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  1. Jasper County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Jasper County, Illinois Hidalgo, Illinois Newton, Illinois Rose Hill, Illinois Ste. Marie, Illinois Wheeler, Illinois Willow Hill, Illinois Yale, Illinois Retrieved from...

  2. Fort Polk EEAP. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, R.D.; Scheuch, K.E.; Shishman, T.T.

    1986-07-17

    This Final Presentation provides a summary of the work done under Increments A, B, E, and G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for Fort Polk Louisiana. The work was accomplished under Contract DACA63-80-C-0166 plus modifications with the Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers. The vast majority of consumed energy at Fort Polk consists of electricity and natural gas. In FY75, Fort Polk used 48,399,000 kWh of electricity at a cost of $600,000. During that same period, 782,637 MCF of natural gas was purchased for $484,000. The total FY75 energy use was 1,368,327 MBtu.

  3. Jasper Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jasper Energy LLC Place: Harrison, New York Zip: 10528 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: String representation "Jasper Energy L ... greenpower)." is too...

  4. Jasper Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jasper Wind Place: Athens, Greece Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Athens-based wind and solar project developer. Coordinates: 37.97615,...

  5. Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 218-694-6241 Website: www.clearwater-polk.com Outage...

  6. Polk County, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 4 Climate Zone Subtype C. Registered Energy Companies in Polk County, Oregon Diesel Brewing Places in Polk County, Oregon Dallas, Oregon Eola, Oregon Falls City, Oregon...

  7. Polk County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IRFA Iowa Stored Energy Park Energy Generation Facilities in Polk County, Iowa Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Places in Polk County, Iowa Alleman, Iowa Altoona,...

  8. Polk Power Station Unit 1, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornick, M.

    2007-10-15

    Problems encountered during the demonstration phase of the Polk River IGCC plant have been resolved and the plant is now operating reliably.

  9. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  10. Polk-Burnett Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (800) 421-0283 Website: www.polkburnett.com Twitter:...

  11. Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Place: Nebraska Phone Number: (888) 242-5265 Website: www.pcrppd.com Outage...

  12. Village of Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Village of Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402.765.6471 Website: www.polkcounty.ne.gov Outage...

  13. Jasper County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype A. Registered Energy Companies in Jasper County, Indiana Iroquois Bio Energy Co LLC Places in Jasper County, Indiana Collegeville, Indiana De Motte, Indiana...

  14. Jasper County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Companies in Jasper County, Iowa Central Iowa Energy Places in Jasper County, Iowa Baxter, Iowa Colfax, Iowa Kellogg, Iowa Lambs Grove, Iowa Lynnville, Iowa Mingo, Iowa...

  15. Jasper Energy Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Pvt. Ltd. Place: Banglore, Karnataka, India Sector: Hydro Product: Banglore-based small hydro project developer. References: Jasper Energy Pvt. Ltd.1 This article is a...

  16. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Boyd, Brian K.; Horner, Jacob A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-11-17

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Polk, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Polk took place on February 16, 2010.

  17. Polk County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Missouri Halfway, Missouri Humansville, Missouri Morrisville, Missouri Pleasant Hope, Missouri Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePolkCounty,Missouri&...

  18. Polk County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 30.7150882, -94.8105955 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  19. Polk County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Nebraska: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.1526688, -97.5680595 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  20. Polk County, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Tennessee: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.1371578, -84.564147 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  1. Polk County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Arkansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.5268097, -94.1513764 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  2. Polk County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.0132398, -85.1479364 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  3. Polk City, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk City, Iowa: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.7713764, -93.7129997 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservic...

  4. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-09

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  5. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library JASPER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JASPER NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - JASPER The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility plays an integral role in the testing of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile by providing a method to generate and measure data pertaining to the properties of materials (radioactive chemical elements) at high shock pressures, temperatures and strain rates. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click

  7. Jasper County Rural E M C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jasper County Rural E M C Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jasper County Rural E M C Place: Indiana Phone Number: 1-888-866-7362 or 219-866-4601 Website: www.jasperremc.com...

  8. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  9. Jasper County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 4 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Jasper County, Missouri Airport Drive, Missouri Alba, Missouri Asbury, Missouri Avilla, Missouri Brooklyn Heights,...

  10. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC Project -- Project status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.E.

    1998-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 25 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located southeast of Tampa in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round III award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation in conjunction with a General Electric combined cycle with an advanced combustion turbine. This IGCC configuration demonstrates significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. It was placed into commercial operation on September 30, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update of actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall capacity, heat rate, and availability. Tests of four alternate feedstocks were conducted, and the resulting performance is compared to that achieved on their base coal. This paper also provides an update of the general operating experiences and shutdown causes of the gasification facility throughout 1997. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit will be addressed, as well as plans for future additional alternate fuel test burns.

  11. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station IGCC Project: Project Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.E.; Shelnut, C.A.; McDaniel, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    Over the last ten years, Tampa Electric Company (TEC) has taken the Polk Power Station from a concept to a reality. The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round III award. The Polk Power Station achieved first fire of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. It was placed in commercial operation on September 30, 1996. Since start-up in July, 1996, significant advances have occurred in the design and operation of the entire IGCC train. This presentation will feature an up-to-the-minute update of actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall capacity, heat rate, and availability. Several different coal feedstocks have been tested and the resulting performance will be compared to that achieved on the base coal. This paper also provides an update of the general operating experiences and shutdown causes of the gasification facility. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit will be addressed, as well as plans for future additional alternate fuel test burns.

  12. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  13. Geothermal heat pumps at Fort Polk: Early results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    At Fort Polk, LA an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) is being converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under a performance contract. At the same time other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow water outlets, and attic insulation are being installed. If these contracts and this technology are to be used widely in US Department of Defense (DoD) facilities and other public buildings, better data from actual projects is the key. Being the first GHP project of this type and size, Fort Polk proved to be very challenging for all concerned. To get from RFP to start of construction took several years. This hard work by others created a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to address many of the due diligence issues that delayed the Fort Polk project. So that future projects can move faster, an evaluation has been undertaken to address the following barriers: absence of a documented large-scale demonstration of GHP energy, demand, and maintenance savings (a barrier to acceptance by federal customers, performance contractors, and investors); newness of large-scale facility capital renewal procurements at federal facilities under energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) or traditional appropriations (lack of case studies); and variability in current GHP design tools (increases risks and costs for federal customers, performance contractors, investors and designers). This paper presents early energy and demand savings results based on data collection through January 1996.

  14. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station IGCC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase of its new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This unique project incorporates the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for electric power production. The project is being partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), as part of the Clean Coal Technology Program. This will help to demonstrate this state-of-the-art technology, providing utilities with the ability to use a wide range of coals in an efficient, environmentally superior manner. During the summer of 1994, TEC began site development at the new Polk Power Station. Since that time, most of the Site work has been completed, and erection and installation of the power plant equipment is well underway. This is the first time that IGCC technology will be installed at a new unit at a greenfield site. This is a major endeavor for TEC in that Polk Unit No. 1 is a major addition to the existing generating capacity and it involves the demonstration of technology new to utility power generation. As a part of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE, TEC will also be demonstrating the use of a new Hot Gas Clean-Up System which has a potential for greater IGCC efficiency.

  15. An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A

    1998-08-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M&V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHPS systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  16. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  17. EIS-0210: Tampa Electric Company-Polk Power Station (Adopted)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared this statement to fulfill its National Environmental Policy Act requirements with respect to the potential issuance of a permit to the Tampa Electric Company under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for the 1,150-MW Polk Power Station, a new pollutant source. The U.S. Department of Energy served as a cooperating agency in the development of this document due to its potential role to provide cost-shared financial assistance for a 260-MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle unit at the Power Station under its Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, and adopted the document by August 1994.

  18. Landform technology at fort polk, louisiana: lessons learned. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.L.; Grafton, J.D.; Mann, D.K.

    1992-03-01

    Fort Polk, LA, is located in central Vernon Parish in West-Central Louisiana, about 6 miles southeast of the town of Leesville. In early 1983, a combination of factors prompted Fort Polk to explore alternatives for disposing of sewage sludge and contaminated soil. Changes in Louisiana's Solid Waste Rules and Regulations ended the practice of disposing of contaminated soil in the installation's landfill. Changing regulations were also affecting the disposal of sewage sludge. The technology investigated in this research is landfarming, a treatment process in which waste is mixed with the surface soil and is degraded, transformed, or immobilized. The surface soil is used as the treatment medium and the process is based primarily on the principle of aerobic decomposition of organic wastes. Compared to other land disposal treatments such as landfills and surface impoundments, landfarming has the potential to reduce monitoring and maintenance costs, as well as cleanup liabilities. Because of these reduced costs and liabilities, and the relatively low initial and operating costs, landfarming has received much attention as an ultimate disposal alternative.

  19. JASPER Reaches Shot 125 Milestone; Future Looks Bright for More Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JASPER Reaches Shot 125 Milestone; Future Looks Bright for More Growth The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Research (JASPER) facility at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) features more than just one of the most powerful gas guns on the planet - it has quickly become an integral part of the Stockpile Stewardship program for the data it provides. Scientists from the National Laboratories use JASPER to conduct experiments, or "shots," that subject materials to extreme pressures and

  20. LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun Nevada Test Site, NV The National Nuclear Security Administration's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) successfully executes the first plutonium shot using the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun at NNSA's Nevada Test Site. LLNL scientists use the 100-foot, two-stage gas gun to fire a projectile at

  1. newton2.dvi

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method ∗ Weiguo Gao Department of Mathematics Fudan University Shanghai, China wggao@fudan.edu.cn Chao Yang and Juan Meza Computational Research Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 {cyang,jcmeza}@lbl.gov July 6, 2009 Abstract We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the

  2. Methodology for the evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.; White, D.L.; Huang, H.L.

    1998-03-01

    The US Army and a private energy service company are developing a comprehensive energy efficiency project to upgrade the family housing at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The project includes converting the space conditioning systems of more than 4,000 housing units to geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps (GHPs). This interim report describes the methodology of the evaluation associated with this project, including the field monitoring that has been conducted at the base.

  3. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) Fort Polk airfield lighting; lighting retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing lighting types and levels at three different maintenance hangars (Buildings. No. 4262, No. 4295, and No. 4297) at Fort Polk and to make recommendations for the most economical and preferred new lighting fixtures, arrangements, and method of control. The Life Cycle Cost In Design (LCCID) program was used to determine the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) for the analyzed retrofit for a 20 year study life.

  4. Geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Gordon, R.; Giffin, T.

    1997-08-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk ESPC was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the ESPC has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other ESPCs in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the ESPC was engineered and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the US Army) and the energy services company (ESCO) which is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, ESCOs and investors in the implementation of future ESPCs. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A; Gordon, Richard; Giffin, Tom

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorecent lights, low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6,761 kW, which is 40.2% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the energy savings performance contract has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk performance contract can provide a model for other contracts in both the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the contract was engineed and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the U.S. Army) and the energy services company that is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, service companies, and investors in the implementation of future service contracts. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and not to be mistaken for the 'contract' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in the indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  6. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  7. Orientation study in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karfunkel, B.S.

    1982-05-01

    An orientation study was conducted in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, west-central Florida, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. The study was conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). A total of 60 surface sites and 294 ground water sites were sampled. The study includes field data and neutron activation analyses for uranium and supplemental elements, as well as determination of helium by mass spectroscopy. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  8. Energy engineering analysis program, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Pre-final executive summary, increment `f`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-11-01

    Executive Order 12003, dated 19 July 1977, initiated the U.S. Army`s energy conservation effort. Specifically, the Executive Order led to the development of the Army Facilities Energy Plan which directs Army Staff and Major Army Commands to develop detailed implementation plans for energy conservation. As a result of these directives, the Fort Worth District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted for an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The EEAP included Increments `A`, `B`, `E`, and `O`.

  9. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Final executive summary, increment `f`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    Executive Order 12003, dated 19 July 1977, initiated the U.S. Army`s energy conservation effort. Specifically, the Executive Order led to the development of the Army Facilities Energy Plan which directs Army Staff and Major Army Commands to develop detailed implementation plans for energy conservation. As a result of these directives, the Fort Worth District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted for an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The EEAP included Increments `A`, `B`, `E`, and `G`. To accomplish the intent of Increment `P`, namely, providing low cost/no cost energy savings recommendations in the form of specific, practical instructions for use by the Facility Engineer, the following general steps were taken: (1) Consider treasures identified in Detailed Scope of Work. (2) identify other potential Low Cost/No Cost energy Conservation Measures (ECM) through discussions with Fort Polk personnel and field surveys by Graham Associates engineers. (3) Review Increments `A`, `B`, and `G` for ECM`s within the Facility Engineer`s funding authority; $200,000 for alteration projects and $1,000,000 for maintenance and repair type work. (4) Evaluate ECM`s using relevant data for other Increments of the ESAP, and develop new data where appropriate.

  10. Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project in Fort Polk's Utility Bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    Federal agencies have implemented many energy efficiency projects over the years with direct funding or alternative financing vehicles such as energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). While it is generally accepted that these projects save energy and costs, the savings are usually not obvious in the utility bills. This is true for many valid technical reasons, even when savings are verified in other ways to the highest degree of certainty. However, any perceived deficiency in the evidence for savings is problematic when auditors or other observers evaluate the outcome of energy projects and the achievements of energy management programs. This report discusses under what circumstances energy savings should or should not be evident in utility bills. In the special case of a large ESPC project at the Army's Fort Polk, the analysis of utility bills carried out by the authors does unequivocally confirm and quantify savings. The data requirements and methods for arriving at definitive answers through utility bill analysis are demonstrated in our discussion of the Fort Polk project. The following paragraphs address why the government generally should not expect to see savings from ESPC projects in their utility bills. We also review lessons learned and best practices for measurement and verification (M&V) that can assure best value for the government and are more practical, straightforward, and cost-effective than utility bill analysis.

  11. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  12. Energy Engineering Analysis Program - Fort Polk, Louisiana. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-03-01

    The CRS Group, Inc. is pleased to submit this Final Report covering Increments A, B, E, and G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for Fort Polk, Louisiana work accomplished under Contract DACA63-80-C-0166 plus modifications with the Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers. The work presented in these volumes presents the results in which 32 energy conserving measures (ECM`s) have been investigated for ECIP potential for Increments A (existing buildings including Family Housing) and B (existing utilities and energy distribution systems and a centralized Energy Monitoring and Control System-EMCS). Additionally, five scenarios for implementation of a Central Energy Plant (CEP) were studied under Increment E and an analysis of using waste POL as a fuel source in three scenarios was made. Four projects were analyzed under Increment G to identify additional energy savings.

  13. The evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents an independent evaluation of an energy retrofit of 4,003 family housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana, under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Replacement of the heating, cooling, and water heating systems in these housing units with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) anchored the retrofit; low-flow shower heads and compact fluorescent lighting were also installed, as well as attic insulation where needed. Statistically valid findings indicate that the project will save 25.8 million kWh, or 32.5% of the pre-retrofit whole-community electrical consumption, and 100% of the whole-community natural gas previously used for space conditioning and water heating (260,000 therms) in a typical meteorological year. At the end-use level, the GHPs were found to save about 42% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption for heating, cooling, and water heating in housing units that were all-electric in the pre-retrofit period. This report also demonstrates an improved method of predicting energy savings. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-retrofit energy use data collected in the field, the method predicted actual energy savings on one of the electric feeders at Fort Polk with a very high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of this model was in turn dependent on data-calibrated models of the geothermal heat pump and ground heat exchanger that are described in this report. In addition this report documents the status of vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (BHEx) design methods at the time this project was designed, and demonstrates methods of using data collected from operating GHP systems to benchmark BHEx design methods against a detailed engineering model calibrated to date. The authors also discuss the ESPC`s structure and implementation and how the experience gained here can contribute to the success of future ESPCs.

  14. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  15. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  16. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station Unit Number 1. Annual report, January--December, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report satisfies the requirements of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-91MC27363, novated as of March 5, 1992, to provide an annual update report on the year`s activities associated with Tampa Electric Company`s 250 MW IGCC demonstration project for the year 1993. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Approximately 50% of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 900 F and passed through a moving bed of zinc-based sorbent which removes sulfur containing compounds from the syngas. The remaining portion of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 400 F for conventional acid gas removal. Sulfur-bearing compounds from both cleanup systems are sent to a conventional sulfuric acid plant to produce a marketable, high-purity sulfuric acid by-product. The cleaned medium-BTU syngas from these processes is routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the combustion section of the combustion turbine. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam at three pressure levels for use throughout the integrated process. A highly modular, microprocessor-based distributed control system (DCS) is being developed to provide continuous and sequential control for most of the equipment on PPS-1.

  17. Newton's Method Juan C. Meza March

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Newton's Method Juan C. Meza March 15, 2010 Abstract Newton's method is one of the most powerful techniques for solving systems of nonlinear equations and minimizing functions. It is easy to implement and has a provably fast rate of convergence under fairly mild assumptions. Because of these and other nice properties, Newton's method is at the heart of many solution techniques used to solve real-world problems. This article, gives a short introduction to this method with a brief discussion of

  18. City of Newton Falls, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Newton Falls Place: Ohio Website: ci.newtonfalls.oh.us Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCity-of-Newton-Falls...

  19. Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    The results of five practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.

  20. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  1. QER- Comment of Elizabeth Newton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Massachusetts resident, I am writing to oppose the Kinder Morgan/TGP Northeast Energy Natural gas pipeline in Massachusetts. The proposed pipeline path runs through hundreds of private properties and through some of the state's most sensitive eco-systems and would be paid for through new tariffs on our electric bills. Studies conducted by Black & Veatch show that if current levels of state energy efficiency programs continue, there is no need for additional natural gas infrastructure even with economic growth taken into account, yet ISO New England and NESCOE are calling for more pipeline capacity. Natural gas has done it's "bridge" work. With renewables phasing in at an unprecedented rate, adding more natural gas would now take is in the wrong direction for achieving the state's greenhouse gas emissions goals – based on CO2 output alone. Natural gas is also primarily methane, a greenhouse gas over 80 times more powerful than CO2 in the short term, over 20 times more in the long term. When a full accounting of methane's impact is taken into account, studies show that it has no benefit over coal or oil in reducing greenhouse gas effects. We are standing at the far end, having crossed the natural gas "bridge" to a clean energy economy. It's time to step forward into that future we've been building. Thank you. Elizabeth Newton

  2. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  3. Health assessment for Cedartown Industries, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD95840674. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-29

    The Cedartown Industries, Inc. site has been proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The 7-acre site is located in Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, in the northwest part of the State. In 1986, one sediment sample from an on-site impoundment and two soil samples (one background) were collected on-site and analyzed by EPD. Only Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity testing was performed on these samples. The test which measures the concentration of leachate generated from the soil showed leachate with lead concentrations up to 720 parts per million (ppm) and cadmium concentrations up to 1.4 ppm. Based on the information reviewed, ATSDR has concluded that the site is of potential public health concern because humans may be exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section above, human exposure to lead may occur via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with surface water, sediments, soils, ground water, air, and food-chain entities.

  4. Estimated maintenance cost savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all the equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  5. Newton County Rural E M C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newton County Rural E M C Jump to: navigation, search Name: Newton County Rural E M C Place: Indiana Phone Number: 219.474.6224 or (219) 297-3118 Website: www.newtoncountyremc.com...

  6. Newton County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Newton County, Georgia Covington, Georgia Mansfield, Georgia Newborn, Georgia Oxford, Georgia Porterdale, Georgia Social Circle, Georgia Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Low-risk and cost-effective prior savings estimates for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, the authors have collected energy use data which allowed them to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. They believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was totaled, and by adjusting thermostat setpoints and outdoor air infiltration parameters, the models were matched to field-collected energy consumption data for the entire feeder. The energy conservation measures were then implemented in the calibrated model: the air source heat pumps were replaced by geothermal heat pumps with desuperheaters; hot water loads were reduced to account for the low-flow shower heads; and lighting loads were reduced to account for fixture delamping and replacement with compact fluorescent lights. The analysis of pre- and post-retrofit data indicates that the retrofits have saved 30.3% of pre-retrofit electrical energy consumption on the feeder modeled in this paper.

  8. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  9. Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be

  10. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of

  11. Newton County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    169-2006 Climate Zone Number 5 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Newton County, Indiana Brook, Indiana Goodland, Indiana Kentland, Indiana Lake Village, Indiana Morocco, Indiana...

  12. Newton, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newton, New Hampshire: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.8695335, -71.0345018 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  13. Low-Risk and Cost-Effective Prior Savings Estimates for Large-Scale Energy Conservation Projects in Housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: military housing, federally-subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers) to name a few. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. More accurate prior estimates reduce project risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction legal disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana, we have collected energy use data - both at the electrical feeder level and at the level of individual residences - which allowed us to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. We believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects, particularly in cases where the energy consumption of large populations of housing can be captured on one or a few meters. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The feeder serves 46 buildings containing a total of 200 individual apartments. Of the 46 buildings, there are three unique types, and among these types the only difference is compass orientation. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was totaled, and by adjusting thermostat setpoints and outdoor air infiltration parameters, the models were matched to field-collected energy consumption data for the entire feeder. The energy conservation measures were then implemented in the calibrated model: the air source heat pumps were replaced by geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) with desuperheaters; hot water loads were reduced to account for the low-flow shower heads; and lighting loads were reduced to account for fixture delamping and replacement with compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). Our analysis of pre- and post-retrofit data (Shonder and Hughes, 1997) indicates that the retrofits have saved 30.3% of pre-retrofit electrical energy consumption on the feeder modeled in this paper. Using the method outlined, we have been able to predict this savings within 0.1% of its measured value, using only pre-construction energy consumption data, and data from one pilot test site. It is well-known that predictions of savings from energy conservation programs are often optimistic, especially in the case of residential retrofits. Fels and keating (1993) cite several examples of programs which achieved as little as 20% of the predicted energy savings. Factors which influence the sometimes large discrepancies between actual and predicted savings include changes in occupancy, take-back effects (in which more efficient system operation leads occupants to choose higher levels of comfort), and changes in base energy use (e.g. through purchase of additional appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers). An even larger factor, perhaps, is the inaccuracy inherent in the engineering models (BLAST, DOE-2, etc.) commonly used to estimate building energy consumption, if these models are not first calibrated to site-monitored data. For example, prior estimates of base-wide savings from the Fort Polk ESPC were on the order of 40% of pre-retrofit electrical use; our analysis has shown the true savings for the entire project (which includes 16 separate electrical feeders) to be about 32%. It should be noted that the retrofits ca

  14. Mitchellville, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mitchellville is a city in Jasper County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  15. Newton's Method (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Newton's Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Newton's Method Radajaxpanel1,ActiveElement,btnRADUpload; Authors: Meza, Juan C. Publication Date: 2010-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 983171 Report Number(s): LBNL-3311E TRN: US201014%%580 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (US) Sponsoring Org: Computational Research Division Country of Publication: United States Language:

  16. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Mid-South Wood Products, Polk County, Arkansas, November 1986. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    The Mid-South Wood Products site is located in Polk County, Arkansas, approximately 1/2 mile southwest of Mena, Arkansas. The 57-acre site includes the following areas: the Old Plant site, the Small Old Pond and Old Pond areas, the North and South Landfarms, the landfill, Clear Lake and an existing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment plant. The Old Plant site was used to treat wood with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote; the Small Old Pond was the original impoundment for waste PCP and creosote. These two areas have been covered with soil. The Old Pond area was used to store PCP and creosote sludge and has since been graded and covered with soil; materials from the Old Pond were spread over the Landfarm areas and mixed into the soil; the Landfill area contains deposits of sawdust, woodchips, and other waste-wood products; Clear Lake receives runoff from all the above areas; the CCA treatment plant contains an ongoing wood-treating operation where the surface drainage from the plant is put in sumps.

  18. Estimating the Energy, Demand and Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC Project at Fort Polk, LA Through Utility Bill Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are a method of financing energy conservation projects using the energy cost savings generated by the conservation measures themselves. Ideally, reduced energy costs are visible as reduced utility bills, but in fact this is not always the case. On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of individual buildings. Savings from an ESPC involving only a small number of these buildings will have little effect on the overall utility bill. In fact, changes in mission, occupancy, and energy prices could cause substantial increases in utility bills. For this reason, other, more practical, methods have been developed to measure and verify savings in ESPC projects. Nevertheless, increasing utility bills--when ESPCs are expected to be reducing them--are problematic and can lead some observers to question whether savings are actually being achieved. In this paper, the authors use utility bill analysis to determine energy, demand, and cost savings from an ESPC project that installed geothermal heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The savings estimates for the first year after the retrofits were found to be in substantial agreement with previous estimates that were based on submetered data. However, the utility bills also show that electrical use tended to increase as time went on. Since other data show that the energy use in family housing has remained about the same over the period, the authors conclude that the savings from the ESPC have persisted, and increases in electrical use must be due to loads unassociated with family housing. This shows that under certain circumstances, and with the proper analysis, utility bills can be used to estimate savings from ESPC projects. However, these circumstances are rare and over time the comparison may be invalidated by increases in energy use in areas unaffected by the ESPC.

  19. DOE/EA-1517: Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana (April 2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-04-29

    Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funding available to support a proposal by the Iroquois Bio-energy Company (IBEC), an Indiana limited liability company, to construct a fuel ethanol plant in Jasper County, Indiana (the proposed plant). Congress has acknowledged the merit of this project by providing specific funding through DOE. Consequently, DOE proposes to provide partial funding to IBEC to subsidize the design and construction of the proposed plant (the Proposed Action). In accordance with DOE and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations, DOE is required to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE facilities, operations, and related funding decisions. The proposal to use Federal funds to support the project requires DOE to address NEPA requirements and related environmental documentation and permitting requirements. In compliance with NEPA (42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq.) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR section 1021.330) and procedures, this environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Action and a No Action Alternative.

