with the binary merger, but it is intrinsic to A1750 C itself. From simple physical arguments and comparison with numerical simulations, we argue that this shock is related to a merging event that A1750 C has suffered in the past 1-2 Gyr. The larger scale structure around A1750 suggests that the system belongs to a rich supercluster, which would presumably increase...

Belsole, E; Sauvageot, J L; Bourdin, H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The XMM-Newton view of AGN with intermediate mass black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed with XMM-Newton four radiatively efficient active type 1 galaxies with black hole masses alternative scenarios for the nature of the soft excess (namely smeared ionized absorption and disc reflection) cannot be distinguished on a pure statistical basis, we point out that the absorption model produces a strong correlation between absorbing column density and ionization state, which may be difficult to interpret and is most likely spurious. As for reflection, it does only invoke standard ingredients of any accretion model for radiatively efficient sources such as a hard X-rays source and a relatively cold (though partially ionized) accretion disc, and therefore seems the natural choice to explain the soft excess in most (if not all) cases. The reflection model is also consistent with the additional presence of a thermal disc component with the theoretically expected temperature (although, again, with smaller-than-expected total luminosity). The observed active galaxies are among the most variable in X-rays and their excess variance is among the largest. This is in line with their relatively small black hole mass and with expectations from simple power spectra models. (abridged)

G. Miniutti; G. Ponti; J. E. Greene; L. C. Ho; A. C. Fabian; K. Iwasawa

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

110

Polk County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

94.8105955° 94.8105955° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.7150882,"lon":-94.8105955,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

111

Polk County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5°, -96.4170534° 5°, -96.4170534° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.6635085,"lon":-96.4170534,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

112

Polk County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3.3388917° 3.3388917° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6766686,"lon":-93.3388917,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

113

Polk City, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Iowa: Energy Resources Iowa: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.7713764°, -93.7129997° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7713764,"lon":-93.7129997,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

114

Polk County, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6528°, -123.4919256° 6528°, -123.4919256° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.9266528,"lon":-123.4919256,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

115

Polk County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5.1479364° 5.1479364° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.0132398,"lon":-85.1479364,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

116

Polk County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

688°, -97.5680595° 688°, -97.5680595° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.1526688,"lon":-97.5680595,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

117

Polk County, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Florida: Energy Resources Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 27.8617347°, -81.6911559° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":27.8617347,"lon":-81.6911559,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

118

Polk County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

097°, -94.1513764° 097°, -94.1513764° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.5268097,"lon":-94.1513764,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

119

Polk County, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

371578°, -84.564147° 371578°, -84.564147° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.1371578,"lon":-84.564147,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

120

Polk County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

423°, -93.5003454° 423°, -93.5003454° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6278423,"lon":-93.5003454,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Polk County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6842°, -82.1713632° 6842°, -82.1713632° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.2686842,"lon":-82.1713632,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

122

Polk County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

345°, -92.3388439° 345°, -92.3388439° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.4259345,"lon":-92.3388439,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

123

The temperature and distribution of gas in CL 0016+16 measured with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of a 37 ks observation of CL 0016+16 with the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument. Within 1.5 arcmin of the cluster centre we measure a gas temperature of kT = 9.13^{+0.24}_{-0.22} keV and an abundance of 0.22^{+0.04}_{-0.03} times the solar value (1 sigma uncertainties). This significant improvement over previous measurements has allowed us to revise the estimate of the Hubble constant based on CL 0016+16 to 68 +/- 8 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} (random error only), close to the value from the Hubble Space Telescope distance-scale project. The total gravitating mass within a radius of 248 kpc of the cluster centre is in good agreement with that found from gravitational lensing over the same region, supporting the assumption of isothermal gas in hydrostatic equilibrium. The gas mass fraction of 0.13 +/- 0.02 is in remarkable agreement with that given by cosmological parameters for the Universe as a whole, suggesting that CL 0016+16 is a fair sample of the matter content of the Universe. While there is no spectral or spatial evidence to suggest a cooling flow in CL 0016+16, we find an asymmetrical central X-ray structure which may have a harder spectrum than the cluster as a whole, and be evidence for some merger activity, in addition to a previously reported asymmetry to the west of the cluster. The nearest companion cluster to CL 0016+16 is measured to have a gas temperature of kT = 3.8^{+0.3}_{-0.3} keV and an abundance of 0.6^{+0.3}_{-0.2} times the solar value (1 sigma uncertainties). We also present spectral data for the companion quasar whose spectrum was confused with CL 0016+16 in previous ASCA data.

D. M. Worrall; M. Birkinshaw

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

First deep XMM-Newton observations of the LMC: Identifying LMC intrinsic source populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first X-ray survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) was performed with the Einstein satellite, revealing diffuse X-ray emission from hot gas and discrete X-ray sources. The ROSAT observations between 1990 and 1998 supplied the most sensitive survey with imaging instruments in the soft X-ray band (0.1 - 2.4 keV). The PSPC and HRI observations covered 59 square degrees of the LMC and yielded a catalogue of about 1000 sources. Large efforts were undertaken to identify and classify the X-ray sources according to the nature of their X-ray emission. X-ray properties were used together with information from other electro-magnetic wavelength bands to screen out foreground stars and background objects from the LMC intrinsic X-ray source population which comprises X-ray binaries, supernova remnants and supersoft sources. However, the vast majority of sources still remains of unknown nature. First deep XMM-Newton observations of selected regions in the LMC demonstrate a large step forward in the identification of LMC X-ray sources. The large collecting area together with imaging detectors covering energies 0.1 - 15 keV with far improved spectral resolution allows to determine the nature of an object directly from the X-ray properties down to low flux levels of a few 10$^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. First results of a deep observation north of LMC X-4 are presented, which reveal the presence of new supernova remnants and X-ray binaries.

F. Haberl

2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

X-RAY SUBSTRUCTURE STUDIES OF FOUR GALAXY CLUSTERS USING XMM-NEWTON DATA  

SciTech Connect

Mahdavi et al. find that the degree of agreement between weak lensing and X-ray mass measurements is a function of cluster radius. Numerical simulations also point out that X-ray mass proxies do not work equally well at all radii. The origin of the effect is thought to be associated with cluster mergers. Recent work presenting the cluster maps showed an ability of X-ray maps to reveal and study cluster mergers in detail. Here, we present a first attempt to use the study of substructure in assessing the systematics of the hydrostatic mass measurements using two-dimensional (2D) X-ray diagnostics. The temperature map is uniquely able to identify the substructure in an almost relaxed cluster which would be unnoticed in the intracluster medium electron number density and pressure maps. We describe the radial fluctuations in the 2D maps by a cumulative/differential scatter profile relative to the mean profile within/at a given radius. The amplitude indicates {approx}10% fluctuations in the temperature, electron number density, and entropy maps, and {approx}15% fluctuations in the pressure map. The amplitude of and the discontinuity in the scatter complement 2D substructure diagnostics, e.g., indicating the most disturbed radial range. There is a tantalizing link between the substructure identified using the scatter of the entropy and pressure fluctuations and the hydrostatic mass bias relative to the expected mass based on the M-Y{sub X} and M-M{sub gas} relations particularly at r{sub 500}. XMM-Newton observations with {approx}120,000 source photons from the cluster are sufficient to apply our substructure diagnostics via the spectrally measured 2D temperature, electron number density, entropy, and pressure maps.

Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Hudson, Daniel S. [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sarazin, Craig L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Jacobian-free Newton Krylov discontinuous Galerkin method and physics-based preconditioning for nuclear reactor simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present high-order accurate spatiotemporal discretization of all-speed flow solvers using Jacobian-free Newton Krylov framework. One of the key developments in this work is the physics-based preconditioner for the all-speed flow, which makes use of traditional semi-implicit schemes. The physics-based preconditioner is developed in the primitive variable form, which allows a straightforward separation of physical phenomena. Numerical examples demonstrate that the developed preconditioner effectively reduces the number of the Krylov iterations, and the efficiency is independent of the Mach number and mesh sizes under a fixed CFL condition.

HyeongKae Park; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Richard C. Martineau; Dana A. Knoll

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING USING A PARALLEL FULLY-COUPLED SIMULATOR BASED ON PRECONDITIONED JACOBIAN-FREE NEWTON-KRYLOV  

SciTech Connect

Systems of multicomponent reactive transport in porous media that are large, highly nonlinear, and tightly coupled due to complex nonlinear reactions and strong solution-media interactions are often described by a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential algebraic equations (PDAEs). A preconditioned Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) solution approach is applied to solve the PDAEs in a fully coupled, fully implicit manner. The advantage of the JFNK method is that it avoids explicitly computing and storing the Jacobian matrix during Newton nonlinear iterations for computational efficiency considerations. This solution approach is also enhanced by physics-based blocking preconditioning and multigrid algorithm for efficient inversion of preconditioners. Based on the solution approach, we have developed a reactive transport simulator named RAT. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and massive scalability of the simulator for reactive transport problems involving strong solution-mineral interactions and fast kinetics. It has been applied to study the highly nonlinearly coupled reactive transport system of a promising in situ environmental remediation that involves urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation.

Luanjing Guo; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang; Derek R. Gaston

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparing the performance of neural networks developed by using Levenberg-Marquardt and Quasi-Newton with the gradient descent algorithm for modelling a multiple response grinding process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring and control of multiple process quality characteristics (responses) in grinding plays a critical role in precision parts manufacturing industries. Precise and accurate mathematical modelling of multiple response process behaviour holds the ... Keywords: Back propagation neural network, Gradient descent algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Multiple response, Quasi-Newton algorithm

Indrajit Mukherjee; Srikanta Routroy

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

SWIFT AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTRAORDINARY GAMMA-RAY BURST 060729: MORE THAN 125 DAYS OF X-RAY AFTERGLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SWIFT AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTRAORDINARY GAMMA-RAY BURST 060729: MORE THAN 125 DAYS:1 and absorption column density of 1 ; 1021 cm?2 . Subject headinggs: gamma rays: bursts -- X-rays: bursts Online material: color figure 1. INTRODUCTION Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions

Zhang, Bing

130

Improving existing facade insulation against railway J. A.E. Paris-Newton, D. Chapman, C. Luciani and R. G. Mackenzie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving existing fa¸cade insulation against railway noise J. A.E. Paris-Newton, D. Chapman, C. Luciani and R. G. Mackenzie Building Performance Centre, 42 Colinton Road, Edinburgh, EH10 7DT Edinburgh the insulation offered by existing dwelling façades on approximately a thousand properties subject to railway

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Jasper, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22571°, -77.5030413° 22571°, -77.5030413° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.122571,"lon":-77.5030413,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

132

Jasper County, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9.1705998° 9.1705998° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.0810429,"lon":-89.1705998,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

133

Jasper County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7.1422895° 7.1422895° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.0040981,"lon":-87.1422895,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

134

Jasper County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5°, -88.0900762° 5°, -88.0900762° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.0554965,"lon":-88.0900762,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

135

Jasper County, South Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

436°, -81.0754657° 436°, -81.0754657° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.491436,"lon":-81.0754657,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

136

Jasper County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

565°, -94.356513° 565°, -94.356513° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.1745565,"lon":-94.356513,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

137

Jasper County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

°, -93.0175712° °, -93.0175712° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6414924,"lon":-93.0175712,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

138

LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun ...  

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Shock physics experiments complement the ongoing subcritical experiment program at NTS as part of the NNSA's stockpile stewardship program to maintain the safety and...

139

Jasper County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3.9878427° 3.9878427° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.9263644,"lon":-93.9878427,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

140

Pages that link to "Jasper Wind" | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policies International Clean Energy Analysis Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View source History...

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141

LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun ...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering...

142

Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report results from an XMM-Newton observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 109 (z=0.3056). Previous ASCA data revealed the presence of a broad iron line from the accretion disc with which the XMM-Newton spectrum is fully consistent. However, although improving the ASCA constraints on the line parameters, the quality of the data is not high enough to distinguish between an untruncated accretion disc extending down to small radii close to the black hole and a scenario in which the innermost 20-30 gravitational radii are missing. For this reason, our results are model-dependent and the hard data can be modeled equally well by considering an absorption scenario in which a large column of neutral gas partially covers the X-ray continuum source. However, the absorber would have to comprise hundreds/thousands very compact clouds close to the X-ray source, which seems rather extreme a requirement. The 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosity of 3C 109 is of the order of 2-3 x 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} regardless of the adopted model. A recent black hole mass estimate of {approx} 2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} implies that L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} > 1. If partial covering is excluded, the observed reflection fraction (of the order of unity), steep photon index (1.86), and Fe line equivalent width (about 100 eV) all suggest to exclude that the X-ray continuum is strongly beamed indicating that the large Eddington ratio is associated with a radiatively efficient accretion process and making it unlikely that the innermost accretion disc is replaced by a thick radiatively inefficient medium such as in advection-dominated accretion models. We also confirm previous findings on the detection of low energy absorption in excess of the Galactic value, where we find excellent agreement with previous results obtained in X-rays and at other wavelengths (optical and infrared). The better quality of the XMM-Newton data enables us to attribute the excess absorption to slightly ionized gas in the line of sight, located at the redshift of 3C 109. The most likely interpretation for the excess absorption is that the line-of-sight is grazing the obscuring torus of unified models, which is consistent with the inclination inferred from the Fe line profile (about 40{sup o}) and with the hybrid radio-galaxy/quasar nature of 3C 109.

Miniutti, Giovanni; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ballantyne, D.R.; /Arizona U.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ross, R.R.; /Holy Cross Coll.

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

143

A systematic analysis of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray burst observed by XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is part of a systematic re-analysis program of all the data of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows observed so far, in order to constrain the GRB models. We present here a systematic analysis of those afterglows observed by XMM-Newton between January 2000 and March 2004. This dataset includes GRB 011211 and GRB 030329. We have obtained spectra, light curves and colors for these afterglows. In this paper we focus on the continuum spectral and temporal behavior. We compare these values with the theoretical ones expected from the fireball model. We derive constraints about the burst environment (absorption, density profile) and put constraints on their beaming angle. Key words: Gamma-ray: burst, X-ray: general 1

Bruce Gendre A; Luigi Piro A; Massimiliano De Pasquale A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Assessment of HTGR Helium Compressor Analysis Tool Based on Newton-Raphson Numerical Application to Through-flow Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the development of a computer program for analyzing the off-design performance of axial flow helium compressors, which is one of the major concerns for the power conversion system of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The compressor performance has been predicted by the aerodynamic analysis of meridional flow with allowances for losses. The governing equations have been derived from Euler turbomachine equation and the streamline curvature method, and then they have been merged into linearized equations based on the Newton-Raphson numerical method. The effect of viscosity is considered by empirical correlations to introduce entropy rises caused by primary loss sources. Use of the method has been illustrated by applying it to a 20-stage helium compressor of the GTHTR300 plant. As a result, the flow throughout the stages of the compressor has been predicted and the compressor characteristics have been also investigated according to the design specification. The program results show much better stability and good convergence with respect to other through-flow methods, and good agreement with the compressor performance map provided by JAEA. (authors)

Ji Hwan Kim; Hyeun Min Kim; Hee Cheon NO [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno - 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies, of which 30 are cluster members. Nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters, having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 to 525 solar masses per year. Using the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band flux, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs. This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 to 219 solar masses per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

Amalia K. Hicks; Richard Mushotzky

2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

146

Spherically symmetric solutions, Newton's Law, and the infrared limit {lambda}{yields}1 in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity  

SciTech Connect

In this note we examine whether spherically symmetric solutions in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity can reproduce Newton's Law in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1. We adopt the position that the auxiliary field A is independent of the space-time metric [J. Alexandre and P. Pasipoularides, Phys. Rev. D 83, 084030 (2011).][J. Greenwald, V. H. Satheeshkumar, and A. Wang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 12 (2010) 007.], and we assume, as in [A. M. da Silva, Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 055011 (2011).], that {lambda} is a running coupling constant. We show that under these assumptions, spherically symmetric solutions fail to restore the standard Newtonian physics in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1, unless {lambda} does not run, and has the fixed value {lambda}=1. Finally, we comment on the Horava and Melby-Thompson approach [P. Horava and C. M. Melby-Thompson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 064027 (2010).] in which A is assumed as a part of the space-time metric in the IR.

Alexandre, Jean [King's College London, Department of Physics, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Pasipoularides, Pavlos [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus GR 157 73, Athens (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

MODELING THE OXYGEN K ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: AN XMM-NEWTON VIEW OF Sco X-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the X-ray absorption structure of oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM - Newton observations of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Simple models based on the O I atomic photoabsorption cross section from different sources are used to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data on the interpretation of the observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results, and that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21.0-24.5 A wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of {xi} = 10{sup -4} erg cm s{sup -1} and an oxygen column density of N{sub O} {approx} (8-10) x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K{alpha} absorption line from O I which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by anything other than atomic oxygen.

GarcIa, J.; Bautista, M. A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); RamIrez, J. M. [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16 D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mendoza, C. [Centro de Fisica, IVIC, Caracas 1020 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P., E-mail: javier.garcia@wmich.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu, E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov, E-mail: jramirez@aip.de, E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.v, E-mail: palmeri@umh.ac.be, E-mail: quinet@umh.ac.be [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Temperature structure of the intergalactic medium within seven nearby and bright clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims. We map the temperature structure of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) within a nearly complete X-ray flux limited sample of galaxy clusters in the redshift range z=[0.045,0.096]. Our sample contains seven bright clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton: Abell 399, Abell 401, Abell 478, Abell 1795, Abell 2029, Abell 2065, Abell 2256. Methods. We use a multi-scale spectral mapping algorithm especially designed to map spectroscopic observables from X-ray extended emission of the ICM. Derived from a former algorithm using Haar wavelets, our algorithm is now implemented with B-spline wavelets in order to perform a more regular analysis of the signal. Results. For the four clusters in our sample that are major mergers, we find a complex thermal structure with strong thermal variations consistent with their dynamics. For two of them, A2065 and A2256, we perform a 3-d analysis of cold front features evidenced from the gas temperature and brightness maps. Furthermore, we detect a significant non-radial thermal structure outside the cool core region of the other 3 more "regular" clusters, with relative amplitudes of about about 10%. We investigate possible implications of this structure on the mass estimates of the "regular" clusters A1795 and A2029, by extracting surface brightness and temperature profiles from sectors correspondings to the hottest and coldest regions in the maps. While compensating with surface brightness for A2029, leading to consistent mass profiles, the temperature structure leads to significant mass discrepancies in the innermost region of A1795.

H. Bourdin; P. Mazzotta

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

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Rules of Science Rules of Science Name: Steven Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: WA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: What are the hard-and-fast rules of science? Are there any? How does science avoid becoming fiction? Replies: Interesting question. Since the question posed refers to some generic 'science', I would offer these few thoughts.... Science (to me) involves careful, precise observation of some natural or man-made phenomenon, accurately and objectively capturing the observation, honestly and objectively sharing of the captured data, fair and objective analysis of the captured data, and fair, honest, and objective efforts to test and thereby replicate the data in the interest of adding the gathered information to the ever-growing body of gathered, analyzed, tested and replicated knowledge we accept as the nearest thing to "fact" we know. Collection of the observed components of the phenomenon with integrity can help us to make predictions of future similar and dissimilar events

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159

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Determining Material Degradation Determining Material Degradation Name: Hamish Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: I am working on a science project about photo-degradation of plastic film. My question is how much degraded a plastic film should be to say that it was 100% photo-degraded? The plastic film I am photo-degrading is turning into dust when I touch it, what level of degradation is that? Replies: Hi Hamish, Thanks for the question. You will need to define what you mean by photo-degraded. 100% photo-degraded could be that the film becomes translucent and lets through only blurry images. Or it could mean that the film turns to dust when you touch it. As long as you clearly state in your science project what you mean by 100% photo-degraded, you will be doing a good job.

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162

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NEWTON's Veterinary Science References  

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Hospital Association presents HealthlyPet.com which gives detailed information about dog care, cat care, referral hospitals, and other resources. Is a link broken? Please let...

182

NEWTON's Zoology Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planet - Videos Section Animal Planet online lets you see videos about cat breeds, dog breeds, wild animals and pets and much more. See and learn about animals courtesy of...

183

NEWTON's Astronomy Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feel free to search in the search box below, or scroll through all of the records below the search box. Search the Astronomy Archive: Loading Most Recent Astronomy Questions:...

184

NEWTON's Botany Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coloration and Energy Double Pine Cones Botanical Beard Carbon Dioxide Amounts and Photosynthesis Plant Phases Red Oak Reproduction Propagation of "Star Fish" Banana Placentation...