  20. Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS, Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS, Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS We present a combined analysis of the X-ray emission of the Capella corona obtained with XMM-Newton RGS, Chandra HETGS, and LETGS. An improved atomic line database and a new

  1. F. Newton Hayes, 1969 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Newton Hayes, 1969 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1960's F. Newton Hayes, 1969 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Life Sciences: In recognition

  2. Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD: PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD: PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION We conducted a deep narrowband NB973 (FWHM = 200 A centered at 9755 A) survey of z = 7 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the

  3. Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid The purpose of the present document is to formulat Authors: Robert Nourgaliev ; Mark Christon ; Jozsef Bakosi Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1084677 Report Number(s): INL/EXT-13-28278 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC07-05ID14517 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sponsoring Org: DOE

  4. Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Newton-Krylov based P2 Projection Solver for Fluid × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  5. Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS, Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton RGS, Textit Chandra HETGS, and LETGS × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

  6. Newton-based optimization for Kullback-Leibler nonnegative tensor factorizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plantenga, Todd; Kolda, Tamara G.; Hansen, Samantha

    2015-04-30

    Tensor factorizations with nonnegativity constraints have found application in analysing data from cyber traffic, social networks, and other areas. We consider application data best described as being generated by a Poisson process (e.g. count data), which leads to sparse tensors that can be modelled by sparse factor matrices. In this paper, we investigate efficient techniques for computing an appropriate canonical polyadic tensor factorization based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence function. We propose novel subproblem solvers within the standard alternating block variable approach. Our new methods exploit structure and reformulate the optimization problem as small independent subproblems. We employ bound-constrained Newton andmore » quasi-Newton methods. Finally, we compare our algorithms against other codes, demonstrating superior speed for high accuracy results and the ability to quickly find sparse solutions.« less

  7. Department of Energy's Hurricane Response Chronology, as Referred...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...1 DOE staff help Sam Rayburn Powerhouse supply 5MW of power to the Jasper Newton Co-op ... The inactive plants have an aggregate capacity of 9.71 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd), ...

  8. Application of the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov Method to Nonlinear Acceleration of Transport Source Iteration in Slab Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana A. Knoll; H. Park; Kord Smith

    2011-02-01

    The use of the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method within the context of nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) of source iteration is explored. The JFNK method is a synergistic combination of Newton's method as the nonlinear solver and Krylov methods as the linear solver. JFNK methods do not form or store the Jacobian matrix, and Newton's method is executed via probing the nonlinear discrete function to approximate the required matrix-vector products. Current application of NDA relies upon a fixed-point, or Picard, iteration to resolve the nonlinearity. We show that the JFNK method can be used to replace this Picard iteration with a Newton iteration. The Picard linearization is retained as a preconditioner. We show that the resulting JFNK-NDA capability provides benefit in some regimes. Furthermore, we study the effects of a two-grid approach, and the required intergrid transfers when the higher-order transport method is solved on a fine mesh compared to the low-order acceleration problem.

  9. A good mass proxy for galaxy clusters with XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Hai-Hui; Jia, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yong; Li, Cheng-Kui; Song, Li-Ming; Xie, Fei

    2013-12-01

    We use a sample of 39 galaxy clusters at redshift z < 0.1 observed by XMM-Newton to investigate the relations between X-ray observables and total mass. Based on central cooling time and central temperature drop, the clusters in this sample are divided into two groups: 25 cool core clusters and 14 non-cool core clusters, respectively. We study the scaling relations of L {sub bol}-M {sub 500}, M {sub 500}-T, M {sub 500}-M {sub g}, and M {sub 500}-Y {sub X}, and also the influences of cool core on these relations. The results show that the M {sub 500}-Y {sub X} relation has a slope close to the standard self-similar value, has the smallest scatter and does not vary with the cluster sample. Moreover, the M {sub 500}-Y {sub X} relation is not affected by the cool core. Thus, the parameter of Y{sub X} may be the best mass indicator.

  10. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE NORTHWEST RADIO RELIC REGION IN A3667

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finoguenov, Alexis; Sarazin, Craig L.; Wik, Daniel R.; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E. E-mail: sarazin@virginia.ed E-mail: nakazawa@amaltha.phys.s.u-tokyo.j

    2010-06-01

    A3667 is the archetype of a merging cluster with radio relics. The northwest (NW) radio relic is the brightest cluster relic or halo known and is believed to be due to a strong merger shock. We have observed the NW relic for {approx}40 ks of net XMM-Newton time. We observe a global decline of temperature across the relic from 6 to 1 keV, similar to the Suzaku results. Our new observations reveal a sharp change of both temperature and surface brightness near the position of the relic. The increased X-ray emission on the relic can be equivalently well described by either a thermal or nonthermal spectral model. The parameters of the thermal model are consistent with a Mach number M{approx}2 shock and a shock speed of {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}. The energy content of the relativistic particles in the radio relic can be explained if they are (re)-accelerated by the shock with an efficiency of {approx}0.2%. Comparing the limit on the inverse Compton X-ray emission with the measured radio synchrotron emission, we set a lower limit to the magnetic field in the relic of 3 {mu}G. If the emission from the relic is nonthermal, this lower limit is in fact the required magnetic field.

  11. An XMM-Newton view of the radio galaxy 3C 411

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostrom, Allison; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2014-08-20

    We present the first high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 411. After fitting various spectral models, an absorbed double power-law (PL) continuum and a blurred relativistic disk reflection model (kdblur) are found to be equally plausible descriptions of the data. While the softer PL component (? = 2.11) of the double PL model is entirely consistent with that found in Seyfert galaxies (and hence likely originates from a disk corona), the additional PL component is very hard (? = 1.05); amongst the active galactic nucleus zoo, only flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) have such hard spectra. Together with the flat radio-spectrum displayed by this source, we suggest that it should instead be classified as an FSRQ. This leads to potential discrepancies regarding the jet inclination angle, with the radio morphology suggesting a large jet inclination but the FSRQ classification suggesting small inclinations. The kdblur model predicts an inner disk radius of at most 20 r {sub g} and relativistic reflection.

  12. Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods for aerodynamics problems : compressible and incompressible flows on unstructured grids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaushik, D. K.; Keyes, D. E.; Smith, B. F.

    1999-02-24

    We review and extend to the compressible regime an earlier parallelization of an implicit incompressible unstructured Euler code [9], and solve for flow over an M6 wing in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. While the parallelization philosophy of the compressible case is identical to the incompressible, we focus here on the nonlinear and linear convergence rates, which vary in different physical regimes, and on comparing the performance of currently important computational platforms. Multiple-scale problems should be marched out at desired accuracy limits, and not held hostage to often more stringent explicit stability limits. In the context of inviscid aerodynamics, this means evolving transient computations on the scale of the convective transit time, rather than the acoustic transit time, or solving steady-state problems with local CFL numbers approaching infinity. Whether time-accurate or steady, we employ Newton's method on each (pseudo-) timestep. The coupling of analysis with design in aerodynamic practice is another motivation for implicitness. Design processes that make use of sensitivity derivatives and the Hessian matrix require operations with the Jacobian matrix of the state constraints (i.e., of the governing PDE system); if the Jacobian is available for design, it may be employed with advantage in a nonlinearly implicit analysis, as well.

  13. XMM-NEWTON VIEW OF SWIFT J1834.9-0846 AND ITS MAGNETAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kargaltsev, O.; Pavlov, G. G.; Goegues, E.; Wachter, S.

    2012-09-20

    We report on the analysis of two XMM-Newton observations of the recently discovered soft gamma repeater Swift J1834.9-0846, taken in 2005 September and one month after the source went into outburst on 2011 August 7. We performed timing and spectral analyses on the point source as well as on the extended emission. We find that the source period is consistent with an extrapolation of the Chandra ephemeris reported earlier and the spectral properties remained constant. The source luminosity decreased to a level of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} following a decay trend of {proportional_to}t {sup -0.5}. Our spatial analysis of the source environment revealed the presence of two extended emission regions around the source. The first (region A) is a symmetric ring around the point source, starting at 25'' and extending to {approx}50''. We argue that region A is a dust scattering halo. The second (region B) has an asymmetrical shape extending between 50'' and 150'', and is detected both in the pre- and post-outburst data. We argue that this region is a possible magnetar wind nebula (MWN). The X-ray efficiency of the MWN with respect to the rotation energy loss is substantially higher than those of rotation-powered pulsars. The higher efficiency points to a different energy source for the MWN of Swift J1834.9-0846, most likely bursting activity of the magnetar, powered by its high magnetic field, B = 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} G.

  14. An investigation of Newton-Krylov algorithms for solving incompressible and low Mach number compressible fluid flow and heat transfer problems using finite volume discretization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, P.R.

    1995-10-01

    Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newton`s method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.

  15. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H.; Kayaci, S.; Ozel, M. E.; Sonbas, E.; Balman, S.

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  16. The 2-79 keV X-ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Chandra: a Fully Compton-Thick AGN (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The 2-79 keV X-ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Chandra: a Fully Compton-Thick AGN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The 2-79 keV X-ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Chandra: a Fully Compton-Thick AGN Authors: Arevalo, P. ; /Chile U., Catolica /Valparaiso U. ; Bauer, F. E. ; /Chile U., Catolica /Space Sci. Inst., Boulder ; Puccetti, S. ; /Rome

  17. An inexact Newton method for fully-coupled solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.; Walker, H.F.

    1997-02-01

    The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.

  18. Polk County, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Four Corners, Florida Frostproof, Florida Fussels Corner, Florida Gibsonia, Florida Haines City, Florida Highland City, Florida Highland Park, Florida Hillcrest Heights, Florida...

  19. Polk County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centuria, Wisconsin Clam Falls, Wisconsin Clayton, Wisconsin Clear Lake, Wisconsin Dresser, Wisconsin Eureka, Wisconsin Frederic, Wisconsin Garfield, Wisconsin Laketown,...

  20. Polk County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crookston, Minnesota East Grand Forks, Minnesota Erskine, Minnesota Fertile, Minnesota Fisher, Minnesota Fosston, Minnesota Gully, Minnesota Lengby, Minnesota McIntosh, Minnesota...

  1. Polk County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2686842, -82.1713632 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice...

  2. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk tomography and compton hump reverberation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C.; Lohfink, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Harrison, F. A.; Balokovic, M.; Matt, G.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-07-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  3. Spherically symmetric solutions, Newton's Law, and the infrared limit {lambda}{yields}1 in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandre, Jean; Pasipoularides, Pavlos

    2011-10-15

    In this note we examine whether spherically symmetric solutions in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity can reproduce Newton's Law in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1. We adopt the position that the auxiliary field A is independent of the space-time metric [J. Alexandre and P. Pasipoularides, Phys. Rev. D 83, 084030 (2011).][J. Greenwald, V. H. Satheeshkumar, and A. Wang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 12 (2010) 007.], and we assume, as in [A. M. da Silva, Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 055011 (2011).], that {lambda} is a running coupling constant. We show that under these assumptions, spherically symmetric solutions fail to restore the standard Newtonian physics in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1, unless {lambda} does not run, and has the fixed value {lambda}=1. Finally, we comment on the Horava and Melby-Thompson approach [P. Horava and C. M. Melby-Thompson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 064027 (2010).] in which A is assumed as a part of the space-time metric in the IR.

  4. The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; Paerels, F.B.S.; de Plaa, J.; Rasmussen, A.P.; de Vries, C.P.; /SRON, Utrecht

    2006-04-28

    Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  5. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE DWARF NOVA RU Peg IN QUIESCENCE: PROBE OF THE BOUNDARY LAYER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balman, Soelen; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Schlegel, Eric; Barrett, Paul E.; Szkody, Paula E-mail: patrick.godon@villanova.edu E-mail: juness@sciops.esa.int E-mail: barrett.paul@usno.navy.mil

    2011-11-10

    We present an analysis of X-ray and UV data obtained with the XMM-Newton Observatory of the long-period dwarf nova RU Peg. RU Peg contains a massive white dwarf (WD), possibly the hottest WD in a dwarf nova (DN), it has a low inclination, thus optimally exposing its X-ray emitting boundary layer (BL), and has an excellent trigonometric parallax distance. We modeled the X-ray data using XSPEC assuming a multi-temperature plasma emission model built from the MEKAL code (i.e., CEVMKL). We obtained a maximum temperature of 31.7 keV, based on the European Photon Imaging Camera MOS1, 2 and pn data, indicating that RU Peg has an X-ray spectrum harder than most DNe, except U Gem. This result is consistent with and indirectly confirms the large mass of the WD in RU Peg. The X-ray luminosity we computed corresponds to a BL luminosity for a mass accretion rate of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (assuming M{sub wd} = 1.3 M{sub sun}), in agreement with the expected quiescent accretion rate. The modeling of the O VIII emission line at 19 A as observed by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer implies a projected stellar rotational velocity v{sub rot}sin i = 695 km s{sup -1}, i.e., the line is emitted from material rotating at {approx}936-1245 km s{sup -1} (i {approx} 34 Degree-Sign -48 Degree-Sign) or about 1/6 of the Keplerian speed; this velocity is much larger than the rotation speed of the WD inferred from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrum. Cross-correletion analysis yielded an undelayed (time lag {approx} 0) component and a delayed component of 116 {+-} 17 s where the X-ray variations/fluctuations lagged the UV variations. This indicates that the UV fluctuations in the inner disk are propagated into the X-ray emitting region in about 116 s. The undelayed component may be related to irradiation effects.

  6. LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Shock physics experiments complement the ongoing subcritical experiment program at NTS as part of the NNSA's stockpile stewardship program to maintain the safety and reliability of ...

  7. On the use of finite difference matrix-vector products in Newton-Krylov solvers for implicit climate dynamics with spectral elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, Carol S.; Gardner, David J.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient solutions of global climate models require effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a step size governed by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability of the fastest time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton's method is applied to solve these systems. Each iteration of the Newton's method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but this Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite difference approximation which may introduce inaccuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral element shallow water dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model.

  8. On the use of finite difference matrix-vector products in Newton-Krylov solvers for implicit climate dynamics with spectral elements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Woodward, Carol S.; Gardner, David J.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient solutions of global climate models require effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a step size governed by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability of the fastest time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton's method is applied to solve these systems. Each iteration of the Newton's method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but thismore » Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite difference approximation which may introduce inaccuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral element shallow water dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model.« less

  9. On the Use of Finite Difference Matrix-Vector Products in Newton-Krylov Solvers for Implicit Climate Dynamics with Spectral Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, David; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Efficient solution of global climate models requires effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a time step dictated by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability governed by the fastest of the time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton s method is applied for these systems. Each iteration of the Newton s method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but this Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite-difference which may show a loss of accuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite-difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral-element based shallow-water dynamical-core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM).

  10. NUSTAR AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC5907 ULX1: A VANISHING ACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Sutton, A. D.; Zhang, W.

    2015-02-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ?5 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ?4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ?2 orders of magnitude or more during this ?4day window. We argue that this is likely due to a rapid rise in the mass accretion rate, rather than to a transition from an extremely obscured to an unobscured state. During the second epoch we observed the broadband 0.3-20.0keV X-ray luminosity to be (1.55 0.06) 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}, similar to the majority of the archival X-ray observations. The broadband X-ray spectrum obtained from the second epoch is inconsistent with the low/hard accretion state observed in Galactic black hole binaries, but is well modeled with a simple accretion disk model incorporating the effects of photon advection. This strongly suggests that when bright, NGC5907 ULX1 is a high-Eddington accretor.

  11. LoCuSS: A COMPARISON OF CLUSTER MASS MEASUREMENTS FROM XMM-NEWTON AND SUBARU-TESTING DEVIATION FROM HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-THERMAL PRESSURE SUPPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Smith, Graham P.; Sanderson, Alastair J. R.; Piffaretti, Rocco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Evrard, August E.; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2010-03-10

    We compare X-ray hydrostatic and weak-lensing mass estimates for a sample of 12 clusters that have been observed with both XMM-Newton and Subaru. At an over-density of DELTA = 500, we obtain 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.01 +- 0.07 for the whole sample. We also divided the sample into undisturbed and disturbed sub-samples based on quantitative X-ray morphologies using asymmetry and fluctuation parameters, obtaining 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.09 +- 0.06 and -0.06 +- 0.12 for the undisturbed and disturbed clusters, respectively. In addition to non-thermal pressure support, there may be a competing effect associated with adiabatic compression and/or shock heating which leads to overestimate of X-ray hydrostatic masses for disturbed clusters, for example, in the famous merging cluster A1914. Despite the modest statistical significance of the mass discrepancy, on average, in the undisturbed clusters, we detect a clear trend of improving agreement between M {sup X} and M {sup WL} as a function of increasing over-density, M{sup X}/M{sup WL}=(0.908+-0.004)+(0.187+-0.010){center_dot} log{sub 10}(DELTA/500). We also examine the gas mass fractions, f{sub gas} = M {sup gas}/M {sup WL}, finding that they are an increasing function of cluster radius, with no dependence on dynamical state, in agreement with predictions from numerical simulations. Overall, our results demonstrate that XMM-Newton and Subaru are a powerful combination for calibrating systematic uncertainties in cluster mass measurements.

  12. Scaling relations and X-ray properties of moderate-luminosity galaxy clusters from 0.3 < z < 0.6 with XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Sun, Ming; Hoekstra, Henk; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Conselice, Christopher J.; McNamara, Brian

    2014-10-10

    We present new X-ray temperatures and improved X-ray luminosity estimates for 15 new and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift with mass and luminosities near the galaxy group/cluster division (M{sub 2500}<2.410{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup ?1} M{sub ?}, L < 2 10{sup 44} erg s{sup 1}, 0.3 < z < 0.6). These clusters have weak-lensing mass measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope observations of clusters representative of an X-ray-selected sample (the ROSAT 160SD survey). The angular resolution of XMM-Newton allows us to disentangle the emission of these galaxy clusters from nearby point sources, which significantly contaminated previous X-ray luminosity estimates for 6 of the 15 clusters. We extend cluster scaling relations between X-ray luminosity, temperature, and weak-lensing mass for low-mass, X-ray-selected clusters out to redshift ?0.45. These relations are important for cosmology and the astrophysics of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. Our joint analysis with a sample of 50 clusters in a similar redshift range but with larger masses (M {sub 500} < 21.9 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}, 0.15 ? z ? 0.55) from the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project finds that within r {sub 2500}, M?L {sup 0.440.05}, T?L {sup 0.230.02}, and M?T {sup 1.90.2}. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the M-L relation for the combined sample is reduced to ?{sub log(M|L)} = 0.10, from ?{sub log} {sub (M|L)} = 0.26 with the original ROSAT measurements. We also find an intrinsic scatter for the T-L relation, ?{sub log} {sub (T|L)} = 0.07 0.01.

  13. THE RISE OF AN IONIZED WIND IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Mrk 335 OBSERVED BY XMM-NEWTON AND HST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longinotti, A. L. [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, Madrid (Spain)] [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, Madrid (Spain); Krongold, Y. [Departamento de Astrofisica Extragalactica y Cosmologia, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)] [Departamento de Astrofisica Extragalactica y Cosmologia, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico (Mexico); Kriss, G. A.; Ely, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gallo, L. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax (Canada); Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)] [Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Mathur, S.; Pradhan, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the discovery of an outflowing ionized wind in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335. Despite having been extensively observed by most of the largest X-ray observatories in the last decade, this bright source was not known to host warm absorber gas until recent XMM-Newton observations in combination with a long-term Swift monitoring program have shown extreme flux and spectral variability. High-resolution spectra obtained by the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) detector reveal that the wind consists of three distinct ionization components, all outflowing at a velocity of {approx}5000 km s{sup -1}. This wind is clearly revealed when the source is observed at an intermediate flux state (2-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). The analysis of multi-epoch RGS spectra allowed us to compare the absorber properties at three very different flux states of the source. No correlation between the warm absorber variability and the X-ray flux has been determined. The two higher ionization components of the gas (log {xi} {approx} 2.3 and 3.3) may be consistent with photoionization equilibrium, but we can exclude this for the only ionization component that is consistently present in all flux states (log {xi} {approx} 1.8). We have included archival, non-simultaneous UV data from Hubble Space Telescope (FOS, STIS, COS) with the aim of searching for any signature of absorption in this source that so far was known for being absorption-free in the UV band. In the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectra obtained a few months after the X-ray observations, we found broad absorption in C IV lines intrinsic to the active galactic nucleus and blueshifted by a velocity roughly comparable to the X-ray outflow. The global behavior of the gas in both bands can be explained by variation of the covering factor and/or column density, possibly due to transverse motion of absorbing clouds moving out of the line of sight at broad line region scale.

  14. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free NewtonKrylov method in two-phase flow problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermalhydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free NewtonKrylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists.

  15. A SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED X-RAY CLUSTER AT z = 1.62 WITH A POSSIBLE COMPANION IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-20

    We report on a confirmed galaxy cluster at z = 1.62. We discovered two concentrations of galaxies at z {approx} 1.6 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton deep field based on deep multi-band photometric data. We made a near-IR spectroscopic follow-up observation of them and confirmed several massive galaxies at z = 1.62. One of the two is associated with an extended X-ray emission at 4.5{sigma} on a scale of 0.'5, which is typical of high-z clusters. The X-ray detection suggests that it is a gravitationally bound system. The other one shows a hint of an X-ray signal, but only at 1.5{sigma}, and we obtained only one secure redshift at z = 1.62. We are not yet sure if this is a collapsed system. The possible twins exhibit a clear red sequence at K < 22 and seem to host relatively few number of faint red galaxies. Massive red galaxies are likely old galaxies-they have colors consistent with the formation redshift of z{sub f} = 3, and a spectral fit of the brightest confirmed member yields an age of 1.8{sup +0.1}{sub -0.2} Gyr with a mass of 2.5{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. Our results show that it is feasible to detect clusters at z > 1.5 in X-rays and also to perform detailed analysis of galaxies in them with the existing near-IR facilities on large telescopes.

  16. GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B.

    2013-07-01

    Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

  17. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio; Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D.

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  18. JOINT ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS. II. CHANDRA/XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND WEAK LENSING SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF 50 RICH CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Jeltema, Tesla [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Henry, J. Patrick [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15% {+-} 6% intrinsic scatter at r{sub 500}{sup WL} (the pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} yields a consistent scatter of 22% {+-} 5%). The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller (<10%) deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} does not discriminate between the more relaxed and less relaxed populations, making it perhaps the more even-handed mass proxy for surveys. Overall, hydrostatic masses underestimate weak lensing masses by 10% on the average at r{sub 500}{sup WL}; but cool-core clusters are consistent with no bias, while non-cool-core clusters have a large and constant 15%-20% bias between r{sub 2500}{sup WL} and r{sub 500}{sup WL}, in agreement with N-body simulations incorporating unthermalized gas. For non-cool-core clusters, the bias correlates well with BCG ellipticity. We also examine centroid shift variance and power ratios to quantify substructure; these quantities do not correlate with residuals in the scaling relations. Individual clusters have for the most part forgotten the source of their departures from self-similarity.

  19. XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE FAST NOVA V2491 Cyg DURING THE SUPERSOFT SOURCE PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, J.-U.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Dobrotka, A.; Drake, J. J.; Pinto, C.; Detmers, R. G.; Schwarz, G.; Bode, M. F.; Starrfield, S.; Hernanz, M.; Sala, G.; Krautter, J.; Woodward, C. E.

    2011-05-20

    Two XMM-Newton observations of the fast classical nova V2491 Cyg were carried out in short succession on days 39.93 and 49.62 after discovery, during the supersoft source (SSS) phase, yielding simultaneous X-ray and UV light curves and high-resolution X-ray spectra. The first X-ray light curve is highly variable, showing oscillations with a period of 37.2 minutes after an extended factor of three decline lasting {approx}3 hr, while the second X-ray light curve is less variable. The cause of the dip is currently unexplained and has most likely the same origin as similar events in the early SSS light curves of the novae V4743 Sgr and RS Oph, as it occurred on the same timescale. The oscillations are not present during the dip minimum and also not in the second observation. The UV light curves are variable but contain no dips and no period. High-resolution X-ray spectra are presented for four intervals of differing intensity. All spectra are atmospheric continua with deep absorption lines and absorption edges. Two interstellar lines of O I and N I are clearly seen at their rest wavelengths, while a large number of high-ionization absorption lines are found at blueshifts indicating an expansion velocity of 3000-3400 km s{sup -1}, which does not change significantly during the epochs of observation. Comparisons with the slower nova V4743 Sgr and the symbiotic recurrent nova RS Oph are presented. The SSS spectrum of V4743 Sgr is much softer with broader and more complex photospheric absorption lines. The ejecta are extended, allowing us to view a larger range of the radial velocity profile. Meanwhile, the absorption lines in RS Oph are as narrow as in V2491 Cyg, but they are less blueshifted. A remarkable similarity in the continua of V2491 Cyg and RS Oph is found. The only differences are smaller line shifts and additional emission lines in RS Oph that are related to the presence of a dense stellar wind from the evolved companion. Three unidentified absorption lines are present in the X-ray spectra of all three novae, with projected rest wavelengths 26.05 A, 29.45 A, and 30.0 A. No entirely satisfactory spectral model is currently available for the soft X-ray spectra of novae in outburst, and careful discussion of assumptions is required.

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neosho to Carthage to LaRussell Transmission Line Upgrade and Rebuild Project Program or Field Office: Southwestern Power Administration Location(s) (City/County/State): Neosho, Carthage, and LaRussell, Newton & Jasper Counties, Missouri SWPA F 450.4 (Rev. 2/16) Proposed Action Description: Southwestern Power Administration proposes to upgrade and rebuild 11.4 miles of an electrical transmission line and its associated structures. Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: 10 CFR 1021, Appendix B to

  1. EA-1946: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of the 24-mile Salem-Albany No. 1 and 28-mile Salem-Albany No. 2 transmission lines between Salem and Albany, Oregon.

  2. EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide cost-shared funding to RTI International (RTI) for its proposed project to demonstrate the precommercial scale-up of RTIs high-temperature syngas cleanup and carbon capture and sequestration technologies.

  3. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6622 RTI International Res Triangle Park, NC (1) Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station, Polk County, FL (approximately 40 miles southeast of Tampa and approximately 60 miles...