185

NEWTON's Molecular Biology Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Biology Videos Do you have a great molecular biology video? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Videos: University of Berkeley - Molecular Biology Lectures University...

186

NEWTON's Molecular Biology Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Biology Archive: Loading Most Recent Molecular Biology Questions: Cytoplasm pH DNA Extract and Cold Alcohol Albino Gene Loci Male Development Candy and Bacteria Revisited...

187

NEWTON's Engineering Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transmission and Grounding Turbulence Modeling and Wing Design Rentricity Heat Shield and 120,000 Foot Fall Hydrogen Peroxide and Fuel Cells Aquatic Exercise and Buoyancy...

188

NEWTON's General Science References  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Science References General Science References Do you have a great general science reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: First.gov Science and Technology First.gov Science and Technology This site, sponsered by the US Government provides reference links to topics on science, telecommunications, computers, research agencies, and news. NASA Science NASA Science NASA Science, is a website sponsered by NASA, that supplies resources for understanding our world and the world above. Topics include earth science, heliophysics, the planets, astrophysics and much more. There is also an educator page! Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories See the official site for the Nobel Prize, and read biographies about all of the Nobel Laureates, and there life changing discoveries and accomplishments.

189

NEWTON's Mathematics Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mathematics Archive: Mathematics Archive: Loading Most Recent Questions on Mathematics: Standard Deviations Discontinuous Function Integration Secant, Cosecant, and Cotangent Uses Least Overlap Combinations Elliptical Appearance and Viewing Angle Combinations in Rotations Three Heads in Row on Flips Pi and Rectangle Gaussian Curve Summations Decimal System and Double Digits Multiples of Nine, Digit Sum Mathematics Log Books Tutorial on the term Term Functions Origin of Theta Equation for Pi Origin of FOIL Method Arabic Numerals and Shape 45 Degrees Does Not Halve Gravitational Field Intensity Bar for Repeating Decimals Term Size of Infinity Estimating Contrail Height Correlation and Causation Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size Solving X^2 = 2^X To see all entries in the Mathematics

190

NEWTON's Physics References  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physics References Do you have a great physics reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: Physics Links Physics Links from AAPT See the American...

191

NEWTON's Physics Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physics Videos Do you have a great physics video? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Videos: How Stuff Works Videos - Physics How Stuff Works Videos - Physics The Physics...

192

NEWTON: Why Meat Eaters?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eaters? Name: Alexandre Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Canada Date: Spring 2013 Question: How come we are omnivores and vegetables and fruits are so...

193

From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics - by Dr T. Shakespeare  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the recent World report on disability, 15% of the worlds population is disabled. Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton, Paul Dirac & Stephen Hawking. This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially-imposed barriers which disabled people face.It will also offer some practical suggestions on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social scientist and ethicist with 25 years experience with the disability movement. Between 2008-2013, Tom worked in the Disability and Rehabilitation team at the World Health Organization, Geneva. He currently teaches medical sociology at the University of East Anglia Medical School, in Norwich, UK.

CERN. Geneva

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

XMM-Newton and Chandra Spectroscopy of the Variable High-Energy Absorption of PG 1115+080: Refined Outflow Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from multi-epoch spectral analysis of XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the mini broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1115+080. This is one of the few X-ray detected mini-BAL quasars to date that is bright enough in the X-ray band, mostly due to large gravitational-lensing magnifications, to allow in-depth spectral analysis. The present XMM-Newton observations of PG 1115+080 have provided the highest signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of a mini-BAL quasar obtained to date. By modeling the spectra of PG 1115+080 we have obtained constraints on the column density and ionization state of its outflowing absorbing gas. A comparison between these constraints over several epochs indicates significant variability in the properties of the outflowing absorbers in PG 1115+080. The depths of the high-energy broad absorption features in PG 1115+080 show a significant decrease between the first two observation epochs separated by a rest-frame timescale of ~ 1 year. This variability supports the intrinsic nature of these absorbers. Assuming the interpretation that the high-energy absorption features arise from highly ionized Fe XXV we constrain the fraction of the total bolometric energy released by quasars PG 1115+080 and APM 08279+5225 into the IGM in the form of kinetic energy to be epsilon_k = 0.64(-0.40,+0.52) (68% confidence), and epsilon_k =0.09(-0.05,+0.07), respectively. According to recent theoretical studies this range of efficiencies is large enough to influence significantly the formation of the host galaxy and to regulate the growth of the central black hole.

G. Chartas; W. N. Brandt; S. C. Gallagher; D. Proga

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

195

Probing Unification With Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton EPIC And RGS Spectroscopy of the Narrow Emission Line Galaxy NGC 2110  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from Chandra HETGS (250 ks over two epochs) and XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS (60 ks) observations of NGC 2110, which has been historically classified as a Narrow Emission Line Galaxy galaxy. Our results support the interpretation that the source is a Seyfert 2 viewed through a patchy absorber. The nuclear X-ray spectrum of the source is best described by a power law of photon index $\\Gamma$ ~1.7, modified by absorption from multiple layers of neutral material at a large distance from the central supermassive black hole. We report the strong detections of Fe K$\\alpha$ and Si K$\\alpha$ lines, which are marginally resolved with the Chandra HETGS, and we constrain the emission radius of the fluorescing material to >1 pc. There is some evidence for modest additional broadening at the base of the narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ core with a velocity ~4500 km s$^{-1}$. We find tentative evidence for ionized emission (O VIII Ly $\\alpha$, an O VIII RRC feature, and possibly a Ne IX forbidden line) in the Chandra MEG and XMM-Newton RGS spectra, which could be associated with the known extended X-ray emission that lies ~160 pc from the nucleus. We suggest that the $10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ partially covering absorber originates in broad-line region clouds in the vicinity of the AGN, and that the $3\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ coverer is likely to have a more distant origin and have a flattened geometry in order to allow the small-scale radio jet to escape.

Daniel A. Evans; Julia C. Lee; T. Jane Turner; Kimberly A. Weaver; Herman L. Marshall

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field: V. Angular Clustering of the X-ray Point Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first results of the measurements of angular auto-correlation functions (ACFs) of X-ray point sources detected in the XMM-Newton observations of the 2 deg2 COSMOS field (XMM-COSMOS). A significant positive signals have been detected in the 0.5-2 (SFT) band, in the angle range of 0.5-24 arcminutes, while the positive signals were at the 2 and 3 sigma levels in the 2-4.5 (MED) and 4.5-10 (UHD) keV bands respectively. Correctly taking integral constraints into account is a major limitation in interpreting our results. With power-law fits to the ACFs without the integral constraint term, we find correlation lengths of theta_c=1.9+-0.3, 0.8+0.5-0.4 and 6+-2 arcseconds for the SFT, MED, and UHD bands respectively for gamma=1.8. The inferred comoving correlation lengths, also taking into account the bias by the source merging due to XMM-Newton PSF, are 9.8+-0.7, 5.8+1.4-1.7 and 12+-2 h-1 Mpc at the effective redshifts of 1.1, 0.9, and 0.6 for the SFT, MED, and UHD bands respectively. If we include the integral constraint term in the fitting process,assuming that the power-law extends to the scale length of the entire XMM-COSMOSfield, the correlation lengths become larger by 20%-90%. Comparing the inferred rms fluctuations of the spatial distribution of AGNs with those of the underlying mass, the bias parameters of the X-ray source clustering at these effective redshifts are in the range b(AGN)=1.5-4. (Edited to simple ascii.)

Takamitsu Miyaji; Giovanni Zamorani; Nico Cappelluti; Roberto Gilli; Richard E. Griffiths; Andrea Comastri; Guenther Hasinger; Marcella Brusa; Fabrizio Fiore; Simonetta Puccetti; Luigi Guzzo; Alexis Finoguenov

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field: V. Angular Clustering of the X-ray Point Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first results of the measurements of angular auto-correlation functions (ACFs) of X-ray point sources detected in the XMM-Newton observations of the ? 2 deg2 COSMOS field (XMM-COSMOS). A significant positive signals have been detected in the 0.5-2 (SFT) band, in the angle range of 0.5-24 arcminutes, while the positive signals were at the ?2 and ? 3? levels in the 2-4.5 (MED) and 4.5-10 (UHD) keV bands respectively. Correctly taking integral constraints into account is a major limitation in interpreting our results. With power-law fits to the ACFs without the integral constraint term, we find correlation lengths of ?c = 1. ? ? 9 0. ? ? 3, 0. ? ? 8 +0.? ? 5 ?0. ? ? 4 and 6 ? ? 2 ? ? for the SFT, MED, and UHD bands respectively for ? = 1.8. The inferred comoving correlation lengths, also taking into account the bias by the source merging due to XMM-Newton PSF, are rc ? 9.8 0.7, 5.8 +1.4 ?1.7 and 12 2 h?1 Mpc at the effective redshifts of zeff ? 1.1, 0.9, and 0.6 for the SFT, MED, and UHD bands respectively. If we include the integral constraint term in the fitting process, assuming that the power-law extends to the scale length of the entire XMM-COSMOS field, the correlation lengths become larger by ? 20%90%. Comparing the inferred rms fluctuations of the spatial distribution of AGNs ?8,AGN with those of the underlying mass, the bias parameters of the X-ray source clustering at these effective redshifts are in the range bAGN = 1.5 ? 4.

Takamitsu Miyaji; Giovanni Zamorani; Roberto Gilli; Richard E; Andrea Comastri; Gnther Hasinger; Marcella Brusa; Simonetta Puccetti; Luigi Guzzo; Alexis Finoguenov

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

XMM-Newton observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud: X-ray outburst of the 6.85 s pulsar XTE J0103-728  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A bright X-ray transient was seen during an XMM-Newton observation in the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in October 2006. The EPIC data allow us to accurately locate the source and to investigate its temporal and spectral behaviour. X-ray spectra covering 0.2-10 keV and pulse profiles in different energy bands were extracted from the EPIC data. The detection of 6.85 s pulsations in the EPIC-PN data unambiguously identifies the transient with XTE J0103-728, discovered as 6.85 s pulsar by RXTE. The X-ray light curve during the XMM-Newton observation shows flaring activity of the source with intensity changes by a factor of two within 10 minutes. Modelling of pulse-phase averaged spectra with a simple absorbed power-law indicates systematic residuals which can be accounted for by a second emission component. For models implying blackbody emission, thermal plasma emission or emission from the accretion disk (disk-blackbody), the latter yields physically sensible parameters. The photon index of the power-law of ~0.4 indicates a relatively hard spectrum. The 0.2-10 keV luminosity was 2x10^{37} with a contribution of ~3% from the disk-blackbody component. A likely origin for the excess emission is reprocessing of hard X-rays from the neutron star by optically thick material near the inner edge of an accretion disk. From a timing analysis we determine the pulse period to 6.85401(1) s indicating an average spin-down of ~0.0017 s per year since the discovery of XTE J0103-728 in May 2003. The X-ray properties and the identification with a Be star confirm XTE J0103-728 as Be/X-ray binary transient in the SMC.

F. Haberl; W. Pietsch

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

EA-1946: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of the 23.90-mile Salem-Albany No. 1 and 27.85-mile Salem-Albany No. 2 transmission lines between Salem and Albany, Oregon.

200

Probing Unification With Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton EPIC And RGS Spectroscopy of the Narrow Emission Line Galaxy NGC 2110  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from Chandra HETGS (250 ks over two epochs) and XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS (60 ks) observations of NGC 2110, which has been historically classified as a Narrow Emission Line Galaxy galaxy. Our results support the interpretation that the source is a Seyfert 2 viewed through a patchy absorber. The nuclear X-ray spectrum of the source is best described by a power law of photon index $\\Gamma$ ~1.7, modified by absorption from multiple layers of neutral material at a large distance from the central supermassive black hole. We report the strong detections of Fe K$\\alpha$ and Si K$\\alpha$ lines, which are marginally resolved with the Chandra HETGS, and we constrain the emission radius of the fluorescing material to >1 pc. There is some evidence for modest additional broadening at the base of the narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ core with a velocity ~4500 km s$^{-1}$. We find tentative evidence for ionized emission (O VIII Ly $\\alpha$, an O VIII RRC feature, and possibly a Ne IX forbidden line) in the Chandra MEG ...

Evans, Daniel A; Turner, T Jane; Weaver, Kimberly A; Marshall, Herman L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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201

A Multi-epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of new XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO). We detect QPOs in each of four new (~ 100 ks) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies observed from 10 - 40 mHz. We compare our results with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass black hole systems, and find that the qualitative nature of the timing and spectral behavior of NGC 5408 X-1 is similar to systems in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency - photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of > 800 solar masses. Alternatively, the QPO frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy with the Type-C QPOs in stellar systems is problematic. Measurement of the s...

Pasham, Dheeraj R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Three XMM-Newton observations of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937: long term variations in spectrum and pulsed fraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of a recent (July 2004) XMM-Newton Target of Opportunity observation of the Anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937, together with a detailed re-analysis of previous observations carried out in 2000 and 2003. In July 2004 the source had a 2-10 keV flux of 6.2$\\times10^{-12}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and a pulsed fraction P$_F$=0.68. The comparison of the three data sets shows the presence of an anti-correlation between flux and pulsed fraction, implying that previous estimates of the source energetics based on the assumption of a large and constant pulsed fraction might be significantly underestimated. The source spectrum is well described by a power law plus blackbody model (kT~0.63 keV, photon index $\\Gamma$~2.7-3.5) or, alternatively, by the sum of two blackbodies of which the hotter is Comptonized by relativistic electrons. In this case the temperatures are kT${_1}$~0.2-0.3 keV and kT${_2}$~0.4-0.5 keV and the emitting area of the cooler component is consistent with the whole neutron star surface. The long term luminosity variation of a factor >~2 is accompanied by relatively small variations in the spectral shape. Phase resolved spectroscopy indicates a harder spectrum in correspondence of the pulse maximum. No spectral features have been detected with 4$\\sigma$ limits on the equivalent width in the range ~10-220 eV, depending on line energy and width.

A. Tiengo; S. Mereghetti; R. Turolla; S. Zane; N. Rea; L. Stella; G. L. Israel

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.  

SciTech Connect

Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B. [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Analysis Of Microseismic Location Accuracy For Hydraulic Fracturing At The DWTI Site, Jasper, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a feasibility study designed to assess whether microseismic location techniques can provide enough accuracy and precision to enable a

Rieven, Shirley

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Eighty years of change: vegetation in the montane ecoregion of Jasper National Park, Alberta,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, succeeding either to forb­grassland and forest (Table 4) or being reclaimed by water (Table 5). Wetlands to automate the conversion of the repeat ground photographs into planar views, thus making standard analyses

Macdonald, Ellen

206

2011 NNSS JASPER ORR Activity Report _July 18-28, 2011_ final  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-NNSS-2011-07-28 Site: Nevada National Security Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and...

207

2011 NNSS JASPER ORR Activity Report _July 18-28, 2011_ final  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Nevada National Security Site Operational Readiness Review of the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility Dates of Activity : 07182011 - 07282011...

208

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ergonomically superior diffuse light to meet daytime lighting needs. · All appliances are Energy Star rated as an educational tool to demonstrate principles of sustain- ability and energy efficiency. With this in mind, the Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station was designed for an annual energy budget of net zero carbon emissions

Ford, James

209

JOINT ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS. II. CHANDRA/XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND WEAK LENSING SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF 50 RICH CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15% {+-} 6% intrinsic scatter at r{sub 500}{sup WL} (the pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} yields a consistent scatter of 22% {+-} 5%). The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller (<10%) deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} does not discriminate between the more relaxed and less relaxed populations, making it perhaps the more even-handed mass proxy for surveys. Overall, hydrostatic masses underestimate weak lensing masses by 10% on the average at r{sub 500}{sup WL}; but cool-core clusters are consistent with no bias, while non-cool-core clusters have a large and constant 15%-20% bias between r{sub 2500}{sup WL} and r{sub 500}{sup WL}, in agreement with N-body simulations incorporating unthermalized gas. For non-cool-core clusters, the bias correlates well with BCG ellipticity. We also examine centroid shift variance and power ratios to quantify substructure; these quantities do not correlate with residuals in the scaling relations. Individual clusters have for the most part forgotten the source of their departures from self-similarity.

Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Jeltema, Tesla [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Henry, J. Patrick [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. II. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF DIFFUSE O VII AND O VIII EMISSION INTENSITIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an all-sky catalog of diffuse O VII and O VIII line intensities, extracted from archival XMM-Newton observations. This catalog supersedes our previous catalog, which covered the sky between l = 120 Degree-Sign and l = 240 Degree-Sign . We attempted to reduce the contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission by excluding times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering, we were able to extract measurements from 1868 observations. With this filtering, nearly half of the observations became unusable, and only 1003 observations yielded measurements. The O VII and O VIII intensities are typically {approx}2-11 and {approx}10 L.U. were observed. We compared our measurements with models of the heliospheric and geocoronal SWCX. The heliospheric SWCX intensity is expected to vary with ecliptic latitude and solar cycle. We found that the observed oxygen intensities generally decrease from solar maximum to solar minimum, both at high ecliptic latitudes (which is as expected) and at low ecliptic latitudes (which is not as expected). The geocoronal SWCX intensity is expected to depend on the solar wind proton flux incident on the Earth and on the sightline's path through the magnetosheath. The intensity variations seen in directions that have been observed multiple times are in poor agreement with the predictions of a geocoronal SWCX model. We found that the oxygen lines account for {approx}40%-50% of the 3/4 keV X-ray background that is not due to unresolved active galactic nuclei, in good agreement with a previous measurement. However, we found that this fraction is not easily explainable by a combination of SWCX emission and emission from hot plasma in the halo. We also examined the correlations between the oxygen intensities and Galactic longitude and latitude. We found that the intensities tend to increase with longitude toward the inner Galaxy, possibly due to an increase in the supernova rate in that direction or the presence of a halo of accreted material centered on the Galactic center. The variation of intensity with Galactic latitude differs in different octants of the sky, and cannot be explained by a single simple plane-parallel or constant-intensity halo model.

Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L., E-mail: dbh@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

NEWTON: Preventing Tire Dry Rot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preventing Tire Dry Rot Preventing Tire Dry Rot Name: Millard Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2013 Question: My dad has a classic car, and because it gets driven very little each year, the tires dry rot before he can get much tread wear on them. What could be used to protect the tires from dry rot and cracking? Replies: Hi Millard, Thanks for the question. I would recommend keeping the car on blocks so that there is no weight on the tires. Additionally, I would recommend that no electrical equipment (motors, switches, and other things that spark) be used around the car. The sparks generate ozone and ozone can cause rubber items such as tires, belts, and hoses to crack. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff Grell

212

NEWTON: Why Does It Rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Does It Rain? Why Does It Rain? Name: Drama Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: Why does it rain? Replies: Drama, When water is heated it evaporates into the air. You cannot see the water in the air, but sometimes you can feel it (especially when it is hot outside). Have you ever noticed that on some warm days it is really humid (sticky and sweaty) and other warm days it feels dry? You might have also noticed that in the morning, when the air is cool, you might find dew or mist on the leaves and grass. This occurs because cold air cannot hold much of moisture. There is a limit to the amount of water that air can hold. This limit is known as the saturation limit (or dew point). When the air is completely saturated and cannot hold any more water, then it comes down as rain (and leaves all that heat in the air).

213

NEWTON'S METHOD FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimations on the error of approximating F, ?Fj by its quadratic and ...... A subjective assessment of alternative mission architectures for the human ex- ploration...

214

NEWTON: Blood Group Systems Usage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blood Group Systems Usage Blood Group Systems Usage Name: Kishori Status: student Grade: n/a Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Summer 2013 Question: What is the difference between MN blood group system and ABO bloodgroup system? Although, we nowadays prefer ABO blood groups why do we use MN blood groups in the forensic department? Replies: Humans actually have multiple blood antigens on the surface of our blood cells. Wikipedia says that there are over 50 different blood group antigens. ABO and Rh are just the most dominant. Rh actually has 3 alleles called C, D and E. So one could be CCddee, for example, but clinically, when referring to Rh, only the D antigen is considered. So MN is another system that is also present. The reason it would be considered in forensics is due to population genetics considerations. Certain combinations are found in different percentages depending on what ancestry a person is a part of. Humans evolved in isolation from each other and until relatively recently, were separated due to difficult travel/migration. But even though we can move around the planet easily now, we still carry the history of our ancestry in our DNA. M and N are codominant, like the ABO system.

215

CHANDRA AND XMM-NEWTON STUDIES OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5 ASSOCIATED WITH THE PULSAR J1119-6127  

SciTech Connect

We present the first detailed imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopic study of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G292.2-0.5, associated with the high-magnetic field radio pulsar (PSR) J1119-6127, using Chandra and XMM-Newton. The high-resolution X-ray images reveal a partially limb-brightened morphology in the west, with diffuse emission concentrated toward the interior of the remnant unlike the complete shell-like morphology observed at radio wavelengths. The spectra of most of the diffuse emission regions within the remnant are best described by a two-component thermal+non-thermal model. The thermal component is described by a plane-parallel, non-equilibrium ionization plasma model with a temperature kT ranging from 1.3{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2} keV in the western side of the remnant to 2.3{sup +2.9}{sub -0.5} keV in the east, a column density increasing from 1.0{sup +0.1}{sub -0.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the west to 1.8{sup +0.2}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the east, and a low ionization timescale ranging from (5.7{sup +0.8}{sub -0.7}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} s in the SNR interior to (3.6{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} s in the western side-suggestive of expansion of a young remnant in a low-density medium. The spatial and spectral differences across the SNR are consistent with the presence of a dark cloud in the eastern part of the SNR, absorbing the soft X-ray emission, as also revealed by the optical image of that region. The spectra from some of the regions also show slightly enhanced metal abundances from Ne, Mg, and Si, hinting at the first evidence for ejecta heated by the reverse shock. Comparing our inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis models yields, we estimate a high progenitor mass of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} suggesting a Type Ib/c supernova. We confirm the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission from regions close to the pulsar, with the emission characterized by a power-law model with a hard photon index similar to that seen in the compact pulsar wind nebula. We estimate an SNR age range between 4.2 kyr (free expansion phase) and 7.1 kyr (Sedov phase) at an assumed distance of 8.4 kpc, a factor of a few higher than the measured pulsar's age upper limit of 1.9 kyr.

Kumar, Harsha S.; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gonzalez, Marjorie E., E-mail: harsha@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: gonzalez@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe K{alpha} fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe K{alpha} centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of {approx}100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Lamer, G. [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Corral, A., E-mail: mkrumpe@ucsd.ed [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20121 Milan (Italy)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

217

A Community Responds to Collective Trauma: An Ecological Analysis of the James Byrd Murder in Jasper, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

perspectives on disaster response. Journal of Personal anddoes traditional disaster response have on the creation orWhile most disaster response research examines the

Wicke, Thomas; Silver, Roxane Cohen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Newton, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

°, -85.6052133° °, -85.6052133° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.3351716,"lon":-85.6052133,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

219

Newton, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.3370413°, -71.2092214° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.3370413,"lon":-71.2092214,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

220

NEWTON: Bacteria Survival in the Stomach  

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Bacteria Survival in the Stomach Bacteria Survival in the Stomach Name: Lianne Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: Is H. Pylorii the only bacteria able to survive the acidic condition of the stomach, or are there others? Replies: Hi Lianne, Thanks for the question. Yes, other bacteria are able to survive the acidic conditions in the stomach. For instance, the bacteria that are present in acidopholus yougurt (and milk) are able to survive the stomach's acid and to repopulate the large intestine. These acidopholus bacteria are "good" bacteria and are useful in restoring bacterial colonies in the large intestine after a treatment of antibiotics. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff I don't know, but I would be very surprised given the number of bacterial species, that H. Pylori is uniquely adapted to low pH environments.

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221

NEWTON's Environmental and Earth Science References  

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Environmental and Earth Science References Environmental and Earth Science References Do you have a great reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: >NASA's Earth Science Division NASA's Earth Science Division Find the answers to the big questions of Earth Science such as "How is the World Changing?" The information and articles are provided by NASA's Earth Science Division Geology.com Resources Teaching Earth Science - Geology.com Geology.com provides news and information about Geology and Earth Science. It has a teacher resource section as well, which provides a collection of classroom activities and lesson plans, for earth science in the classroom. IRIS's Seismographs in Schools Program IRIS's Seismographs in Schools Program Discover tools to share seismic data in real-time, classroom activities, and technical support documents for seismic instruments.

222

NEWTON: Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer  

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Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Name: Robert Status: teacher Grade: 9-12 Location: AK Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: It would appear from a superficial reading that heat flows out of a greenhouse gas more slowly than heat flows into the same gas. This has to be an incorrect interpretation. It seems more likely that molecules with high heat capacities resist heat transfer-both into and out of such a molecular system. At a molecular level how does heat move out of a hot greenhouse gas? I have seen plots of Cv vs Tempt which indicates that heat moves from translational modes of motion-into rotational modes and finally into modes of vibration. The energy spacing of vibrations is generally grater that rotation which are greater than translation. Could it be that it is this quantization of the energy levels and the difference in energy between such quantum states that is the source of the resistance to heat flow or transfer?

223

NEWTON, TEACHERS, Classroom and Curriculum Development  

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http:www.pisymphony.comtoothpicktoothpick1.htm http:www.yale.eduynhticurriculumunits2001501.05.04.x.html http:www.garrettsbridges.com http:...

224

NEWTON, TEACHERS, Classroom and Curriculum Development  

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Argonne Science Fair Ideas The best ideas for science projects are learning about and investigating something in science that interests you. These Science Fair Help sites are...

225

NEWTON, TEACHERS, Classroom and Curriculum Development  

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and Functions Listing of parts Arm and Base Body Tube Stage Clips Iris and Light Condenser Coarse Adjustment Knob Fine Adjustment Knob Rotating Head Light Source Mechanical...

226

Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

QUASI-NEWTON METHODS ON GRASSMANNIANS AND ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

machine learning [44, 41], neuroscience [45], quantum chemistry [35], signal processing. [10, 13 .... geodesic curves and transport of vectors on Grassmannians.

228

Updated 5-13 Garry R. Newton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

specialized tools and procedures to assess weapons system effectiveness and efficiencies in both/military personnel located in headquarters, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft/Weapons Divisions, and Fleet Readiness,000 civilian and military personnel across 27 operational sites, with an annual budget of $5 billion. Mr

229

NEWTON's Environmental and Earth Science Archive  

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Dissolving Rocks Eye of Hurricane Time Limit on Earthquake Aftershocks Oxygen in Underwater Cave Limnic Eruptions Extraterrestrial Plate Tectonics Earth's Core Hottest Layer...

230

A quasi-Newton proximal splitting method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 20, 2012 ... common trend in modern science is the increase in size of datasets, which ..... complexity O(N log N) by simple sorting the absolute values.

231

Marshall Library of Economics Newton Library  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

holdings you want to search. 3. Basic Search 3.1 Basic Search Screen Insert search term(s) Select the type of search you want to use ­ in this example, a Boolean search has been selected and the search terms joined.g. by limiting your search to a specific library. #12;3.2 Types of basic search Do not enter words such as the

Talbot, James P.

232

Inexact Newton Methods, Newton-Krylov Methods, Extensions for Large-Scale Underdetermined Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(u) - F(u + s) pred F(u) - F(u) + F (u)s (actual reduction) ("predicted" reduction) Update a la Dennis on the first reduction, a cubic on subsequent reductions. IN/NK Methods & Extensions Oak Ridge National NOX nonlinear solver suite, with GMRES and domain-based (overlapping Schwarz) ILU preconditioners from

233

National Trail Biodiesel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Trail Biodiesel National Trail Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name National Trail Biodiesel Place Newton, Illinois Zip 62448 Product Owner of a planned 30m gallon per year biodiesel plant in Jasper County, Illinois. Coordinates 43.996685°, -87.803724° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.996685,"lon":-87.803724,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

234

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Return to Biplanes Return to Biplanes Name: Steven Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: United Kingdom Date: Fall 2011 Question: As planes have got so large, the wings have become huge. Why can they not go back to biplanes for the same surface area but only half as wide? Replies: Hi Steven, In the early days of aviation, biplanes were a very common design since they could be made very strong using the materials and methods of the time (wooden frames with fabric covering). The two wings would form a strong truss structure with diagonal strut wire or bar bracing. It was not as easy to create a strong wing if there was only one (a monoplane in other words), but even so there were early monoplanes as well. For example, there was the Bleriot XI which crossed the English Channel in 1909. It used quite a bit of wire bracing above and below the wing. While the all the struts and wires did strengthen early airplanes, the downside though was a lot of aerodynamic drag just due to the struts and wires alone.

235

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Eye of Hurricane Eye of Hurricane Name: Xinyi Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: IL Country: China Date: Spring 2011 Question: Why is the eye of a hurricane so calm? A lot of videos say that it' i because the rising air cools off and sinks down in the eye, but if it is true, I think the eye should have a high pressure, not the lowest pressure of a hurricane. Replies: Cold air is heavier than Hot air and will fall relative to the Hot Air. Hot air will rise relative to Cold air. The eye of a hurricane is calm because the storms rotate around it. The highest winds of the hurricane are in the wall of the eye which is very distinct. The hurricane derives its energy from the relatively hot surface temperature of the sea. The humidity in the hot rising air feeds the heavy rainstorms that form the hurricane. The rising hot, moist air of a hurricane is a counter clockwise rotating cyclone that creates a low pressure area in the eye. So the lowest air pressure point of a hurricane are in the eye

236

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Radio Reception Radio Reception Name: Mark Status: other Grade: other Location: AZ Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: When a cell phone receives radio waves from a cell tower, are the received photons creating an electric current within the metal components of the cell phone antenna? In other words, are the photons being converted into electrons? If so, how is this occurring? Replies: The electrons are already there in the antenna and circuitry. The radio and microwave photons simply push them into motion, which is the electric current. Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D., M.Ed. Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming Mark, The photons do not become electrons. The photons give energy to the electrons, forcing them to move through the antenna. The radio waves have a specific frequency. The electrons move back and forth through the antenna with that same frequency. This motion of the electrons is the oscillating current that your cell phone amplifies and then translates into the sounds you hear.

237

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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and Complete Metamorphosis and Complete Metamorphosis Name: Elissa Status: student Grade: 4-5 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I have read the question about the butterfly life cycle. It says the DNA of a butterfly and caterpillar are the same, well that's how I read it. I would like to know the exact cycle of a caterpillar to butterfly. I thought egg,caterpillar,chrysalis,red liquid (DNA soup!) body,out,dries wings strange liquid oozes out... As biology says it when ever you change your DNA will be the same...But as butterfly experts say they DNA from a caterpillar and the same butterfly is complete different. So next question is this true? Replies: My question to you is: if you want a recipe for chocolate chip cookies, do you need to read the whole cookbook? Or do you just go to the recipe for the cookies and ignore the rest? The caterpillar's cells and the butterfy's cells both contain the same instruction manual (DNA) but they read different parts of it at different stages of their life cycle.

238

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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"Apparent Melting" "Apparent Melting" Name: Bernard Status: educator Grade: 6-8 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: This is about melting. I know you already answered "Wood will not melt." And also, "sugar does not melt, it decomposes." Is there a different name for this, then? Somewhere I saw "apparent melting."? What if wood was heated up in an inert gas environment, and placed under pressure. Could liquid wood then be produced? If it is true sugar does not melt (i.e. a physical change), then what are it is products if it "decomposes" (which is a chemical change)? Replies: Bernard, The reason that some substances decompose rather then melt is because the energy required to break the chemical bonds within the molecule is less than the energy required to break the intermolecular forces holding the molecules in a solid state. Since the melting temperature can be a function of pressure (look at any phase diagrams), it is possible to increase or decrease the temperature of melting and as such it is possible to move the melting temperature above or below the decomposition temperature since decomposition temperature is not as strongly affected by pressure.

239

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Desert Hair Desert Hair Name: Zimin Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Singapore Date: Spring 2012 Question: If hair is used for insulation, why do desert animals like camels have hair? Replies: Keep in mind that "insulation" works both ways -- "insulating" body heat from escaping from a warm body to colder surroundings (hence the fur coat of a polar bear). Compare this with the function of hair on a camel. The hair (fur) limits the absorption of heat by the animal from its hot surroundings. Vince Calder Zimin Principally to protect them from the burning rays of the sun; and to help with water retention. Desert hair, when in sufficient quantities, can protect from biting insects although sometimes it provides refuge to insect vermin, provides coloration for various social purposes and provides warmth during cold desert nights.

240

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Each Substance Unique Density Each Substance Unique Density Name: Colin Status: educator Grade: 6-8 Location: CO Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Is it true that the density of each substance is unique? (That is my understanding.) So when my students ask, will a substance with a density of 1g/cc float or sink in water, I should tell them that this is a highly unlikely situation because pure, distilled water is the only known substance with that density? Replies: Hi Colin, No, the density of a substance is not a unique property of the substance. Density is not enough to uniquely identify a solid or liquid. It certainly is one of several physical properties that one likes to measure in order to be sure that a substance is what one supposes it to be. Consider carbon. In its graphitic form a sample of carbon will have a density of about 2.2. In the form of diamond, carbon's density is about 3.5. This simple example shows that the manner in which the element is formed results in a phase with a very different density. More generally, one can form various minerals with various densities and there is no guarantee that one of those will not have a density of 1. The same is true with liquids - thousands of new compounds are synthesized every year, and I am willing to bet any money that some of them have a density of 1 g/cc.

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241

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Computers Communicating Computers Communicating Name: Billy Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: How do computers talk to each other? Replies: Hi Billy, Great question! Much like how we talk to each other, computers have a common language. For most of us it's English. In addition, computers follow what is called protocol, much like how we follow rules and etiquette. The computer language is made up by an electrical signal and it is either 5 volts or 0 volts. This can be represented as a [1] or a [0]. This one or zero is what is called a bit in the binary language. Binary, meaning two bits of information. The language can be defined so that [1] means "yes" and [0] means " no". But computers can process multiple bits per given time. So adding more bits, gives us more words. Say two bits of information: [00], [01], [10], [11]. Each of these can mean "yes", "no", "maybe", "I do not know".

242

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Seed Numbers Seed Numbers Name: Dan Status: student Grade: n/a Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: Why do some seed plants produce numerous seeds, while others just one? Replies: Hi Dan, When a plant produces seed, the purpose is to carry on the species - to produce more plants. The strategy employed by the plant will vary depending on the environment in which the plant has developed, but in the main there are two main strategies which I categorize in my head as "Special Care" and "Safety in Numbers". "Safety In Numbers" is how the dandelion chooses to tackle the problem. It produces huge numbers of seeds, and does very little to help those seeds other than to make sure they get away from the parent plant (That's trhe job of the parachute) Other plants which use this strategy include most herbs such as mint, borage, dill where the seeds are very small, and are produced in huge numbers.

243

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Multi-universe Multi-universe Name: Matt Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MI Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Assuming that the Multi-universe theory is correct, and there are an infinite amount of universes for an infinite amount of possibilities , could there be a possibility to where in another universe (or say even our universe) there are no multi-universes? Would this trump that very idea? Replies: One could conceive of a universe which had no connections to any other universe except through its creation. Be a pretty boring place, I would think. But it would get around the problem you posed. R. W. "Mr. A." Avakian Matt, In the multi-verse theory, a universe does not contain everything. A universe contains space and time. Space and time do not contain the universe. It is possible that each universe contains its own space and time. These do not have to work the same way as our space and time. Maybe there is something beyond space and time, beyond space and time. Maybe there is not. If there is, then it does not have to resemble space and time in any way.

244

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Melting Salt Versus Dissolving Salt Melting Salt Versus Dissolving Salt Name: Mark Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: When we try to melt a certain amount of table salt, we have to raise the temperature significantly, but when we drop it into the water, its atoms are easily separated. Where does this energy comes from? Replies: You could consider it a chemical reaction (though easily reversible) between water and salt. When: the component ions of the salt are dispersed in the water and individually hydrated, the overall energy state is lower than when: the ions combine into a salt crystal and the water is someplace separate from it; so the reaction goes forward. You could think of it as potential energy, some energy that has long been stored up, just waiting to be given the kinetic occasion to act (by putting the salt crystal in contact with the water). The world is full of potential energies like that, and industrial civilization lives by finding and activating them.

245

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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No Flow in Liquid Container Despite Pressure Difference No Flow in Liquid Container Despite Pressure Difference Name: Chantaiah Status: student Grade: 12 Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why is it that a liquid in a container cannot flow from bottom to top even though there is a pressure difference? Replies: Chantaiah, The pressure difference for a liquid in a container is due to gravity. The pressure supports the weight of the liquid above it. The pressure at the top supports the atmosphere, countering the atmospheric pressure. The pressure at the bottom of the container supports the atmosphere plus the weight of the liquid within the container. The pressure difference pushes up, but gravity pulls down. The two effects cancel each other, so the liquid just sits still in the container. Dr. Ken Mellendorf Physics Instructor Illinois Central College

246

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Abscisic Acid and Germination Abscisic Acid and Germination Name: Gabrielle Status: other Grade: other Location: FL Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why would abscisic acid found in tomato inhitbit seed germination of a mustard seed, bean seed and corn seed? Replies: Many plants naturally have abscisic acid within the seeds to prevent sprouting until the spring. http://plantphys.info/seedg/seed.html "Inhibitors Present: Many plant species invest chemicals in the developing seeds, and these chemicals inhibit the development of the embryos. They keep the embryos dormant. Obviously the seed must have some way to eliminate these chemicals before they can sprout." "Abscisic Acid: Many temperate zone species that use inhibitors use abscisic acid. This chemical induces dormancy in the embryo. The chemical is produced in abundance in the late summer and early fall. The seeds in the fruits become dormant so, even if they are dispersed in autumn, they cannot sprout. During the winter enzymes in the seeds degrade the abscisic acid. By spring the abscisic acid is gone and the seed can sprout."

247

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Mica, Gypsum, and Hardness Mica, Gypsum, and Hardness Name: Melissa Status: educator Grade: 4 Location: NC Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I have a question regarding the hardness of mica and gypsum. Gypsum is a 2 on Moh's hardness scale and mica is somewhere between a 2 and 3. However, mica breaks and scratches very easily by a penny, paper clip, and fingernail and gypsum does not. What is a good way to explain to my students how gypsum is still "softer" on the scale? Obviously, mica breaks apart very easily. Replies: Melissa, Mineral hardness and mineral cleavage are separate issues. Mineral hardness is a measure of a mineral's ability to resist being scratched. Mineral cleavage is the ability for a mineral to split along weakly-bonded atomic planes. The micas have one good mineral cleavage. That is, mica splits nicely in along one plane. Halite (table salt), on the other hand, splits equally well in three orthogonal directions (that is, along three planes, each of which is at 90 degrees to the others). Shake out some table salt on an overhead projector and have the students walk up to the screen. They will see that all salt has cubic mineral cleavage. I don't know how much snow you get in North Carolina, but if you get some salt that is used to melt ice you will note that it too has cubic cleavage. When you break up the large salt crystals you will observe that they break into smaller cubes. When you break the mica, it will break into smaller sheets.

248

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Silica Gel Silica Gel Name: Lisa Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: Can you tell me how silica gel is correctly categorized (I see it called narrow or large pore as well as Type A, B and C)? What is the difference? Are they all used the same way, as a desiccant? Replies: Hi Lisa, The "A", "B" and "C" designations of silica gel refer to the pore size. The "A" type has large numbers of very small pores, and is generally used as a desiccant. Water vapor is adsorbed into these pores, or water vapor already adsorbed, is released upon heating. This is the type normally found in small bags packed in electronic and optical products. The "C" type has somewhat fewer (but still very large numbers) large pores. This type is used for large volumes of liquid water absorption, commonly as cat litter.

249

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Lunar Bisector and Direction of Sun Lunar Bisector and Direction of Sun Name: Naomi Status: student Grade: other Country: United Kingdom Date: Spring 2012 Question: Positions of Sun and Moon. I often walk in the early morning, and on a clear day sometimes both the sun and moon are clearly visible. On the days when the moon is at half phase, effectively a semi circle , the visible lit side is illuminated by the rising sun. So, using a set square aligned along the moon's visible diameter, and a ruler at right angles, in contact with the square, I expected that the ruler would point directly at the sun. On the days I have tried this the sun always seem to be lower down in the sky than the ruler suggests it should be. Maybe, I guess, as much as 20 degrees off target. Why does the lit half of the moon not seem to always point straight at the sun?