  4. GOMA - A full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, P.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Rao, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    GOMA is a two- and three-dimensional finite element program which excels in analyses of manufacturing processes, particularly those involving free or moving interfaces. Specifically, the full-Newton-coupled heat, mass, momentum, and pseudo-solid mesh motion algorithm makes GOMA ideally suited for simulating processes in which the bulk fluid transport is closely coupled to the interfacial physics. Examples include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, soldering, crystal growth, and solid-network or solution film drying. The code is based on the premise that any boundary can be (1) moving or free, with an apriori unknown position dictated by the distinguishing physics, (2) fixed, according to a global analytical representation, or (3) moving in time and space under user-prescribed kinematics. The goal is to enable the user to predict boundary position or motion simultaneously with the physics of the problem being analyzed and to pursue geometrical design studies and fluid-structure interaction problems. The moving mesh algorithm treats the entire domain as a computational Lagrangian solid that deforms subject to the physical principles which dictate boundary position. As an added benefit, the same Lagrangian solid mechanics can be exploited to solve multi-field problems for which the solid motion and stresses interact with other transport phenomena, either within the same material phase (e.g. shrinking coating) or in neighboring material phases (e.g. flexible blade coating). Thus, analyses of many fluid-structure interaction problems and deformable porous media problems are accessible. This document serves as a user`s guide and reference for GOMA and provides a brief overview of GOMA`s capabilities, theoretical background, and classes of problems for which it is targeted.

  5. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  6. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  7. North Newton School Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    900,000 W 900,000,000 mW 9.0e-4 GW Number of Units 1 Commercial Online Date 2012 Wind Turbine Manufacturer PowerWind References AWEA 2012 Market Report1 Loading map......

  8. Newton to Einstein dust to dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  9. Health assessment for Cedartown Municipal Landfill NPL Site, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD980495402. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-08

    In compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has prepared Health Assessment reports for sites currently on, or proposed for, the National Priorities List. In the report, the presence and nature of health hazards at this site are assessed, and the public health implications specific to this site are evaluated. The Health Assessment is based on such factors as the nature, concentration, toxicity, and extent of contamination at the site; the existence of potential pathways for the human exposure; the size and nature of the community likely to be exposed; and any other information available.

  10. Off-shelf portion of Harris delta: a reexamination of downdip Woodbine-Eagle Ford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, M.

    1989-03-01

    This study relates the Eagle Ford-equivalent Harris delta north of the Stuart City shelf edge with the downdip Woodbine-Eagle Ford section south of that shelf edge. Together, they comprised one large deltaic complex that divided into two major lobes at an avulsion site near Anderson County. One lobe prograded southwestward toward Kurten field in Brazos County; the other (now partly eroded) prograded southeastward beside the low-lying Sabine (uplift) landmass into Polk County. The Polk County lobe crossed the Stuart City shelf edge in the Seven Oaks-Hortense field area and continued to prograde southward into deeper and higher energy water. Such an environment caused this off-shelf Harris delta to oversteepen, resulting in frequent slumps and gravity flows that deposited debris-flow and turbidite sands along with predominantly fine-grained prodelta sediments. More familiar deltaic facies (outer fringe) are present in the uppermost section. Numerous structural and stratigraphic maps and cross sections illustrate the progradation of the downdip Harris delta and its features. The progradation was arrested for a time by deeper water at the older and more precipitous Sligo shelf edge. This progradational hiatus is recorded by a relatively strong reflection that separates two seismic sequences. The younger, onlapping sequence appears to represent continued Harris delta sedimentation. Among the interesting features mapped seismically and/or geologically are mounded reflections that represent the largest slumping events, thickness anomalies associated with the carbonate substrate, and erosional( ) channels at the section top. These off-shelf Harris delta deposits appear to interfinger laterally with a genetically different eastern (Tuscaloosa ) sequence in Tyler and Jasper Counties.

  11. Off-shelf portion of Harris delta: Reexamination of downdip Woodbine-Eagle Ford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, M.H. ); Van Siclen, D.C.; Sheriff, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This study related the Eagle Ford equivalent Harris delta north of the Stuart City shelf edge with downdip Woodbine-Eagle Ford section south of that shelf edge. Together, they comprised one large deltaic complex that divided into two major lobes at an avulsion site near Anderson County, Texas. One lobe prograded southwestward toward Kurten field in Brazos County, the other (now partly eroded) prograded southeastward beside the low-lying Sabine (uplift) landmass into Polk County. The Polk County lobe crossed the Stuart City shelf edge in the Seven Oaks-Hortense field area, and continued to prograde southward into deeper and higher energy water. Such an environment caused this off-shelf Harris delta to oversteepen, resulting in frequent slumps and gravity flows that deposited debris-flow and turbidite sands along with predominantly fine-grained prodelta sediments. More familiar deltaic facies (outer fringe) are present in the uppermost section. Numerous structural and stratigraphic maps and cross sections illustrate the progradation of the downdip Harris delta and its features. The progradation was arrested for a time by deeper water at the older and more precipitous Sligo shelf edge. This progradational hiatus is recorded by a relatively strong reflection that separates two seismic sequences. The younger onlapping sequence appears to represent continued Harris delta sedimentation. among the interesting features mapped seismically and/or geologically are: mounded reflections that represent the largest slumping events, thickness anomalies associated with the carbonate substrate, and erosional( ) channels at the section top. These off-shelf Harris delta deposits appear to interfinger laterally with a genetically different eastern (Tuscaloosa ) sequence in Tyler and Jasper Counties.

  12. Venango County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pennsylvania Pleasantville, Pennsylvania Polk, Pennsylvania Rouseville, Pennsylvania Seneca, Pennsylvania Sugarcreek, Pennsylvania Utica, Pennsylvania Woodland Heights,...

  13. From the Netherlands to PPPL: Student reflects on his study of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jasper van Rens (Photo by Elle Starkman PPPL Office of Communications) Jasper van Rens Dutch graduate student Jasper van Rens recently completed a three-month assignment at PPPL...

  14. EA-1963: Elba Liquefaction Project; Chatham, Hart, Jefferson, and Effingham Counties, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, an EA to analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to add natural gas liquefaction and export capabilities at the existing Elba Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal near Savannah, Georgia. Additional information is available at FERC’s eLibrary website, elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/docket_search.asp; search for docket numbers CP14-103-000 and CP14-115-000.

  15. EA-1963: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elba Liquefaction Project; Chatham, Hart, Jefferson, and Effingham Counties, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina

  16. EA-1963: FERC Notice of Availability for Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elba Liquefaction Project; Chatham, Hart, Jefferson, and Effingham Counties, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina

  17. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization for treatment of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sludge from Fort Polk Army Installation, Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Channell, M.G.; Preston, K.T.

    1996-09-01

    In the course of normal operations and training, soldiers and civilian personnel operate many Army vehicles on a day-today basis. These vehicles must be cleaned before they can be returned to the motor pool area of an Army base. The cleaning of these vehicles bas posed a problem with the operation and maintenance of oil/water separators located at vehicle washrack facilities. An oily sludge forms in the oil/water separator and is hard to handle and cannot be disposed of in an ordinary manner. This study used solidification/stabilization to treat the oily sludge found in the vehicle washrack oil/water separators. Solidification/stabilization is usually used to treat soils and sludges that contain heavy metals. Organic compounds, such as petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge, interfere with the setting of the solidification binding materials and thus produce a material that is not desirable for a treatment alternative. This study incorporates the use of dicalcium silicate as an additive to the solidification process to increase the strength and reduce the leachability of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge. This study shows that dicalcium silicate improves the handling characteristics of the sludge and reduces the leachability of the contaminants from the washrack sludge.

  18. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-07-01

    Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

  19. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-04-01

    The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

  20. EA-1867: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida

  1. City of Newton, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Place: Texas Phone Number: 409-379-5061 Website: www.newtontexas.orgelectric.h Outage Hotline: 409-379-3636 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  2. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen2 - 2013 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  3. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 1st Quarter 2014 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen 2 - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  5. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  6. Newton County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Acres, Missouri Diamond, Missouri Fairview, Missouri Granby, Missouri Grand Falls Plaza, Missouri Joplin, Missouri Leawood, Missouri Loma Linda, Missouri Neosho, Missouri...

  7. Newton County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.9603994, -93.1779659 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goog...

  8. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques. Authors: Robert Nourgaliev ; Mark ...

  9. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JigarShahV Infrastructure Research: Holiday Shopping & Electric Vehicles IMG0475 Innovation 247: We're Always Open MunichinteriorV 10 Years ON: From the Lab to the...

  10. Marion County, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marion County, Tennessee Jasper, Tennessee Kimball, Tennessee Monteagle, Tennessee New Hope, Tennessee Orme, Tennessee Powells Crossroads, Tennessee South Pittsburg, Tennessee...

  11. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- National Security Template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JASPER NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Photo of JASPER The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility plays an integral role in the testing of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile by providing a method to generate and measure data pertaining to the properties of materials (radioactive chemical elements) at high shock pressures, temperatures and strain rates. These extreme

  12. Ashland County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hayesville, Ohio Jeromesville, Ohio Loudonville, Ohio Mifflin, Ohio Perrysville, Ohio Polk, Ohio Savannah, Ohio Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAshlandCou...

  13. Climate Zone 7A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minnesota Polk County, Minnesota Price County, Wisconsin Ramsey County, North Dakota Red Lake County, Minnesota Renville County, North Dakota Rolette County, North Dakota...

  14. EA-1867: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011)

  15. EA-1867: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    No Significant Impact RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011) DOE...

  16. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-10-01

    Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

  17. CX-001538: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Polk County, Florida Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - Statement of Work Building Control Systems Energy Efficiency Retrofits (S)CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 03/31/2010Location(s): Polk County, FloridaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  18. Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit XMM-Newton...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An improved atomic line database and a new differential emission measure (DEM) deconvolution method are developed for this purpose. Our new atomic database is based on the ...

  19. FIA-12-0061- In the Matter of John P. Newton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 31, 2012, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from two Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determinations issued by the Department of...

  20. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  1. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-29

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles.

  2. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Gen 2 – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  3. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 4th Quarter 2013; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen2 - 1Q2014 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  5. plant systems Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential...

  6. Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This could be due to evolution of the LAE population at these epochs as a recent galaxy evolution model predicts that the LAE modestly evolves from z 5.7 to 7. However, even ...

  7. LLNL-POST-411531

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun Nevada Test Site, NV The National Nuclear Security Administration's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) successfully executes the first plutonium shot using the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun at NNSA's Nevada Test Site. LLNL scientists use the 100-foot, two-stage gas gun to fire a projectile at

  8. Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in a porous coordination nanocage Previous Next List Dan Zhao , Daqiang Yuan , Rajamani Krishna , Jasper M. van Baten and...

  9. New York's 18th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Westchester County (NY) ConEdison Solutions Jasper Energy LLC Malcolm Pirnie Mercury Energy formerly Aquus Energy Mercury Solar Systems Microgy Cogeneration Systems Inc...

  10. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Clinton Hamilton Hardin Franklin Cedar Benton Buchanan Jasper Tama Story Cerro Gordo Grundy Jones Black Hawk Marshall Linn Butler Scott Washington Mahaska Iowa Floyd Winnebago ...

  11. A simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from unary permeation data Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, J. Membr. Sci., 367, 204-210 (2011)...

  12. Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van...

  13. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    funding: U.S. Army, National Institutes of Health, Beckman Foundation, Skaggs Chemical Biology Foundation, Jasper L. and Jack Denton Wilson Foundation, Southwest Cancer and...

  14. Pickens County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 4 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Pickens County, Georgia Jasper, Georgia Nelson, Georgia Talking Rock, Georgia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  15. Time-resolved serial crystallography captures high-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Srajer, Vukica ; Henning, Robert ; Schwander, Peter ; Fromme, Raimund ; Ourmazd, Abbas ; Moffat, Keith ; Van Thor, Jasper J. ; Spence, John C.H. ; Fromme, Petra ; Chapman,...

  16. Pleasant Hill, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pleasant Hill is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12...

  17. Grimes, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Grimes is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  18. Alleman, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Alleman is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  19. Four Corners, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a census-designated place in Lake County and Orange County and Osceola County and Polk County, Florida.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved...

  20. Runnells, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Runnells is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  1. Urbandale, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Urbandale is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  2. Bondurant, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Bondurant is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  3. Altoona, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Altoona is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  4. Ankeny, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ankeny is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 US Recovery Act...

  5. Clive, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Clive is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  6. Elkhart, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Elkhart is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  7. Albany, OR * Fairbanks, AK * Morgantown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    run at the Eastman Chemical Company's Kingsport, TN, site; at Tampa Electric Company's Polk Power Station in Lakeland, FL; and at the Wabash River Power Station in Terre Haute,...

  8. Saylorville, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Saylorville is a census-designated place in Polk County, Iowa.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from...

  9. Windsor Heights, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Windsor Heights is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  10. Carlisle, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carlisle is a city in Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district and...

  11. Johnston, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Johnston is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 Registered Energy...

  12. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, March 7, 2012-Former New York Times reporter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more than 30 years and also worked at Esquire and Time. He was twice awarded the George Polk Award for National Reporting and for Foreign Affairs Reporting. Now a consulting...

  13. Granger, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Granger is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district.12 References US...

  14. Willamina, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Willamina is a city in Polk County and Yamhill County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 5th congressional district...

  15. Norwalk, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Norwalk is a city in Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district.12...

  16. Sheldahl, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sheldahl is a city in Boone County and Polk County and Story County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and...

  17. Consumers Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    serving members in parts of six counties: Benton, Lincoln, Lane, Linn, Polk, and Marion. Coordinates: 44.540135, -123.368594 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  18. Salem, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Salem is a city in Marion County and Polk County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 5th congressional...

  19. West Des Moines, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. West Des Moines is a city in Dallas County and Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls...

  20. CX-000012: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eagle Junction Clearwire Wireless Communication FacilitiesCX(s) Applied: B1.7, B1.15, B1.19Date: 12/02/2009Location(s): Polk County, OregonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  1. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3...

  2. Major Demonstrations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations A state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant, Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station produces enough electricity to serve 75,000 homes. A state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant, Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station produces enough electricity to serve 75,000 homes. The Office of Fossil Energy is co-funding large-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies in three different

  3. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2013; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 1st Quarter 2013; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  5. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 2nd Quarter 2013; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  6. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Gen 2 -- Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  7. L3:THM.CFD.P6.01 Report: Newton-Krylov Based P2 Projection Solver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Momentum conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3 Energy conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4 Scalar transport ...

  8. Microsoft Outlook - Memo Style

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the transportation accident impacts for shipping JASPER TRU waste to INL, we need to know the isotopic composition of the waste (isotope name and number of curies for each). ...

  9. A comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Sep. Purif. Technol., 87, 120-126...

  10. Krishna | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Krishna, Rajamani; and van Baten, Jasper M Entropy-based separation of linear chain ... and Zhou, Hong-Cai Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in a porous ...

  11. 1,"Oconee","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2554 2,"Cross...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,"John S Rainey","Natural gas","South Carolina Public Service Authority",977 7,"V C Summer","Nuclear","South Carolina Electric&Gas Company",971 8,"Jasper","Natural ...

  12. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1992, the President of the United States placed a moratorium on underground nuclear weapons testing. As a result, alternate experimental methods for certifying the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile were implemented. Among these experimental methods was the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, located at the Nevada National Security Site. JASPER plays an integral role in the certification of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile by provid- ing a method to

  13. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Taylor, Rob D

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk initially released their findings. In this brief review, the team has looked at factors that might contribute to a consumer choosing to not purchase a hybrid; including the increase in manufacture s overall vehicle mpg and the percentage of the vehicle market owned by hybrids.

  14. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oiko, V. T. A. Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D.; Martins, B. V. C.; Silva, P. C.

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 540 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  15. CX-006818: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grant New Cingular Wireless? Request for Use of Right-Of-Way at the Salem SubstationCX(s) Applied: B4.9Date: 09/19/2011Location(s): Salem, Polk County, OregonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  16. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update, geothermal program monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is a progress and development update describing three projects in the U.S. which involve the use of geothermal energy and ground-source heat pumps. The first project is located at Fort Polk Army Base in Louisiana. Four thousand government housing units are being retrofitted with efficient ground-soured near Bend, Oregon.

  17. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2004-01-01

    ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

  18. DOE-Sponsored Syngas Cleanup Demonstration Project Reaches Development Milestone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a demonstration-scale application of RTI International’s warm synthesis gas (syngas) cleanup process technology has achieved a key operational milestone at Tampa Electric Company’s coal gasification plant in Polk County, Fla.

  19. Central Iowa Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Central Iowa Energy Place: Newton, Iowa Zip: 50208 Product: Biodiesel producers in Newton, Iowa. References: Central Iowa Energy1 This article is a...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: All Electric Delivery Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Smith Newton all-electric delivery trucks in a variety of fleets. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). PDF icon Smith Newton ...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This evaluation used research conductedmore by Newton-Evans Research Company for some of its observations and results. The Newton Evans Report aided in the determination of what ...

  2. Shared energy savings (SES) contracting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldridge, D.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of a Shared Energy Savings (SES) contract as the procurement vehicle to provide, install, and maintain closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps (CLGCHP`s) for 4,003 family-housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana. In addition to the requirement relative to heat pumps, the contract allows the energy service company (ESCO) to propose additional projects needed to take full advantage of energy cost-saving opportunities that may exist at Fort Polk. The paper traces the development of the SES contract from feasibility study through development of the request for proposal (RFP) to contract award and implementation. In tracing this development, technical aspects of the project are set forth and various benefits inherent in SES contracting are indicated. The paper concludes that, due to the positive motivation inherent in the shared-savings, as well as partnering aspects of SES contracts, SES contracting is well suited to use as a procurement vehicle.

  3. Presentation Title

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Independent Statistics & Analysis Annual Energy Outlook 2016 For AEO2016 Working Group March 09, 2016 | Washington, DC By Trisha Hutchins, Melissa Lynes, John Maples, Mark Schipper, and David Stone Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Updates to the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 * New regional stock model for on-road vehicles - Reflects Polk annual data for cars, light trucks, Class 2B, Class 3, Class 4-6, and Class 7&8 vehicles

  4. baepgig-tampaig | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Tampa Electric Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Project - Project Brief [PDF-241KB] Tampa Electric Co., Tampa, FL Program Publications Final Reports Tampa Electric Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Final Technical Report [PDF-5MB] (Aug 2002) Annual/Quarterly Technical Reports Tampa Electric Company - IGCC Project, Quarterly Reports April - June 1997 [PDF-698KB] January - March 1997 [PDF-465KB] October - December 1996 [PDF-1.04MB] July - September 1996

  5. brwtp_tcigcc | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project - There is no Project Brief for this project (Withdrawn) TAMCO Power Partners, Williamsport, PA PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project (Sept 1992) U.S. Department of Energy report DOE/FE-0264P (Available from NTIS as DE93000960) PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC Project Status (May 1998) J.E.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pumps as a Cost Saving and Capital Renewal Too!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1998-11-06

    An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk, Louisiana energy savings performance contract (ESPC) has verified the financial value of geothermal heat pump (GHP)-centered ESPCS to the federal government. The Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has responded by issuing an RFP for the "National GHP-Technology-Specific Super ESPC Procurement." Federal agency sites anywhere in the nation will be able to implement GHP-centered ESPC projects as delivery orders against the awarded contracts.

  7. Making IGCC slag valuable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-12-01

    All indications are that integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology will play a major role in tomorrow's generation industry. But before it does, some by-products of the process must be dealt with, for example unburned carbon that can make IGCC slag worthless. Charah Inc.'s processing system, used at Tampa Electric's Polk Station for years, segregates the slag's constituents by size, producing fuel and building materials. 3 figs.

  8. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corral, M.A. Jr.; Wolansky, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The water-bearing units of the intermediate aquifer consist of discontinuous sand, gravel, shell, and limestone and dolomite beds in the Tamiami Formation of late Miocene age and the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. Within parts of Polk, Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Sarasota, and Charlotte Counties, sand and clay beds within the Tampa Limestone that are hydraulically connected to the Hawthorn Formation are also included in the intermediate aquifer. 15 refs.

  9. Status of Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company will utilize Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology for its new Polk Power Station Unit [number sign]1. The project is partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program Round III. This paper describes the technology to be used, process details, demonstration of a new hot gas clean-up system, and the schedule, leading to commercial operation in July 1996.

  10. Status of Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1992-10-01

    Tampa Electric Company will utilize Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology for its new Polk Power Station Unit {number_sign}1. The project is partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program Round III. This paper describes the technology to be used, process details, demonstration of a new hot gas clean-up system, and the schedule, leading to commercial operation in July 1996.

  11. Florida small water systems compliance project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The object of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a coordinated effort of enforcement, training, technical assistance and outreach to improve compliance of small water systems. The project was conducted in Hillsborough County and Polk County in Florida. The effectiveness of the coordinated effort was measured by the number of violations resolved over a one year period, October 1989 to September 1990, and the costs of achieving those results were tracked by each organization participating in the project.

  12. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  13. Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

  14. EA-1946: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1946: Draft Environmental Assessment Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon Bonneville Power Administration issued a Draft EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of the 24-mile Salem-Albany No. 1 and 28-mile Salem-Albany No. 2 transmission lines between Salem and Albany, Oregon. PDF icon EA-1946-DEA-2014.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-1946: Final

  15. EA-1946: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Environmental Assessment EA-1946: Final Environmental Assessment Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) issued a Final EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of the 24-mile Salem-Albany No. 1 and 28-mile Salem-Albany No. 2 transmission lines between Salem and Albany, Oregon. The Final EA consists of comments received on the draft EA and responses to the

  16. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Topic Science Depends on the Diffusion of Knowledge by Dr. Walt Warnick 05 Mar, 2009 in ... Newton was not alone on Related Topics: deep web, diffusion of knowledge, isaac newton, ...

  17. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Depends on the Diffusion of Knowledge by Dr. Walt Warnick 05 Mar, 2009 in Personal ... Newton was not alone on Related Topics: deep web, diffusion of knowledge, isaac newton, ...

  18. DOE Technical Assistance Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEEP; and Carol Chafetz, City of Newton, Mass. 2 | TAP Webinar eere.energy.gov Today's ... Success Story - Newton, Mass. Overview * Population of 85,000 * 85 buildings, 2.5 million ...

  19. Marquette County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Montello, Wisconsin Moundville, Wisconsin Neshkoro, Wisconsin Newton, Wisconsin Oxford, Wisconsin Packwaukee, Wisconsin Shields, Wisconsin Westfield, Wisconsin Retrieved...

  20. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern Company | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Company Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern Company Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern Company Joined the Challenge: August 2013 Headquarters: Atlanta, GA Charging Locations: Anniston, AL; Atmore, AL; Auburn, AL; Bay Minette, AL; Birmingham, AL; Calera, AL; Clanton, AL; Enterprise, AL; Eufaula, AL; Fayette, AL; Gadsden, AL; Greenville, AL; Haleyville, AL; Jackson, AL; Jasper, AL; Mobile, AL; Montgomery, AL; Oak Grove, AL; Pelham, AL; Pell City, AL; Phoenix City,

  1. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research The JASPER gas gun at the Nevada National Security Site is used to fire a projectile at a plutonium target. The shock wave produced by the impact passes through the plutonium, and diagnostic equipment measures the properties of the shocked plutonium. Shock physics experiments such as this are critical to maintaining the safety and security of the nation's stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. For

  2. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Site Map

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SiteMap NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office NATIONAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS National Security Stockpile Stewardship • BEEF • CEF • DAF • JASPER • Subcritical Experiments/U1a • Test Readiness Homeland Security • National Emergency Response • FRMAC - Program Support • NEST • NPTEC • Rad/NucCTEC First Responder Training • Registration Department of Energy - Cyber Incident Response Capability (DOE-CIRC) OPSEC Environmental Programs • Groundwater

  3. Microsoft Word - Defense Science Quarterly - 2july09 - FINAL.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Summer 2009 Defense Science Quarterly Inside This Issue 1 Message from the Director 2 Density Measurement Errors at DARHT - Quantifying a Decade of Progress 3 2nd Annual BoostFest 4 Nevada Test Site Awarded Prestigious Certificate of Accreditation for HEDP Calibration Labs 5 Update on the JASPER Program 6 Publication Highlights 7 Highlights from the Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship Program 8 In Remembrance-Malcolm Nicol 8 Awards Message from the Director Chris Deeney, Defense Science

  4. Microsoft Word - Defense Science Quarterly 02-08.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    February 2008 Defense Science Quarterly Inside This Issue 1 Message from the Director 2 The Modernization of Nuclear Test Specific Techniques with a Focus on the Alpha-can Demonstrations 3 JASPER Update 4 Tenth Shot on Refurbished Z Measures Pressure Drive for Future experiments 5 High Energy Density Research at Los Alamos Examines the Hydrodynamics of Radiatively Heated and Shocked Embedded Layers 6 EXAFS Measurements of Material Properties at High Pressures and Strain Rates 7 Exploiting

  5. Microsoft Word - Defense Science Quarterly 11-08 v2.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    December 2008 Defense Science Quarterly Inside This Issue 1 Message from the Director 2 The National Boost Initiative 3 HEDP to Support Our Understanding of Radiation Flow 4 Publication Highlights 5 Awards and Highlights Message from the Director Chris Deeney, Defense Science Division It's been another productive year. I am so proud of the progress we have made this year - boost, DARHT, energy-balance, JASPER... The list is too long to go through. Thank you. My father had a simple piece of

  6. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  7. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  8. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  9. Cogeneration project slated for construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-13

    Destec Energy Inc. plans to begin construction of a 212-Mw gas-fired cogeneration plant in Polk County, Fla., late this year. The Houston-based firm will perform engineering and constructionmanagement services for the $150-million, combined-cycle project, but will call for proposals for construction services later this year, says project manager Bob Taylor. The plant north of Tampa, is scheduled to go on line in early 1995. All its electrical output will be sold to Florida Power Co. under a 30-year contract and process steam will go to the host, US Agrichemical Co., a large phosphate producer and fertilizer manufacturer.

  10. Tampa Electric Company -- IGCC Project. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This is the quarterly report for 1995 of the Tampa Electric Company integrated gasification combined-cycle project at Polk Power Station. As of the end of the third quarter of 1995, engineering is essentially complete; construction is about 50% complete. The project is on schedule for the Target Project Completion Date of September 15, 1996. The work force at the site now stands at 1,300 people. Recently the project was recognized for reaching 1 million man-hours without a lost time injury. The report discusses engineering issues, project management issues, construction issues, and accomplishments of each.

  11. Residential Vertical Geothermal Heat Pump System Models: Calibration to Data:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jeff W.; McDowell, T. P.; Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Pahud, D.; Hellstrom, G.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was 'tuned' to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnect to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonatrate its capabilities.

  12. Residential vertical geothermal heat pump system models: Calibration to data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Pahud, D.; Hellstroem, G.A.J.