250

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Computer Science Archives Computer Science Archives Computer Science Archives, Since November 1991 Table of Contents: PC Questions. PC, EISA, LOCAL BUS, QIC-80 The 686 problem. Microprocessor CPU BUS, BIOS, and Light-based computers What is the difference between DX vs DLC? SLC? DLC? Why not 80586 and instead Pentium? Floating Point Accuracy Looking In On Windows and Windows NT Do I need more memory or speed? UNIX library UNIX-V Modem problem Brain Storage? Megabytes Gigabytes Brain Speed? Virtual Reality, SimCity AI software for classroom, SimCity Network, file server, and modem? Fiber optic network, Ethernet, Appletalk Cobol, Programming C Help with the history of C language. BCPL What is a good compiler for learning C? Can you advise a high school Pascal teacher? Sierpinski's Sieve Neural Net book recommendation needed

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Flightless Birds Flightless Birds Name: Nick Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Canada Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Since the bird Emu is flightless, do their wings server another purpose? Also have they always been flightless? Replies: Nick: Emu wings are vestigial, meaning they probably serve no purpose now. The emu as a species is flightless, but most likely evolved from ancestors that had wings. This from http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4729 may help. "The Emu has lost almost all need for the function of its wings. Through evolutionary time, their wing skeleton has degraded to only a single functional digit. In accordance with a reduced skeleton, there have been significant reductions in the muscles of the wing, even when comparing the Emu to other non-flying birds. Still, many muscles show diversity in their shape, where they are attached to the bone ,and whether they are even present or not. Evolutionary theory predicts that relaxed selection on vestigial organs should allow more variation to persist in the population, and this corresponds to what is observed in Emu populations."

252

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Shoes and Energy Shoes and Energy Name: Steven Status: other Grade: other Location: CT Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: A company named Athletic Propulsion Labs designed a basketball shoe that they claim makes a player jump higher. The shoe has "Load and Launch" technology built into the front sole of the shoe that is some sort of spring mechanism. The way I see it, this mechanism cannot allow a player to jump higher because only an external force can produce motion. The spring mechanism is internal to the body (including the player, shoes, socks uniform) that is launched into the air and an internal force cannot produce motion. Despite this, the shoe has been tested and found to provide additional lift. The shoe has actually been banned by the NBA because it provides an unfair advantage to players who wear them. How could this shoe possibly work?

253

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Nitrogen Free Soil Nitrogen Free Soil Name: Sam Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: WY Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I'm curious about nitrogen-fixating plants that convert nitrogen to nitrates and nitrites and wondered if there is such a thing as nitrogen-free soil for me to experiment with in my family's greenhouse? Replies: Hi Sam, A fine sand, washed in distilled water, would be the nearest to a nitrogen-free soil you could easily get. Any soil with organic material/humus would likely have some forms of organic and inorganic nitrogen. Sand would also be deficient in nearly all other nutrients, but overall it would allow you to control all nutrients independently. Don You can use the silica (quartz) sand used in fish tanks. That medium will be nitrogen-free, or very close to nitrogen-free.

254

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Insolation as Percent of Total Solar Output Insolation as Percent of Total Solar Output Name: Terry Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: What percentage of the sun's total output do we actually receive on Earth? Replies: Terry, First, imagine a sphere around the Sun with a radius equal to the distance of the Sun to the Earth. Using geometry, calculate the total surface area of this sphere (AS = 4 pr r[of our imagined sphere]^2). The portion of this area that the Earth takes up is the area of the cross-section of the Earth (AE = pi r[of Earth]^2). Dividing AE by AS tells us what fraction of the Sun's output (assuming it is equally dispersed to the surface of our hypothetical sphere) reaches the Earth. Multiplying this by 100 gives percent. Greg (Roberto Gregorius) Canisius College

255

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Varying Size of Full Moon Varying Size of Full Moon Name: Marian Status: student Grade: other Country: Australia Date: Spring 2012 Question: Someone said that our full moon on 7/4/12 was the biggest moon for the year, if this is so, why? How is it that the apparent size of the moon changes? Replies: I am not certain about exact dates. It is true, however, that the Moon's orbit about the Earth is not a perfect circle, but an ellipse. The Moon is closer to the Earth at some points in its orbit than at others. If it is full when it is close, it appears bigger in the sky. Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D., M.Ed. Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming Marian, I do not know about 7/4/12 but I have seen reports that the full moon last 3/18 - 19/12 was the largest observed in 20 years (sorry, I did not actually observe this myself). This was because the moon was in perigee - a point in the moon's orbit that takes it closest to the Earth, and this coincided with a full moon. The moon's orbit around the Earth is not circular, it is elliptical. This means that there will be times that it will be a little bit farther or closer depending on the coincidence of the Earth and Moon orbits as well as the occurrence of the full moon. The moon can appear as much as 14% larger during perigee.

256

Newton Falls, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8839°, -80.9781468° 8839°, -80.9781468° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.18839,"lon":-80.9781468,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Changing during a Lifetime Changing during a Lifetime Name: Chatta Status: student Grade: 12+ Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Does DNA change with growth or does it stay exactly the same throughout our life time? Replies: DNA generally does not change drastically over a lifetime. However, DNA expression can change over time based on developmental and/or environmental cues (even though the underlying sequences stay the same). However, during cell division, minor mutations can always crop up. Some are silent while others are disastrous (i.e. cancer). To prevent the likelihood of such genomic disaster, cells are pre-programmed to senesce after a certain number of divisions. This is governed by the Hayflick Limit. This is an extreme case, but there have been documented cases of viruses invading human cells and "exporting" some of their DNA through horizontal gene transfer. The HeLa cell line is one example of a chimeric "hybrid". These cells are cancerous, but highly useful for research because the Hayflick Limit does not apply. They are functionally immortal. br>

258

City of Newton, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Texas Texas Utility Id 13603 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Lighting Service Commercial Large Light And Power Commercial Municipal Street Lighting - 175 Watt MV Lighting Municipal Street Lighting - 400 Watt MV Lighting Residental Service Commercial Security Lights 175W Lighting Security Lights 400W HPS Lighting Security Lights 400W MH Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.0993/kWh Commercial: $0.0874/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

259

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Fruit Battery and Current Fruit Battery and Current Name: Rahil Status: student Grade: 4-5 Location: MN Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Hello, I am a 5th grade student and doing "Fruit Battery" experiment for my science fair. My question is "What produce requires the least amount (in mass) to make a battery that lasts the longest?" I set up trials using potato, apple, orange and lemon. For all these produces when I created the first voltaic cell and measured the open and closed circuit voltages using multimeter, they were same, I am using 2.6V LED to light up which has no resistance. I also did not use any other external resistor. After adding 2nd voltaic cell to the circuit in series, the open and closed voltages differ by some amount. I want to know the reason behind the difference in the open and closed circuit voltages when there is more than one voltaic cell.. Also I tried to measure the current but it always started with one value and kept going down and never got stabilized at one value. May I know the reason for this as well?

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Tommy C. Douglas Ph. D. Tommy C. Douglas Ph. D. Tommy C. Douglas Human Genetics Center Univ. of Texas School of Public Health P.O. Box 20334 Houston, TX 77225 1946 Born in Durant, OK Parents: Harry G. Douglas and Florence Teague Douglas 1965 Graduated from Midland High School, Midland, TX 1969 A.B. Degree (chemistry), with honors, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 1969 Sigma Xi recognition for outstanding undergraduate research 1970 M.S. Degree (biology), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 1974 Ph.D. Degree (biology), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA Dissertation Title: "The Theta Antigen of Mice and Its Analog in Rats" 1974-76 Member, Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland 1976-82 Asst. Professor, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX

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261

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Capacitor and Current Capacitor and Current Name: Hadia Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Pakistan Date: Spring 2012 Question: How exactly can current pass through a capacitor? Be it A.C or D.C. Even if we consider the general logic that current 'flows through' a capacitor as it charges and discharges via A.C, then in what does the discharged current flow. If it flows through, shouldn't power be dissipated. And if it flows back and what is the use of a capacitor? Even if you say, it flows through, how would you explain it in terms of individual charges? Replies: Hadia, Your question is a natural one because it appears that current flows "through" a capacitor. Indeed, we treat capacitors as though they are resistors in which individual electrons enter on one terminal and exit through the other. A capacitor operates differently. The word "capacitor" implies a device that has "capacity," or a device that has the capability to store a certain amount of charge, somewhat like a "charge bucket." In fact, the formula for capacitance, Q=CV, implies just this storage: The charge stored by a capacitor (Q measured in Coulombs) is given by its capacitance (C measured in Farads) multiplied by the voltage applied to the capacitor (V measured in Volts). Current does not flow through the capacitor as much as into the plates of the capacitor, i.e., into its "charge bucket."

262

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Cosmic Ray Flux and Solar Storm Cosmic Ray Flux and Solar Storm Name: Justin Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: IL Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I have taken much interest in the solar storm, this past week (6.March.2012). One report said that cosmic ray flux decreased as the mass passed Earth late on Tuesday and Wednesday. Why? I thought it would increase due to all of the energetic particles. Perhaps the sun is NOT part of the source of cosmic rays? Please help me understand this non-intuitive event. Replies: Justin English is a difficult language and sometimes the reading of words do not result in the meaning the author intended. I think the author meant to say that as the solar storm passed by the Earth, the Cosmic Ray Flux decreased. Both of your assumptions are correct. The Cosmic Ray Flux would increase as the storm approached the Earth and peaked and the Sun is not the only source of Cosmic Ray Flux.

263

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Earth Shadow Direction on Lunar Eclipse Earth Shadow Direction on Lunar Eclipse Name: David Status: other Grade: other Location: UT Date: Winter 2011-2912 Question: Watching the lunar eclipse yesterday morning near Salt Lake City, Utah, I was surprised to see the darkness proceed from the top of the moon down to its "south" pole. Since the moon is travelling in orbit more or less horizontal to the earth's equator I would have expected the darkness to start on one side of the moon and proceed to the other--from the moon's "east" side to its "west" side as it entered Earth's shadow. Why did the shadow go from north to south? Replies: Dear David, The Moon really slid into Earth's shadow from northwest to southeast. The Moon's orbit makes it shift a bit in declination. I am glad you saw this eclipse; hope you enjoyed it! It was my 80th eclipse.

264

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Albino Gene Loci Albino Gene Loci Name: Gabreal Status: other Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: What chromosome is albinism located on? Replies: There are actually many different kinds of albinism which occur due to mutations in different genes. In principle, all forms of albinism share a common trait, namely that affected individuals do not produce melanin, the major pigment protein in our skin. However, there are a wide variety of potential mutations that can lead to this result, and they are located on several different chromosomes. One notable case is of ocular albinisms, which only affect the eyes (and not the skin). These mutations have been shown to be present almost exclusively on the X chromosome. As a result, most individuals affected with X-linked ocular albinism will be male, similar to the genetics of X-linked color blindness.

265

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Random Number Generators Random Number Generators Name: Simon Status: student Grade: n/a Country: Sweden Date: May 2, 2011 Question: If you have ever been playing Minecraft 1.5_01, you know about "seeds" or numbers for the world generation algorithm. What I want to know is how it works and/or how many worlds that it can create. Replies: I do not know about the game. But here is the "problem". To generate a "random" number, one starts with a "seed" number of arbitrary length. Then that is then fed into a complex series of computations. A different "seed" gives a completely different result of the different series of computations. The different "seed" and a different algorithm (which may change from one cycle to the next) gives a certain result, which may again be re-cycled into another algorithm. To a given degree of "accuracy" the final result may be "random". "Randomness" depends upon the choice of "seed", the algorithm, and the number of cycles. I don't know that it has been proven mathematically that a certain procedure the guarantees a "random" number (that is a totally different mathematical problem). That, at the present of the mathematical "art" has not been proven, but that is not my area of expertise.

266

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Acid, Gasses and Enzymes Acid, Gasses and Enzymes Name: Anirudh Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: NY Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: We were synthesizing Ammonia gas using HCl acid, as a part of the class experiment, for studying its chemical properties and that's when it hit me! Our body produces gases and acids like these (eg: Urea) during various metabolic process, which seems impossible because these gases & acids require very high temperatures (~200'C) for their synthesis and the maximum our body can do is 37'C. So how a human body is able to produce gasses and acids like Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, HCl and others at body temperature? Replies: It would help to know the reaction you are using to synthesize ammonia gas (NH3), a base, using HCl, an acid. But putting that aside, realize that there are many reactions that have ammonia as a product. Some of these reactions require high temperature, but many other reactions do not require elevated temperature. What I believe you are thinking about is the reaction of formation of a compound, that is, the formation of a compound, in this case NH3, from its constituent elements -- N2 and H2 -- 1/2 N2 + 3/2 H2 = NH3.

267

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Knowing When Material is Melted Knowing When Material is Melted Name: Annaliese Status: student Grade: 6-8 Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Hi, for my science fair project I am asking: does the fat content in ice cream change the melting speed? I am not sure how you would test if the ice cream was melted Replies: Annaliese I would suggest laying the lump of ice cream on a flat surface and measuring the time it takes for all of the lumps to melt. Be sure that the temperature of the flat surface (and the ambient air?) is the same for all measurements. Sincere regards, Mike Stewart br> Annaliese, As you have already figured out, it is unreliable to use some sort of visual inspection for the melting of ice cream, or, for that matter, any real world substance. The problem is that during melting, there is an equilibrium between the solid and the liquid, that is, the solid is becoming liquid, while the liquid is becoming solid, in different parts of the mixture.

268

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Separating Polypropylene, Polyester, and Nylon Separating Polypropylene, Polyester, and Nylon Name: Arye Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: IL Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: Polypropylene, polyester, or Nylon webbing. How can one tell the difference between them when no label is supplied. Are there solvents one can use to separate one from another in the group? I understand there differences in the stretch rate Polypropylene, polyester, stretch less than Nylon, Nylon stretching the most. Polyester is the most UV resistant. All are hydrophobic to various degrees polypropylene, polyester than nylon being the least. Polypropylene, polyester, or Nylon webbing. How can one tell the difference between them when no label is supplied. Replies: Hi Arye, The short answer to your question on how to tell these polymers from each other is "with considerable difficulty"! None of the three polymers you mention (polypropylene, nylon, and polyester) are soluble in any solvents, so detection by solvency is not possible. None of the rest of the properties you mention (stretch rate and hydrophobic properties) produce sufficiently clear cut results to be useful. One semi-reliable way to tell them apart is by the smell that results from heating a small sample. Polyolefins such as polypropylene (and polyethylene) smell like heated wax (since these polymers are in essence simply long chain waxes). Nylons also tend to have their own distinctive odor when heated.

269

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Crystalline Solids and Lowest Energy Crystalline Solids and Lowest Energy Name: Maggie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Malaysia Date: Fall 2011 Question: Why does crystalline solid has to be in the lowest energy state? Replies: Maggie, My first thought upon reading your question was: "... lowest energy state - relative to what?" The problem is that yes, crystalline solids have lower energy states compared to the same substance at higher temperatures and different states, but it may also be of a higher energy state relative to other substances at the same temperature. So, maybe let us look at what "crystalline solid" means - and then you can answer the question based on whatever parameters you want to apply. By "solid" we mean that the atoms that make up the substance do not have translational motion. Meaning to say, they may vibrate in place, but on average stay in the same location. This means that there is a higher level of order (lower level of entropy) in solids compared to other phases (liquids and gases) that do have translational mobility. For this reason, when compared to other states, we say solids - everything else being equal - have a lower energy state.

270

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Land Water; Heating and Cooling Experiment Name: Laura Status: educator Grade: 4-5 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: We did an experiment with our classes. We had...

271

The divergence of the BFGS and Gauss Newton Methods  

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Sep 30, 2013 ... combination of these hypothesis to prove the convergence of the methods they ... of a version of the conjugate gradient method to a limit cycle.

272

Optimization Online - Newton Algorithms for Large-Scale Strictly ...  

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Aleksandar Donev (donev ***at*** pa.msu.edu) Phillip Duxbury (duxbury ***at*** pa.msu.edu). Abstract: In this work we summarize the basic elements of primal...

273

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Current Oil Formation Current Oil Formation Name: Jerry Status: n/a Grade: other Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Is oil still being formed in an ongoing fashion by geologic and physical processes just as it was millions of years ago? Replies: Jerry, The process of converting organic detritus into oil only requires that the organic material (dead plants, animals, etc) undergo decomposition in an oxygen poor environment. Long chain hydrocarbons are formed in this way. So in places where there is a lot of organic material buried under rock or below the pinocline of some body of water (a depth and temperature of water where little roiling happens and hence oxygen does not appreciably mix in), then the conversion of organic material into oil should be happening. This might lead you to wonder why are we concerned that fossil fuel is being depleted - and this goes to how much oil is being extracted and used, versus how much oil is being produced by the natural process.

274

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Radioactive Decay Products Radioactive Decay Products Name: Mary Status: educator Location: IL Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: What happens to a radioactive isotope when it decays? Does the radioactive material disappear? How or why? Replies: Mary http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotope "Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons." So if an isotope decays it simply becomes a different chemical element or the same element of a different atomic weight. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_decay Per the above Wikipedia article Uranium Atomic Wt: 238 loses an alpha particle to become Thorium 234 Thorium 234 loses a beta particle to become Protactinium 234 which loses another beta particle to become Uranium 234....and on and on and on.

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Aquatic Plans vs Land Plants and Nutrients Aquatic Plans vs Land Plants and Nutrients Name: Maaz Status: educator Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Summer 2011 Question: My students have many question about plants growth. Many plant need soil to grow and make food. What kind of soil need in aquatic plants to grow or this normal soil is used for the aquatic plant? Replies: Dear Maaz, You may recall the famous experiment by Jan Baptist van Helmont where he grew a tree in a large pot with a weighed amount of soil for five years and determined that the bulk dry weight of the tree did not come from the soil but rather from the carbon dioxide drawn from the air (with water contributing to the fresh weight). The experiment demonstrates that the soil is most critical for supplying physical support and trace minerals. In an aquatic environment, the trace minerals are found primarily in the water so the soil largely serves as a means to anchor the aquatic plant and keep it from drifting.

276

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Asteroids, Charge, and Magnetic Fields Asteroids, Charge, and Magnetic Fields Name: Daniel Status: student Grade: 12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: If a fragment from an asteroid falls to Earth and a static electric charge is built up in the fragment as it falls, does it generate a magnetic field? If so, why? Replies: Yes, it would. A moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. The "why" basically comes from relativity. When the charge moves, its electrical interaction with other charged objects changes because of the way spacetime distorts. That change manifests as a magnetic field. Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D., M.Ed. Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming Daniel, Current is the motion of electric charge from one location to another. Current, as we usually think of it, is the movement of electrons within a wire, and this current will create a magnetic field surrounding the wire. Maxwell's equations define the strength of this field based on the value of this current (amount of charge flowing through the wire each second). Current is not confined to wires, however; electrons flowing in space will define a current (and associated magnetic field) as well. For a charged asteroid, you can define current associated with its charge moving through space and an associated magnetic field.

277

Newton County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

°, -93.1779659° °, -93.1779659° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.9603994,"lon":-93.1779659,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Convection Currents in Mantle Convection Currents in Mantle Name: Rasy Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: What causes convection currents in Earth's mantle? Replies: There are two sources of heat we usually think about. First of all, there are radioactive atoms in the deep earth and as they decay, they give off heat (just like a nuclear reactor). The second source is a bit more difficult to understand. The earth formed by a whole pile of particles, dust and what we might call meteorites, collecting together due to gravity. This is called accretion. Every time a new piece of matter hit the new earth it caused heat. Not all the heat escaped because there were too many collisions over too short a time). Now some of that heat is trapped deep underground and fuels the cells.

279

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Number of Galaxies and Expansion Number of Galaxies and Expansion Name: Kurt Status: other Grade: other Location: CA Country: Austria Date: Fall 2011 Question: Our telescopes show us that in the far reaches of space seem to be more galaxies and they are moving away from each other with ever increasing speed. scientists say that the moving away from each other is actually "stretching of space," should we not see fewer galaxies for that reason? Replies: Dear Kurt, I think that Hubble's idea of the expanding Universe means that the superclusters of galaxies -- not the galaxies or clusters,. but the clusters of clusters, are actually moving apart from each other. They have been doing this since the Big Bang. We do not see the farthest galaxies because their light has not reached us yet,

280

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ATP Usage in Mitosis Molecular ATP Usage in Mitosis Molecular Name: Frankie Status: educator Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Australia Date: Fall 2011 Question: Biology textbooks go into detail explaining ATP productio during cellular respiration, giving us the number of ATP molecules produced for one molecule of glucose. Do we know the same information for how much ATP is used in essential cellular processes? I assume ATP is required when cells undergo cell division. Do we know how much ATP a particular cell uses in mitosis? Replies: Dear Frankie, Here is an example of a metabolic cost analysis of terpene biosynthesis in plants. Terpenes are plant natural products that contribute to plant fitness but are not absolutely required for survival. As such, one can consider the plant suppressing their production under conditions of limited energy.