    1997-12-31

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was tuned to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnected to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonstrate its capabilities.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  14. Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments 1999 Isaac Newton, inventor of calculus and creator of classical physics, is thought by some to be the most intelligent person to have ever lived. When Albert Einstein introduced his theories of General and Special Relativity, Newton's Stature was not diminished, but increased. One genius, Newton, made the work of another, Einstein, possible.

  15. Using calibrated engineering models to predict energy savings in large-scale geothermal heat pump projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  16. Integration of oxygen plants and gas turbines in IGCC facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.R.; Sorensen, J.C.; Woodward, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    The commercialization of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power has been aided by concepts involving the integration of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) with the gas turbine combined-cycle module. It is known and now widely accepted that an ASU designed for elevated pressure service and optimally integrated with the gas turbine can increase overall IGCC power output, increase overall efficiency, and decrease the net cost of power generation compared to non-integrated facilities employing low pressure ASU`s. Depending upon the specific gas turbine, gasification technology, NO{sub x} emission specification, and other site specific factors, various degrees of compressed air and nitrogen integration are optimal. Air Products has supplied ASU`s with no integration (Destec/Plaquemine IGCC), nitrogen-only integration (Tampa Electric/Polk County IGCC), and full air and nitrogen integration (Demkolec/Buggenum IGCC). Continuing advancements in both air separation and gas turbine technologies offer new integration opportunities to further improve performance and reduce costs. This paper reviews basic integration principles, highlights the integration scheme used at Polk County, and describes some advanced concepts based on emerging gas turbines. Operability issues associated with integration will be reviewed and control measures described for the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of these facilities.

  17. Using Calibrated Engineering Models To Predict Energy Savings In Large-Scale Geothermal Heat Pump Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1998-01-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  18. Zero discharge and large-scale DCS are plant highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar, R.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that the Mulberry cogeneration facility has several features that make it notable in the power field. A zero-discharge wastewater system, an inlet-air chilling system, a secondary boiler, and an extensive distributed-control system (DCS) for overall plant operation are examples. Ability to meet the two-stage NO{sub x}-emission limits -- 25 ppm during the first three years and 15 ppm thereafter -- is a unique challenge. The plant design allows the lower limit to be met now, and retrofit with different burners is possible if NO{sub x}-emission limits are tightened later. The facility, near Bartow in Polk County, Fla, is owned by Polk Power Partners LP, whose members include Central and South West Energy Inc (CSW) of Dallas and ARK Energy of Laguna Hills, Calif. The operating company, CSW Operations, is a subsidiary of CSW. Heart of the plant is a single gas-turbine (GT)/HRSG/steam-turbine combined cycle, providing electric power to Tampa Electric Co and Florida Power Corp, with up to 25,000 lb/hr of process steam for an adjacent ethanol plant which was developed by the facility`s partnership. Commercial operation of Mulberry began on Sept 2, 1994.

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Westar Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Joined the Challenge: October 2014Headquarters: Topeka, KSCharging Locations: Wichita, KS; Wichita, KS; Topeka, KS; Topeka, KS; St. Marys, KS; Salina, KS; Newton, KS; Parsons, KS; Pittsburg, KS;...

  20. Space-Age Ceramics Get Their Toughest Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applied loads (10, 127, and 98 newtons, respectively). *Load reading after first matrix crack initiated. The results provide vital information about the underlying failure...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application Technology Manufacturer Fleet Years Collected Delivery Trucks All Electric Smith Newton Various 2012-2014 Class 8 Diesel Tractors Hybrid Electric Kenworth and ...

  2. National Trail Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trail Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Trail Biodiesel Place: Newton, Illinois Zip: 62448 Product: Owner of a planned 30m gallon per year biodiesel plant in...

  3. L3:PHI.CMD.P8.01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and with q-quadratic convergence rate. Newton-based methods typ- ically require more invasive access to application codes including residual and sensitivity information. To avoid...

  4. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... This helps us control our operating costs and manage waste treatment rates and meet our Sustainability Management System goal of becoming a zero net energy facility." Jim Newton, ...

  5. Solasta | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Science & Technology Partnership Year 2008 Solasta is a company located in Newton, MA....

  6. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. ...

  7. A Reason to Put Science in the Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Christmas Day marks the birth one of the foremost scientists of all time, Sir Isaac Newton. He was born 368 years ago in the town of Woolsthorpe, Linconshire.

  8. Workgroup 4: Flexibility Mechanisms Name Affiliation Co-Chairs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Participants Don Newton Flathead Van Ashton Idaho Falls Power Margaret Ryan PNGC Bo Downen PPC Brian Fawcett Clatskanie PUD John Wolkowiak Tacoma Jim Russell, Tacoma Steve...

  9. DEAP Energy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DEAP Energy Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: DEAP Energy Group Place: Newton, MA Website: www.deapgroup.com References: http:www.deapgroup.com Information About...

  10. Hamilton Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hamilton Consulting Place: Newton, Massachusetts Zip: MA 02459 Product: Massachusetts-based energy consulting company. Coordinates: 43.996685,...

  11. Microsoft Word - FIA-12-0061.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    matter of John P. Newton ) ) Filing Date: October 9, 2012 ) Case No.: FIA-12-0061 ) ) Issued: October 31, 2012 ... Decision and Order ... On October 9, ...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measure the evolution of Newton's constant, Gsub eff, that appears in Modified Gravity theories, without assuming General Relativity to be true. The novelty of these...

  13. Giner Electrochemicals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Newton, Massachusetts Zip: 2466 Product: Specializes in the development of fuel cell technologies and products. Coordinates: 43.996685, -87.803724 Show Map...

  14. Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School-Past Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team: Project Mentors: TBD Project Description Project Team: Project Mentors: Ian Cummings Elizabeth Hilstrom Rielly Newton TBD Project Description Project Team: Project...

  15. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Computer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... de Fsica, Applied Physics Institute for Mathematics and its Applications Iowa State University, Department of Statistics Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

  16. General Compression | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newton, Massachusetts Zip: 2458 Product: Massachusetts-based developer of compressed air energy storage systems. Coordinates: 43.996685, -87.803724 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Chestnut Capital LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chestnut Capital LLC Place: West Newton, Massachusetts Zip: 2465 Sector: Wind energy Product: Chestnut Capital is a wind energy...

  18. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - physicists have unearthed the taproots linking ever more disparate phenomena. With the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton wedded the fall of an apple to the orbits of...

  19. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 2 Release 2 Awards Announced-Includes Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Giner, Inc. of Newton, Massachusetts, will develop advanced membrane and electrode components to significantly enhance the durability and performance of fuel cells and ...

  20. Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs Blog | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 25, 2012 President Barack Obama delivers remarks at TPI Composites wind turbine blade facility in Newton, Iowa. | Photo Courtesy of the White House. President Obama Talks...

  1. Separation of Hexane Isomers in a Metal-Organic Framework with Triangular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Channels | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Separation of Hexane Isomers in a Metal-Organic Framework with Triangular Channels Previous Next List Zoey R. Herm, Brian M. Wiers, Jarad A. Mason, Jasper M. van Baten, Matthew R. Hudson, Pawel Zajdel, Craig M. Brown, Norberto Masciocchi, Rajamani Krishna, Jeffrey R. Long, Science, 340, 960-964 (2013) DOI: 10.1126/science.1234071 F1.large.jpg Abstract: Metal-organic frameworks can offer pore

  2. OBSERVATION O F T H E FORBIDDEN MAGNETIC DIPOLE TRANSITION 62P%+72P%IN ATOMIC THALLIUM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F

  3. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Issue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issue 91 June/July 2003 JASPER successfully fired at NTS 1 BN management changes 2 CIC moves and changes name 3 This is only a test 3 Heat and You 5 Six Sigma 6 An early Christmas for a North Las Vegas resident 7 Employees excavate valuable gift 9 Bridging the distance 10 Nevada Employees Association supports the troops 11 WSI-NV presents ABCD Awards 12 WSI-NV reaches out to future generations 13 Partnering for Education 14 Pahrump's Relay for Life 15 Health Check 16 Lessons Learned 17 Southern

  4. SiteLines Looks at NNSS Successes in 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SiteLines Looks at NNSS Successes in 2011 It was a big year at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for the Nevada Site Office and its contractors. From returning to nuclear operations at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) facility to the formation of the National Center for Nuclear Security to the implementation of Governance Reform, the NNSS had one of its most successful years in FY2011. Now, with its sights set on 2012, SiteLines takes a closer look at the

  5. Popular Science Recognizes Innovative Solar Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL

  6. Spectroscopy of complex molecular systems: Physics on an exciton cake-walk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics of complex molecular systems: Physics on an exciton cake-walk November 29, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Jasper Knoester Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Netherlands j_knoester Abstract: The concept of excitons, collective excited states, is well-known in solid-state physics. It was first developed by Frenkel in the 1930's to explain the absorption spectrum of perfect molecular crystals, in which case the excitons are simple Bloch

  7. Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1994-10-01

    Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  9. CO{sub 2} HYDRATE PROCESS FOR GAS SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Deppe; R. Currier; D. Spencer

    2004-01-01

    Modifications were implemented to the hydrogen flow test rig per safety review comments, and the apparatus was tested for leaks. Tests were then done using Helium/CO{sub 2} mixtures to re-verify performance prior to hydrogen testing. It was discovered that hydrate formation was more difficult to initiate, and new initiation methods were developed to improve the tests. Delivery of ETM hardware continued and buildup of the ETM system continued, the ETM is now mechanically complete. The STU (pilot plant) site selection process was resumed because Tennessee Eastman declined to participate in the program. Two potential sites were visited: The Global Energy/Conoco-Phillips Wabash River Plant, and the Tampa Electric Polk Power Plant.

  10. A utility`s perspective of the market for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    The market for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants is discussed and some of the experiments with an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant Project, Polk Unit {number_sign}1 are described. It was found that not only is the technology different from what most US utilities are accustomed to, but also that the non-technical issues or business issues, such as contracting, project management and contract administration also have different requirements. The non-technical or business issues that are vital to the successful commercialization of this technology are described. These business issues must be successfully addressed by both the utilities and the technology suppliers in order for integrated gasification combined cycle power plants to achieve commercial success.

  11. Florida products pipeline set to double capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-13

    Directional drilling has begun this fall for a $68.5 million, approximately 110,000 b/d expansion of Central Florida Pipeline Co.`s refined products line from Tampa to Orlando. The drilling started in August and is scheduled to conclude this month, crossing under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk, and Osceola counties. The current 6 and 10-in. system provides more than 90% of the petroleum products used in Central Florida, according to Central Florida Pipeline. Its additional capacity will meet the growing region`s demand for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The new pipeline, along with the existing 10-in. system, will increase total annual capacity from 30 million bbl (82,192 b/d) to approximately 70 million bbl (191,781 b/d). The older 6-in. line will be shutdown when the new line is operating fully. The steps of pipeline installation are described.

  12. Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company continued efforts to complete construction and start-up of the Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1 which will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. From an overall standpoint, the Project continues to track well. The completion of construction system turnovers to Start-up is encouraging. Start-up will accept responsibility of the plant until turnover to operations. The major focus continues to be on the production of first Syngas, scheduled for July 17. All construction, engineering, and start-up activities are in support of Syngas production. Key activities toward this goal include final checkout and startup of remaining gasification systems, completion of punch list items required for first syngas, finalization of operating procedures, preparation of site and area access control plans, site- wide safety training, and other Process Safety management (PSM) requirements.

  13. Eutectic precipitation of melt quenched titanium-silicon-neodymium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G.P.; Liu, Y.Y.; Li, D.; Hu, Z.Q. . Inst. of Metal Research)

    1995-01-15

    Titanium based metallic glasses have attracted keen interest because of the promise of industrial applications owing to their improves corrosion resistance, better mechanical properties, occurrence of superconductivity and superior magnetic properties. The titanium alloy systems where metallic glass has been obtained include Ti-Cu, Ti-Be, Ti-Si, Ti-B. Polk et al. had reported that they were able to produce an amorphous phase in binary Ti[sub 80]Si[sub 20] alloy system by using an arc-melting piston and anvil apparatus. In the present study, the authors have investigated the effect of adding rare earth element Nd on eutective precipitation of the amorphous Ti[sub 80]Si[sub 20] alloy and the orientation relationship which exists between the [beta]-Ti and Ti[sub 5]Si[sub 3].

  14. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 demonstration project utilizing Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, J.D.; Provol, S.J.; Morehead, H.T.; Dodd, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The City of Lakeland, Florida, Foster Wheeler and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have embarked on the demonstration of a Clean Coal Technology at the City of Lakeland`s McIntosh Power Station in lakeland, Polk County, Florida. The project will demonstrate the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFB) technology developed by Foster Wheeler and Westinghouse. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project is a nominal 170 MW power plant designed to burn a range of low- to high-sulfur coals. The combined cycle plant employs a Westinghouse 251B12 gas turbine engine in conjunction with a steam turbine operating in a 2400/1000/1000 steam cycle. The plant will demonstrate both the PCFB and topped PCFB combustion technologies. This paper provides a process description of the Foster Wheeler PCFB and Topped PCFB technologies and their application to the Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project.

  15. An advanced feed pump based on magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, L.

    1996-11-01

    Pumps have not used magnetic bearings commercially due to their high initial cost and the perception of a high risk to reward ratio. However, by taking advantage of the capability of the bearings to operate submerged in the pumped liquid, an advanced boiler feed pump has been developed with measurably improved efficiency and reduced seal maintenance. When the economic value of these improvements are evaluated against the additional first cost of the bearing change, attractive paybacks are generated for most new plant applications and even for some retrofits where the first cost reductions from eliminating the oil system, bearings, and seals do not apply. These savings are in addition to the benefits long recognized for magnetic bearings: improved reliability; built-in remote monitoring and diagnostics; elimination of the pressure feed oil system and its maintenance and potential fire hazard. Based on these advantages a research and development prototype pump incorporating the new technology was built and tested. A commercial opportunity to demonstrate this new design arose in 1994 and resulted in the sale of an eight stage, 3500 HP feed pump to Tampa Electric Company for their new Polk Station Generating Plant. This is the largest known magnetic bearing pump delivered for commercial operation worldwide. The pump was shipped during August 1995 and is expected to enter service during the first half of 1996. This paper will briefly introduce magnetic bearings and then discuss the design of the advanced pump. The basis for predicting improved efficiency and estimating its value will be presented followed by the experience in manufacturing and testing the pump for Polk Generating Station.

  16. How and why Tampa Electric Company selected IGCC for its next generating capacity addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    As the title indicates, the purpose of this paper is to relate how and why Tampa Electric Company decided to select the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for their next capacity addition at Polk Power Station, Polk Unit No. 1. For a complete understanding of this process, it is necessary to review the history related to the initial formulation of the IGCC concept as it was proposed to the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Initiative Round Three. Further, it is important to understand the relationship between Tampa Electric Company and TECO Pay Services Corporation (TPS). TECO Energy, Inc. is an energy related holding company with headquarters in Tampa, Florida. Tampa Electric Company is the principal, wholly-owned subsidiary of TECO Energy, Inc. Tampa Electric Company is an investor-owned electric utility with about 3200 MW of generation capacity of which 97% is coal fired. Tampa Electric Company serves about 2,000 square miles and approximately 470,000 customers, in west central Florida, primarily in and around Hillsborough County and Tampa, Florida. Tampa Electric Company generating units consist of coal fired units ranging in size from a 110 MW coal fired cyclone unit installed in 1957 to a 450 MW pulverized coal unit with wet limestone flue gas desulfurization installed in 1985. In addition, Tampa Electric Company has six (6) No. 6 oil fired steam units totaling approximately 220 MW. Five (5) of these units, located at the Hookers Point Station, were installed in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Tampa Electric also has about 150 MW of No. 2 oil fired start-up and peaking combustion turbines. The company also owns a 1966 vintage 12 MW natural gas fired steam plant (Dinner Lake) and two nO. 6 oil fired diesel units with heat recovery equipment built in 1983 (Phillips Plant).

  17. Source rock geochemistry and liquid and solid petroleum occurrences of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiale, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crude oils, solid bitumens and potential oil source rocks of the Frontal and Central Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma were examined. The purposes of this study are to characterize the organic matter in each of these materials, and to correlate oils to potential source rocks in the Ouachita Mountains. Four Ouachita Mountain oils and seven solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite were analyzed. The oils are paraffinic and range from 31.8 to 43.1 API gravity. Results indicate that the oils are thermally mature and generally unaltered. All four oils are commonly sourced, as suggested by n-alkane, sterane and hopane distributions, stable isotope ratios, infrared spectra and vanadium/nickel ratios. A common source for the solid bitumens is also suggested by isotope ratios and pyrolyzate characteristics. An origin due to crude oil biodegradation is suggested for these solids, based on carbon isotope ratios, elemental analyses, and sterane distributions of the solid bitumen pyrolyzates. Several stratigraphic intervals in the Ouachita Mountains possess adequate source potential for petroleum generation, based on contents of total organic carbon and extractable organic matter. Devonian rocks are oil-generative. The entire Paleozoic section examined is thermally mature enough to have generated oil, being located at about the middle of the oil window. In general, the best oil source potential is present in upper Ordovician (Polk Creek/Womble) rocks. Oil-source rock correlation techniques indicate that oils examined from the Frontal and Central Ouachita Mountains have a Siluro-Ordovician (Missouri Mountain-Polk Creek-Womble) source.

  18. 1960's | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Geoffrey F. Chew Don T. Cromer Ely M. Gelbard F. Newton Hayes John H. Nuckolls 1968 James ... Leo Brewer Henry Hurwitz, Jr. Conrad L. Longmire Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky Kenneth E. ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The modulus state, which is used to form the Jacobian matrix in Newton-Raphson algorithms, is presented. The model is shown to satisfy the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The 2-79 keV X-ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Chandra: a Fully Compton-Thick AGN Arevalo, P. ; Chile U., Catolica Valparaiso U. ; Bauer, F. E. ; ...

  1. The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... impacts, possible hydrogen sources, energy needs and mix Thank you Contacts: Newton Pimenta Neves Jr. nevesjr@ifi.unicamp.br Cristiano da Silva Pinto cspinto@ifi.unicamp.br

  2. CX-004036: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dimensionally Stable High Performance MembraneCX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1Date: 09/14/2010Location(s): Newton, MassachusettsOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Full Text Available November 2007 Capella Corona Revisited: a Combined View from Textit ... analysis of the X-ray emission of the Capella corona obtained with XMM-Newton RGS, ...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC CODING CHANGES IN BACTERIA PRODUCED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Person, S. ; Phillips, S. L. ; Andersen, F. A. ; Newton, H. P. Publication Date: 1972-10-31 OSTI Identifier: 4671956 Report Number(s): COO--3419-3; CONF-700610--16 ...

  5. Biomass Engineering Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engineering Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Engineering Ltd Place: Newton-le-Willows, United Kingdom Zip: WA12 8DN Product: The company designs and manufactures small...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Andrew ; Hornschemeier, Ann ; Overzier, Roderik A. We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have...

  7. KINSOLV2.2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-12-08

    KINSOL is a general purpose (serial and parallel) solver for nonlinear algebraic systems which can be described as F(u)=0. It is based on Newton-Krylov solver technology.

  8. Waste wood processing and combustion for energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth Annual National Biofuels Conference and Exhibition held October 19--22, 1992 in Newton, Massachusetts. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the database.

  9. President Obama Talks Clean Energy in Iowa | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    turbine blade facility in Newton, Iowa. | Photo Courtesy of the White House. Matt Compton Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy at the White House. ...

  10. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any existing linear solver, which makes it simple to write and easily portable. However, the method usually takes twice as long to solve as Newton-GMRES on general problems because it solves two linear systems at each iteration. In this paper, we discuss modifications to Bouaricha's method for a practical implementation, including a special globalization technique and other modifications for greater efficiency. We present numerical results showing computational advantages over Newton-GMRES on some realistic problems. We further discuss a new approach for dealing with singular (or ill-conditioned) matrices. In particular, we modify an algorithm for identifying a turning point so that an increasingly ill-conditioned Jacobian does not prevent convergence.

  11. Parallel Molecular Dynamics Program for Molecules

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-07

    ParBond is a parallel classical molecular dynamics code that models bonded molecular systems, typically of an organic nature. It uses classical force fields for both non-bonded Coulombic and Van der Waals interactions and for 2-, 3-, and 4-body bonded (bond, angle, dihedral, and improper) interactions. It integrates Newton''s equation of motion for the molecular system and evaluates various thermodynamical properties of the system as it progresses.

  12. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  13. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-09-11

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  14. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-04

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  15. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  16. A Numerical Algorithm for the Solution of a Phase-Field Model of Polycrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorr, M R; Fattebert, J; Wickett, M E; Belak, J F; Turchi, P A

    2008-12-04

    We describe an algorithm for the numerical solution of a phase-field model (PFM) of microstructure evolution in polycrystalline materials. The PFM system of equations includes a local order parameter, a quaternion representation of local orientation and a species composition parameter. The algorithm is based on the implicit integration of a semidiscretization of the PFM system using a backward difference formula (BDF) temporal discretization combined with a Newton-Krylov algorithm to solve the nonlinear system at each time step. The BDF algorithm is combined with a coordinate projection method to maintain quaternion unit length, which is related to an important solution invariant. A key element of the Newton-Krylov algorithm is the selection of a preconditioner to accelerate the convergence of the Generalized Minimum Residual algorithm used to solve the Jacobian linear system in each Newton step. Results are presented for the application of the algorithm to 2D and 3D examples.

  17. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  18. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil fluvial - dominated deltaic reservoirs. Fourth quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-10

    Production from the Marg Area 1 at Port Neches is averaging 222 BOPD for this quarter. The production drop is due in part to mechanical problems and to poor sweep efficiency caused by water blockage that prevented the CO{sub 2} from contacting new residual oil deeper in the reservoir. Alternating water and gas injection assisted to some extent in maintaining oil production and improved the reservoir yield by reducing the gas production. A workover was performed on well Kuhn No. 38 to correct failed gravel pack setting. Production from the well was restored to 60 BOPD. Plugging of the injection wells continue to be a problem, reducing the injection rate in critical areas of the reservoir, near well Kuhn No. 15R. Texaco drilled the well Polk B No. 39 to The Marg Area 3 reservoir to gain structural position based on the 3D seismic, and found the sand present as anticipated. However, the sand did not have any hydrocarbon accumulation. For this reason, Texaco will abandon testing the idea of utilizing CO{sub 2} to accelerate the primary production rate and reduce water production and primary production cycle time, in the reservoir.

  19. Tampa Electric Company - DOE IGCC project. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The third quarter of 1996 has resulted in the completion of over five (5) years of extensive project development, design, construction and start-up of the 250 MW Polk Power Station Unit {number_sign}1 IGCC Project. the combined cycle performance test was completed on June 18, 1996. This test demonstrated that on distillate fuel, the combined cycle achieved a net output of 222,299 KW with a net heat rate of 6,868 BTU/KW. This is about 3.86% and 2.76% better than the guaranteed values of 214,040 KW and 7,063 BTU/KW respectively. During the third quarter of 1996, the combustion turbine was run on syngas two (2) different times for a combined total of about seven hours. Attachment {number_sign}4 shows graphically the transfer from oil to syngas. Emission levels were generally acceptable even though no specific emissions tuning was completed by GE and the emissions monitoring equipment was not yet completely operational.

  20. Performance of a hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phetteplace, G.; Sullivan, W.

    1998-10-01

    In climates dominated by air conditioning, a few so-called hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been built. The hybrid system uses both a ground-coupled heat exchanger and a cooling tower, thereby reducing the amount of ground-coupling heat exchanger necessary. Although this concept has been shown to be feasible, the performance of such a system has not been measured in detail. Since it may be possible to achieve significant performance improvements in such systems by modifying the design and operational practices, detailed performance monitoring of such systems is needed. This paper describes a project that has been undertaken to collect performance data from a hybrid GCHP system at Fort Polk, LA. This paper presents performance data for a period of about 22 months, including data from portions of two heating and cooling seasons. The energy input to the GCHPs themselves will be presented, as well as the energy rejected to the ground in the cooling mode and that extracted from the ground in the heating mode. Energy flows in the cooling tower also will be addressed, along with the power consumption of the circulating pumps and the cooling tower.

  1. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  2. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  3. Demonstration of physical separation/leaching methods for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils at small arms ranges (acid leaching demo). Technology Demonstration, November 1995-September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-07

    The U.S. Army Environmental C%`enter in partnership with the Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center and the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station demonstrated Physical Separation/Leaching methods for the remediation of small arms range soils. The demonstration occurred at Fort Polk, Louisiana. After conducting a world-wide search, two vendors were selected to demonstrate two variations of the physical separation/leaching technologies. The first using a process based on acetic (weak) acid chemistry and the second based on hydrochloric (strong) acid chemistry. Following completion of the bench treatability studies, each vendor performed a full scale (5-10 tons per hour, 1000 tons total) demonstration of their respective technologies. This report documents the worldwide search that was performed to identify vendors of soil remediation equipment and/or contractors who have successfully completed similar remediation projects. A number of information sources, including experts at government and RD institutions, libraries, professional journals, on-line services, academia and industry contacts were used to complete this report. Should the reader be interested in other environmental problems or other technologies not considered for this report, a listing of Internet sites searched during the effort is included and provides ample coverage of the remediation technologies available. The mention of trade names or commercial products in this report should not be constituted as endorsement or recommendation for use.

  4. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  5. Structural characterization of amorphized InP: Evidence for chemical disorder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, C.J.; Ridgway, M.C.; Yu, K.M.; Foran, G.J.; Lee, T.W.; Moon, Y.; Yoon, E.

    1999-03-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements at the In {ital K} edge of amorphous InP are presented. The presence of chemical disorder in the form of like-atom bonding has been unambiguously demonstrated in stoichiometric InP amorphized by ion implantation. In{endash}In bonding comprised 14{percent}{plus_minus}4{percent} of the In{endash}atom constituent bonds. Also, relative to the crystalline value of four P atoms, an increase in the total In coordination number to 4.16{plus_minus}0.32 atoms was observed for the amorphous phase, as composed of 3.56{plus_minus}0.19; P and 0.60{plus_minus}0.13; In atoms. Experimental results were consistent with recent {ital ab initio} structural calculations and, furthermore, demonstrated that amorphous InP is best described by a Polk-like continuous random network, containing both even- and odd-membered rings. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-03-01

    This two-hour conference will provide information for audiences of school officials, designers, utility personnel, and others interested in economical, energy-efficient, and environmentally beneficial heating and cooling for schools. The April 28, 1994 teleconference will focus on applications of GHPs in school buildings, including elementary, secondary, and post-secondary schools. Program content will include case studies of successful GHP installations in a number of different building types and climates as well as interviews with designers, school administrators, and technical experts. Emphasis will be on the comfort, flexibility, economy, ease of maintenance, and other benefits of GHPs in schools. There will be opportunity for downsite participants to telephone questions to GHP authorities, experienced school administrators, designers, and installers who will be in the teleconference studio. This document also discusses a new funding cycle of the Geothermal Energy Program by the California Energy Commission and a shared energy savings project which recently received funding from the Corps of Engineers in Fort Polk, Louisiana.