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281

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RNA as a Catalyst RNA as a Catalyst Name: Neeraja Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why is RNA a better catalyst than DNA? Specifically what features of its structure make it better and why? Replies: Neeraja, It's a good question, and my short answer is that it's because nucleic acid enzymes must be single-stranded (ss), and there's a lot more ss-RNA around than ss-DNA. Also, ss-RNA is more flexible than ss-DNA. Adding the two together, you get two strong reasons why RNA is a better chemical for this purpose than DNA. For a little more detail, keep reading: First, let me start with a basic explanation of how catalysis works: A biological catalyst, whether protein or nucleic acid, is a three-dimensional molecule with a specific 3D shape and chemical surface properties. The way biological catalysts work is by having one or more areas on their surface where target molecule(s) can attach. The molecules attach because the catalyst surface has the right kind of chemistry and shape for them to "fit" (by "fit", I mean the system has lower energy when together than when separate). Then, while bound to the catalyst, multiple things can happen to cause a chemical reaction -- such as other molecules attaching, or the catalyst acting on the target molecule, etc.

282

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Heat Gain by Solar Radiation Versus Loss by Evaporation in Pool Heat Gain by Solar Radiation Versus Loss by Evaporation in Pool Name: Chris Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Spain Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: We cover our pool with black EPE sheets of 20mm thickness to prevent heat loss and save energy. During the day, is it better to leave the pool covered during the day (preventing heat loss by evaporation) or to uncover the pool to allow max passive heating by solar radiation? In other words, is the heat gain by passive solar radiation on a sunny day enough to compensate for the heat loss by evaporation? Replies: Chris That sounds like an interesting experiment. And all you would need would be a thermometer. If your pool cover is black, my guess is that it would be best to keep the pool covered because the black cover will absorb all of the light energy that falls on it. However, there are so many variables in the experiment, like color of the cover, size of the pool, air temperature, etc. that it would probably be best if you run the little experiment yourself.

283

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Ice Advantages Ice Advantages Name: Gloria Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: N/A Question: What are some biological advantages of ice in reference to a lake, pond, or stream? Replies: Gloria One of the things I can think of is that some eggs and plant seeds need to experience a freeze before they will hatch or germinate. That is a genetic characteristic of their life-cycle. Some eggs or seeds may require a couple of freeze cycles before they hatch or germinate. The advantage to this is that it prevents pre-mature hatch/germination. For example, if we have an unusually warm day in January, the eggs or seeds won't hatch or germinate and then die in the middle of winter. We have all seen daffodil flowers rise early because of unusually warm January/February weather only to be frozen by a March cold spell.

284

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Bovine Vision Bovine Vision Name: Peggy Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Spring 2010 Question: How is a cows vision, I mean do they see in black and white or color? Replies: Peggy A common misconception about cattle (particularly bulls) is that they are enraged by the color red (something provocative is often said to be "like a red flag to a bull"). This is incorrect, as cattle are red-green color-blind.[31][32] The myth arose from the use of red capes in the sport of bullfighting; in fact, two different capes are used. Please refer to the following URL for the rest of the story. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattle It is not the color of the cape that angers the bull, but rather the movement of the fabric that irritates the bull and incites it to charge.

285

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Magnesium, Vinegar, and Pen Magnesium, Vinegar, and Pen Name: Andrew Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: DE Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Recently I did an experiment just to try it out. I mixed a ribbon of magnesium with white distilled vinegar and it turned a deep crimson after a few weeks. I never knew that it would do this, but I tried to add onto this by seeing if calcium carbonate (drawing chalk?) would affect the acidity or cause a reaction. I used a pen to stir it because it was the only thing I had to use, but I have noticed now after about two days, the pen is releasing a green cloud whenever I open it. The pen is a Zebra click pen and whenever I click it, a cloud of green dust or substance comes out. What is it? Why is the pen doing this? Was it caused by using it to mix the items in my experiment?

286

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Plant Remedies and Snake Bites Plant Remedies and Snake Bites Name: Preeda Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: PA Country: Thailand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Is there a leaf or plant that contains a natural medicine or antidote for snake bites? OR one that heals bit marks as well? Replies: Insect Bites, Dog Bites, Bee Stings, Snake Bites, Marine Animal Envenomations For more uses of plants for first-aid, bites, stings, repellants and natural health, see Jim Meuninck's video: LITTLE MEDICINE, The Wisdom to Avoid Big Medicine (60 minutes full motion, color). Broadcast quality DVD. Call 800 487-0522. Copyright Jim Meuninck 2002. All Rights Reserved INDEX: Bites & Stings Bee Stings Dog Bites Repellents Snake bites Marine Animals Feral dog and wolf bites can prove fatal. Discover how Native Americans treated these wilderness injuries.

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Measuring Soot from Candle Measuring Soot from Candle Name: Cathy Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: How can you measure the amount of soot coming from a candle? Is there some kind of mathematical equation that can be used to determine this? Replies: Cathy, I am not aware of any mathematical equation that can predict the amount of soot formed. The problem is that soot is the result of an incomplete combustion of the candle. A complete combustion would produce CO2, H2O (and maybe a few other types of gases) and so there would not be any soot. Soot is mostly solid carbon (with a few other types of atoms mixed in) produced when these carbon do not react with the oxygen present. This means that the amount of soot would be dynamically controlled by the burning temperature, the amount of oxygen available at the reaction sites, the amount of heat being produced, etc. etc. ... very complex. It might be better simply to try to correlate the amount of soot (collected by scraping and weighing) to whatever variable you are interested in while trying to hold all other variables constant.

288

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Stellar Motion Reference Point Stellar Motion Reference Point Name: Dylan Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: How can scientists conclude that the Sun and other Stars move? I know it seems pretty simple, but what would they use as a reference point? Replies: There are sophisticated methods but a simple one that works for the Sun, Moon and Planets is to observe their motion against the background of stars that do not appear to move at all. High resolution observation of the reference background of stars show that they too move with respect to other stars, but that is a much smaller motion. Vince Calder Dylan, You are right in thinking that this is not as straight-forward as it sounds. If you are in a car traveling at 55 miles per hour and alongside you is another car traveling at 55 - it would appear that both of you are not moving - unless you can reference the sidewalk or electrical poles by the side of the road. ... and that is the key here, if you compare an object to yourself - say you and a friend are both on skateboards - and you observe your friend as moving, you can only say that your friend is moving relative to your position. In reality, you could be moving and your friend is not, you are stationary and your friend is moving, or both of you are moving at different speeds. What Einstein said about this is that it does not matter which of these conditions you accept, the math and the conclusions about motions and positions will still come out the same. So one way to answer your question is to say, we can just use Earth as the reference point (say that it is not moving) and any observed motion of other objects are a function of their motion relative to Earth - whatever conclusions we derive would still be the same as if the other objects were not moving and only Earth was moving.

289

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Carbon Dioxide Amounts and Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide Amounts and Photosynthesis Name: Alex Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Tanzania Date: Spring 2012 Question: Do plants produce more oxygen when they take in more carbon dioxide? Replies: Alex Yes, plants produce more oxygen when they take in more carbon dioxide Because that indicates a greater rate of photosynthesis is occurring. Here are some online articles that might help you understand more about photosynthesis. http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_photosynthesis.html http://www.google.com/search?q=photosynthesis+for+kids&hl=en&prmd =imvns&tbm=isch&tbo= u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=yD JvT5vANKTw0gHTq5n4Bg&ved=0CDsQsAQ&biw=1024&bih=653 Sincere regards, Mike Stewart Remember that in photosynthesis, the source of O2 is H2O. The following should be helpful to you:

290

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Light and Exothermic Reactions Light and Exothermic Reactions Name: Nancy Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: NJ Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: My students are working on a demonstration that illustrates either an endothermic or exothermic process. They've decided on the Luminol reaction with 3% hydrogen peroxide. I have always thought (perhaps incorrectly) that "thermic" is used when discussing heat energy - and there is very little heat change in this reaction. In the practice demo that the students did, the temperature dropped only about a degree C. However, there was a significant amount of light energy given off. When light energy is released, is that also considered exothermic? Or would it be more correct to call it an endothermic reaction (because the temp dropped), but also an exergonic reaction (because light was released)?

291

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Communication Communication Name: Giovanni Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Italy Date: Summer 2011 Question: I have read that cats tend do communicate to each other more with body language (and other sounds: hissing, growling etc) rather than meowing. Again the two exceptions seem to be mother with kittens, and intact males at the intial phases of dominance "discussion". Now, I recently two neutered females (mother 2Y (M) and daughter (D) 10 months). A (very likely male & neutered)cat (X) has been visiting our garden; typically when he arrives and our cats are not out starts meowing (does not sound aggressive, nor his body language does); there have been a couple of initial apparently friendly (nose to nose) allbeit very prident contacts between M and X, but at the end f the sedon one M started growling and I and Dwent got closer and X run off. Since then though X has been coming back evry night and morning, again meowing (again does nt sound aggressive) but now M refuses to go out or stays very well clear of X when he arrived. D in all that is quite prudent but less concerned and X does not seem to have a problem with it at all, and they both roam the garden at the same time with no particular intereaction. Furhter info: M is a fairly big female Norwegian Forest cat (5.5kg), X ia a properly big (non descript)cat (must be 6.5+ kg...so unlikely to be a female), D is still quite small (for a NFC) at about 4kg) WOudl you have any idea for my description on what is going on, and how shoud I interpreter the meowing etc?

292

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Evaporation Experiment Gain? Evaporation Experiment Gain? Name: Xandria Status: student Grade: K-3 Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I am asking on behalf of my 2nd grader. She is doing a Science Experiment on the rate of evaporation of different liquids (water, salt water, alcohol, vinegar, and bleach). Can you have more liquid than what you originally started with? She discovered that droplets of liquid were "stuck" on the side of the flasks and when she measured the liquid, they were more than 50 ml. Process: She put 50 ml of liquid into flasks. Water was placed in both a flask and beaker...just as a side experiment about the container shape. She placed the liquids in a room with an ambient temperature that fluctuated between 68-75 degrees Fahrenheit. Unfortunately, we did not measure the humidity (in reading the archives, it has a huge effect on evaporation). She turned on a work lamp for one hour a day for 10 days. The temperature in the room would get up to 98 degrees Fahrenheit.

293

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Steam Engine in Reduced Pressure Steam Engine in Reduced Pressure Name: CJ Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: South Africa Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Since water can boil at lower temperatures by lowering atmospheric pressure, will it be possible to build and sustain a steam engine at the lower boiling point of water? Replies: Yes, but such an engine's maximum horsepower output is reduced in proportion to the pressure, typically. Jim Swenson Andy - It is definitely "possible", but almost never practical enough to be worth doing. The one real-life example I can think of is: the through-the-car-window antennas for cell-phones, GPS, etc. These have a cable from the transmitter box, carrying about 1-to-10 Watts of RF current, to a patch stuck to the inside of the window. At the same spot but on the outside face of the glass, is a similar patch which picks up the power radiated by the first patch, and a second length of cable running to a roof-top antenna. Notice that the wireless gap is only 0.5 cm, but the width of the patch is ~5 cm. Also, the freespace wavelength at that frequency is only 4-10 times the 5 cm size of the patch.

294

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Gases Trapped in Filter Gases Trapped in Filter Name: Jay Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Would the toxic gases that are trapped in a charcoal filter gas mask be an example of a mixture, solution, or something else? Replies: It certainly would be a mixture. Generally, the gases are considered to be "adsorbed:" the molecules cling to the outsides of the charcoal particles. Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D., M.Ed. Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming That is an example of adsorbtion, (with a "D") which is a fairly common mode for mixtures of solid and gas. Adsorbtion can have bond strengths ranging from weak like of physical condensation (solids and liquids vs gasses) to almost as strong as a chemical bond within a molecule. It depends on the particular pair of adsorbing and adsorbed species. Because the solid's structure remains unchanged, the gas doesn't fully penetrate the solid, it just sticks on the surface. The mixture remains pretty heterogeneous on the microscopic scale: solid here, gas there. That is one reason why it is not considered a solution, even though the bonding energy there can be greater than that of most solutions.

295

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Long-eared Owl Status Long-eared Owl Status Name: Joll Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Is the long-eared owl endangered? I have mixed information. Replies: No, long-eared owls are not on the US endangered species list, either as endangered or threatened. The only owls on the list are both northern and Mexican spotted owls. The US list is on line at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/species/us-species.html A species may be listed as endangered as a population within a state even if it is not on the US list. You could search for information for your state to see the status. If your location as noted below is California, long-eared owls are not endangered in California. J. Elliott Joll It's endangered. br> http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?q=326032

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Owl Predators Owl Predators Name: Mia Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: MN Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: What are the predators of a owl? Replies: Mia: Our largest adult owls have few predators. Smaller owls may be prey of other owls, long-eared owls are sometimes eaten by great horned owls, for example. Ground nesting owls, like short-eared owls, and especially nestlings, may be hunted by many predators, coyotes and other hawks and owls most likely. Nestlings of all birds, including owls may be hunted by other birds, raccoons, snakes and other animals that can climb trees. J. Elliott Hi Mia Predators of owls include: Opossums Racoons Hawks, Eagles and other raptors Other owls House cats Snakes that raid nests Accidents such as falling out of a nest, colliding with a tree, and electric power lines also contribute to owl mortality.

297

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Insect Gas Exchange Insect Gas Exchange Name: Mukuni Status: other Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Zambia Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: How does the uptake of oxygen in insects increase during strenuous exercise? Replies: During strenuous activity, O2 demand in insects can increase two to tenfold. There are a few mechanisms that they can employ to ramp up O2 intake: 1) Insects can simply tolerate lower internal O2 and higher internal CO2. This increases partial pressure gradients and enhances gas exchanges by either diffusion or convection. 2) Insects can open their spiracles wider or for longer periods of time to increase gas exchange. 3) Insects can increase convective ventilation through the spiracles and tracheal system (or gills) through abdominal pumping or gill waving. 4) Insects can reduce fluid levels in the tracheoles to enhance O2 delivery within the tissues, since O2 diffuses faster in air than in water.

298

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Free Falling Elevator and Floating Free Falling Elevator and Floating Name: Kevin B. Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I had a debate with my uncle about what would happen to a person in a free falling elevator. I asked him if the person would float. My uncle said no. He pointed out that a ball would not float if put on the floor of the elevator and the cable was cut, so why would a person? To see what would happen to a ball in a free falling elevator, I put a ball on a folder (the folder representing the floor of an elevator), and I dropped the folder with the ball. The ball stayed on top of the folder as they both fell to the ground. This indicated that what my uncle said about a ball staying on the floor of a free falling elevator was likely correct. However, when I researched the subject on the Internet, I came across many articles that said that a person would float in a free falling elevator. So I am a bit confused. Why would a person float but a ball would not? So my question is: 1) Would a person stand on the floor of a free falling elevator or would he float above the floor in a free falling elevator? 2) If the person would stand on the floor of a free falling elevator, please explain why. If the person would float above the floor, please explain why.

299

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Jeff Buzby Ph.D. Jeff Buzby Ph.D. I am a Senior Scientist in Molecular Immunology with a Biochemistry Ph.D., and have studied gene expression in cyanobacteria, plants, and humans. I'm investigating developmental regulation of the immune & coagulation responses at Children's Hospital of Orange County, CA. Previously, I worked on identifying genetic factors that control the response of plants to light as a postdoctoral fellow at UCLA. My Ph.D. dissertation designed a gene transfer system for cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) at Penn State Univ., and my first postdoctoral project utilized this system to find cyanobacterial genes that confer herbicide-resistance in plants. I am also developing a WWW-based biotechnology consultanting service, Molecular Biotech Consultants (http://www.molecularbiotech.com).

300

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Source of Magnetic Force Source of Magnetic Force Name: Ashley Status: educator Grade: K-3 Location: AS Country: Australia Date: Spring 2012 Question: What makes magnets push and pull against each other? Replies: Hi Ashley, Magnets have an attraction and a repulsion force that we can see, measure and even use to better our living. We may also run experiments to see what it does and then use Science to explain what it does and how it behaves. It behaves so we may see attraction and repulsion; our fingertips can measure the strength of that. We run experiments that show electricity forces and magnetic forces are related. But what makes magnets do that? We really do not know what makes a magnet push and pull, it just does. The magnetic force, what is it? It just "is". To quote physicist Richard Feynmann, "I really can't do a good job, any job, of explaining magnetic force in terms of something else you're more familiar with, because I don't understand it in terms of anything else you're more familiar with."

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Carbon-14 Nitrogen-14 Binding Energies Carbon-14 Nitrogen-14 Binding Energies Name: Abby Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: WI Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Carbon-14 decays into nitrogen-14 by beta emission. I have/had the understanding that when a nuclei decays the binding energy of the daughter is greater than the binding energy of the parent. From my research this does not seem to be true for carbon-14 into nitrogen-14. The binding energy per nucleon for carbon-14 is 7.520319 MeV and the binding energy per nucleon for nitrogen-14 is 7.475614 MeV. I understand that carbon-14 had too many neutrons and that it decays by beta because of this. I understand that nitrogen-14 is more stable than carbon-14 but if it is more stable than why isn't the binding energy of nitrogen-14 greater than that of carbon-14. Hope this all makes sense.

302

Newton, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

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695335°, -71.0345018° 695335°, -71.0345018° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.8695335,"lon":-71.0345018,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Electrochemical Anomaly Electrochemical Anomaly Name: Andrew Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: DE Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Recently I did an experiment just to try it out. I mixed a ribbon of magnesium with white distilled vinegar and it turned a deep crimson after a few weeks. I never knew that it would do this, but I tried to add onto this by seeing if calcium carbonate (drawing chalk?) would affect the acidity or cause a reaction. I used a pen to stir it because it was the only thing I had to use, but I have noticed now after about two days, the pen is releasing a green cloud whenever I open it. The pen is a Zebra click pen and whenever I click it, a cloud of green dust or substance comes out. What is it? Why is the pen doing this? Was it caused by using it to mix the items in my experiment?

304

Newton County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

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3.8473015° 3.8473015° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.5544296,"lon":-83.8473015,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Development Process Development Process Name: Liesl Status: educator Grade: K-3 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Our 2nd grade class is observing the life cycle of what appears to be monarch butterflies unfold. Currently, our little caterpillars appear to be shedding chunks of their bodies. What is happening to them? Replies: The monarchs are molting. Since insects have exoskeletons (skeletons on the outside of the body) they must periodically "shed" to accommodate further growth. These shed exoskeletons are known as exuvia. Each stage in-between a molt is known as an instar. Try to have your students count the number of molts before the caterpillar undergoes metamorphosis. Dr. Tim Durham Undergraduate Studies & University Colloquium Department of Biological Sciences Florida Gulf Coast University

306

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Barn Pole Paradox Barn Pole Paradox Name: Kwanalouie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I do not see how this relativity problem is explained. Its a variation of the barn pole paradox. Can you offer insights? Replies: Kwanalouie, Einstein's special relativity theories apply to constant VELOCITY situations. This means no change of speed or direction. An observer on the ring is constantly changing direction. After half of a revolution, the observer's direction has exactly reversed. Length contraction is much more complex in such a situation. General relativity is needed for this situation. Dr. Ken Mellendorf Physics Instructor Illinois Central College You are mixing relative effects with non-relative effects to create the paradox. In creating what you think is a paradox, you are placing unrealistic constraints on the system (e.g. how do you decouple this massively energetic ring from the silo?).

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Bacteria Resistance Bacteria Resistance Name: Brittany Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: AZ Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Why have bacteria evolved resistance so rapidly? Replies: Suppose you have a bug spray and you use it to exterminate a cloud of mosquitoes. In the cloud of mosquitoes there may be one or two that are immune to the effects of the bug spray. So what you do is kill all the mosquitoes that don't have resistance to the bug spray Leaving behind the mosquitoes that do, and then those remaining mosquitoes regenerate. That is the sad story of how bugs develop resistance to our countermeasures. So far, we have always been able to find a bug spray formula to take care of the present cloud of mosquitoes. Sincere regards, Mike Stewart Brittany, To answer your question, a couple of things need to be considered.

308

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Relativistic Velocity of Head-On Particles Relativistic Velocity of Head-On Particles Name: Flavian Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Romania Date: Spring 2012 Question: My question is about the LHC and any other particle accelerator, if the 2 matter beams travel at about 99% of the velocity of light relative to the ground in opposite directions don't they travel at 2x that relative to each other? What is actually going on? Replies: Flavian, How fast an object moves depends on the observer. When approaching the speed of light, the only reliable reference is you. Such velocities do not add like day-to-day velocities. Both distance and time measurements are different for those in different reference frames. The second matter beam might travel at a greater distance as seen by a particle in the first beam, but the time it takes to do it, as measured by the first beam, will also be greater. The distance divided by the time (i.e. speed) will be greater than 99% of light speed but less than 100%.

309

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Buoyant Force on Suspended Object Buoyant Force on Suspended Object Name: Jeremy Status: student Grade: 12 Country: Singapore Date: Spring 2012 Question: An object is hung from the ceiling and immersed in a beaker of water. When it is placed on a mass balance, what would the reading be if the combined weight of the water and beaker is W, the weight of the object immersed is X and the upthrust that the object experiences is U? Replies: Jeremy, Whether hanging from the ceiling, immersed in the water, or whatever, the weight of the object will be the weight of the object. There is nothing special about it being in water, air or whatever. For your dilemma, we need to re-define the parameters. Let VO = Volume of the Object in cubic inches, feet, or whatever you wish to choose. WO = Weight of the Object in pounds WW = Weight of the water the VO displaces in pounds.

310

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Earth Historic Rotation Rates Earth Historic Rotation Rates Name: Nikki Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: AZ Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Did Earth ever spin faster than it does now? Did Earth ever have 18 hour days instead of 24 hours? Replies: Nikki, Earth rotates on its axis and continues to slow down because of tidal braking. Yes, it is the tides that result in the ever-slowing rotation of Earth. The main cause of the tides is the moon. That is, the ocean is constantly being pulled toward the moon while Earth rotates under this bulge of water. In order for the sun to be overhead at noon we add one second to the clock about every eighteen months. Yes, that is true, Earth's rotation slows by aboutone second every eighteen months. About 600,000,000 years ago, there were 420 days in one year! About 300,000,000 years ago there were 395 days in one year. Today, there are about 365.25 days per year.

311

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Theta Theta Name: Laramy Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: GA Country: USA Date: N/A Question: I read your response to why we use the letter x in Algebra, but my question is why we use the Greek letter Theta in Trigonometry to represent an angle? Replies: Laramy It is just a convention. Nothing really dictates that folks use theta to represent angles in trigonometry. But when a lot of folks use the same letter the same way it increases understanding about what is being talked about. It is like, "Why does a red traffic light mean stop and a green light mean go? Why is it not the other way around?" This has become an international convention so people can drive in other countries without having to learn new rules all of the time. Sincere regards,

312

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Magnetic Reversal and Magnetic Strips Magnetic Reversal and Magnetic Strips Name: Mary Ellen Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: NE Country: USA Date: N/A Question: My earth science teacher has been telling us about continental drift and magnetic striping in ocean rocks due to magnetic reversals. She said that by the pattern, this is due to happen again, soon. Will the strip on my bus card still work? Will magnets that now attract, repel (and the other way around? Replies: Mary Ellen, Magnetic reversals are not predictable. There is no pattern to the reversals. There is no evidence that this will occur any time soon. The last magnetic reversal occurred 730,000 years ago, so for the last 730,000 years the north end of the magnetic needle on your compass always pointed north. It takes about 1000 years for a reversal to occur, so, if you took a Rumpelstiltskin sleep, when you woke up, the north end of your compass needle would point south.

313

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Meteor Soft Landing Meteor Soft Landing Name: Les Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: WA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Given the surface speed of the earth (daily rotation, yearly orbit, etc.) in relation to everything, is it possible for a meteor or asteroid at just the right path and speed to make a "soft" landing on the surface? Replies: Les I guess it is possible that a meteor or asteroid would have just the right course and speed to make a soft landing on Earth, but it is highly unlikely. Most meteors and asteroids travel and really high speeds. You see them burn in the atmosphere nightly and very brief streaks of light. Sincere regards, Mike Stewart Les, It would not be possible without risking burning up in the atmosphere. To make a soft landing, the meteor would also have to be able to make a soft launch. Barring energy loss to the atmosphere, energy conservation requires that such a landing work the same in both directions. Such a landing could be no slower than the speed needed to launch the meteor back to where it came from. With energy loss due to the atmosphere, slowing from this necessary speed to a soft landing would probably burn the meteor up. An Apollo spaceship landing without open parachutes is better than a meteor could do.

314

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Lubricating Rubber Bands and Elasticity Lubricating Rubber Bands and Elasticity Name: Frank Status: other Grade: other Location: MA Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: I am building a space derby rocket, which is powered by a rubber band motor. Many sources recommend lubricating the rubber bands - the main rationale for this is that they improve the elasticity of the rubber band and possibly reduces friction. I can see how reducing friction would be advantageous, but it seems to me that given a fixed number of winds, improving elasticity would reduce the actual kinetic energy of the motor. (I can see that improving elasticity may allow for a greater number of winds and >reduce the chance it breaks- but I am assuming the same number of winds.) Do you agree or disagree? Replies: Hi Frank,

315

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Internal Battery Resistance Change During Use Internal Battery Resistance Change During Use Name: Mikus Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Latvia Date: Spring 2012 Question: Does the internal resistance of a battery change if the battery is being discharged? Replies: Yes. Batteries play a lot of messy games with their internal resistance. The resistance can depend on temperature, percent-of-charge-remaining, recent history of current drain, and battery aging. Each kind of battery (lithium, alkaline, lead-acid, Ni-Cd, NiMH) has a different set of behaviors. I have seen a lithium battery, when suddenly asked to push a large load, allow its output voltage to drop a lot at first, because its internal resistance was high, because the battery was cold. Then the large current flowing through that internal resistance warmed up the battery, and the voltage delivered actually increased with time, for a little while.

316

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Hydrogen Versus Deuterium Bonds Hydrogen Versus Deuterium Bonds Name: A. K. Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: If you have a compound, say HCl, why does the bond length decrease when you substitute the hydrogen atom with a deuterium atom? Replies: Hi A. K. Think of the bond in a diatomic molecule (H2 versus D2) as a spring between two spheres (the atoms). Let's say the available energy to make the spring vibrate is constant (you supply a specific amount of energy). The H2 spring will vibrate more because the masses being held by the spring is lighter than that of the D2 spring (remember that D is twice the mass of H). In effect the H2 system can extend farther away from the center than the D2 system. Since the closest approach of the H2 and D2 systems are the same (the same sized spheres touching each other) and the H2 system can get farther out than the D2, we can see that the average distance between the two H's is larger than that of the two D's.

317

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Humid Versus Dry Air and Kite Lift Humid Versus Dry Air and Kite Lift Name: Tiago Status: student Grade: other Country: Portugal Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Hello, in the local kite board forum we are discussing how flying in a 'high' evaporation environment and the correspondent air humidity coming from will affect the lift of the kite. There are two side of the discussion. Side A's rational is that density is hardly affected by humidity content and consequently so thus lift. The back-ground for this is the following: A) water molecular weight is lower than dry air molecular weight and consequently a mixture of both gases will have less density (for a given volume, at same pressure and temperature). B) Advogardo's Law - for any given gaseous mixture the number of particles is constant within a specific volume, if pressure and temperature being kept constant.

318

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Reducing Data, Increasing File Size Reducing Data, Increasing File Size Name: Jim B. Status: Other Age: 60s Location: N/A Date: 8/2/2004 Question: For backup purposes I am trying to reduce the quantity of the data to back up. I am running a WIN 2000 pro system. I had about 13K files, some with large attachments, in my Outlook Express Inbox.DBF and Sent Items.DBF files. They totaled about 2.8GB worth of data. I deleted most of the files (out of the Deleted Items area as well). The size of the 2 aforementioned DBX files actually increased slightly. I did not expect that. The result is that my backup problems are exacerbated. What is up? Replies: The most recent issue of the magazine PC World (Summer 2004) had several recommendations for freeing up disc space. There is inexpensive software that can help by defragging registry files (not a task for the timid). The option that I was not aware of is deleting files in the "sent items" folder of Outlook Express. This is different than the "deleted items" folder, and at least on my computer was not showing the number of files contained in the "sent items" folder. I freed up 2Gb of old messages by emptying this folder. It is worth a try.

319

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Male Development Male Development Name: Kurt Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Brazil Date: Spring 2012 Question: I heard that the male fetus has to go through stages to definitely become a male - that all fetuses are initially female, and that only after 8 weeks does the male fetus develop testicles, and that after that, I understand there are 3 more stages of development for the fetus to go through before definitely becoming male. What are these stages? Replies: Embryos are male or female from the moment of conception because they have either XX or XY chromosomes. But they don't start to develop their sexual phenotypes for about 6-8 weeks. Embryos have two nonspecific gonads and two sets of nonspecific tubes. If there is a Y chromosome, a gene called SRY turns on around 6-8 weeks and starts male development. The nonspecific gonads become testes and the tubes become the vas deferens. It causes the second set of tubes to degenerate. It also causes the testes to begin secreting testosterone which also adds to the masculine phenotype. There is a step by step process that happens. If there is a block in the process everything stops there. So some parts could develop and others not.For instance, internal structures might develop but external not. This would result in an ambiguous phenotype which may be mistaken for a female.

320

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Cow Eye Restoration Cow Eye Restoration Name: Kendall Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: I'm working on a science fair experiment. I need help with my science fair question. My question is" Can you restore a cows eyes lens after it has been removed from the eye for a few days?" What i was trying to ask in my question is 'is there a type of material of chemical that can clear the lens even after it has become cloudy. Replies: Kendall, That is an interesting question. A lens can be removed from the eye, but typically a lens cannot be cleared. The changes to the internal structure of the lens are permanent, thus making it cloudy. A new, artificial lens could be put in if there was one the right size for a cow eye, just like in human cataract surgery. There are other conditions that can cause cloudiness of the eye, but that usually involves the fluid in the front of the lens. These conditions can sometimes be treated medically.

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321

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Reptile Hibernation Reptile Hibernation Name: Sammy Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: VA Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: When reptiles hibernate do they feel dead? Replies: Sammy: Do you mean does the animal itself feel like it is dead? Or do you mean does it feel dead to us when we touch it? The answer to both is, no. If you were to pick up a hibernating snake, for instance, it would feel cold, but it would not be stiff as it would be if dead, and if you handled it it would begin to stir. We really can't say how the animal itself feels, they are enough different from us that we can't know exactly how their brains sense their environment, especially in hibernation which is not like anything humans experience. J. Elliott I can't imagine what it would be like to "feel dead." More likely, they are unconscious or drowsy, possibly like a deep sleep.

322

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Spontaneous Generation Revisited Spontaneous Generation Revisited Name: Jake Status: other Grade: other Location: ID Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I'm curious can genes be altered and changed during our life and passed on to future generations? I ask this because I've witnessed an instance that I found most interesting... it was a father, who before he ever conceived his child lost his pinkie on his left hand, and years later he has a child and crazy as it is the child on its left hand was born with an extra finger an extra pinkie.. it has had me contemplating whether this machination has any validity in genes altering during our life perhaps because of our life choices or environmental factors ect ect. Replies: The example you describe is pure coincidence -- not genetic. The environment does impact our genes, and those genes can be passed on to our children. However, the changed gene has to be in the gamete (sperm or egg) -- these cells alone contain the genetic material that is passed along. A change to a finger (that has not also occurred in the gamete) would not be passed on.

323

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Permanence of Ocean Currents Permanence of Ocean Currents Name: Teresia Status: student Grade: 6-8 Country: Tanzania Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Are ocean currents permanent? Replies: Teresia: Although many ocean currents have been around for many thousands or years, they can and do change over time. One of the problems some scientists see with global warming is that some currents may shift or stop all together. For example, some folks, are worried that much fresh water may flow into the sea from melting ice in Greenland This would, they say, stop the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic ocean which keeps Europe warm That would plunge Europe into another ice age. But, on the whole, ocean currents do not change over the life of a human being. Mr.Avakian Teresia, Since ocean currents are controlled by several factors: wind - which is the main cause of the different rotations in the northern and southern hemisphere, salinity - which, for example is the main factor in the southward diffusion from the north pole in the Atlantic ocean and the gulf stream, temperature, general ocean floor topography, etc. - changes (on a geological time scale) will cause changes in the ocean currents.

324

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Sound Pitch and Distance Travelled Sound Pitch and Distance Travelled Name: Chris Status: educator Grade: 4-5 Location: MI Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do high pitched sounds travel farther than low pitched sounds? Replies: Sorry Chris, it is the other way around. If you are near lightening you hear a crack or bang which is a high frequency sound. But far away from the lightening you hear thunder as a low pitch, rolling, boom. The high frequency sound from the crack you hear close up does not made it very far from the lightening (which is the cause of the noise). Hope this helps. R. W. "Mr. A." Avakian Quite the opposite. Low pitched sounds attenuate more slowly with distance. Fog-horns are an evolutionary example of the point. Of course, they are meant to operate in elevated humidity, which adds another loss factor. I will try to tell you more later. On the other hand, it is quite possible for high-pitched sounds to be _more_noticeable_ to a given being in a given noise background.

325

City of Newton, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

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North Carolina North Carolina Utility Id 13561 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Electric Renewable Energy Credit Rider - RECR - 1 - Solar Photovoltaic Energy - 15 Year Fixed Electric Renewable Energy Credit Rider - RECR - 1 - Wind and Biomass - 10 Years fixed Electric Renewable Energy Credit Rider - RECR - 1 - Solar Photovoltaic Energy - Variable Electric Renewable Energy Credit Rider - RECR - 1 - Wind and Biomass - 5-Years-Fixed Electric Renewable Energy Credit Rider - RECR - 1 - Wind and Biomass -

326

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River Rocks, Color, and Rings River Rocks, Color, and Rings Name: Sean Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: WA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I was walking a beach on the Deschutes River in Olympia Washington with a friend last night. We were picking up rocks and checking them out and we came across a few that were black with white, crystal-like rings around them. We also found a few that were other primary colors with secondary colored rings around them. What is the most likely cause of the white and black rings around the rocks? They are beautiful and I would like to know more about them. Replies: Melissa, Sean: It depends upon what you mean by rings. Some of the river rock may be coated with deposits of lime from the waters or soils in which they rested for a while. The black color would be from minerals included in the lime crusts. These coatings should fizz slightly if you drop some vinegar on them and you would also be able to scratch them with a knife blade or pair of scissors.

327

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Turbulence Modeling and Wing Design Turbulence Modeling and Wing Design Name: Kosta Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: CA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I am currently experimenting with different wing designs and a wind tunnel. I found a rigorous text on turbulence modeling which caught my interest and am considering studying it. Would knowing turbulence modeling help in aircraft wing design? Replies: Kosta Turbulence increases the drag on a wing which reduces its performance to produce lift. Turbulence modeling allows you to predict the level of turbulence a wing design will encounter. The goal is to achieve laminar air flow over the wing for the least amount of drag and the most amount of lift for the given airspeed. Sincere regards, Mike Stewart Kosta Turbulence increases the drag on a wing which reduces its performance to produce lift.

328

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Lift, Friction of 18-Wheelers Lift, Friction of 18-Wheelers Name: Kurt Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I am a 9th grade student working on a science fair project. In my project, my idea is to design airfoils that can be fitted to the top of 18 wheelers to create lift on the vehicle and thus reduce rolling friction and hopefully give 18 wheelers a higher miles per gallon ratio. I have been testing my designs in a small scale wind tunnel that I have created and I am unsure how to scale my results to a full sized 18 wheeler with a full scale airfoil. For example, if a 36 square inch surface gives me 0.4 ounce lift at 12 miles per hour wind speed, what life could I expect for a full sized 480 sqare foot surface at 70 miles per hour (where the attack angle is the same in both cases)? Thank you for your time. I hope that my work can result in more energy efficient transportation of goods.

329

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Engineering Fields Engineering Fields Name: Nathan Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: VA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I am currently a Junior and high school and the time has come (and mostly passed) where I decide in which direction I should go career-wise. I love being able to solve math problems and applying their uses to my life and I learn well in every subject especially science and math. Because I do so well in theses subjects, I think I would prosper as an engineer. That is a broad subject that research doesn't do a very good job of defining - at least compared to what i could learn from an engineer themselves. So my question is: what are the different kinds of engineering fields and what should I learn in order to prepare myself? Replies: Some helpful sites:

330

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Pressure and Bacteria Pressure and Bacteria Name: Fabiola Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Colombia Date: Fall 2011 Question: When I apply a bacterial solution for biological control of a pest in agricultural systems, the bacterias will survive if I use a pressure of 200 psi or more? Replies: Maybe. 25 atmospheres is equivalent to approximately 367psi. This is the osmotic pressure inside the bacterial cell wall...which is greater than your external pressure of 200psi. "Bacteria usually live in relatively dilute environments such that the accumulation of solutes inside the cell cytoplasm greatly exceeds the total solute concentration in the outside environment. Thus, the osmotic pressure against the inside of the plasma membrane may be the equivalent of 10-25 atmospheres. Since the membrane is a delicate, plastic structure, it must be restrained by an outside wall made of porous, rigid material that has high tensile strength. Such a material is murein, the ubiquitous component of bacterial cell walls."

331

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Vince Calder Ph.D. Vince Calder Ph.D. I am a retired physical chemist [1965, Berkeley with W.F. Giauque] with a broad background in many areas of chemistry/physics: thermodynamics, I.R. spectroscopy, polymer chemsitry, analysis of ground water for trace organic compounds. My hobbies include photography and mathematics. How can I participate in your program. I have taught [Iowa State] and have an interest in fostering interest in science to young people. Consultant in landfill remediation, and prevention of landfill contamination. The best landfill remediation is preventation before it happens. This is a complex issue because it brings to the front that the "science" is not enough. There are social and political issues that have a direct impact on the "science". It isn't good enough to have good science if nobody is listening. This requires acquisition of a whole bunch of skills that we don't teach in the classroom.

332

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Red Shift and Expanding Universe Red Shift and Expanding Universe Name: Ivan Status: other Grade: other Location: FL Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: It is about red shift and the outer galaxies. I do have a grasp of the concept of expansion. What I do not understand is and it bothers me: It is said that the outer galaxies of our observable universe are expanding between them faster than closer ones. First I am correct in saying that? Second, if I interpreted what I read correctly, would an observer at the edge of our observable universe, looking towards our galaxy see the opposing situation: an observable universe that is reducing in expansion, with that other observer's outer galaxies progressively expanding less (as this would be the galaxies closer to us)? Replies: Hi Ivan -- If you were in that far-away galaxy, you would make the same observation about galaxies near the milky way: that the farther-away galaxies are moving away from you faster than galaxies closer to you.

333

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Reducing Data, Increasing File Size Reducing Data, Increasing File Size Name: Jim B. Status: Other Age: 60s Location: N/A Date: 8/4/2004 Question: For backup purposes I am trying to reduce the quantity of the data to back up. I am running a WIN 2000 pro system. I had about 13K files, some with large attachments, in my Outlook Express Inbox.DBF and Sent Items.DBF files. They totaled about 2.8GB worth of data. I deleted most of the files (out of the Deleted Items area as well). The size of the 2 aforementioned DBX files actually increased slightly. I did not expect that. The result is that my backup problems are exacerbated. What is up? Replies: Truthfully, I do not know that much about Outlook Express. This site is a help site for users at the University of Delaware. Most of it is not very helpful, but it talks about "Purging deleted messages". It may be that the emails are still in the deleted folder. It is worth a shot. Sorry I couldn't be more help and I hope I did not misunderstand.

334

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White Blood Cells Oxygen Source White Blood Cells Oxygen Source Name: Meg Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: KY Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: All cells need oxygen. That is a common fact. So then where do white blood cells get theirs? Replies: The oxygen for white blood cells comes from the blood, just as it does for other tissues. Oxygen is transported from the lungs to red blood cells, and as the red blood cells move through the blood, they supply the white blood cells with oxygen. br> Diffusion is the primary mechanism that drives this oxygen transport -- as the white blood cell converts O2 to CO2, it establishes a concentration gradient between the blood (high O2) and the interior of the white blood cell (low O2). This concentration gradient drives oxygent transport.

335

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December 10 - December 17 Question of the Week Name: Millard Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2013 Question My dad has a classic car, and because it gets driven very little each year, the tires dry rot before he can get much tread wear on them. What could be used to protect the tires from dry rot and cracking? Answers from Our Expert Staff Hi Millard, Thanks for the question. I would recommend keeping the car on blocks so that there is no weight on the tires. Additionally, I would recommend that no electrical equipment (motors, switches, and other things that spark) be used around the car. The sparks generate ozone and ozone can cause rubber items such as tires, belts, and hoses to crack. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions.

336

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Energy in a System Energy in a System Name: Michael Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I am a high school chemistry teacher with a quick question about entropy, which may be only one of semantics - I am hoping you might be able to help. . I think the problem boils down to if we consider all the energy in a system (E=mc2), can all that be turned into work? The details are this: In discussing entropy, the isothermal, free expansion of a gas into a vacuum is an often used example (q=0,w=0). After the gas has expanded numerous texts and web sites (an MIT web site in this case) explains that " some ability to do work has been lost" and that "the property that is used to measure the change in ability to get work out of a system (delta)T is the entropy." ( http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/FALL/thermodynamics/thermo_7.htm )

337

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Video Game Programming Software Video Game Programming Software Name: John P. Status: Student Age: 14 Location: N/A Date: 8/4/2004 Question: My cousin and I are rabid video gamers. We want to be video game designers when we grow up, or do something along the lines of that. We want to start making game snow to start to get experience for when we grow up. Now we do not want to make 3-D or anything like that at our age now, what we want to do is make video games about the equivalent of stuff made on the Apple II and Atari, even the NES would be a good example of the games we want to make. I was watching a show on TV and the person was saying how many of today's greats were just teenagers programming stuff on a Apple II. I figure since they started there at my age I should try to start there too. I wanted to know if there was any programs available to make these types of games, because if they could do it 20 years ago on with the limited technology they had, then I should be able to do it faster, easier, and better then they did with today's technological advances.