  7. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  8. Demonstration of physical separation/leaching methods for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils at small arms ranges. Final report, November 1995--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    The US Army Environmental Center in partnership with the Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center and the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station demonstrated Physical Separation/Leaching methods for the remediation of small arms range soils. The demonstration occurred at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The primary objective was to demonstrate and evaluate the technical capability and document the cost effectiveness of the physical separation/leaching family of technologies. The secondary objective was to identify technology sources, provide implementation guidance and transfer the technology to the user. After conducting a world-wide search, two vendors were selected to demonstrate two variations of the physical separation/leaching technologies. The first used a process based on acetic (weak) acid chemistry and the second based on hydrochloric (strong) acid chemistry. Following completion of the bench treatability studies, each vendor performed a full scale (5--10 tons per hour, 1000 tons total) demonstration of their respective technologies. This report documents the demonstration including site planning, lessons learned and recommendations for additional developmental work.

  9. Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Mann; Devdutt Shukla; John P. Hurley

    2003-09-27

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to thoroughly examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by a variety of refractory materials during both normal operation and thermal cycling under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) is being utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. Shakedown testing of the CADCAF is in progress. Samples of slag and refractory from the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station have been obtained for testing in the CADCAF. The slag has been dried and sieved to the size needed for our flowing slag corrosion tests. Testing is expected to begin in October.

  10. Potential producers and their attitudes toward adoption of biomass crops in central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    A recent study by the University of Florida, Center for Biomass Programs (1996) showed that biomass crops have potential as a new agricultural commodity in central Florida. Both herbaceous and woody biomass crops have high yields, and weather and soil conditions are favorable. In the Polk County area over 40,371 ha (100,000 A) of phosphate-mined land and about 161,486 ha (400,000 A) of pastureland may be available for biomass production at low opportunity cost. Phosphate land is owned by a few mining companies while pastureland is owned by or rented to cattlemen. Infrastructure for large-scale crop production, such as in the Midwest United States, does not presently exist in central Florida. Personal interviews were conducted with phosphate company managers and a mail survey was conducted with 940 landowners, with at least 16 ha (40 A) of agricultural land. Data were gathered related to decision making factors in growing biomass and other new crops. Results suggested that economic factors, particularly availability of an established market and an assured high return per acre were considered the most important factors. Lack of familiarity with new crops was an important barrier to their adoption. Potential net returns and production costs were considered the most important information needed to make decisions about growing biomass crops.

  11. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Annual report, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-15

    The Port Neches CO{sub 2} flood has been operating for nearly 4 years. The project performance during the past year has been adversely affected by several factors including: water blockage, low residual oil saturation and wellbore mechanical problems. The company attempted to test a new procedure in a new fault block using CO{sub 2} to accelerate primary production in order to improve the primary reserves net present value. The test was abandoned when the discovery well Polk B-39 for the Marg Area 3 was a dry hole. Also, during this period the company terminated all new CO{sub 2} purchases from Cardox for economical reasons, while continuing to recycle produced CO{sub 2}. A data base for FDD reservoirs for the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coast Region was developed by LSU and SAIC. This data base includes reservoir parameters and performance data for reservoirs with significant production and OOIP volumes that are amenable to CO{sub 2} injection. A paper discussing the Port Neches CO{sub 2} project was presented at the 1996 SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery.

  12. Filter systems for IGCC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, S.; Gieger, R.; Sobel, N.; Johnson, D.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify metallic filter medium to be utilized in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process (IGCC). In IGCC processes utilizing high efficiency desulfurizing technology, the traditional corrosion attack, sulfidation, is minimized so that metallic filters are viable alternatives over ceramic filters. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station is being developed to demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology. The Pall Gas Solid Separation (GSS) System is a self cleaning filtration system designed to remove virtually all particulate matter from gas streams. The heart of the system is the filter medium used to collect the particles on the filter surface. The medium`s filtration efficiency, uniformity, permeability, voids volume, and surface characteristics are all important to establishing a permeable permanent cake. In-house laboratory blowback tests, using representative full scale system particulate, were used to confirm the medium selection for this project. Test elements constructed from six alloys were supplied for exposure tests: PSS 310SC (modified 310S alloy); PSS 310SC heat treated; PSS 310SC-high Cr; PSS 310SC-high Cr heat treated; PSS Hastelloy X; and PSS Hastelloy X heat treated.

  13. Could IGCC swing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-06-15

    A few big-name utilities are looking to make big-time power from gasified coal. AEP has utility-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants in the works for Ohio and West Virginia. Duke Energy Indiana plans to build a 630 MW IGCC plant at Edwardsport to replace the existing 160 MW coal-fired unit there. NRG hopes to build utility-scale IGCC plants in New York and Delaware. Tampa Electric has announced plans to build a 630 MW IGCC at its Polk site, already the location of a 260 MW IGCC. In Taylorville, IL, another power-oriented IGCC is under development, owned by individuals from original developer ERORA and Omaha-based Tenaska. And yet another power producing IGCC is being proposed by Tondu Corporation at Corpus Christi, Texas to be fired by petroleum coke, also known as petcoke. The article gives an overview of these developments and moves on to discuss the popular question of the economic viability of IGCC making marketable byproducts in addition to power. Several projects are under way to make synthetic natural gas for coal. These are reported. Although the versatility of gasification may well give the ability to swing from various levels of power production to various levels of co-producing one or more products, for the time being it appears the IGCCs being built will produce power only, along with elemental sulphur and slag.

  14. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

  15. Advanced integration concepts for oxygen plants and gas turbines in gasification/IGCC facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.R.; Klosek, J.; Woodward, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The commercialization of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power has been aided by concepts involving the integration of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) with the gas turbine combined-cycle module. Other processes, such as coal-based ironmaking and combined power and industrial gas production facilities, can benefit from the integration of these two units. It is known and now widely accepted that an ASU designed for elevated pressure service and optimally integrated with the gas turbine can increase overall IGCC power output, increase overall efficiency, and decrease the net cost of power generation compared to non-integrated facilities employing low pressure ASU`s. Depending upon the specific gas turbine, gasification technology, NOx emission specification, and other site specific factors, various degrees of compressed air and nitrogen integration are optimal. Air Products has supplied ASU`s with no integration (Destec/Plaquemine IGCC), nitrogen-only integration (Tampa Electric/Polk County IGCC), and full air and nitrogen integration (Demkolec/Buggenum IGCC). Continuing advancements in both air separation and gas turbine technologies offer new integration opportunities to further improve performance and reduce costs. This paper will review basic integration principles and describe advanced concepts based on emerging high compression ratio gas turbines. Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycles, and integration of compression heat and refrigeration sources from the ASU. Operability issues associated with integration will be reviewed and control measures described for the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of these facilities.

  16. Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Mann; Devdutt Shukla; Xi Hong; John P. Hurley

    2004-09-27

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to thoroughly examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by a variety of refractory materials during both normal operation and thermal cycling under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) is being utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. Shakedown testing of the CADCAF has been completed. Samples of slag and refractory from the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station have been obtained for testing in the CADCAF. The slag has been dried and sieved to the size needed for our flowing slag corrosion tests. Screening tests are in currently in progress. Detailed analysis of corrosion rates from the first tests is in progress.

  17. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  18. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  19. Petrology of lower and middle Eocene carbonate rocks, Floridan aquifer, central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, P.A.; Miller, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well near Polk City, Florida, indicates that the Avon Park-Lake City (Claibornian) and Oldsmar (Sabinian) Limestones, which comprise most of the Floridan aquifer in central Florida, can be divided into six microfacies: foraminiferal mudstone, foraminiferal wackestone-packstone, foraminiferal grainstone, nodular anhydrite, laminated dolomicrite, and replacement dolomite. Dolomite containing variable amounts of nodular anhydrite forms more than 90% of the Avon Park-Lake city interval, whereas thte Oldsmar is chiefly limestone. Several episodes of dolomite formation are recognized. Laminated dolomicrite formed syngenetically in a supratidal-sabhka environment. Crystalline dolomite with nodular anhydrite formed early by replacement of limestone through reflux of dense, magnesium-rich brines. Replacement dolomite not associated with evaporites and containing limpid crystals probably formed later by a mixed-water process in the subsurface environment. Late diagenetic processes affecting crystalline dolomites include hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, partial dissolution of gypsum, minor alteration of gypsum to calcite, and dissolution of calcian dolomite cores in stoichiometric crystals. Crystalline dolomite and grainstone are the only rock types that have high enough porosities and permeabilities to provide significant yields of water. Medium and finely crystalline dolomites show best values of porosity and permeability because they have high percentages of intercrystal and moldic pores that are well connected. Filling of pores by anhydrite or gypsum can significantly reduce porosity and permeability.

  20. Viscous gravitational aether and the cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Xiaomei; Ling, Yi E-mail: yling@ncu.edu.cn

    2009-10-01

    Recently a notion of gravitational aether is advocated to solve the cosmological constant problem. Through the modification of the source of gravity one finds that the effective Newton's constant is source dependent so as to provide a simple but consistent way to decouple gravity from the vacuum energy. However, in the original paper the ratio of the effective Newton's constants for pressureless dust and radiation has an upper bound which is 0.75. In this paper we propose a scheme to loose this bound by introducing a bulk viscosity for the gravitational aether, and expect this improvement will provide more space for matching predictions from this theoretical programm with observational constraints.

  1. ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-09-09

    LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration,more » LSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.« less

  2. ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-09-09

    LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration,moreLSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.less

  3. FRACSTIM/I: A Fully Coupled Fluid Flow/Heat Transport and Geomechanical Deformation/Fracture Generation Simulator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This research will develop a fully coupled, fully implicit approach for EGS stimulation and reservoir simulation. Solve all governing equations simultaneously in fully implicit way. Enable massively parallel performance and scalability. Apply state of the art nonlinear PDE solvers: Jacobian Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office- AVTA: All Electric Delivery Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The following set of reports (part of the medium and heavy-duty truck data) describes performance data collected from Smith Newton all-electric medium-duty delivery trucks in a variety of fleets. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  5. miniXyce

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-08-22

    miniXyce uses a modified nodal analysis to approximate the governing differential algebraic equations (DAEs) for electronic devices and their coupling via a network and Kirchoff's conservation laws. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved iteratively using a fully coupled Newton method,which in turn results in a linear system that is solved using an iterative method.

  6. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  7. CX-003319: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act - National Aeronautics and Space Administration Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) Automated Meter Reading (AMR) -Based Dynamic PricingCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.2, B5.1Date: 07/30/2010Location(s): Newton, MassachusettsOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. Increasing Confidence In Geothermal Heat Pump Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1998-03-01

    Sizing the ground heat exchanger is one of the most important tasks in the design of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. Undersizing the heat exchanger can result in poor operating efficiency, reduced comfort, and nuisance heat pump lockouts on safety controls, while an oversized heat exchanger increases the installation cost of the system. The cost of ground loop installation may mean the difference between a feasible and an unfeasible project. Thus there are strong incentives to select heat exchanger lengths which allow satisfactory performance under all operating conditions within a feasible project budget. Sizing a ground heat exchanger is not a simple calculation. In the first place, there is usually some uncertainty in the peak block and annual space conditioning loads for the building to be served by the GHPs. The thermal properties of the soil formation may be unknown as well. Drilling logs and core samples can identify the soil type, but handbook values for the thermal properties of soils vary widely. Properly-done short-term on-site tests and data analysis to obtain thermal properties provide more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only feasible in large projects. Given the uncertainties inherent in the process, if designers were truly working 'close to the edge' - selecting the absolute minimum heat exchanger length required to meet the predicted loads - one would expect to see more examples of undersized heat exchangers. Indeed there have been a few. However, over the past twenty years GHPs have been installed and successfully operated at thousands of locations all over the world. Conversations with customers and facility managers reveal a high degree of satisfaction with the technology, but studies of projects reveal far more cases of generously sized ground heat exchangers than undersized ones. This indicates that the uncertainties in space conditioning loads and soil properties are covered by a factor of safety. These conservative designs increase the installed cost of GHP systems, limiting their use and applicability. Moreover, as ground heat exchanger sizing methods have improved, they have suggested (and field tests are beginning to verify) that standard bore backfill practices lead to unnecessarily large ground heat exchangers. Growing evidence suggests that in many applications use of sand backfill with a grout plug at the surface, or use of bottom-to-top thermally enhanced grout, may provide groundwater protection equal to current practice at far less cost. Site tests of thermal properties provides more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only performed in large projects. Even so, because soil properties can vary over a distance as small as a few feet, the value of these tests is limited. One objective of ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to increase designers confidence in available ground heat exchanger sizing methods that lead to reliable yet cost-effective designs. To this end we have developed research-grade models that address the interactions between buildings, geothermal heat pump systems and ground heat exchangers The first application of these models was at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where the space conditioning systems of over 4,000 homes were replaced with geothermal heat pumps (Shonder and Hughes, 1997; Hughes et. al., 1997). At Fort Polk, the models were calibrated to detailed data from one of the residences. Data on the energy use of the heat pump, combined with inlet and outlet water temperature and flow rate in the ground heat exchangers, allowed us to determine the thermal properties of the soil formation being experienced by the operating GHP system. Outputs from the models provide all the data required by the various commercially-available ground loop sizing programs. Accurate knowledge of both the building loads and the soil properties eliminated the uncertainty normally associated with the design process, and allowed us to compare the predictions of the commercially-available

  9. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talt, L.A.

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  10. Implementation of Army privatization directives at Forscom installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, R.C.; Patwardhan, S.

    1997-06-01

    {open_quotes}Privatization{close_quotes} has become the buzzword of the 1990s not only here in the United States but throughout the world. Privatization has been traditionally defined as the sale/transfer of state-owned (i.e. federal, state, county, city or public) assets to the private sector. Although there are numerous reasons for the privatization of state-owned assets, the primary reasons include the generation of a significant amount of cash to the state (Great Britain`s sale of electric power industry); capitalization of the formerly state-owned utility (sale of the utilities within many countries of the former Soviet Union); and state policy goals of eliminating monopolies, encouraging competition, and restructuring (Chile). Several year ago, the Department of Defense (DoD) and specifically the Department of Army (DoA) initiated its own `Privatization Process`. Coupled with shrinking budgets, workforce and funding resources from the Government, the Army was faced with antiquated utility infrastructure in need of significant upgrades and in some cases total replacements. Recognizing that the provision of utility services was not a core mission of the Army, DoA has encouraged its Installations throughout the country to consider the privatization of the Government-owned utility systems. In compliance with DoA policy, Forces Command (FORSCOM) has been at the forefront of the privatization process. To date, FORSCOM has initiated the process of analyzing the potential privatization of over 30 utility systems at 12 FORSCOM Installations located throughout the country. The FORSCOM Installations include Fort Irwin, CA; Fort Campbell, KY; Fort Bragg, NC; Fort McPherson, GA; Fort Hood, TX; Fort Polk, LA; Fort Lewis, WA; Fort Riley, KS; Fort Stewart, GA; Hunter Army Airfield, GA; Fort Carson, CO; Fort Devens, MA; Fort Dix, NJ; and Fort Gillem, GA.

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  12. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  13. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  14. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  15. Efficient solutions to the NDA-NCA low-order eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T.

    2013-07-01

    Recent algorithmic advances combine moment-based acceleration and Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods to accelerate the computation of the dominant eigenvalue in a k-eigenvalue calculation. In particular, NDA-NCA [1], builds a sequence of low-order (LO) diffusion-based eigenvalue problems in which the solution converges to the true eigenvalue solution. Within NDA-NCA, the solution to the LO k-eigenvalue problem is computed by solving a system of nonlinear equation using some variant of Newton's method. We show that we can speed up the solution to the LO problem dramatically by abandoning the JFNK method and exploiting the structure of the Jacobian matrix. (authors)

  16. The workshop on iterative methods for large scale nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, H.F.; Pernice, M.

    1995-12-01

    The aim of the workshop was to bring together researchers working on large scale applications with numerical specialists of various kinds. Applications that were addressed included reactive flows (combustion and other chemically reacting flows, tokamak modeling), porous media flows, cardiac modeling, chemical vapor deposition, image restoration, macromolecular modeling, and population dynamics. Numerical areas included Newton iterative (truncated Newton) methods, Krylov subspace methods, domain decomposition and other preconditioning methods, large scale optimization and optimal control, and parallel implementations and software. This report offers a brief summary of workshop activities and information about the participants. Interested readers are encouraged to look into an online proceedings available at http://www.usi.utah.edu/logan.proceedings. In this, the material offered here is augmented with hypertext abstracts that include links to locations such as speakers` home pages, PostScript copies of talks and papers, cross-references to related talks, and other information about topics addresses at the workshop.

  17. GlobiPack v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-03-31

    GlobiPack contains a small collection of optimization globalization algorithms. These algorithms are used by optimization and various nonlinear equation solver algorithms.Used as the line-search procedure with Newton and Quasi-Newton optimization and nonlinear equation solver methods. These are standard published 1-D line search algorithms such as are described in the book Nocedal and Wright Numerical Optimization: 2nd edition, 2006. One set of algorithms were copied and refactored from the existing open-source Trilinos package MOOCHO where themore » linear search code is used to globalize SQP methods. This software is generic to any mathematical optimization problem where smooth derivatives exist. There is no specific connection or mention whatsoever to any specific application, period. You cannot find more general mathematical software.« less

  18. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mark Kasevich

    2010-01-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  19. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton`s Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  20. Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Algorithm for Pebble Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HyeongKae Park; Dana Knoll; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a tightly coupled multiphysics simulation tool for the pebble-bed reactor (PBR) concept, a type of Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly with a Newton-based approach. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated via the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to minimize Krylov iterations. Motivation for the work is provided via analysis and numerical experiments on simpler multiphysics reactor models. We then provide detail of the physical models and numerical methods in PRONGHORN. Finally, PRONGHORN's algorithmic capability is demonstrated on a number of PBR test cases.

  1. ANRCP-1998-3 LITERATURE REVIEW: PHYTOACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM, URANIUM,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANRCP-1998-3 LITERATURE REVIEW: PHYTOACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM, URANIUM, AND PLUTONIUM IN PLANT SYSTEMS L. R. Hossner R. H. Loeppert R. J. Newton Texas A&M University College Station, Texas P. J. Szaniszlo The University of Texas Austin, Texas In Collaboration with Moses Attrep, Jr. Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium May 1998 STER DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible electronic image products. Images are

  2. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus)

  3. The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy | Department of Energy The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy Presentation given by Newton Pimenta and Cristiano Pinto of the State University of Campinas at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 PDF icon cng_h2_workshop_12_ohi.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of DOE - DOT December 2009 CNG and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop

  4. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? By David E. Wojick, Walter L. Warnick, Bonnie C. Carroll, and June Crowe Introduction With the United States federal government spending over $130 billion annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. It is well known that all scientific advancement is based on work that has come before. Isaac Newton expressed this

  5. Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC) For Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xujling

    2014-02-24

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids

  6. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  7. EinsteinCartan gravity, Asymptotic Safety, and the running Immirzi parameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daum, J.-E.; Reuter, M.

    2013-07-15

    In this paper we analyze the functional renormalization group flow of quantum gravity on the EinsteinCartan theory space. The latter consists of all action functionals depending on the spin connection and the vielbein field (co-frame) which are invariant under both spacetime diffeomorphisms and local frame rotations. In the first part of the paper we develop a general methodology and corresponding calculational tools which can be used to analyze the flow equation for the pertinent effective average action for any truncation of this theory space. In the second part we apply it to a specific three-dimensional truncated theory space which is parametrized by Newtons constant, the cosmological constant, and the Immirzi parameter. A comprehensive analysis of their scale dependences is performed, and the possibility of defining an asymptotically safe theory on this hitherto unexplored theory space is investigated. In principle Asymptotic Safety of metric gravity (at least at the level of the effective average action) is neither necessary nor sufficient for Asymptotic Safety on the EinsteinCartan theory space which might accommodate different universality classes of microscopic quantum gravity theories. Nevertheless, we do find evidence for the existence of at least one non-Gaussian renormalization group fixed point which seems suitable for the Asymptotic Safety construction in a setting where the spin connection and the vielbein are the fundamental field variables. -- Highlights: A functional RG equation for a first order formulation of gravity is constructed. The theory space constituted by tetrad and spin connection variables is explored. The RG equation is solved in a 3 dimensional truncation of theory space. The flow of Newtons constant, the cosmological constant and the Immirzi parameter is analyzed. Evidence for the nonperturbative renormalizability of the theory is found.

  8. Scalability of preconditioners as a strategy for parallel computation of compressible fluid flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, G.A.

    1996-05-01

    Parallel implementations of a Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithm are used to solve a model problem representing low Mach number compressible fluid flow over a backward-facing step. The Mach number is specifically selected to result in a numerically {open_quote}stiff{close_quotes} matrix problem, based on an implicit finite volume discretization of the compressible 2D Navier-Stokes/energy equations using primitive variables. Newton`s method is used to linearize the discrete system, and a preconditioned Krylov projection technique is used to solve the resulting linear system. Domain decomposition enables the development of a global preconditioner via the parallel construction of contributions derived from subdomains. Formation of the global preconditioner is based upon additive and multiplicative Schwarz algorithms, with and without subdomain overlap. The degree of parallelism of this technique is further enhanced with the use of a matrix-free approximation for the Jacobian used in the Krylov technique (in this case, GMRES(k)). Of paramount interest to this study is the implementation and optimization of these techniques on parallel shared-memory hardware, namely the Cray C90 and SGI Challenge architectures. These architectures were chosen as representative and commonly available to researchers interested in the solution of problems of this type. The Newton-Krylov-Schwarz solution technique is increasingly being investigated for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications due to the advantages of full coupling of all variables and equations, rapid non-linear convergence, and moderate memory requirements. A parallel version of this method that scales effectively on the above architectures would be extremely attractive to practitioners, resulting in efficient, cost-effective, parallel solutions exhibiting the benefits of the solution technique.

  9. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lays Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. This in-depth study complements a broader, nationwide evaluation (described at the end of this section) of more than

  10. GRIZZLY

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-12-17

    Grizzly is a simulation tool for assessing the effects of age-related degradation on systems, structures, and components of nuclear power plants. Grizzly is built on the MOOSE framework, and uses a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method to obtain solutions to tightly coupled thermo-mechanical simulations. Grizzly runs on a wide range of hardware, from a single processor to massively parallel machines.

  11. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  12. JFNK_Projection.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver R.R. Nourgaliev a , M.Christon b , J.Bakosi c a Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Thermal Science & Safety Analysis Department, 2525 North Fremont Ave. Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 Email: Robert.Nourgaliev@inl.gov b Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computer, Computational and Statistical Sciences Division, Computational Physics Group (CCS-2)) Los Alamos, NM 87545 Email: christon@lanl.gov c Los

  13. Superalloys with improved weldability for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seth, Brij B.; George, Easo P.; Babu, Sudarsanum S.; Goodwin, Gene M.; David, Stanislaus A.; Moyer, Carol E.

    2001-01-01

    A cast nickel-base superalloy component (10) is made having a composition containing small amounts of both boron and zirconium which are effective in combination to provide increased weldability, where such alloy is adapted for welding by weld (18) to a second superalloy piece, where the two pieces are firmly bonded together and have a Sigmajig transverse stress value (16) greater than 137.9 million Newtons per square meter.

  14. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  15. Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart

    2015-02-14

    Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equationsmore » at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.« less

  16. Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart

    2015-02-14

    Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equations at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.

  17. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L.

    1993-03-15

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  18. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  19. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  20. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  1. An improved neutral diffusion model and numerical solution of the two dimensional edge plasma fluid equations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, A.K.

    1998-09-01

    In this work, it has been shown that, for the given sets of parameters (transport coefficients), the Tangent-Predictor (TP) continuation method, which was used in the coarsest grid, works remarkably well. The problems in finding an initial guess that resides well within Newton`s method radius of convergence are alleviated by correcting the initial guess by the predictor step of the TP method. The TP method works well also in neutral gas puffing and impurity simulations. The neutral gas puffing simulation is performed by systematically increasing the fraction of puffing rate according to the TP method until it reaches a desired condition. Similarly, the impurity simulation characterized by using the fraction of impurity density as the continuation parameter, is carried out in line with the TP method. Both methods show, as expected, a better performance than the classical embedding (CE) method. The convergence criteria {epsilon} is set to be 10{sup {minus}9} based on the fact that lower value of {epsilon} does not alter the solution significantly. Correspondingly, the number of Newton`s iterations in the corrector step of the TP method decrease substantially, an extra point in terms of code speed. The success of the TP method enlarges the possibility of including other sets of parameters (operations and physics). With the availability of the converged coarsest grid solution, the next forward step to the multigrid cycle becomes possible. The multigrid method shows that the memory storage problems that plagued the application of Newton`s method on fine grids, are of no concern. An important result that needs to be noted here is the performance of the FFCD model. The FFCD model is relatively simple and is based on the overall results the model has shown to predict different divertor plasma parameters. The FFCD model treats exactly the implementation of the deep penetration of energetic neutrals emerging from the divertor plate. The resulting ionization profiles are relatively smooth as a consequence of the less localized recycling, leading to an improved convergence rate of the numerical algorithm. Peak plasma density is lower and the temperature correspondingly higher than those predicted by the standard diffusion model. It is believed that the FFCD model is more accurate. With both the TP continuation and multigrid methods, the author has demonstrated the robustness of these two methods. A mutually beneficial hybridization between the TP method and multigrid methods is clearly an alternative for edge plasma simulation. While the fundamental transport model considered in this work has ignored important physics such as drifts and currents, he has nevertheless demonstrated the versatility and robustness of the numerical scheme to handle such new physics. The application of gaseous-radiative divertor model in this work is just a beginning and up to this point numerically, the future is exciting.