338

Newton County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6°, -87.4207518° 6°, -87.4207518° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9703076,"lon":-87.4207518,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Newton County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

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3.6623239° 3.6623239° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.9359604,"lon":-93.6623239,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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Newton County, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

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9.1705998° 9.1705998° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.4440058,"lon":-89.1705998,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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341

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Replies: Is laser surgery used with cats? Yes Laser surgery is a very broad category Lasers are used in veterinary medicine on cats and dogs for various surgeries. The benefit of...

342

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Multiples of Nine, Digit Sum Name: Sharvind Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Malaysia Date: NA Question: why when a number when times by 9,the numbers in the answers when...

343

Algebraic rules for quadratic regularization of Newton's method  

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Aug 6, 2013 ... ii) If the algorithm does not end at iteration k + 1, then ?min(?2f(xk) + kI) = ?k + k ...... Optim. Methods Softw., 22(3):413431, 2007. Appendix.

344

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than taking a permanent bend) I think steel guitar strings are hard steel too. High-carbon spring steel can definitely differ by 20% between the hardened and annealed...

345

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and more effective than soap alone. This claim is very dubious. Long after you wash with these products, residues can persist. Continual selection pressure can actually...

346

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Fish Nostrils Name: Fatima Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Nigeria Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why do fishes have nostrils when they already have...

347

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Salt Water Fish Metabolism Name: Miodrag Status: student Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Serbia Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I was wondering: as we know, some fish...

348

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Ducks and Fish Ponds Name: Terry Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: Australia Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Will ducks eat fish in my goldfish pond?...

349

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Fish Respiration Rates Name: Stacy Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I conducted an experiment where beta fish were...

350

A NEWTON-PICARD APPROACH FOR EFFICIENT NUMERICAL ...  

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Due to P being an exact injection, it follows that PTMfP = Mc and thus. RP = I. .... The existence of the matrices V and W, as well as conditions. (i) and (ii) follow...

351

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I would go about using statistics to solve this problem by utilizing what is called the Standard Deviation. First, I would covert my data of heads and tails to data of 'length of...

352

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a BS in Physics and some lab experience, along with teaching for 4 years in the Catholic Schools. President and Director of Operations EdAhead.com --Last Up-date September 27, 2000...

353

attraction of newton method to critical lagrange multipliers: fully ...  

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tiplier starting from a dense set around the given critical multiplier. ... this is precisely the reason for the lack of superlinear convergence rate, which is typical for ..... for the base parameter value ? it follows that (?(), ?()) is analytic in some ...

354

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in conceptualizing things about space in general are so huge that it is difficult for the human mind to deal with them, but I am trying and I am very curious. I have some science...

355

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Organizations: --- American Astronomical Society (AAS) - Solar Physics Division of AAS American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)...

356

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to display, some formatting information, and also instructions to find graphics or animations files. Links are addresses to other sites on the web. Pages may look different in...

357

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Combustion Engine and Pure Oxygen Name: Jacob Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TN Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: I am trying to figure out several things: 1) How many...

358

Newton-Like Methods for Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation  

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Jun 7, 2012 ... LASSO: Other Losses (Likelihoods). https://sites.google.com/site/ eecs6898sparse2011/, 2011. [11] S. Sra, S. Nowozin, and S. J. Wright.

359

An Inexact Newton Method for Nonconvex Equality Constrained ...  

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Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA. This au- thor was supported by National ... This author was supported by Department of Energy grant DE- .... rate of local convergence. This can be seen in...

360

A distributed Newton method for Network Utility Maximization  

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Most existing work uses dual decomposition and subgradient methods to solve Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which suffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This work develops an ...

Wei, Ermin

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361

Duality in quasiNewton methods and new variational ...  

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secant condition Hyk = sk and the symmetry condition HT = H on Hk+1, see [5]. ... Our basic idea is simply to work directly in the vector space SRnn of n n.

362

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B.S.B.M.E. 2004, Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois M.S. 2007, Univeristy of Wisconsin D.V.M. 2009, University of Wisconsin Ph.D. 2011, University of Wisconsin Small...

363

Optimization Online - An Accelerated Newton Method for Equations ...  

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Jun 9, 2006 ... Citation: Optimization Technical Report 06-02, University of Wisconsin-Madison, April 2006. Revised January 2007. Download: [PDF].

364

Distributed Newton-type algorithms for network resource allocation  

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Most of today's communication networks are large-scale and comprise of agents with local information and heterogeneous preferences, making centralized control and coordination impractical. This motivated much interest in ...

Wei, Ermin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

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to 30" in length. Among the largest are greater black-backed, which next to a common herring gull is noticeably larger. Laughing gulls of the Atlantic coast are not much more...

366

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Teflon is poly(tetrafluoroethene) PTFE. The instantaneous induced dipole forces between oil or grease and PTFE are much weaker than those present in the oil or grease itself. This...

367

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techniques (bonding, brazing, depositions), multilayers, numerical methods, fluid mechanics, radiative transfer, engineering and science education. Dr. Ali Khounsary Advanced...

368

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Also a private pilot with a special interest in aeronautical engineering and fluid mechanics. Active volunteer in science education and always on the look-out to stop the...

369

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Gas industry as exploration geophysicist and technical manager. Specialities include: Gravity, Magnetic and Seismic surveying and interpretation as well as remote sensing...

370

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M-Theory Effect Name: Michael Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: How would proving M-theory effect how we live and how we perceive...

371

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54 F is the average temperature of that region near Pike's Peak of Colorado. The humidity does not change much either. The stable air temperature and humidity almost forbids...

372

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Mathematics Log Books Name: Felicia Status: educator Grade: 6-8 Location: GA Country: USA Date: NA Question: How do you write a log book for a math project to be entered into a...

373

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Laura Hungerford DVM, Ph.D. Laura Hungerford was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan and wanted to be a veterinarian ever since she was about 3 years old. Although all vets are scientists,...

374

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or next word in a text and compares its letter sequence to a dictionary, which may be a big data base. Unfortunately, spell checkers can't read the context of the messages and...

375

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apart. In some cases, what is left of the rock is washed away by rain or streams. In granite, the feldspars are changed to clays and the rock falls apart leaving quartz (sand)...

376

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concentration in the atmosphere for the last 411 years. I wish to show to my students trends solar activity and global warming Replies: For solar activity, try the US National...

377

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material itself, and everything to do with their extreme length-to-thickness ratio. String, rope and steel cables suffer exactly the same buckling problem under compression, and...

378

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Between Stress and Strain Name: Muhammad Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Pakistan Date: Fall 2011 Question: What is the difference between stress and strain? Replies:...

379

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Michael B. Stewart Michael B. Stewart Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from U.S. Naval Academy 1971 Unrestricted Naval Aviator (Helicopters and Airplanes) Master...

380

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Institute, and his MS (2001) and Ph.D. (2006) from the University of Washington in Seattle. His dissertation, under Prof. Larry B. Sorensen, explored the influence of disorder...

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381

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could be researched if you are so inclined. They form the basis for understanding transformers, generators, electric motors and more I hope this helps. Jerry Gardner Hari,...

382

A Newton's method for the continuous quadratic knapsack problem  

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br/~pjssilva/research/quadratic_knapsack_source.zip. The programs ..... appeared first as the BLGnapsack subroutine in the BLG code from Gonzalez-. Lima...

383

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be helpful: http:en.wikipedia.orgwikiCedruslibani http:www.floridata.comrefccedrlib.cfm http:www.botanicalgarden.ubc.caforumsshowthread.php?t10597 http:...

384

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proceed within a few seconds, and the resulting oxygen will escape, and the resulting energy will be wasted heating the fuel cell. Regards, Bob Wilson Hydrogen peroxide...

385

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company, not a scientific principle. Basically, they are using water pressure to drive a turbine to generate electricity (just like a hydroelectric dam, but much smaller scale)....

386

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Agar and Vinegar Name: Luke status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: GA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I am testing hand sanitizer brands on blood agar plates and...

387

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earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake, in the same area of the main shock. If an aftershock is larger than the main shock, the aftershock is redesignated as the...

388

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Question: What is the potential (voltage) and current (amperage) on a static electric shock, say, from rubbing your feet on a dry carpet, or when you rub a balloon on your hair...

389

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you have dogs who have taken a liking to a tree, I would advise training them to urinate on a compost pile instead The nitrogen helps to feed microbes that break down the compost...

390

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- chemical engineer School - UFMG (1970) Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil) Curriculum Vitae (only important points) : 1 - Teacher at Federal University of Uberlandia in...

391

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Society (Toronto, Canada, May 14-18, 2000). 33. "Using Ionic Liquids for Oil Shale Extraction", M. Koel, W. K. Hollis, T. J. Lombardo, B.F. Smith, and J.B. Rubin, NATO...

392

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Eric Tolman Computer Scientist My area of expertise is in computer graphics, especially real-time 2D and 3D graphics and animation. Basically, I write computer games for a living,...

393

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Computer Viruses Name: Angel Status: student Grade: other Location: NY Date: NA Question: What are the most common signs that indicate you have a computer virus? Replies: The most...

394

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used in industry? What is the most common web script in use in industry? Replies: Java (not to be confused JavaScript which is completely different) is the most popular...

395

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Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: USA Date: NA Question: I have a question about terms. I am a sophomore in high school and I usually go about my business solving problems,...

396

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from for this to happen when freezer has little or no energy? Replies: Good question A fan typically blows air about inside a freezer to circulate cool air. This lowering of air...

397

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Grade: 12 Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: An author of a well respected book wrote "one characteristic of standard deviations is that they are additive. In our...

398

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difficult experimental question. Measurement of surface tension (I prefer the equivalent definition "surface energy"). This is the amount of energy required to extend the energy...

399

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Hydrogen Compounds and Heat Conduction Name: Zachary Status: student Grade: 6-8 Date: Spring 2012 Question: Are items with hydrogen molecules poor conductors of heat? Why or why...

400

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Location: NY Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why is it that a gas like butane can be compressed into a liquid and stored at room temperature (for example in simple...

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401

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can benefit society. Burr holds a PhD in chemical engineering, and specializes in nanotechnology, advanced materials, and biotechnology. He is also an active volunteer in youth...

402

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Tim Mooney Ph.D. My formal training is in experimental nuclear physics (Ph.D. UNC 1989). I did a two-year post doc in x-ray metrology at NIST, and a year here at APS learning...

403

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the Norwegian Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard, the Saualpe of Austria, and in northern Vermont. In 1987, Dr. Kanat began teaching freshman geology courses at the University of...

404

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placed in a PET bottle that are sensitive to UV light can be greatly affected. PET plastic that is targeted for packaging UV sensitive materials can be tinted andor have UV...

405

XMM-Newton timing mode observations of Mrk 421  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a detailed temporal analysis of the bright BL Lac object Mrk 421 using the three available long timing mode observations by the EPIC PN camera. This detector mode is characterized by its long life time and is largely free of photon pile-up problems. The source was found in different intensity and variability states differing by up to more than a factor of three in count rate. A time resolved cross correlation analysis between the soft and hard energy bands revealed that the characteristics of the correlated emission, with lags of both signs, change on time scales of a few thousand seconds. Individual spectra, resolved on time scales of a few hundread seconds, can be quite well fitted by a broken power law. We find significant spectral variations on time scales as short as 500-1000 sec. Both the hard and the soft band spectral indices show a non-linear correlation with the source flux. A comparison of the observed light curves with numerical results from relativistic hydrodynamic computer simulations of the currently favored shock-in-jet models indicates that any determination of the jet's physical parameters from `simple' emission models must be regarded with caution: at any time we are seeing the emission from several emission regions distinct in space and time, which are connected by the complex hydrodynamic evolution of the non-uniform jet.

W. Brinkmann; I. E. Papadakis; C. Raeth; P. Mimica; F. Haberl

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

406

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Materials Science; University of Illinois 21 years Argonne scientist - tribology, thin films, radiation damage, flywheel energy storage, hydrogen, pulsed laser deposition, MOCVD...

407

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Kunal, Yarn and other threads are spun from fibers of a certain size. Obviously, for wool, the size of the fiber depends on the length of the hair sheared from the sheep. The...

408

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Steel Wool, Soap, Water Absorption Name: Casey Status: student Grade: 4-5 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I have two steel wool pads. One I rub with soap the...

409

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on them? Or did I just see wrong? Replies: The most stable form of NaCl at 298 K and 1 atm is a cubic form. So the answer to "why" that is the case requires much more complicated...

410

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educator Grade: other Location: PA Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: Can a cat and a raccoon breed with each? A cat was found and it had kittens. A week later the...

411

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and has recently been a contributing writer to the new Pat Lazarus book, "Keep Your Dog Healthy the Natural Way". He is currently writing a column for Natural Living Magazine....

412

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I am doing a science project on mummification. I am using baking soda to mummify a hot dog. I know the baking soda is absorbing the moisture in the hot dog. My question is how or...

413

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Michael Baldwin Mechanical Engineer. Currently involved with control system projects with computers and PLC's. Previously worked with water systems. --Last Up-date April 09, 2000...

414

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Aeronautical ScienceMeteorology. Some of my program specialties include Short Term Forecasting and Computer Applications. My office web site is at www.crh.noaa.govind Sally...

415

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Location: GA Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: How does one measure how old the sun is? Replies: Bob, Estimating the age of the Sun requires that we understand the...

416

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Yellow Sun and Green Plants Isaak Status: Grade: 4-5 Location: Outside U.S. Country: New Zealand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why does plants show green and not yellow because...

417

An Accelerated Newton Method for Equations with Semismooth ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research supported by NSF Grants SCI-0330538, DMS-0427689, CCF-0430504 ,. CTS-0456694, CNS-0540147, DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER25627, and an NSF...

418

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Water and Solution Evaporation Rates Name: Jerry Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: IL Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: After researching many sites including yours,...

419

Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2012 (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

Not Available

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

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field is well established to induce magnetic orientation. Changing orientation with Earth will not matter because the filing causes both; the strike frees the metal so that...

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421

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Web Usage Name: P Stone Status: Educator Age: 40s Location: NA Date: 5262004 Question: How could you read the history of Internet Explorer after it has been dumped in the trash...

422

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Physics, Iowa State University Research experience lays in materials chemistry. I have been teaching all levels of university chemistry at Northern Kentucky University since 2006....

423

Newton Center, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2.3306528°, -71.1994989° 2.3306528°, -71.1994989° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.3306528,"lon":-71.1994989,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

424

Newton County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

94.315422° 94.315422° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.9618494,"lon":-94.315422,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

425

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Transit of Venus and Earth-Sun Distance Transit of Venus and Earth-Sun Distance Name: Denise Status: student Grade: 12 Country: Philippines Date: Spring 2012 Question: How do scientists determine the distance of Earth from Sun through the Transit of Venus? Replies: Dear Denise, This is a very good question. The way they calculated it was to use (1) as precise longitudes they could find, and (2) precise timings of first and last contacts of the transits. From these data they were able to arrive at a value for the distance between Earth and Sun. The problem was (besides weather) that the back drop effect prevented accurate timings. A transit of Venus takes place Venus is directly between Earth and Sun. You can imagine two big triangles in the sky, one whose base is on the Earth and whose apex is at Venus The other has its base on the Sun and its apex on Venus. They can use observers at different places on Earth to produce slightly different triangles. Then they can use trigonometry to calculate the distance. Using this method can work only if observations are made from points widely separated on the Earth's surface. Knowing the distance between these points on Earth, one can calculate the distance between Earth and Sun.

426

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Disciplines for Microwave Heating Disciplines for Microwave Heating Name: Ali Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: N/A Country: Iran Date: Spring 2012 Question: One of my students has asked which discipline (physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, communications engineering, .....) is most involved in the design of microwave heating solutions. I have asked experts in all four fields and they all seemed puzzled and unaware of the answer. Who designs microwave heating equipment? Replies: In modern science and engineering, the distinctions between academic disciplines are very blurred. There is a strong focus on inter-disciplinary studies because so many disciplines are needed to design everyday things. For example, a home microwave includes chemical engineers (who design the materials), mechanical engineers (who design structural parts made from the materials), electrical engineers (who design the circuitry), industrial engineers (who design the appearance and functionality), physicists (who invented the magnetron powering the microwave source).

427

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Aggressive Dogs Aggressive Dogs Name: Santha Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: Outside U.S. Country: Australia Date: Fall 2011 Question: What type of aggression classification would you give a dog that attacks other dogs with out any signs or provocations? Replies: Santha, In my experiences of breeding and raising several (related) Jack Russell Terriers, I've observed it is a matter of perceived threat. By this I mean either the aggressive dog IS threatened in some way, or the aggressive dog PERCEIVES a threat when one might not actually exist, and the dog lashes out. I've seen that most of the female dogs I've had did not get along with each other. My explanation for this is that each of them has a relationship of trust and concern with me, and they see another female dogs as a threat to that "relationship". Oddly, all of the female dogs I have had have gotten along ok with each of the males I've had.

428

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Crystalline Metal Versus Metallic Glass and Conduction Crystalline Metal Versus Metallic Glass and Conduction Name: Marilyn Status: student Grade: 12 Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: Which will have a better electrical conductivity, a crystalline metal or a metallic glass. Replies: Hi Marilyn, I was unable to find any direct data on electrical conductivity of amorphous metals, however there is data that appears to suggest the conductivity of amorphous metal is slightly worse than that of the same metal in crystalline form. It is known that amorphous metals have lower thermal conductivity than their crystalline forms, and in most cases decreased thermal conductivity is accompanied by decreased electrical conductivity. It is also known that as a metal's crystal structure becomes finer and more disorganized, electrical conductivity decreases somewhat. An example of this is the case of copper. Annealed copper, which has fewer, larger crystals, has slightly better electrical conductivity than work-hardened copper. Work-hardening copper breaks up the large crystals into much smaller, and more disorganized ones, resulting in its electrical conductivity being slightly reduced. Carrying this to it's logical end, an infinitely small and highly disordered crystal structure would appear much like a metallic glass. From this, therefore, one can surmise that a true amorphous metal will indeed have slightly poorer electrical conductivity than normal crystalline metal of the same type.

429

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Heat Shield and 120 000 Foot Fall Heat Shield and 120 000 Foot Fall Name: John Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: OK Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: My classes and I have been looking at the Red Bull/Stratos home page and discussing Felix Baumgartner's future attempt to free fall from 120,000 feet. Why is the build up of heat upon reentry not an issue, if he is expected to reach 700 plus miles per hour? Replies: It might be, but I am sure that has been taken into account. Here are some procedures that might be keep him from turning into a crisp. At high altitude the density of air is low so there would little resistance to avoid heating. I presume he will be outfitted with a heat resistant suit of some sort and a number of sensors to monitor temperature, pressure, and descent speed. As atmospheric pressure increases, his "jump" gear is probably fitted with devices to slow the rate of descent. I would guess the devices would be more complicated than a simple parachute, at least at high rates of fall, but some sort of "parachute" nonetheless to control his descent rate. In addition, I would guess he also has some sort of controllers to keep him from tumbling. At the high speed tumbling could be a worse issue than just speed. With some sort of foils (wings??) he could possibly move around in circles and glide at the same altitude. This would give him time to dissipate the heat. Basically, he would be a glider, dropping in a controlled spiral. He could control the "pitch" of the screw trajectory. Of course, some sort of breathing apparatus would have to be part of his apparatus.

430

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Photon Mass and Gravitation Photon Mass and Gravitation Name: James Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: A sun has mass. This mass causes it to collapse on itself, forming heavier and heavier elements. Eventually the sun will collapse and cause a black hole to form. The Earth also has a mass and gravity also tries to make the Earth collapse like the sun. The Earth however does not collapse like the sun. This occurs because of the quantum mechanical phenomenon known as Pauli's exclusion principle. The Pauli exclusion principle says that two electrons with the same spin state cannot occupy the same quantum orbital state. This prevents the earth from collapsing on itself. A photon has energy using Plank's E=hf equation. Using Einstein's E=mc^2 equation a photon has a relative mass. This relative mass will produce a force known as gravity. This force is explained through Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Now why does a photon not collapse like the earth? Is there a principle similar to Pauli's exclusion principle that keeps a photon from collapsing? My question is what force combats the gravity of a photon, so that the photon does not collapse on itself and from a black hole like the sun.