  2. NGC 1365: A low column density state unveiling a low ionization disk wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Porquet, D.; Risaliti, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present the time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of NGC 1365 collected during one XMM-Newton observation, which caught this 'changing-look' active galactic nucleus in a high flux state characterized also by a low column density (N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}) of the X-ray absorber. During this observation, the low-energy photoelectric cut-off is at about ?1 keV and the primary continuum can be investigated with the XMM-Newton-RGS data, which show strong spectral variability that can be explained as a variable low N {sub H} that decreased from N {sub H} ? 10{sup 23} cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} in a 100 ks timescale. The spectral analysis of the last segment of the observation revealed the presence of several absorption features that can be associated with an ionized (log ? ? 2 erg cm s{sup 1}) outflowing wind (v {sub out} ? 2000 km s{sup 1}). We detected for the first time a possible P-Cygni profile of the Mg XII Ly? line associated with this mildly ionized absorber indicative of a wide angle outflowing wind. We suggest that this wind is a low ionization zone of the highly ionized wind present in NGC 1365, which is responsible for the iron K absorption lines and is located within the variable X-ray absorber. At the end of the observation, we detected a strong absorption line at E ? 0.76 keV most likely associated with a lower ionization zone of the absorber (log ? ? 0.2 erg cm s{sup 1}, N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}), which suggests that the variable absorber in NGC 1365 could be a low ionization zone of the disk wind.

  3. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-03-15

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuand

  4. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  5. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You wrote: I have heard there is a proof of Kepler's law that involves geometry only -- no calculus. Can you help me find it? Joseph, As you might know, Kepler himself did not derive his laws using strict mathematics. He found the laws by guessing and trying to fit his guesses to the observational data left by Tycho Brahe. We still use this approach today! As to the proof of Kepler's laws ... I found a very nice web page showing a proof of Kepler's laws assuming Newton's Laws of motion and

  6. Help Wanted at Kansas Wind Blade Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wanted at Kansas Wind Blade Company Help Wanted at Kansas Wind Blade Company July 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE Last year, Israel Sanchez, a 31-year-old Newton, Kan., resident, was painting the blades of wind turbines for Enertech, Inc., a small-scale wind manufacturer. Now he's assembling the entire system. "They promoted me," says Sanchez, taking a quick break from the assembly line in the 10,000 square-foot plant in

  7. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute,

  8. A new frequency domain arc furnace model for iterative harmonic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayordomo, J.G.; Beites, L.F.; Asensi, R.; Izzeddine, M.; Zabala, L.; Amantegui, J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new frequency domain Arc Furnace model for Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) by means of a Newton method. Powerful analytical expressions for harmonic currents and their derivatives are obtained under the balanced conditions of the system. The model offers a three phase configuration where there is no path for homopolar currents. Moreover, it contemplates continuous and discontinuous evolution of the arc current. The solution obtained is validated by means of time domain simulations. Finally, the model was integrated in a harmonic power flow where studies have been performed in a network with more than 700 busbars and 7 actual Arc Furnace Loads.

  9. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRASOFT X-RAY TRANSIENT SOURCE IN THE 2XMM CATALOG: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Dacheng; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Farrell, Sean A.

    2011-09-01

    We have discovered an ultrasoft X-ray transient source, 2XMMi J184725.1-631724, which was detected serendipitously in two XMM-Newton observations in the direction of the center of the galaxy IC 4765-f01-1504 at a redshift of 0.0353. These two observations were separated by 211 days, with the 0.2-10 keV absorbed flux increasing by a factor of about nine. Their spectra are best described by a model dominated by a thermal disk or a single-temperature blackbody component (contributing {approx}>80% of the flux) plus a weak power-law component. The thermal emission has a temperature of a few tens of eV, and the weak power-law component has a photon index of {approx}3.5. Similar to the black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state, our source exhibits an accretion disk whose luminosity appears to follow the L{proportional_to}T {sup 4} relation. This would indicate that the black hole mass is about 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub sun} using the best-fitting inner disk radius. Both XMM-Newton observations show variability of about 21% on timescales of hours, which can be explained as due to fast variations in the mass accretion rate. The source was not detected by ROSAT in an observation in 1992, indicating a variability factor of {approx}>64 over longer timescales. The source was not detected again in X-rays in a Swift observation in 2011 February, implying a flux decrease by a factor of {approx}>12 since the last XMM-Newton observation. The transient nature, in addition to the extreme softness of the X-ray spectra and the inactivity of the galaxy implied by the lack of strong optical emission lines, makes it a candidate tidal disruption event. If this is the case, the first XMM-Newton observation would have been in the rising phase and the second one in the decay phase.

  10. A new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    We present a new quasidilaton theory of Poincare invariant massive gravity, based on the recently proposed framework of matter coupling that makes it possible for the kinetic energy of the quasidilaton scalar to couple to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously. We find a scaling-type exact solution that expresses a self-accelerating de Sitter universe, and then analyze linear perturbations around it. It is shown that in a range of parameters all physical degrees of freedom have non-vanishing quadratic kinetic terms and are stable in the subhorizon limit, while the effective Newton's constant for the background is kept positive.

  11. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories (United States)

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  13. Dark Matter Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email Dark Matter Theory The existence of dark matter can be traced back to the pioneering discoveries of Fritz Zwicky and Jan Oort that the motion of galaxies in the Coma cluster, and of nearby stars in our own Galaxy, do not follow the expected motion based on Newton's law of gravity and the observed visible

  14. Takes Electric or Magnetic field data through Inversion process a 2D Distributon

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-01

    Program images 2D distributions in electrical conductivity for geophysical applications. The program can treat surface based and cross well measurement geometries, including inductive and grounded source antennas in the quasi-static limit. The algorithm using Krylov iterative methods to solve for the predicted data and model sensitivities. The model update is achieved using a Gauss-newton optimization process for stability. A new line search capability is now included in the algorithm to insure global convergence of themore » inversion iteration.« less

  15. BNL-24136

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24136 GAUSSIAN 76 - An ab initio molecular orbital program. J. S. Binkley, R. Whiteside, P. c. Hariharan, R. Seeger, W. J. Hehre, w. A. Lathan, M. D. Newton, R. Ditchfield and J. A. Pople Abstract GAUSSIAN 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital _calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets * (ST0-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G etc.) are stored internal ly for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or

  16. Field Test and Evaluation of Engineered Biomineralization Technology for Sealing Existing Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Alfred

    2015-12-21

    This research project addresses one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Storage Program (CSP) aimed at developing Advanced Wellbore Integrity Technologies to Ensure Permanent Geologic Carbon Storage. The technology field-tested in this research project is referred to as microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which utilizes a biologically-based process to precipitate calcium carbonate. If properly controlled MICP can successfully seal fractures, high permeability zones, and compromised wellbore cement in the vicinity of wellbores and in nearby caprock, thereby improving the storage security of geologically-stored carbon dioxide. This report describes an MICP sealing field test performed on a 24.4 cm (9.625 inch) diameter well located on the Gorgas Steam Generation facility near Jasper, Alabama. The research was aimed at (1) developing methods for delivering MICP promoting fluids downhole using conventional oil field technologies and (2) assessing the ability of MICP to seal cement and formation fractures in the near wellbore region in a sandstone formation. Both objectives were accomplished successfully during a field test performed during the period April 1-11, 2014. The test resulted in complete biomineralization sealing of a horizontal fracture located 340.7 m (1118 feet) below ground surface. A total of 24 calcium injections and six microbial inoculation injections were required over a three day period in order to achieve complete sealing. The fractured region was considered completely sealed when it was no longer possible to inject fluids into the formation without exceeding the initial formation fracture pressure. The test was accomplished using conventional oil field technology including an 11.4 L (3.0 gallon) wireline dump bailer for injecting the biomineralization materials downhole. Metrics indicating successful MICP sealing included reduced injectivity during seal formation, reduction in pressure falloff, and demonstration of MICP by-products including calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in treated regions of side wall cores. This project successfully integrated mesoscale laboratory experiments at the Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE) together with simulation modeling conducted at the University of Stuttgart to develop the protocol for conducting the biomineralization sealing test in the field well.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A.

  18. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less

  19. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Barnes; Briam Johnson

    2009-10-01

    Increased awareness of the potential for cyber attack has recently resulted in improved cyber security practices associated with the electrical power grid. However, the level of practical understanding and deployment of cyber security practices has not been evenly applied across all business sectors. Much of the focus has been centered on information technology business centers and control rooms. This report explores the current level of substation automation, communication, and cyber security protection deployed in electrical substations throughout existing utilities in the United States. This report documents the evaluation of substation automation implementation and associated vulnerabilities. This evaluation used research conducted by Newton-Evans Research Company for some of its observations and results. The Newton Evans Report aided in the determination of what is the state of substation automation in North American electric utilities. Idaho National Laboratory cyber security experts aided in the determination of what cyber vulnerabilities may pose a threat to electrical substations. This report includes cyber vulnerabilities as well as recommended mitigations. It also describes specific cyber issues found in typical substation automation configurations within the electric utility industry. The evaluation report was performed over a 5-month period starting in October 2008

  20. Cosmology in general massive gravity theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.

  1. Tramonto

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-01

    Tramonto is a code for performing molecular theory calculations using a matrix-based Newton’s method approach for 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries. More specifically the code solves the integral equations of a particular class of liquid state theory namely density functional theories (DFT) of inhomogeneous fluids in order to predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of fluids near surfaces, in porous media, or near macromolecules. It can also be used to study self-assembling systems such asmore » lamellae forming diblock copolymers or lipid bilayers. The types of fluids currently treated by the code include atomistic fluids (hard spheres, Lennard-Jones, ions, etc), freely-jointed polymers, and small molecules with bond constraints. The system of equations solved by this code are integral equations of finite range. They lead to sparse matrices for large physical systems, but rather dense matrices when the physical systems are small. The systems of equations are solved using a real space matrix based Newton’s method. Standard freely available parallel iterative solvers many be used to solve the problem (see Aztecoo from Sandia’s Trilinos project). Alternatively, specialized Schur complement based solvers developed for more efficient solution of these semi-dense matrices may be used.« less

  2. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.

  3. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  4. Comparison of galaxy clusters selected by weak-lensing, optical spectroscopy, and X-rays in the deep lens survey F2 field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starikova, Svetlana; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Murray, Stephen S.; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.

    2014-05-10

    We compare galaxy clusters selected in Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the 4 deg{sup 2} Deep Lens Survey (DLS) F2 field to the cluster samples previously selected in the same field from a sensitive weak-lensing shear map derived from the DLS and from a detailed galaxy redshift surveythe Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS). Our Chandra and XMM-Newton observations cover 1.6 deg{sup 2} of the DLS F2 field, including all 12 weak-lensing peaks above a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.5, along with 16 of the 20 SHELS clusters with published velocity dispersions >500 km s{sup 1}. We detect 26 extended X-ray sources in this area and confirm 23 of them as galaxy clusters using the optical imaging. Approximately 75% of clusters detected in either X-ray or spectroscopic surveys are found in both; these follow the previously established scaling relations between velocity dispersion, L {sub X}, and T {sub X}. A lower percentage, 60%, of clusters are in common between X-ray and DLS samples. With the exception of a high false-positive rate in the DLS weak-lensing search (5 out of 12 DLS candidates appear to be false), differences between the three cluster detection methods can be attributed primarily to observational uncertainties and intrinsic scatter between different observables and cluster mass.

  5. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  6. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  7. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SW SEXTANTIS STAR DW URSAE MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.; Lu, Ting-Ni; Knigge, Christian; Homer, Lee; Szkody, Paula; Still, M.; Long, Knox S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2010-11-15

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris, a novalike cataclysmic variable (CV) and one of the archetype members of the SW Sextantis class, obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. These data provide the first detailed look at an SW Sex star in the X-ray regime (with previous X-ray knowledge of the SW Sex stars limited primarily to weak or non-detections in the ROSAT All Sky Survey). It is also one of only a few XMM-Newton observations (to date) of any high mass transfer rate novalike CV, and the only one in the evolutionarily important 3-4 hr orbital period range. The observed X-ray spectrum of DW UMa is very soft, with {approx}95% of the detected X-ray photons at energies <2 keV. The spectrum can be fit equally well by a one-component cooling flow model, with a temperature range of 0.2-3.5 keV, or a two-component, two-temperature thermal plasma model, containing hard ({approx}5-6 keV) and soft ({approx}0.8 keV) components. The X-ray light curve of DW UMa shows a likely partial eclipse, implying X-ray reprocessing in a vertically extended region, and an orbital modulation, implying a structural asymmetry in the X-ray reprocessing site (e.g., it cannot be a uniform corona). We also obtained a simultaneous near-ultraviolet light curve of DW UMa using the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. This light curve is similar in appearance to published optical-UV light curves of DW UMa and shows a prominent deep eclipse. Regardless of the exact nature of the X-ray reprocessing site in DW UMa, the lack of a prominent hard X-ray total eclipse and very low fraction of high energy X-rays point to the presence of an optically and geometrically thick accretion disk that obscures the boundary layer and modifies the X-ray spectrum emitted near the white dwarf.

  9. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  10. What is behind small deviations of quantum mechanics theory from experiments? Observer's mathematics point of view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy

    2014-12-10

    Certain results that have been predicted by Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory are not always supported by experiments. This defines a deep crisis in contemporary physics and, in particular, quantum mechanics. We believe that, in fact, the mathematical apparatus employed within today's physics is a possible reason. In particular, we consider the concept of infinity that exists in today's mathematics as the root cause of this problem. We have created Observer's Mathematics that offers an alternative to contemporary mathematics. This paper is an attempt to relay how Observer's Mathematics may explain some of the contradictions in QM theory results. We consider the Hamiltonian Mechanics, Newton equation, Schrodinger equation, two slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, uncertainty principle, Dirac equations for free electron in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided.

  11. The Extended X-ray Nebula of PSR J1420-6048

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    The vicinity of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1420-6038 has undergone extensive study in the search for counterparts, revealing the energetic young pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and its surrounding wind nebula as a likely candidate for at least part of the emission from this bright and extended gamma-ray source. We report on new Suzaku observations of PSR J1420-6048, along with analysis of archival XMM Newton data. The low background of Suzaku permits mapping of the extended X-ray nebula, indicating a tail stretching {approx} 8 minutes north of the pulsar. The X-ray data, along with archival radio and VHE data, hint at a pulsar birthsite to the North, and yield insights into its evolution and the properties of the ambient medium. We further explore such properties by modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the extended nebula.

  12. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. Launched in late 2013, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data, such as fuel economy and maintenance costs, to better understand how to optimize the use of such vehicles in a large-scale commercial operation. In addition to the on-road portion of this evaluation, NREL is analyzing charging data to support total cost of ownership estimations and investigations into smart charging opportunities. NREL is also performing a battery life degradation analysis to quantify battery pack health, track battery performance over time, and determine how various drive cycles and battery charging protocols impact battery life.

  13. Modifying gravity with the aether: An alternative to dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zlosnik, T. G; Ferreira, P. G; Starkman, G. D.

    2007-02-15

    There is evidence that Newton and Einstein's theories of gravity cannot explain the dynamics of a universe made up solely of baryons and radiation. To be able to understand the properties of galaxies, clusters of galaxies and the universe on the whole it has become commonplace to invoke the presence of dark matter. An alternative approach is to modify the gravitational field equations to accommodate observations. We propose a new class of gravitational theories in which we add a new degree of freedom, the Aether, in the form of a vector field that is coupled covariantly, but nonminimally, with the space-time metric. We explore the Newtonian and non-Newtonian limits, discuss the conditions for these theories to be consistent and explore their effect on cosmology.

  14. LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS IN THE PERSEUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Mantz, A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Takei, Y.

    2012-10-01

    By combining large-scale mosaics of ROSAT PSPC, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku X-ray observations, we present evidence for large-scale motions in the intracluster medium of the nearby, X-ray bright Perseus Cluster. These motions are suggested by several alternating and interleaved X-ray bright, low-temperature, low-entropy arcs located along the east-west axis, at radii ranging from {approx}10 kpc to over a Mpc. Thermodynamic features qualitatively similar to these have previously been observed in the centers of cool-core clusters, and were successfully modeled as a consequence of the gas sloshing/swirling motions induced by minor mergers. Our observations indicate that such sloshing/swirling can extend out to larger radii than previously thought, on scales approaching the virial radius.

  15. Rad-Hydro with a High-Order, Low-Order Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton; Park, HyeongKae; Lowrie, Robert Byron; Rauenzahn, Rick M.; Cleveland, Mathew Allen

    2015-08-04

    Moment-based acceleration via the development of high-order, low-order (HO-LO) algorithms has provided substantial accuracy and efficiency enhancements for solutions of the nonlinear, thermal radiative transfer equations by CCS-2 and T-3 staff members. Accuracy enhancements over traditional, linearized methods are obtained by solving a nonlinear, timeimplicit HO-LO system via a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov procedure. This also prevents the appearance of non-physical maximum principle violations (temperature spikes) associated with linearization. Efficiency enhancements are obtained in part by removing effective scattering from the linearized system. In this highlight, we summarize recent work in which we formally extended the HO-LO radiation algorithm to include operator-split radiation-hydrodynamics.

  16. Implementing nonquadratic objective functions for state estimation and bad data rejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Clements, K.A.; Pinjo-Dzigal, Z.; Davis, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    Using a nonquadratic objective function for network state estimation can combine several estimation and bad data rejection techniques into one algorithm; e.g., the benefits of maximum likelihood least squares estimation can be coupled with the bad data rejection properties of least absolute value estimation. For such estimators, the authors describe an efficient implementation, one that builds naturally on existing least squares software, that is based on an iterative Gauss-Newton solution of the KKT optimality conditions. The authors illustrate the behavior of a quadratic-linear and a quadratic-constant objective function on a set of test networks. The former is closely related to the Huber M-estimator. The latter shows somewhat better bad data rejection properties, perhaps because it arises from a natural model of meter failure.

  17. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemorecontact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.less

  18. Boltzmann-Electron Model in Aleph.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Thomas Patrick; Hooper, Russell

    2014-11-01

    We apply the Boltzmann-electron model in the electrostatic, particle-in-cell, finite- element code Aleph to a plasma sheath. By assuming a Boltzmann energy distribution for the electrons, the model eliminates the need to resolve the electron plasma fre- quency, and avoids the numerical %22grid instability%22 that can cause unphysical heating of electrons. This allows much larger timesteps to be used than with kinetic electrons. Ions are treated with the standard PIC algorithm. The Boltzmann-electron model re- quires solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation, for which we use an iterative Newton solver (NOX) from the Trilinos Project. Results for the spatial variation of density and voltage in the plasma sheath agree well with an analytic model

  19. A Reactive Transport Simulator for Biogeochemical Processes in Subsurface System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    BIOGEOCHEM is a Fortran code that mumerically simulates the coupled processes of solute transport, microbial population dynamics, microbial metabolism, and geochemical reactions. The potential applications of the code include, but not limited to, (a) sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for assessing the impact of microbial activity on subsurface geochemical systems; (b) extraction of biogeochemical parameter values from field observations or laboratory measurements, (c) helping to design and optimize laboratory biogeochemical experiments, and (d) data integration. Methodmore » of Solution: A finite difference method and a Newton-Raphson technique are used to solve a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and algebraic equations. Practical Application: Environmental analysis, bioremediation performance assessments of radioactive or non-radioactive wase disposal, and academic research.« less

  20. Saybolt universal viscosity converted to kinematic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O.

    1987-09-21

    This article describes a program for personal and handheld computers, written in Basic, which has been developed for the conversion of Saybolt universal viscosity in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU or SUS) to kinematic viscosity in centistokes (cSt), at any selected temperature. It was developed using the mathematical relationship presented in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D2161-82. In the standard, an equation is presented to convert kinematic viscosity to Saybolt universal viscosity, but nothing is presented to convert from Saybolt to kinematic because it is necessary to find the roots of a nonexplicit function. There are several numerical methods that can be used to determine the roots of the nonexplicit function, and therefore, convert Saybolt universal viscosity to kinematic viscosity. In the program, the first iteration of the second-order Newton-Raphson method is followed by the Wegstein method as a convergence accelerator.

  1. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  2. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  3. Flux-vector splitting algorithm for chain-rule conservation-law form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.I.-P.; Nguyen, H.L.; Willis, E.A.; Steinthorsson, E.; Li, Z. NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1991-07-01

    A flux-vector splitting algorithm with Newton-Raphson iteration was developed for the 'full compressible' Navier-Stokes equations cast in chain-rule conservation-law form. The algorithm is intended for problems with deforming spatial domains and for problems whose governing equations cannot be cast in strong conservation-law form. The usefulness of the algorithm for such problems was demonstrated by applying it to analyze the unsteady, two- and three-dimensional flows inside one combustion chamber of a Wankel engine under nonfiring conditions. Solutions were obtained to examine the algorithm in terms of conservation error, robustness, and ability to handle complex flows on time-dependent grid systems. 16 refs.

  4. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  5. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-08-15

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found.

  6. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  7. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPER-EARTH HOST GJ 1214

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalitha, S.; Singh, K. P.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-07-20

    Stellar activity can produce large amounts of high-energy radiation, which is absorbed by the planetary atmosphere leading to irradiation-driven mass loss. We present the detection and an investigation of high-energy emission in a transiting super-Earth host system, GJ 1214, based on XMM-Newton observations. We derive an X-ray luminosity of L{sub X} = 7.4 10{sup 25}ergs{sup 1} and a corresponding activity level of log (L{sub X} /L {sub bol}) ? 5.3. Further, we determine a coronal temperature of about ?3.5MK, which is typical for coronal emission of moderately active low-mass stars. We estimate that GJ 1214 b evaporates at a rate of 1.3 10{sup 10}gs{sup 1} and has lost a total of ?2-5.6 M {sub ?}.

  8. RBS 1032: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT IN ANOTHER DWARF GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-09-10

    RBS 1032 is a supersoft (? ? 5), luminous (?10{sup 43} erg s{sup 1}) ROSAT PSPC source which has been associated with an inactive dwarf galaxy at z = 0.026, SDSS J114726.69+494257.8. We have analyzed an XMM-Newton observation that confirms that RBS 1032 is indeed associated with the dwarf galaxy. Moreover, RBS 1032 has undergone a factor of ?100-300 decay since 1990 November. This variability suggests that RBS 1032 may not be a steadily accreting intermediate-mass black hole, but rather an accretion flare from the tidal disruption of a star by the central black hole (which may or may not be intermediate-mass). We suggest that additional tidal disruption events may remain unidentified in archival ROSAT data, such that disruption rate estimates based upon ROSAT All-Sky Survey data may need reconsideration.

  9. Efficient Inversion of Mult-frequency and Multi-Source Electromagnetic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Egbert

    2007-03-22

    The project covered by this report focused on development of efficient but robust non-linear inversion algorithms for electromagnetic induction data, in particular for data collected with multiple receivers, and multiple transmitters, a situation extremely common in eophysical EM subsurface imaging methods. A key observation is that for such multi-transmitter problems each step in commonly used linearized iterative limited memory search schemes such as conjugate gradients (CG) requires solution of forward and adjoint EM problems for each of the N frequencies or sources, essentially generating data sensitivities for an N dimensional data-subspace. These multiple sensitivities allow a good approximation to the full Jacobian of the data mapping to be built up in many fewer search steps than would be required by application of textbook optimization methods, which take no account of the multiplicity of forward problems that must be solved for each search step. We have applied this idea to a develop a hybrid inversion scheme that combines features of the iterative limited memory type methods with a Newton-type approach using a partial calculation of the Jacobian. Initial tests on 2D problems show that the new approach produces results essentially identical to a Newton type Occam minimum structure inversion, while running more rapidly than an iterative (fixed regularization parameter) CG style inversion. Memory requirements, while greater than for something like CG, are modest enough that even in 3D the scheme should allow 3D inverse problems to be solved on a common desktop PC, at least for modest (~ 100 sites, 15-20 frequencies) data sets. A secondary focus of the research has been development of a modular system for EM inversion, using an object oriented approach. This system has proven useful for more rapid prototyping of inversion algorithms, in particular allowing initial development and testing to be conducted with two-dimensional example problems, before approaching more computationally cumbersome three-dimensional problems.

  10. AN X-RAY VIEW OF THE JET CYCLE IN THE RADIO-LOUD AGN 3C120

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Miller, Eric D.; Nowak, Michael A.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo F.; Miller, Jon M.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of the central engine in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C120 using a multi-epoch analysis of a deep XMM-Newton observation and two deep Suzaku pointings (in 2012). In order to place our spectral data into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we monitor the source in the UV/X-ray bands, and in the radio band. We find three statistically acceptable spectral models: a disk-reflection model, a jet model, and a jet+disk model. Despite being good descriptions of the data, the disk-reflection model violates the radio constraints on the inclination, and the jet model has a fine-tuning problem, requiring a jet contribution exceeding that expected. Thus, we argue for a composite jet+disk model. Within the context of this model, we verify the basic predictions of the jet-cycle paradigm, finding a truncated/refilling disk during the Suzaku observations and a complete disk extending down to the innermost stable circular orbit during the XMM-Newton observation. The idea of a refilling disk is further supported by the detection of the ejection of a new jet knot approximately one month after the Suzaku pointings. We also discover a step-like event in one of the Suzaku pointings in which the soft band lags the hard band. We suggest that we are witnessing the propagation of a disturbance from the disk into the jet on a timescale set by the magnetic field.

  11. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to medium duty EVs.

  12. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Gnther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ? 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ?0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  13. Q2122-444: A NAKED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FULLY DRESSED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Panessa, F.; Franca, F. La; Saviane, I.; Monaco, L.; Foschini, L.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2010-12-20

    Based on previous spectral and temporal optical studies, Q2122-444 has been classified as a naked active galactic nucleus (AGN) or true type 2 AGN, that is, an AGN that genuinely lacks a broad-line region (BLR). Its optical spectrum seemed to possess only narrow forbidden emission lines that are typical of type 2 (obscured) AGNs, but the long-term optical light curve, obtained from a monitoring campaign over more than two decades, showed strong variability, apparently ruling out the presence of heavy obscuration. Here we present the results from a {approx}40 ks XMM-Newton observation of Q2122-444 carried out to shed light on the energetics of this enigmatic AGN. The X-ray analysis was complemented with Australia Telescope Compact Array radio data to assess the possible presence of a jet, and with new NTT/EFOSC2 optical spectroscopic data to verify the actual absence of a BLR. The higher-quality optical data revealed the presence of strong and broad Balmer lines that are at odds with the previous spectral classification of this AGN. The lack of detection of radio emission rules out the presence of a jet. The X-ray data combined with simultaneous UV observations carried out by the Optical Monitor (OM) aboard XMM-Newton confirm that Q2122-444 is a typical type 1 AGN without any significant intrinsic absorption. New estimates of the black hole mass independently obtained from the broad Balmer lines and from a new scaling technique based on X-ray spectral data suggest that Q2122-444 is accreting at a relatively high rate in Eddington units.

  14. A general formulation for compositional reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Guzman, J.; Galindo-Nava, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present a general formulation to solve the non-linear difference equations that arise in compositional reservoir simulation. The general approach here presented is based on newton`s method and provides a systematic approach to generate several formulations to solve the compositional problem, each possessing a different degree of implicitness and stability characteristics. The Fully-Implicit method is at the higher end of the implicitness spectrum while the IMPECS method, implicit in pressure-explicit in composition and saturation, is at the lower end. They show that all methods may be obtained as particular cases of the fully-implicit method. Regarding the matrix problem, all methods have a similar matrix structure; the composition of the Jacobian matrix is however unique in each case, being in some instances amenable to reductions for optimal solution of the matrix problem. Based on this, a different approach to derive IMPECS type methods is proposed; in this case, the whole set of 2nc + 6 equations, that apply in each gridblock, is reduced to a single pressure equation through matrix reduction operations; this provides a more stable numerical scheme, compared to other published IMPCS methods, in which the subset of thermodynamic equilibrium equations is arbitrarily decoupled form the set of gridblock equations to perform such reduction. The authors discuss how the general formulation here presented can be used to formulate and construct an adaptive-implicit compositional simulators. They also present results on the numerical performance of FI, IMPSEC and IMPECS methods on some test problems.

  15. NEW X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GEMINGA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlov, George G.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E. E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.i

    2010-05-20

    Previous observations of the middle-aged pulsar Geminga with XMM-Newton and Chandra have shown an unusual pulsar wind nebula (PWN), with a 20'' long central (axial) tail directed opposite to the pulsar's proper motion and two 2' long, bent lateral (outer) tails. Here, we report on a deeper Chandra observation (78 ks exposure) and a few additional XMM-Newton observations of the Geminga PWN. The new Chandra observation has shown that the axial tail, which includes up to three brighter blobs, extends at least 50'' (i.e., 0.06d{sub 250} pc) from the pulsar (d{sub 250} is the distance scaled to 250 pc). It also allowed us to image the patchy outer tails and the emission in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar with high resolution. The PWN luminosity, L{sub 0.3-8{sub keV}} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 29} d {sup 2}{sub 250} erg s{sup -1}, is lower than the pulsar's magnetospheric luminosity by a factor of 10. The spectra of the PWN elements are rather hard (photon index {Gamma} {approx} 1). Comparing the two Chandra images, we found evidence of PWN variability, including possible motion of the blobs along the axial tail. The X-ray PWN is the synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles of the pulsar wind (PW); its morphology is connected with the supersonic motion of Geminga. We speculate that the outer tails are either a sky projection of the limb-brightened boundary of a shell formed in the region of contact discontinuity, where the wind bulk flow is decelerated by shear instability, or polar outflows from the pulsar bent by the ram pressure from the interstellar medium. In the former case, the axial tail may be a jet emanating along the pulsar's spin axis, perhaps aligned with the direction of motion. In the latter case, the axial tail may be the shocked PW collimated by ram pressure.

  16. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-03

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to medium duty EVs.

  17. The secret lives of Cepheids: evolutionary changes and pulsation-induced shock heating in the prototype classical Cepheid ? Cep

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Neilson, Hilding R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Box 70652, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Evans, Nancy Remage, E-mail: scott.engle@villanova.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Over the past decade, the Secret Lives of Cepheids (SLiC) program has been carried out at Villanova University to study aspects and behaviors of classical Cepheids that are still not well understood. In this, the first of several planned papers on program Cepheids, we report the current results for ? Cep, the Cepheid prototype. Ongoing photometry has been obtained to search for changes in the pulsation period, light-curve morphology, and amplitude. Combining our photometry with the times of maximum light compilation by Berdnikov et al. returns a small period change of dP/dt ?0.1006 0.0002 s yr{sup -1}. There is also evidence for a gradual light amplitude increase of ?0.011 mag (V band) and ?0.012 mag (B band) per decade over the last ?50 years. In addition, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) UV spectrophotometry and XMM-Newton X-ray data were carried out to investigate the high-temperature plasmas present above the Cepheid photospheres. In total, from the five visits (eight exposures) with XMM-Newton, ? Cep is found to be a soft X-ray source (L {sub X} (0.3-2 keV) ?4.5-13 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1}) with peak flux at kT = 0.6-0.9 keV. The X-ray activity is found to vary, possibly in phase with the stellar pulsations. From 2010-2013, nine observations of ? Cep were carried out with HST-COS. The UV emissions are also variable and well phased with the stellar pulsations. Maximum UV line emissions occur near, or slightly before, maximum optical light, varying by as much as 20 times. This variability shows that pulsation-induced shock heating plays a significant role in Cepheid atmospheres, possibly in addition to a quiescent, magnetic heating. The results of this study show Cepheid atmospheres to be rather complex and dynamic.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flows: Implicit Sharp-Interface Method (I-SIM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Nourgaliev; Theo Theofanous; HyeongKae Park; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2008-01-01

    In recent work (Nourgaliev, Liou, Theofanous, JCP in press) we demonstrated that numerical simulations of interfacial flows in the presence of strong shear must be cast in dynamically sharp terms (sharp interface treatment or SIM), and that moreover they must meet stringent resolution requirements (i.e., resolving the critical layer). The present work is an outgrowth of that work aiming to overcome consequent limitations on the temporal treatment, which become still more severe in the presence of phase change. The key is to avoid operator splitting between interface motion, fluid convection, viscous/heat diffusion and reactions; instead treating all these non-linear operators fully-coupled within a Newton iteration scheme. To this end, the SIMs cut-cell meshing is combined with the high-orderaccurate implicit Runge-Kutta and the recovery Discontinuous Galerkin methods along with a Jacobian-free, Krylov subspace iteration algorithm and its physics-based preconditioning. In particular, the interfacial geometry (i.e., markers positions and volumes of cut cells) is a part of the Newton-Krylov solution vector, so that the interface dynamics and fluid motions are fully-(non-linearly)-coupled. We show that our method is: (a) robust (L-stable) and efficient, allowing to step over stability time steps at will while maintaining high-(up to the 5th)-order temporal accuracy; (b) fully conservative, even near multimaterial contacts, without any adverse consequences (pressure/velocity oscillations); and (c) highorder-accurate in spatial discretization (demonstrated here up to the 12th-order for smoothin-the-bulk-fluid flows), capturing interfacial jumps sharply, within one cell. Performance is illustrated with a variety of test problems, including low-Mach-number manufactured solutions, shock dynamics/tracking with slow dynamic time scales, and multi-fluid, highspeed shock-tube problems. We briefly discuss preconditioning, and we introduce two physics-based preconditioners Block-Diagonal and Internal energy-Pressure-Velocity Partially Decoupled, demonstrating the ability to efficiently solve all-speed flows with strong effects from viscous dissipation and heat conduction.

  19. A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE HEAT RELEASE IN THE OUTER CRUST OF THE TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR XTE J1709-267

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-04-20

    The heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars provides a powerful probe of the structure and composition of their crust. Observations of superbursts and cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars require more heat release than is accounted for in current models. Obtaining firm constraints on the depth and magnitude of this extra heat is challenging and therefore its origin remains uncertain. We report on Swift and XMM-Newton observations of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1709-267, which were made in 2012 September-October when it transitioned to quiescence after a {approx_equal}10 week long accretion outburst. The source is detected with XMM-Newton at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of L{sub X} {approx_equal} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34}(D/8.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray spectrum consists of a thermal component that fits to a neutron star atmosphere model and a non-thermal emission tail, each of which contribute {approx_equal}50% to the total flux. The neutron star temperature decreases from {approx_equal}158 to {approx_equal}152 eV during the {approx_equal}8 hr long observation. This can be interpreted as cooling of a crustal layer located at a column density of y {approx_equal} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} g cm{sup -2} ({approx_equal}50 m inside the neutron star), which is just below the ignition depth of superbursts. The required heat generation in the layers on top would be {approx_equal}0.06-0.13 MeV per accreted nucleon. The magnitude and depth rule out electron captures and nuclear fusion reactions as the heat source, but it may be accounted for by chemical separation of light and heavy nuclei. Low-level accretion offers an alternative explanation for the observed variability.

  20. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-11-20

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s{sup -1} and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from {approx}10,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.03c) up to {approx}100,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.3c), with a peak and mean value of {approx}42,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log {xi} {approx} 3-6 erg s{sup -1} cm, with a mean value of log {xi} {approx} 4.2 erg s{sup -1} cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, with a mean value of N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds, and jets.

  1. Unconventional modelling of faulted reservoirs: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldthorpe, W.H.; Chow, Y.S.

    1985-02-01

    An example is presented of detailed unconventional gridding of the North Rankin Field, which is a large, structurally complex gas-condensate field offshore Western Australia. A non-Cartesian areal grid was used with corner point geometry to approximate a generalized curvilinear coordinate system for the surface and interior of each reservoir unit. Coordinate lines in the vertical plane at any node in the grid were tilted where necessary to define sloping edges and sides of grid blocks. Thus, any sloping twisted surface could be modelled. To investigate possible communication across faults between different geological units, transmissibilities at faults were automatically calculated for any over-lapping cells and sensitivities made of the effect of varying these transmissibilities on well production, recovery factors, pressure decline and water encroachment. The model was solved with a fully implicit simulator using a Newton-Raphson iteration method for the non-linear equations and a variant of the Conjugate Gradient procedure with a preconditioning matrix for the linear equations.

  2. Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, CLARK

    2004-08-11

    A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.

  3. CONSTRAINTS ON POROSITY AND MASS LOSS IN O-STAR WINDS FROM THE MODELING OF X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILE SHAPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2013-06-10

    We fit X-ray emission line profiles in high resolution XMM-Newton and Chandra grating spectra of the early O supergiant {zeta} Pup with models that include the effects of porosity in the stellar wind. We explore the effects of porosity due to both spherical and flattened clumps. We find that porosity models with flattened clumps oriented parallel to the photosphere provide poor fits to observed line shapes. However, porosity models with isotropic clumps can provide acceptable fits to observed line shapes, but only if the porosity effect is moderate. We quantify the degeneracy between porosity effects from isotropic clumps and the mass-loss rate inferred from the X-ray line shapes, and we show that only modest increases in the mass-loss rate ({approx}< 40%) are allowed if moderate porosity effects (h{sub {infinity}} {approx}< R{sub *}) are assumed to be important. Large porosity lengths, and thus strong porosity effects, are ruled out regardless of assumptions about clump shape. Thus, X-ray mass-loss rate estimates are relatively insensitive to both optically thin and optically thick clumping. This supports the use of X-ray spectroscopy as a mass-loss rate calibration for bright, nearby O stars.

  4. A truncated Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for the calibration of highly parameterized nonlinear models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finsterle, S.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2010-10-15

    We propose a modification to the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm for a more robust and more efficient calibration of highly parameterized, strongly nonlinear models of multiphase flow through porous media. The new method combines the advantages of truncated singular value decomposition with those of the classical Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, thus enabling a more robust solution of underdetermined inverse problems with complex relations between the parameters to be estimated and the observable state variables used for calibration. The truncation limit separating the solution space from the calibration null space is re-evaluated during the iterative calibration process. In between these re-evaluations, fewer forward simulations are required, compared to the standard approach, to calculate the approximate sensitivity matrix. Truncated singular values are used to calculate the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter updates, ensuring that safe small steps along the steepest-descent direction are taken for highly correlated parameters of low sensitivity, whereas efficient quasi-Gauss-Newton steps are taken for independent parameters with high impact. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated for a synthetic data set representing infiltration into a partially saturated, heterogeneous soil, where hydrogeological, petrophysical, and geostatistical parameters are estimated based on the joint inversion of hydrological and geophysical data.

  5. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  6. Spontaneous Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation, massive modes, and gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluhm, Robert; Fung Shuhong; Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2008-03-15

    Theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation contain massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, which arise as field excitations in the minimum of the symmetry-breaking potential. If the shape of the potential also allows excitations above the minimum, then an alternative gravitational Higgs mechanism can occur in which massive modes involving the metric appear. The origin and basic properties of the massive modes are addressed in the general context involving an arbitrary tensor vacuum value. Special attention is given to the case of bumblebee models, which are gravitationally coupled vector theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation. Mode expansions are presented in both local and spacetime frames, revealing the Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes via decomposition of the metric and bumblebee fields, and the associated symmetry properties and gauge fixing are discussed. The class of bumblebee models with kinetic terms of the Maxwell form is used as a focus for more detailed study. The nature of the associated conservation laws and the interpretation as a candidate alternative to Einstein-Maxwell theory are investigated. Explicit examples involving smooth and Lagrange-multiplier potentials are studied to illustrate features of the massive modes, including their origin, nature, dispersion laws, and effects on gravitational interactions. In the weak static limit, the massive mode and Lagrange-multiplier fields are found to modify the Newton and Coulomb potentials. The nature and implications of these modifications are examined.

  7. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'}m{sub V}?3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'}

  8. A Parallel Multi-Domain Solution Methodology Applied to Nonlinear Thermal Transport Problems in Nuclear Fuel Pins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P; Sampath, Rahul S; Clarno, Kevin T; Dilts, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors are described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstratingmore » the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.« less

  9. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ?CDM cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N. E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ?CDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ?CDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/?c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ?CDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ?CDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no ?. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ?CDM cosmology.

  10. Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/BAT era II: 10 more Clusters detected above 15 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajello, M.; Rebusco, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Reimer, O.; Boehringer, H.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; ,

    2010-10-27

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are: Bullet, Abell 85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and Abell 3667) we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For Abell 3667 the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT = {approx}13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely thermal origin.

  11. Deconvolving X-ray spectral variability components in the Seyfert 1.5 NGC 3227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvalo, P.; Markowitz, A.

    2014-03-10

    We present the variability analysis of a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1.5 active galaxy, NGC 3227. The observation found NGC 3227 in a period where its hard power-law component displayed remarkably little long-term variability. This lucky event allows us to clearly observe a soft spectral component undergoing a large-amplitude but slow flux variation. Using combined spectral and timing analysis, we isolate two independent variable continuum components and characterize their behavior as a function of timescale. Rapid and coherent variations throughout the 0.2-10 keV band reveal a spectrally hard (photon index ? ? 1.7-1.8) power law, dominating the observed variability on timescales of 30 ks and shorter. Another component produces coherent fluctuations in the 0.2-2 keV range and is much softer (? ? 3); it dominates the observed variability on timescales greater than 30 ks. Both components are viewed through the same absorbers identified in the time-averaged spectrum. The combined spectral and timing analysis breaks the degeneracy between models for the soft excess: it is consistent with a power-law or thermal Comptonized component but not with a blackbody or an ionized reflection component. We demonstrate that the rapid variability in NGC 3227 is intrinsic to continuum-emitting components and is not an effect of variable absorption.

  12. X-ray observations of complex temperature structure in the cool-core cluster A85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenck, David E.; Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Sam

    2014-07-01

    X-ray observations were used to examine the complex temperature structure of A85, a cool-core galaxy cluster. Temperature features can provide evidence of merging events which shock heat the intracluster gas. Temperature maps were made from both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. The combination of a new, long-exposure XMM observation and an improved temperature map binning technique produced the highest fidelity temperature maps of A85 to date. Hot regions were detected near the subclusters to the south and southwest in both the Chandra and XMM temperature maps. The presence of these structures implies A85 is not relaxed. The hot regions may indicate the presence of shocks. The Mach numbers were estimated to be ?1.9 at the locations of the hot spots. Observational effects will tend to systematically reduce temperature jumps, so the measured Mach numbers are likely underestimated. Neither temperature map showed evidence for a shock in the vicinity of the presumed radio relic near the southwest subcluster. However, the presence of a weak shock cannot be ruled out. There was tension between the temperatures measured by the two instruments.

  13. AURORA: A FORTRAN program for modeling well stirred plasma and thermal reactors with gas and surface reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Kee, R.J.; Moffat, H.K.

    1996-02-01

    The AURORA Software is a FORTRAN computer program that predicts the steady-state or time-averaged properties of a well mixed or perfectly stirred reactor for plasma or thermal chemistry systems. The software was based on the previously released software, SURFACE PSR which was written for application to thermal CVD reactor systems. AURORA allows modeling of non-thermal, plasma reactors with the determination of ion and electron concentrations and the electron temperature, in addition to the neutral radical species concentrations. Well stirred reactors are characterized by a reactor volume, residence time or mass flow rate, heat loss or gas temperature, surface area, surface temperature, the incoming temperature and mixture composition, as well as the power deposited into the plasma for non-thermal systems. The model described here accounts for finite-rate elementary chemical reactions both in the gas phase and on the surface. The governing equations are a system of nonlinear algebraic relations. The program solves these equations using a hybrid Newton/time-integration method embodied by the software package TWOPNT. The program runs in conjunction with the new CHEMKIN-III and SURFACE CHEMKIN-III packages, which handle the chemical reaction mechanisms for thermal and non-thermal systems. CHEMKIN-III allows for specification of electron-impact reactions, excitation losses, and elastic-collision losses for electrons.

  14. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet ?-ray pulsar J18131246

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J18131246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The ?-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the ?-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and ?-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and ?-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  15. Xyce(™) Parallel Electronic Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-03

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator simulates electronic circuit behavior in DC, AC, HB, MPDE and transient mode using standard analog (DAE) and/or device (PDE) device models including several age and radiation aware devices. It supports a variety of computing platforms (both serial and parallel) computers. Lastly, it uses a variety of modern solution algorithms dynamic parallel load-balancing and iterative solvers.! ! Xyce is primarily used to simulate the voltage and current behavior of a circuitmore » network (a network of electronic devices connected via a conductive network). As a tool, it is mainly used for the design and analysis of electronic circuits.! ! Kirchoff's conservation laws are enforced over a network using modified nodal analysis. This results in a set of differential algebraic equations (DAEs). The resulting nonlinear problem is solved iteratively using a fully coupled Newton method, which in turn results in a linear system that is solved by either a standard sparse-direct solver or iteratively using Trilinos linear solver packages, also developed at Sandia National Laboratories.« less

  16. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (?7ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ?20ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index ? ? 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ?10{sup 7}s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with ? ? 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  17. X-ray observations of XSS J12270-4859 in a new low state: A transformation to a disk-free rotation-powered pulsar binary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Patruno, Alessandro; Archibald, Anne M.; Bassa, Cees; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Janssen, Gemma H.; Stappers, Ben W.

    2014-07-01

    We present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary XSS J12270-4859, which experienced a dramatic decline in optical/X-ray brightness at the end of 2012, indicative of the disappearance of its accretion disk. In this new state, the system exhibits previously absent orbital-phase-dependent, large-amplitude X-ray modulations with a decline in flux at superior conjunction. The X-ray emission remains predominantly non-thermal but with an order of magnitude lower mean luminosity and significantly harder spectrum relative to the previous high flux state. This phenomenology is identical to the behavior of the radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary PSR J1023+0038 in the absence of an accretion disk, where the X-ray emission is produced in an intra-binary shock driven by the pulsar wind. This further demonstrates that XSS J12270-4859 no longer has an accretion disk and has transformed to a full-fledged eclipsing 'redback' system that hosts an active rotation-powered MSP. There is no evidence for diffuse X-ray emission associated with the binary that may arise due to outflows or a wind nebula. An extended source situated 1.'5 from XSS J12270-4859 is unlikely to be associated, and is probably a previously uncataloged galaxy cluster.

  18. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  19. EXPLORING THE X-RAY AND ?-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR PSRJ17232837

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui, C. Y.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Wu, E. M. H.; Lin, L. C. C.

    2014-01-20

    We have investigated the X-ray and ?-ray properties of the redback millisecond pulsar PSRJ17232837 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Fermi. We have discovered the X-ray orbital modulation of this binary system with a minimum that coincides with the phases of radio eclipse. The X-ray emission is clearly non-thermal in nature, which can be described well by a simple power law with a photon index of ?1.2. The phase-averaged luminosity is ?9 10{sup 31} erg s{sup 1} in 0.3-10 keV, which consumes ?0.2% of the spin-down power. We have detected the ?-ray emission in 0.1-300 GeV from this system at a significance of ?6? for the first time. The ?-rays in this energy range consume ?2% of the spin-down power and can be modeled by a power law with a photon index of ?2.6. We discuss the high energy properties of the new redback in the context of an intrabinary shock model.

  20. Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V.; Marsh, M.C. David; Rummel, Markus

    2015-04-09

    Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10–100 μG), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with z>20pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.

  1. Surface defects characterization in a quantum wire by coherent phonons scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabia, M. S.

    2015-03-30

    The influence of surface defects on the scattering properties of elastic waves in a quasi-planar crystallographic waveguide is studied in the harmonic approximation using the matching method formalism. The structural model is based on three infinite atomic chains forming a perfect lattice surmounted by an atomic surface defect. Following the Landauer approach, we solve directly the Newton dynamical equation with scattering boundary conditions and taking into account the next nearest neighbours interaction. A detailed study of the defect-induced fluctuations in the transmission spectra is presented for different adatom masses. As in the electronic case, the presence of localized defect-induced states leads to Fano-like resonances. In the language of mechanical vibrations, these are called continuum resonances. Numerical results reveal the intimate relation between transmission spectra and localized defect states and provide a basis for the understanding of conductance spectroscopy experiments in disordered mesoscopic systems. The results could be useful for the design of phononic devices.

  2. The effective field theory of dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Piazza, Federico E-mail: fpiazza@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-02-01

    We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be de-mixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant field-operators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.

  3. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  4. Compositional modeling in porous media using constant volume flash and flux computation without the need for phase identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polvka, Ond?ej Mikyka, Ji?

    2014-09-01

    The paper deals with the numerical solution of a compositional model describing compressible two-phase flow of a mixture composed of several components in porous media with species transfer between the phases. The mathematical model is formulated by means of the extended Darcy's laws for all phases, components continuity equations, constitutive relations, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The splitting of components among the phases is described using a new formulation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium which uses volume, temperature, and moles as specification variables. The problem is solved numerically using a combination of the mixed-hybrid finite element method for the total flux discretization and the finite volume method for the discretization of transport equations. A new approach to numerical flux approximation is proposed, which does not require the phase identification and determination of correspondence between the phases on adjacent elements. The time discretization is carried out by the backward Euler method. The resulting large system of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved by the NewtonRaphson iterative method. We provide eight examples of different complexity to show reliability and robustness of our approach.

  5. A Parallel Multi-Domain Solution Methodology Applied to Nonlinear Thermal Transport Problems in Nuclear Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P; Sampath, Rahul S; Clarno, Kevin T; Dilts, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors are described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.

  6. Evaluation of coupling approaches for thermomechanical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-08-10

    Many problems of interest, particularly in the nuclear engineering field, involve coupling between the thermal and mechanical response of an engineered system. The strength of the two-way feedback between the thermal and mechanical solution fields can vary significantly depending on the problem. Contact problems exhibit a particularly high degree of two-way feedback between those fields. This paper describes and demonstrates the application of a flexible simulation environment that permits the solution of coupled physics problems using either a tightly coupled approach or a loosely coupled approach. In the tight coupling approach, Newton iterations include the coupling effects between all physics, while in the loosely coupled approach, the individual physics models are solved independently, and fixed-point iterations are performed until the coupled system is converged. These approaches are applied to simple demonstration problems and to realistic nuclear engineering applications. The demonstration problems consist of single and multi-domain thermomechanics with and without thermal and mechanical contact. Simulations of a reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions and a simulation of light water reactor fuel are also presented. Here, problems that include thermal and mechanical contact, such as the contact between the fuel and cladding in the fuel simulation, exhibit much stronger two-way feedback between the thermal and mechanical solutions, and as a result, are better solved using a tight coupling strategy.

  7. An X-ray flare from 47 Cas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Jeewan C.; Karmakar, Subhajeet

    2015-02-01

    Using XMM-Newton observations, we investigate properties of a flare from the very active but poorly known stellar system 47 Cas. The luminosity at the peak of the flare is found to be 3.54 10{sup 30} erg s{sup ?1}, which is ?2 times higher than that at a quiescent state. The quiescent state corona of 47 Cas can be represented by two temperature plasma: 3.7 and 11.0 MK. The time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the flare show the variable nature of the temperature, the emission measure, and the abundance. The maximum temperature during the flare is derived as 72.8 MK. We infer the length of a flaring loop to be 3.3 10{sup 10} cm using a hydrodynamic loop model. Using the RGS spectra, the density during the flare is estimated as 4.0 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3}. The loop scaling laws are also applied when deriving physical parameters of the flaring plasma.