431

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Electrical Transmission and Grounding Electrical Transmission and Grounding Name: Jose Status: educator Grade: 12+ Country: Portugal Date: Spring 2012 Question: NOTE: Normally we do not except multiple questions even on the same topic. These series of questions are closely related and the responding scientist has chosen to answer them sparately. The individula questions are followed by their answers. Replies: I have the following electric Power grid questions: Utility poles have a grounded wire. Is this just for lightening? ------------Lightning cables are about a quarter inch in diameter and are sometimes attached to utility poles. Sometimes a small cable may be a ground wire for some auxiliary service like fiber optic cable or telephone. Is not connected the neither one of the 3 phase wires, is it? -----------You have to look at the area to see if it is connected. Depending on what the cable is for, I doubt you would find it connected to one of the three phase wires Or else it would not be at ground level where people could touch it or power could leak to ground.

432

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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communications equipment. I am a specialist in the electrical design of switchmode power electronics and ultrasonic fuel oil atomization systems. Since April 2008 I took...

433

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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and Venus Conjunction Name: Mahdi Status: student Grade: 9-12 Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: So, the past few weeks I have been observing what I am pretty sure are...

434

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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Polycarbonate and Salt Water Name: Stephanie Status: other Grade: 9-12 Country: Canada Date: Fall 2011 Question: Why is it hard for salt water to adsorb into sodium polycarbonate?...

435

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

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high tech industry is congruent to the Internet, where the Internet is a network of computers. These computers have the capabilities of extreme number crunching or complex...

436

May 22, 2011 Joplin, MO Tornado Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... (residential or small business) or FEMA 361 (community) safe room ... (Sources: Joplin/Jasper County Emergency Management Agency and FEMA) ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

Orthosiphon  

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NEWTON's HOME PAGE Privacy Policy NEWTON, Ask A Scientist Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Office of Science NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON Home Page...

438

Dogs panting to stay cool  

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NEWTON's HOME PAGE Privacy Policy NEWTON, Ask A Scientist Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Office of Science NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON Home Page...

439

Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB) ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of future of gov Network 2020/MTIPS/TIC Earl Crane, Director for Federal Cybersecurity, National Security Staff, The White House Tim Polk ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

440

NETL: Utilization Projects - Novel Materials Development Using...  

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include: (1) Characterize different fractions of gasification byproducts from the Polk Power plant from a materials development point of view. These characterization studies...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D R.L. Polk & Co. , 2006. Hybrid Vehicle Registrations Morecapital cost of the hybrid vehicle, subsidy providedfor the hybrid vehicle, horsepower of the hybrid vehicle,

Axsen, Jonn; Mountain, Dean C.; Jaccard, Mark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Step-by-Step Instructions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Johnson Pike Woodruff Cross Lafayette Poinsett Yell Dallas Lawrence Polk Windows Insulation Foundation Fenestration U-Factor Skylight U-Factor Glazed Fenestration SHGC Ceiling...

443

Step-by-Step Instructions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phelps York Dakota Hooker Pierce Dawes Howard Platte Dawson Jefferson Polk Windows Insulation Foundation Fenestration U-Factor Skylight U-Factor Glazed Fenestration SHGC Ceiling...

444

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1867: Draft Environmental Assessment RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida...

445

Report-DocumentControl-SENT.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas). 4 Table of Contents Title Page ......

446

Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion batteries at elevated temperatures. Author(s), Dawei Liu, Jasper Wright, Wei...

447

FPLO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 7, 2007 ... R. Gumeniuk, W. Schnelle, H. Rosner, M. Nicklas, A. Leithe-Jasper, Yu Grin, " Superconductivity in the Platinum Germanides MPt_4Ge_12...

448

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Corning City of Corning 7 IC 6 IN Jasper ... Forest Creek Wind Farm LLC ... Hawaii Hawi Renewable Development LLC Hawi Wind Farm V-47 Niagara

449

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Review at the Nevada...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

air filters. The Board members and staff toured CEF, DAF, and the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) facility. Additional discussions of subcritical...

450

Arrowheads  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fine- grained silicates such as hornstone, chalcedony, agate, jasper, and especially, flint. This dark gray or black rock was found in southern Illinois, Indiana and the Ozarks...

451

Microsoft Word - DSQ Fall 2009_26oct09  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

readiness activities which were already planned for achieving Hazard Category 3 non-reactor nuclear facility status. JASPER experiments are planned to resume in the fourth...

452

PROSPERITY IN SOUTH CAROLINA: AN ANALYSIS OF 46 COUNTIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

95 Horry 114 26 Newberry 95 Jasper 86 27 Clarendon 95 Kershaw 99 28 Saluda 94 Lancaster 97 29Cormick 91 33 McCormick 91 Marion 89 34 Union 91 Marlboro 76 35 Fairfield 90 Newberry 95 36 Marion 89 Oconee Orangeburg 96 Hampton 90 25 Cherokee 95 Horry 112 26 Fairfield 95 Jasper 94 27 Newberry 95 Kershaw 100 28

Bolding, M. Chad

453

The Design, Fabrication, and Calibration of a Micro-Newton Thrust Measurement Stand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Miniature electric thrusters have been in development for decades for use in space applications such as satellite station keeping and propulsion. The development of these (more)

Woldtvedt, Jack T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Name Num. Grid 159 South Newton St 0758 B -1, B -2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mech. Building 0178 C - 2 Central Food Storage 2122 E - 6 Central Heating Plant 1 1620 C - 3 Central Heating Plant 2 1618 C - 3 Central Office Supply 0103 E - 0 Ceramics 2131 D - 4 Chapel 0022 C - 1 Hall 0044 C - 1 District Energy Plant #1 0741 B - 2 District Energy Plant #2 1617 C - 3, D - 3 Drawing

Hall, Daniel

455

An investigation of induced drag minimization using a Newton-Krylov algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

eventually be solved by alternative fuels such as hydrogen, bio-kerosene, and coal-based kerosene (provided that carbon from the coal is sequestered); however, when production emissions are included, these alternative efficiency may be possible by considering un- conventional configurations, such as the often cited blended

Zingg, David W.

456

A dual Newton strategy for the efficient solution of sparse quadratic ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost function on each stage consists of a positive definite second-order term 0 ? Hk ...... Control in Offshore Oil and Gas Production, Trondheim, Norway,.

457

A Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method for mortar-discretized thermomechanical contact problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multibody contact problems are common within the field of multiphysics simulation. Applications involving thermomechanical contact scenarios are also quite prevalent. Such problems can be challenging to solve due to the likelihood of thermal expansion ... Keywords: Mortar finite element method, Pellet cladding interaction, Reactor fuel performance, Reactor multiphysics simulation, Thermomechanical contact

Glen Hansen

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

A Full-Newton Step O(n) Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for Linear ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 5, 2005 ... most O(n) (inner) iterations suffice to reduce the duality gap and the ... that further investigation will improve the above bound to O(?n).

459

A New Full-Newton step O (n) Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

++ denote the set of vectors with n components, the set of nonnegative vector and ... respectively. ri(C) denotes the relative interior of a convex set C. I denotes n...

460

A Full-Newton Step O(n) Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for Linear ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

most O(n) (inner) iterations suffice to reduce the duality gap and the residuals ... It is conjectured that further investigation will improve the above bound to O(?n).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, DivisionOffice of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, DivisionOffice of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Division

Simon, Horst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

An Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm with full-Newton Step for ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science,. Delft University of Technology,. P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.

463

F. Newton Hays, 1969 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

& Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S....

464

Name Num. Grid 159 South Newton St 0758 B -1, B -2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlton Street Deck 1110 B - 4 CCRC 2419 E - 7 Center for Applied Isotope Study 2127 E - 6 Central Campus and Geology 1002 C - 3 G Geology Hydrothermal Lab 0090 C - 2 Georgia Center for Cont Ed 1640 B - 3, B - 4

Hall, Daniel

465

A pattern of light : a new library for Newton and an analysis of the building type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural light can add clarity to the organization of buildings by distinguishing areas of occupation with varying quantities and qualities of illumination. Libraries are good to study in this regard because of their varying ...

Flavin, Colin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A NOTE ON PAN'S SECOND-ORDER QUASI-NEWTON UPDATES ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANL-5990 Rev,Argonne. National Laboratories,Argonne,III, 1959. [3] AVRIEL,M. Nolinear programming: Analysis and methods, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood.

467

A quasi-Newton strategy for the sSQP method for variational ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From the fact that Mj+1 = ??,Lj (Mj) and Nj ? Lj, by (36) we have that. D?(Nj,Mj+ 1) ..... Using this property, we conclude that the convergence rate of the primal.

468

Gilbert Newton Lewis: his influence on physical-organic chemists at Berkeley  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the historical contributions of Gilbert N. Lewis to science and a discussion of the influence of Lewis on the research of the members of the physical-organic staff at Berkeley, including Melvin Calvin, during the twenties, thirties and forties. Some specific examples are discussed. Also, the effect of Lewis, his science and administrative concepts in the creation of excellence in a department of chemistry are reviewed.

Calvin, M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

NETL: Gasification Systems - High Temperature Syngas Cleanup...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

construct the project and sequester the CO2. The Polk Power Station, an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, will supply a portion of its coal-derived syngas...

470

CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

RURAL RID GE ROWSBUR G SH ERRETT MON AC A QUEEN JUN CTION YELLOW CR EEK SMELTZ ER CAT FISH R UN POLK E JEROMESVILLE N FLORENCE-FIVE POINTS ATEN CLARINGTON MILLERSBURG...

471

Clean Cities Now, Vol. 11, No. 2; Official Publication of Clean Cities and the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Newsletter)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Package Allows Clean Cities to Examine Alternative Fuel Industry Data Package Allows Clean Cities to Examine Alternative Fuel Industry in Detail To help determine the most effec- tive locations for alternative fueling infrastructure, Clean Cities ac- quired access to the Vehicles in Operation Database, a comprehen- sive statistics package published by reputable automotive data collection agency R.L. Polk & Co. Polk's Vehicles in Operation Data- base offers a clear view of the alternative fuel playing field. Its

472

Audit Report: OAS-L-12-05 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 Audit Report: OAS-L-12-05 April 23, 2012 The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility at the Nevada National Security Site The Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA), Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) facility plays an integral role in the certification of the Nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. In February 2009, JASPER, located at the Nevada National Security Site, discontinued operations and all JASPER experiments with Special Nuclear Materials ceased when an abnormal amount of contamination was identified as a result of an alpha plutonium experiment. Our review disclosed NNSA returned the JASPER Facility to full operational status within the budgeted cost and schedule milestones

473

Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Jasper County Coop Pleasant Ridge Elevator. Daily use of the track consists of an Amtrak train into and out of Chicago, eight through freight trains and two local freight...

474

EA 1517: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment EA 1517: Final Environmental Assessment Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S....

475

Best of the Canadian RoCkies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to beautiful Moraine Lake; the crystal-clear lake is nestled in the Valley of the Ten Peaks. Return to your adventure on the Athabasca River led by Rocky Mountain River Guides; and a trip on the Jasper Tramway

Connor, Ed

476

Gemstones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pd to Pt/R. Source: no mine known, but rock crystal depositsMK/2IP. Source: no mine known, but granitic rocks with largeSource: no mine known, but red jasper is commonly associated with metavolcanic rocks

Harrell, James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Accumulation and Metabolism of Halogenated Compounds in Sea Turtles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 35-46. JewellLexington, KY: The University of Kentucky Press, xi- xxx.Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 35-46. Jaspers

Richardson, Kristine Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

100th shot for LLNL's 'gun in the desert'  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09262012 | NR-12-09-04 100th shot for LLNL's 'gun in the desert' Robert H Hirschfeld, LLNL, (925) 422-2379, hirschfeld2@llnl.gov Printer-friendly The JASPER two-stage gas gun, as...

479

Tafelbild der Vorlesung im SoSe 2004 gehalten von  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Kapitel 10 ¨Ubungen > # The Newton Approximation set for kubic > # > newton3 := proc( x, y) > local z, m

Nagler, Jan

480

Numerical simulation of four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics in dynamically adaptive curvilinear coordinates via Newton-Krylov-Schwarz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of the four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with hyper-resistivity terms present a difficult challenge because of demanding spatial resolution requirements. A time-dependent sequence of r-refinement adaptive ... Keywords: Dynamically adaptive grid, Equidistribution principle, MHD, Magnetic reconnection, Monge-Ampre equation, Monge-Kantorovich optimization, NKS, Structured grid, r-Refinement

Xuefei Yuan; Stephen C. Jardin; David E. Keyes

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "newton jasper polk" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

DRAFT * DRAFT * DRAFT * April 15, 1997, 3:28pm * DRAFT * DRAFT * DRAFT Isaac Newton Institute Preprint NI96014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ricity, this special vortex theory supplies what appears to be the most symmetrical and -2- #12 in order to bring it to rest in the rotating framework, the kinetic component of the energy function takes to omit from our discussion the vertical components and associated potential energy, but we further

482

XMM-Newton observations of the late-stage merger-remnant galaxies NGC 3921 and NGC 7252  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the high sensitivity of XMM, we have studied the X-ray emission of the two proto-typical late-stage merger remnants, NGC 3921 and NGC 7252. In the case of NGC 7252, this is complemented by archival Chandra data. We investigate the nature of the discrete X-ray point source populations and the hot diffuse gas components in these two galaxies, and compare them in the light of their different merger ages and histories. We detect 3 candidate ultra-luminous X-ray point sources in NGC 3921 and at least 6 in NGC 7252, for which we have high spatial resolution Chandra data. These have luminosities ranging from \\~1.4x10^39-10^40 erg s^-1 (for H_0= 75 km s-1 Mpc^-1). We expect these ULXs to be high mass X-ray binaries, associated with the recent star formation in these two galaxies. Extended hot gas is observed in both galaxies. We have sufficient counts in the XMM data to fit two-component hot plasma models to their X-ray spectra and estimate the X-ray luminosities of the hot diffuse gas components to be 2.75x10^40 erg s^-1 and 2.09x10^40 erg s^-1 in NGC 3921 and NGC 7252, respectively. These luminosities are low compared with the luminosities observed in typical mature elliptical galaxies LX ~10^(41-42) erg s^-1), into which these merger remnants are expected to evolve. We do not see evidence that the X-ray halos of these galaxies are currently being regenerated to the masses and luminosities seen in typical elliptical galaxies. The mass of atomic gas available to fall back into the main bodies of these galaxies and shock-heat to X-ray temperatures is insufficient for this to be the sole halo regeneration mechanism. We conclude that halo regeneration is most likely a long-term (>10 Gyr) process, occurring predominantly via mass loss from evolving stars, in a sub-sonic outflow stage commencing ~2 Gyr after the merging event.

L. A. Nolan; T. J. Ponman; A. M. Read; Francois Schweizer

2004-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Pioneer 10 and 11 orbit determination analysis shows no discrepancy with Newton-Einstein's laws of gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work describes the investigation of the navigation anomaly of Pioneer 10 and 11 probes which became known as the Pioneer Anomaly. It appeared as a linear drift in the Doppler data received by the spacecraft, which has been ascribed to an approximately constant sunward acceleration of about $8.5 \\times 10^{-13} km/s^2$. Since then, the existence of the anomaly has been confirmed independently by several groups and a large effort was devoted to find its origin. The present study consists of two main parts: thermal modeling of the spacecraft throughout its trajectory, and orbit determination analysis. Based on existing documentation and published telemetry data we built a thermal finite element model of the spacecraft, whose complexity has been constrained to a degree allowing for sensitivity analysis, leading to the computation of its formal uncertainty. The trajectory analysis and orbit determination was carried out using NASA/JPL's ODP (Orbit Determination Program) and our results show that orbital solutions may be achieved that do not require the addition of any "unknown" acceleration other than the one of thermal origin.

Dario Modenini; Paolo Tortora

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

484

Microsoft Word - 10.5.11 Markup by Hargis Final EA-RTI Syngas CCS Project.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

67 67 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for RTI INTERNATIONAL SCALE-UP OF HIGH- TEMPERATURE SYNGAS CLEANUP AND CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES, POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Energy Technology Laboratory October 2011 RTI Syngas Cleanup/Carbon Capture Final and Sequestration Project Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1867 N:\MYFILES\CORRESPONDENCE\LUSK, MARK\RTI-POLK EA\FONSI FINAL EA\10.5.11 MARKUP BY HARGIS FINAL EA-RTI SYNGAS CCS PROJECT.DOCX-101411 i October 2011 COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Final Environmental Assessment for RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (DOE/EA-1867)

485

Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership  

SciTech Connect

In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk initially released their findings. In this brief review, the team has looked at factors that might contribute to a consumer choosing to not purchase a hybrid; including the increase in manufacture s overall vehicle mpg and the percentage of the vehicle market owned by hybrids.

Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Some Butterflies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON's HOME PAGE Privacy Policy Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois Nature Bulletins Newton Home Page Introduction and Instructions Search Engine Table of Contents...

487

Contents 1 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Argon 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 Simple model of interacting Argon atoms........................... 2 2 A simple MD program 4 2.1 Newtons Equations of Motion................................ 6

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Hailstone Shape Name: Tim Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Country: South Africa Date: Fall 2011 Question:...

489

Green fur?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Green fur? Name: Michelle Spencer Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question:...

490

Nonstick and Laser-safe Gold Aids Laser Trapping of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... (A one-kilogram mass on the Earth's surface exerts a force of roughly 10 newtons. A piconewton is 0.000 000 000 001 newtons. ...

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

491

Cat under Food and Water Stress  

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Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Cat under Food and Water Stress Name: Nitin Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside...

492

Dog Evolution  

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Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Dog Evolution Name: amy w Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Are dogs...

493

Dog Smelling  

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Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Dog Smelling Name: mary Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: How do dogs smell?...

494

Dog vision  

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Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Dog vision Name: Michelangelo Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why can dogs...

495

Mange-infested Dog Bedding  

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NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Mange-infested Dog Bedding Name: Joan Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: NY Country: USA Date: Summer 2010...

496

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #467: April 30, 2007 Refueling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2002 170,018 221,027 0.77 2003 167,571 225,882 0.74 2004 167,346 231,398 0.72 2005 168,987 237,697 0.71 Sources: National Petroleum News Survey, 2005 The Polk Company, Detroit, MI....

497

The Tampa Electric Integrated Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A report on a project conducted jointly under a cooperative agreement between: The U.S. Department of Energy and Tampa Electric CompanyCover image: The Polk Power Plant site as seen from across the lake in early evening. Photography

An Update; Power Plant Description

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Constraints on the Velocity and Spatial Distribution of Helium-like Ions in the Wind of SMC X-1 from Observations with XMM-Newton/RGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here X-ray spectra of the HMXB SMC X-1 obtained in an observation with the XMM observatory beginning before eclipse and ending near the end of eclipse. With the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) on board XMM, we observe emission lines from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon. Though the resolution of the RGS is sufficient to resolve the helium-like n=2->1 emission into three line components, only one of these components, the intercombination line, is detected in our data. The lack of flux in the forbidden lines of the helium-like triplets is explained by pumping by ultraviolet photons from the B0 star and, from this, we set an upper limit on the distance of the emitting ions from the star. The lack of observable flux in the resonance lines of the helium-like triplets indicate a lack of enhancement due to resonance line scattering and, from this, we derive a new observational constraint on the distribution of the wind in SMC X-1 in velocity and coordinate space. We find that the solid angle subtended by the volume containing the helium-like ions at the neutron star multiplied by the velocity dispersion of the helium-like ions must be less than 4pi steradians km/s. This constraint will be satisfied if the helium-like ions are located primarily in clumps distributed throughout the wind or in a thin layer along the surface of the B0 star.

Patrick S. Wojdowski; Duane A. Liedahl; Timothy R. Kallman

2007-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

499

Disk-dominated States of 4U 1957+11: Chandra, XMM-Newton, and RXTE Observations of Ostensibly the Most Rapidly Spinning Galactic Black Hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present simultaneous Chandra High-Energy Transmission Gratings (HETG) and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of a "soft state" of the black hole candidate 4U 1957+11. These spectra, having limited hard X-ray ...

Nowak, Michael A.

500

Information transmittal and time uncertainty, measuring the speed of light and time of reflection, representations of Newton's second law and related problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some physical and computational aspects related to the intuitive notion of time in its connection with natural and technological processes are considered. The phenomenon of finite speed of information transmittal relative to measurement and computation ... Keywords: Forces with left higher order derivatives, Information transmittal, Measurements and computations, Mirror reflection, Time uncertainty, Variable mass

E. A. Galperin

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z