  8. Baryon content of massive galaxy clusters at 0.57 < z < 1.33

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chiu, I.; Mohr, J.; McDonald, M.; Bocquet, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; et al

    2015-11-02

    Here, we study the stellar, Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) and intracluster medium (ICM) masses of 14 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected galaxy clusters with median redshift z = 0.9 and median mass M500 = 6 x 1014M⊙. We estimate stellar masses for each cluster and BCG using six photometric bands spanning the range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared observed with the VLT, HST and Spitzer. The ICM masses are derived from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, and the virial masses are derived from the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect signature. At z = 0.9 the BCG mass M*BCG constitutes 0.12 ±more » 0.01% of the halo mass for a 6 x 1014M⊙ cluster, and this fraction falls as M500-0.58±0.007. The cluster stellar mass function has a characteristic mass M0 = 1011.0±0.1M⊙, and the number of galaxies per unit mass in clusters is larger than in the field by a factor 1.65 ± 0.2. Both results are consistent with measurements on group scales and at lower redshift.« less

  9. Evaluation of coupling approaches for thermomechanical simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-08-10

    Many problems of interest, particularly in the nuclear engineering field, involve coupling between the thermal and mechanical response of an engineered system. The strength of the two-way feedback between the thermal and mechanical solution fields can vary significantly depending on the problem. Contact problems exhibit a particularly high degree of two-way feedback between those fields. This paper describes and demonstrates the application of a flexible simulation environment that permits the solution of coupled physics problems using either a tightly coupled approach or a loosely coupled approach. In the tight coupling approach, Newton iterations include the coupling effects between all physics,more » while in the loosely coupled approach, the individual physics models are solved independently, and fixed-point iterations are performed until the coupled system is converged. These approaches are applied to simple demonstration problems and to realistic nuclear engineering applications. The demonstration problems consist of single and multi-domain thermomechanics with and without thermal and mechanical contact. Simulations of a reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions and a simulation of light water reactor fuel are also presented. Here, problems that include thermal and mechanical contact, such as the contact between the fuel and cladding in the fuel simulation, exhibit much stronger two-way feedback between the thermal and mechanical solutions, and as a result, are better solved using a tight coupling strategy.« less

  10. Mass gap for gravity localized on Weyl thick branes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbosa-Cendejas, N.; Santos, M. A. Reyes; Herrera-Aguilar, A.; Schubert, C.

    2008-06-15

    We consider thick brane configurations in a pure geometric Weyl integrable 5D space-time, a non-Riemannian generalization of Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory involving a geometric scalar field. Thus, the 5D theory describes gravity coupled to a self-interacting scalar field which gives rise to the structure of the thick branes. We continue the study of the properties of a previously found family of solutions which is smooth at the position of the brane but involves naked singularities in the fifth dimension. Analyzing their graviton spectrum, we find that a particularly interesting situation arises for a special case in which the 4D graviton is separated from the KK gravitons by a mass gap. The corresponding effective Schroedinger equation has a modified Poeschl-Teller potential and can be solved exactly. Apart from the massless 4D graviton, it contains one massive KK bound state, and the continuum spectrum of delocalized KK modes. We also discuss the mass hierarchy problem, and explicitly compute the corrections to Newton's law in the thin brane limit.

  11. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT XTE J1752-223 DURING ITS 2010 OUTBURST DECAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Y. Y.; Dincer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Guever, T.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-06-10

    Galactic black hole transients show many interesting phenomena during outburst decays. We present simultaneous X-ray (RXTE, Swift, and INTEGRAL), and optical/near-infrared (O/NIR) observations (SMARTS) of the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 during its outburst decay in 2010. The multiwavelength observations over 150 days in 2010 cover the transition from soft to hard spectral state. We discuss the evolution of radio emission with respect to the O/NIR light curve which shows several flares. One of those flares is bright and long, starting about 60 days after the transition in X-ray timing properties. During this flare, the radio spectral index becomes harder. Other smaller flares occur along with the X-ray timing transition, and also right after the detection of the radio core. We discuss the significances of these flares. Furthermore, using the simultaneous broadband X-ray spectra including INTEGRAL, we find that a high energy cut-off with a folding energy near 250 keV is necessary around the time that the compact jet is forming. The broadband spectrum can be fitted equally well with a Comptonization model. In addition, using photoelectric absorption edges in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer X-ray spectra and the extinction of red clump giants in the direction of the source, we find a lower limit on the distance of >5 kpc.

  12. X-RAY ECLIPSE DIAGNOSIS OF THE EVOLVING MASS LOSS IN THE RECURRENT NOVA U SCORPII 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takei, D.; Drake, J. J.; Tsujimoto, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Osborne, J. P.; Starrfield, S.; Kitamoto, S.

    2013-05-20

    We report the Suzaku detection of the earliest X-ray eclipse seen in the recurrent nova U Scorpii 2010. A target-of-opportunity observation 15 days after the outburst found a 27% {+-} 5% dimming in the 0.2-1.0 keV energy band at the predicted center of an eclipse. In comparison with the X-ray eclipse depths seen at two later epochs by XMM-Newton, the source region shrank by about 10%-20% between days 15 and 35 after the outburst. The X-ray eclipses appear to be deeper than or similar to contemporaneous optical eclipses, suggesting the X-ray and optical source region extents are comparable on day 15. We raise the possibility of the energy dependency in the photon escape regions, and that this would be a result of the supersoft X-ray opacity being higher than the Thomson scattering opacity at the photosphere due to bound-free transitions in abundant metals that are not fully ionized. Assuming a spherically symmetric model, we constrain the mass-loss rate as a function of time. For a ratio of actual to Thomson opacity of 10-100 in supersoft X-rays, we find an ejecta mass of about 10{sup -7}-10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }.

  13. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F.; Galindo-Nava, A.; Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  14. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  15. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INLs BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  16. A mono-dimensional nuclear fuel performance analysis code, PUMA, development from a coupled approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, C. B.; Yacout, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Multidimensional-multi-physical phenomena in nuclear fuels are treated as a set of mono-dimensional-coupled problems which encompass heat, displacement, fuel constituent redistribution, and fission gas release. Rather than uncoupling these coupled equations as in conventional fuel performance analysis codes, efforts are put into to obtain fully coupled solutions by relying on the recent advances of numerical analysis. Through this approach, a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code) is under development. Although coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was made easily, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is accomplished by introducing one-level Newton scheme through backward differentiation formula. Displacement equations from 1D finite element formulation of the mechanical equilibrium equation are solved simultaneously with stress equation, creep equation, swelling equation, and FGR equations. Calculations was made successfully such that the swelling and the hydrostatic pressure are interrelated each other. (authors)

  17. DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST GIANT DOUBLE RADIO RELIC IN A GALAXY CLUSTER FOUND IN THE PLANCK SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH CLUSTER SURVEY: PLCK G287.0+32.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Paul, Surajit; Sirothia, S. K.; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Gopal-Krishna; Werner, Norbert; Pandge, Mahadev B.; Joshi, Santosh

    2011-07-20

    We report the discovery of large-scale diffuse non-thermal radio emission in PLCK G287.0+32.9, an exceptionally hot (T {approx} 13 keV), massive, and luminous galaxy cluster, strongly detected by the Planck satellite in a recent, all-sky blind search for new clusters through Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 150 MHz and Very Large Array 1.4 GHz radio data reveal a pair of giant (>1 Mpc) 'arc'-shaped peripheral radio relics (signatures of shock waves) of unprecedented scale (linear separation {approx}4.4 Mpc at redshift 0.39), located at distances from the cluster center that are about 0.7 and 1.3 of the cluster's virial radius, respectfully. Another possible giant relic and a radio halo is detected closer to the cluster center. These relic sources are unique 'signposts' of extremely energetic mergers and shocks (both ongoing and past) that are assembling and heating up this very massive galaxy cluster. They are also a probe of the filamentary cosmic-web structure beyond the cluster virial radius. Optical imaging with the IUCAA 2 m telescope and XMM-Newton X-ray data confirm a very rich galaxy cluster with a morphologically disturbed core region, suggesting a dynamically perturbed merging system.

  18. SHOCK HEATING OF THE MERGING GALAXY CLUSTER A521

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-02-10

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 {+-} 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  19. Investigating CXOU J163802.6–471358: A new pulsar wind nebula in the norma region?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Watson, Darach; Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6–471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N {sub H} =1.5{sub −0.5}{sup +0.7}×10{sup 23} cm{sup −2} and Γ=1.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L{sub X}∼4.8×10{sup 33}d{sub 10}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1} with d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  20. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-08-31

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  1. Equivalence of ADM Hamiltonian and Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 coupling of binary inspirals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, Michele [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-01

    The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date.

  2. SOURCE IDENTIFICATION IN THE IGR J17448-3232 FIELD: DISCOVERY OF THE SCORPIUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrire, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jrome

    2015-01-20

    We use a 43 ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to ?45 keV and the blazar beyond.

  3. The corona of HD 189733 and its X-ray activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Gnther, H. M.; Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V.; Drake, J. J.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Sciortino, S.

    2014-04-20

    Testing whether close-in massive exoplanets (hot Jupiters) can enhance the stellar activity in their host primary is crucial for the models of stellar and planetary evolution. Among systems with hot Jupiters, HD 189733 is one of the best studied because of its proximity, strong activity, and the presence of a transiting planet, which allows transmission spectroscopy and a measure of the planetary radius and its density. Here we report on the X-ray activity of the primary star, HD 189733 A, using a new XMM-Newton observation and a comparison with the previous X-ray observations. The spectrum in the quiescent intervals is described by two temperatures at 0.2 keV and 0.7 keV, while during the flares a third component at 0.9 keV is detected. With the analysis of the summed Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectra, we obtain estimates of the electron density in the range n{sub e} = (1.6-13) 10{sup 10} cm{sup 3}, and thus the corona of HD 189733 A appears denser than the solar one. For the third time, we observe a large flare that occurred just after the eclipse of the planet. Together with the flares observed in 2009 and 2011, the events are restricted to a small planetary phase range of ? = 0.55-0.65. Although we do not find conclusive evidence of a significant excess of flares after the secondary transits, we suggest that the planet might trigger such flares when it passes close to the locally high magnetic field of the underlying star at particular combinations of stellar rotational phases and orbital planetary phases. For the most recent flares, a wavelet analysis of the light curve suggests a loop of length of four stellar radii at the location of the bright flare, and a local magnetic field of the order of 40-100 G, in agreement with the global field measured in other studies. The loop size suggests an interaction of magnetic nature between planet and star, separated by only ?8R {sub *}. The X-ray variability of HD 189733 A is larger than the variability of field stars and young Pleiades of similar spectral type and X-ray luminosity. We also detect the stellar companion (HD 189733 B, ?12'' from the primary star) in this XMM-Newton observation. Its very low X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} = 3.4 10{sup 26} erg s{sup 1}) confirms the old age of this star and of the binary system. The high activity of the primary star is best explained by a transfer of angular momentum from the planet to the star.

  4. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time t{sub i} (trajectory positions and velocities x{sub i} = (r{sub i}, v{sub i})) to time t{sub i+1} (x{sub i+1}) by x{sub i+1} = f{sub i}(x{sub i}), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t{sub 0}t{sub M} can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [x{sub i} ? f(x{sub (i?1})]{sub i} {sub =1,M} = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H{sub 2}O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup ((serial execution time)/(parallel execution time) ) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a distributed computing environment using very slow transmission control protocol/Internet protocol networks. Scripts written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl + 4H{sub 2}O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. Using these algorithms, we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 s/time step to 6.9 s/time step.

  5. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f , (e.g. Verlet algorithm) is available to propagate the system from time ti (trajectory positions and velocities xi = (ri; vi)) to time ti+1 (xi+1) by xi+1 = fi(xi), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t0 : : : tM can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [xi - f (x(i-1)]i=1;M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of optimization techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton optimization schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem are tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl+4H2O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a distributed computing environment using very slow TCP/IP networks. Scripts written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl+4H2O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. By using these algorithms we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 seconds per time step to 6.9 seconds per time step.

  6. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Yal; Petit, Vronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ?60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  7. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  8. SU-E-I-45: Reconstruction of CT Images From Sparsely-Sampled Data Using the Logarithmic Barrier Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and investigate whether the logarithmic barrier (LB) method can result in high-quality reconstructed CT images using sparsely-sampled noisy projection data Methods: The objective function is typically formulated as the sum of the total variation (TV) and a data fidelity (DF) term with a parameter ? that governs the relative weight between them. Finding the optimized value of ? is a critical step for this approach to give satisfactory results. The proposed LB method avoid using ? by constructing the objective function as the sum of the TV and a log function whose augment is the DF term. Newton's method was used to solve the optimization problem. The algorithm was coded in MatLab2013b. Both Shepp-Logan phantom and a patient lung CT image were used for demonstration of the algorithm. Measured data were simulated by calculating the projection data using radon transform. A Poisson noise model was used to account for the simulated detector noise. The iteration stopped when the difference of the current TV and the previous one was less than 1%. Results: Shepp-Logan phantom reconstruction study shows that filtered back-projection (FBP) gives high streak artifacts for 30 and 40 projections. Although visually the streak artifacts are less pronounced for 64 and 90 projections in FBP, the 1D pixel profiles indicate that FBP gives noisier reconstructed pixel values than LB does. A lung image reconstruction is presented. It shows that use of 64 projections gives satisfactory reconstructed image quality with regard to noise suppression and sharp edge preservation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the logarithmic barrier method can be used to reconstruct CT images from sparsely-amped data. The number of projections around 64 gives a balance between the over-smoothing of the sharp demarcation and noise suppression. Future study may extend to CBCT reconstruction and improvement on computation speed.

  9. Measurement and calculation of recoil pressure produced during CO{sub 2} laser interaction with ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semak, V.V.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Maccallum, D.O.; Noble, D.R.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1999-12-09

    Evaporation is a classical physics problem which, because of its significant importance for many engineering applications, has drawn considerable attention by previous researchers. Classical theoretical models [Ta. I. Frenkel, Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1946] represent evaporation in a simplistic way as the escape of atoms with highest velocities from a potential well with the depth determined by the atomic binding energy. The processes taking place in the gas phase above the rapidly evaporating surface have also been studied in great detail [S.I.Anisimov and V. A. Khokhlov, Instabilities in Lasser-Matter Interaction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995]. The description of evaporation utilizing these models is known to adequately characterize drilling with high beam intensity, e.g., >10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the interaction regimes when beam intensity is relatively low, such as during welding or cutting, lack both theoretical and experimental consideration of the evaporation. It was shown recently that if the evaporation is treated in accordance with Anisimov et.al.'s approach, then predicted evaporation recoil should be a substantial factor influencing melt flow and related heat transfer during laser beam welding and cutting. To verify the applicability of this model for low beam intensity interaction, the authors compared the results of measurements and calculations of recoil pressure generated during laser beam irradiation of a target. The target material used was water ice at {minus}10 C. The displacement of a target supported in a nearly frictionless air bearing under irradiation by a defocused laser beam from a 14 kW CO{sub 2} laser was recorded and Newton's laws of motion used to derive the recoil pressure.

  10. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samper, J.; Xu, T.; Yang, C.

    2008-11-01

    CORE{sup 2D} V4 is a finite element code for modeling partly or fully saturated water flow, heat transport and multicomponent reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. It can handle coupled microbial processes and geochemical reactions such as acid-base, aqueous complexation, redox, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/exsolution, ion exchange, sorption via linear and nonlinear isotherms, sorption via surface complexation. Hydraulic parameters may change due to mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. Coupled transport and chemical equations are solved by using sequential iterative approaches. A sequential partly-iterative approach (SPIA) is presented which improves the accuracy of the traditional sequential noniterative approach (SNIA) and is more efficient than the general sequential iterative approach (SIA). While SNIA leads to a substantial saving of computing time, it introduces numerical errors which are especially large for cation exchange reactions. SPIA improves the efficiency of SIA because the iteration between transport and chemical equations is only performed in nodes with a large mass transfer between solid and liquid phases. The efficiency and accuracy of SPIA are compared to those of SIA and SNIA using synthetic examples and a case study of reactive transport through the Llobregat Delta aquitard in Spain. SPIA is found to be as accurate as SIA while requiring significantly less CPU time. In addition, SPIA is much more accurate than SNIA with only a minor increase in computing time. A further enhancement of the efficiency of SPIA is achieved by improving the efficiency of the Newton-Raphson method used for solving chemical equations. Such an improvement is obtained by working with increments of log-concentrations and ignoring the terms of the Jacobian matrix containing derivatives of activity coefficients. A proof is given for the symmetry and non-singularity of the Jacobian matrix. Numerical analyses performed with synthetic examples confirm that these modifications improve the efficiency and convergence of the iterative algorithm.

  11. Subsurface Flow and Contaminant Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-09-19

    FACT is a transient three-dimensional, finite element code for simulating isothermal groundwater flow, moisture movement, and solute transport in variably and/or fully saturated subsurface porous media. Both single and dual-domain transport formulations are available. Transport mechanisms considered include advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear adsorption, mobile/immobile mass transfer and first-order degradation. A wide range of acquifier conditions and remediation systems commonly encountered in the field can be simulated. Notable boundary condition (BC) options include, a combined rechargemore » and drain BC for simulating recirculation wells, and a head dependent well BC that computes flow based on specified drawdown. The code is designed to handle highly heterogenous, multi-layer, acquifer systems in a numerically efficient manner. Subsurface structure is represented with vertically distorted rectangular brick elements in a Cartesian system. The groundwater flow equation is approximated using the Bubnov-Galerkin finite element method in conjunction with an efficient symmetric Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) ICCG matrix solver. The solute transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual finite element method designed to alleviate numerical oscillation. An efficient asymmetric PCG (ORTHOMIN) matrix solver is employed for transport. For both the flow and transport equations, element matrices are computed from either influence coefficient formulas for speed, or two point Gauss-Legendre quadrature for accuracy. Non-linear flow problems can be solved using either Newton-Ralphson linearization or Picard iteration, with under-relaxation formulas to further enhance convergence. Dynamic memory allocation is implemented using Fortran 90 constructs. FACT coding is clean and modular.« less

  12. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE X-RAY EMISSION-LINE GAS IN NGC1068

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. Michael, E-mail: kraemer@yancey.gsfc.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ?160kms{sup 1}, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = 0.05 and 1.22 and logN {sub H} = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  13. AN OPTICALLY OBSCURED AGN IN A LOW MASS, IRREGULAR DWARF GALAXY: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF J1329+3234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Rothberg, B.; Mowry, W. S.; Rosenberg, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J.; Schmitt, H. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are found ubiquitously in large, bulge-dominated galaxies throughout the local universe, yet little is known about their presence and properties in bulgeless and low-mass galaxies. This is a significant deficiency, since the mass distribution and occupation fraction of nonstellar black holes provide important observational constraints on SMBH seed formation theories and many dwarf galaxies have not undergone major mergers that would erase information on their original black hole population. Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we discovered hundreds of bulgeless and dwarf galaxies that display mid-infrared signatures of extremely hot dust highly suggestive of powerful accreting massive black holes, despite having no signatures of black hole activity at optical wavelengths. Here we report, in our first follow-up X-ray investigation of this population, that the irregular dwarf galaxy J132932.41+323417.0 (z = 0.0156) contains a hard, unresolved X-ray source detected by XMM-Newton with luminosity L {sub 2-10} {sub keV} = 2.4 10{sup 40}ergs{sup 1}, over two orders of magnitude greater than that expected from star formation, strongly suggestive of the presence of an accreting massive black hole. While enhanced X-ray emission and hot dust can be produced in extremely low metallicity environments, J132932.41+323417.0 is not extremely metal poor (?40% solar). With a stellar mass of 2.0 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}, this galaxy is similar in mass to the Small Magellanic Cloud, and is one of the lowest mass galaxies with evidence for a massive nuclear black hole currently known.

  14. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  15. CCM Continuity Constraint Method: A finite-element computational fluid dynamics algorithm for incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.T.

    1993-09-01

    As the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) continues to mature, algorithms are required to exploit the most recent advances in approximation theory, numerical mathematics, computing architectures, and hardware. Meeting this requirement is particularly challenging in incompressible fluid mechanics, where primitive-variable CFD formulations that are robust, while also accurate and efficient in three dimensions, remain an elusive goal. This dissertation asserts that one key to accomplishing this goal is recognition of the dual role assumed by the pressure, i.e., a mechanism for instantaneously enforcing conservation of mass and a force in the mechanical balance law for conservation of momentum. Proving this assertion has motivated the development of a new, primitive-variable, incompressible, CFD algorithm called the Continuity Constraint Method (CCM). The theoretical basis for the CCM consists of a finite-element spatial semi-discretization of a Galerkin weak statement, equal-order interpolation for all state-variables, a 0-implicit time-integration scheme, and a quasi-Newton iterative procedure extended by a Taylor Weak Statement (TWS) formulation for dispersion error control. Original contributions to algorithmic theory include: (a) formulation of the unsteady evolution of the divergence error, (b) investigation of the role of non-smoothness in the discretized continuity-constraint function, (c) development of a uniformly H{sup 1} Galerkin weak statement for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes pressure Poisson equation, (d) derivation of physically and numerically well-posed boundary conditions, and (e) investigation of sparse data structures and iterative methods for solving the matrix algebra statements generated by the algorithm.

  16. Detection of an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Randall, Scott W.; Markevitch, Maxim; Loewenstein, Michael

    2014-07-01

    We detect a weak unidentified emission line at E = (3.55-3.57) 0.03 keV in a stacked XMM-Newton spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 0.01-0.35. When the full sample is divided into three subsamples (Perseus, Centaurus+Ophiuchus+Coma, and all others), the line is seen at >3? statistical significance in all three independent MOS spectra and the PN 'all others' spectrum. It is also detected in the Chandra spectra of the Perseus Cluster. However, it is very weak and located within 50-110 eV of several known lines. The detection is at the limit of the current instrument capabilities. We argue that there should be no atomic transitions in thermal plasma at this energy. An intriguing possibility is the decay of sterile neutrino, a long-sought dark matter particle candidate. Assuming that all dark matter is in sterile neutrinos with m{sub s} = 2E = 7.1 keV, our detection corresponds to a neutrino decay rate consistent with previous upper limits. However, based on the cluster masses and distances, the line in Perseus is much brighter than expected in this model, significantly deviating from other subsamples. This appears to be because of an anomalously bright line at E = 3.62 keV in Perseus, which could be an Ar XVII dielectronic recombination line, although its emissivity would have to be 30 times the expected value and physically difficult to understand. Another alternative is the above anomaly in the Ar line combined with the nearby 3.51 keV K line also exceeding expectation by a factor of 10-20. Confirmation with Astro-H will be critical to determine the nature of this new line.

  17. Physical nature of the [S II]-bright shell nebulae N70 and N185

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ning-Xiao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Yang; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, R. A.; Williams, R. M.

    2014-09-01

    N70 and N185 are two large (?100 pc in diameter) shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [S II]/H? ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained XMM-Newton X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal (?0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity (?6.1 10{sup 35} erg s{sup 1}) is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70's density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s{sup 1}, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity (?1.9 10{sup 35} erg s{sup 1}) is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

  18. Geochemical Speciation Mass Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-12-01

    PHREEQC is designed to model geochemical reactions. Based on an ion association aqueous model, PHREEQC can calculate pH, redox potential, and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress. It can be used to describe geochemical processes for both far-field and near-field performance assessment and to evaluate data acquisition needs and test data. It can also calculate the composition of solutions in equilibrium with multiple phases. The data base, including elements, aqueous species, and mineralmore » phases, is independent of the program and is completely user-definable. PHREEQC requires thermodynamic data for each solid, gaseous, or dissolved chemical species being modeled. The two data bases, PREPHR and DEQPAK7, supplied with PHREEQC are for testing purposes only and should not be applied to real problems without first being carefully examined. The conceptual model embodied in PHREEQC is the ion-association model of Pearson and Noronha. In this model a set of mass action equations are established for each ion pair (and controlling solid phases when making mass transfer calculations) along with a set of mass balance equations for each element considered. These sets of equations are coupled using activity coefficient values for each aqueous species and solved using a continued fraction approach for the mass balances combined with a modified Newton-Raphson technique for all other equations. The activity coefficient expressions in PHREEQC include the extended Debye-Huckel, WATEQ Debye-Huckel, and Davies equations from the original United States Geological Survey version of the program. The auxiliary preprocessor program PHTL, which is derived from EQTL, converts EQ3/6 thermodynamic data to PHREEQC format so that the two programs can be compared. PHREEQC can be used to determine solubility limits on the radionuclides present in the waste form. These solubility constraints may be input to the WAPPA leach model.« less

  19. THE LACK OF DIFFUSE, NON-THERMAL HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER: THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE'S EYE VIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Okajima, Takashi; Tueller, Jack; Finoguenov, Alexis; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2011-02-01

    The Coma Cluster of galaxies hosts the brightest radio halo known and has therefore been the target of numerous searches for associated inverse Compton (IC) emission, particularly at hard X-ray energies where the IC signal must eventually dominate over thermal emission. The most recent search with the Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector failed to confirm previous IC detections with RXTE and BeppoSAX, instead setting an upper limit 2.5 times below their non-thermal flux. However, this discrepancy can be resolved if the IC emission is very extended, beyond the scale of the cluster radio halo. Using reconstructed sky images from the 58-month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey, the feasibility of such a solution is investigated. Building on Renaud et al., we test and implement a method for extracting the fluxes of extended sources, assuming specified spatial distributions. BAT spectra are jointly fit with an XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum derived from mosaic observations. We find no evidence for large-scale IC emission at the level expected from the previously detected non-thermal fluxes. For all non-thermal spatial distributions considered, which span the gamut of physically reasonable IC models, we determine upper limits for which the largest (most conservative) limit is {approx}<4.2 x 10{sup -12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (20-80 keV), which corresponds to a lower limit on the magnetic field B > 0.2 {mu} G. A nominal flux upper limit of <2.7 x 10{sup -12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with corresponding B > 0.25 {mu} G, is derived for the most probable IC distribution given the size of the radio halo and likely magnetic field radial profile.

  20. IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3: A DEEPLY ECLIPSING INTERMEDIATE POLAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aungwerojwit, A.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Wheatley, P. J.; Pyrzas, S.; Staels, B.; Krajci, T.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.

    2012-10-20

    We present time-resolved photometry of a cataclysmic variable discovered in the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H{alpha} Survey of the northern galactic plane, IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3, and classify the system as the fourth deeply eclipsing intermediate polar known with an orbital period of P {sub orb} = 8.16 hr and a spin period of P {sub spin} = 2210 s. The system shows mild variations of its brightness that appear to be accompanied by a change in the amplitude of the spin modulation at optical wavelengths and a change in the morphology of the eclipse profile. The inferred magnetic moment of the white dwarf is {mu}{sub wd} {approx} (6-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} G cm{sup 3}, and in this case IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3 will evolve either into a short-period EX Hya-like intermediate polar with a large P {sub spin}/P{sub orb} ratio or, perhaps more likely, into a synchronized polar. Swift observations show that the system is an ultraviolet and X-ray source, with a hard X-ray spectrum that is consistent with those seen in other intermediate polars. The ultraviolet light curve shows orbital modulation and an eclipse, while the low signal-to-noise ratio X-ray light curve does not show a significant modulation on the spin period. The measured X-ray flux is about an order of magnitude lower than would be expected from scaling by the optical fluxes of well-known X-ray-selected intermediate polars.