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Half-life number sequences collected from nuclear data charts are found to obey the Newcomb-Benford law. Based on this fact, it has been suggested recently, that this law should be used to test the quality of nuclear decay models. In this paper we briefly recall how, when and why the Newcomb-Benford law can be observed in a set of numbers with a given probability distribution. We investigate the special case of nuclear half-lives, and show that the law provides no additional clue in understanding decay half-lives. Thus, it can play no significant role in testing nuclear decay theories.
A simple and quick general test to screen for numerical anomalies is presented. It can be applied, for example, to electoral processes, both electronic and manual. It uses vote counts in officially published voting units, which are typically widely available and institutionally backed. The test examines the frequencies of digits on voting counts and rests on the First (NBL1) and Second Digit Newcomb--Benford Law (NBL2), and in a novel generalization of the law under restrictions of the maximum number of voters per unit (RNBL2). We apply the test to the 2004 USA presidential elections, the Puerto Rico (1996, 2000 and 2004) governor elections, the 2004 Venezuelan presidential recall referendum (RRP) and the previous 2000 Venezuelan Presidential election. The NBL2 is compellingly rejected only in the Venezuelan referendum and only for electronic voting units. Our original suggestion on the RRP (Pericchi and Torres, 2004) was criticized by The Carter Center report (2005). Acknowledging this, Mebane (2006) and The...
, public transit, and ride sharing. The car sharing services program, Zipcar, will be announced looking at improving the incentive program for car poolers where one can secure occasional parker permits. The Transportation and Parking Committee Revenues, expenditures, and impact on employees are shared and reviewed
) in clients recruited from primary health-care settings in four countries. Addiction 28 FEB 2012, DOI: 10 disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 42, 78-86. Bojko, M. J., Schensul, S. L., Singh, R
in western countries. Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States determinant of obesity is the balance between food intake, metabolism, and energy expen- diture (Newcombe
farther into the philosophy of decision theory, as well as the concepts we will need for discussions later kinds of risk-aversion (especially the Allais Paradox), and with Newcomb's Problem. Causal Decision
Book chapters 1. Gianluca Coletti, Daniel Macdonald and Deren Yang, Chapter 3, "Role of impurities. Published by Wiley (2012). 2. Andres Cuevas, Daniel Macdonald and Ronald A. Sinton, Chapter III-1 Casta√Īer. Published by Elsevier, Oxford (2011). Journal articles 1. Daniel Macdonald, Sieu Pheng Phang
for publication in the International Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory. #12;Benford-Newcomb distribution, Bangalore, 1981 M.S. (Computer Sciene), Indian Institute of Technoiogy, Madras, 1983. Ph.D. (Computer and unambiguous context-free languages, accepted for publication in Journal of Foundations of Computer Science
@uga.edu ELIZABETH MANLEY, Administrative Assistant email@example.com KAREN NEWCOMB, Network Administrator knewcombHonors Faculty Mentor Network Providing Students with Friends on the Faculty Mentor Handbook firstname.lastname@example.org REBECCA CHENEY, Program Assistant email@example.com PAULA LANGSTON, Administrative Associate fellows
and Environmental Health -School of Nursing -Radiologic Sciences -Respiratory Care -Research Assistance -Library Ventures -Research Compliance -CAES Energy Policy Institute -Story Initiative -CAES Energy Efficiency & Safety Government* Relations Bruce Newcomb Athletics*¬® Mark Coyle Internal Audit Larry Harmon Boise State
and Environmental Health -School of Nursing -Radiologic Sciences -Respiratory Care -Research Assistance -Library Ventures -Research Compliance -CAES Energy Policy Institute -Story Initiative -CAES Energy Efficiency Newcomb Athletics*¬® Mark Coyle Internal Audit Larry Harmon Boise State Radio John Hess Morrison Center
- events within one demonstration, but to the order of three hiding events. Newcombe, Balcomb, Ferrara, Hansen, and Koski (2014) used a WWW-design in which one of the Ws was Which-context. Children from 15 months to 3 years had to recall that toy X...
Burns, Patrick; Russell, Charlotte; Russell, James
CCMPARATIVE BEHAVIOR OF ADULT HELIOTHIS ZEA (BODDIE) AND HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (FABRICIUS) TO LIGHT A Thesis by DONNIE DODSON NEWCOMB Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... on the Attraction of H. zea and H. virescens Moths 25 Length of Time it takes for H. zea Moths to Become Dark Adapted 26 Rate of Light Adaptation of H. zea Moths Conditioned by Various Dark-light Duration Combinations Expressed as Degree of Light Adaptation...
In honor of Alan Turing's hundredth birthday, I unwisely set out some thoughts about one of Turing's obsessions throughout his life, the question of physics and free will. I focus relatively narrowly on a notion that I call "Knightian freedom": a certain kind of in-principle physical unpredictability that goes beyond probabilistic unpredictability. Other, more metaphysical aspects of free will I regard as possibly outside the scope of science. I examine a viewpoint, suggested independently by Carl Hoefer, Cristi Stoica, and even Turing himself, that tries to find scope for "freedom" in the universe's boundary conditions rather than in the dynamical laws. Taking this viewpoint seriously leads to many interesting conceptual problems. I investigate how far one can go toward solving those problems, and along the way, encounter (among other things) the No-Cloning Theorem, the measurement problem, decoherence, chaos, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, Newcomb's paradox, Boltzmann brains, algorithmic info...
In honor of Alan Turing's hundredth birthday, I unwisely set out some thoughts about one of Turing's obsessions throughout his life, the question of physics and free will. I focus relatively narrowly on a notion that I call "Knightian freedom": a certain kind of in-principle physical unpredictability that goes beyond probabilistic unpredictability. Other, more metaphysical aspects of free will I regard as possibly outside the scope of science. I examine a viewpoint, suggested independently by Carl Hoefer, Cristi Stoica, and even Turing himself, that tries to find scope for "freedom" in the universe's boundary conditions rather than in the dynamical laws. Taking this viewpoint seriously leads to many interesting conceptual problems. I investigate how far one can go toward solving those problems, and along the way, encounter (among other things) the No-Cloning Theorem, the measurement problem, decoherence, chaos, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, Newcomb's paradox, Boltzmann brains, algorithmic information theory, and the Common Prior Assumption. I also compare the viewpoint explored here to the more radical speculations of Roger Penrose. The result of all this is an unusual perspective on time, quantum mechanics, and causation, of which I myself remain skeptical, but which has several appealing features. Among other things, it suggests interesting empirical questions in neuroscience, physics, and cosmology; and takes a millennia-old philosophical debate into some underexplored territory.
With operation at high plasma current (Ip similar to 1.5 MA), the plasma in the RFX-mod reversed field pinch self-organises in a 3D helical state with almost conserved flux surfaces featuring strong electron temperature barriers. Up to now the equilibrium of such states was obtained by a perturbative solution of the Newcomb equation in toroidal geometry. This allowed for the mapping of the electron temperature, density and SXR emissivity profiles on helical flux surfaces thus proving the correlation between kinetic plasma quantities and the underlying helical magnetic topology. In order to obtain a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction, the magnetic topology of a SHAx state has been also reconstructed with the VMEC code adapted for the RFP using experimental profiles as input data. Previous results for the axisymmetric case were used as benchmark. It is found that helical equilibria are characterised by a particular q profile with a region of zero magnetic shear as this has been found to be a key ingredient to trigger internal transport barriers. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Terranova, D. [Association Euratom ENEA Fusion, Consorzio RFX, Padua; Gobbin, M. [Association Euratom ENEA Fusion, Consorzio RFX, Padua; Boozer, A. H. [Columbia University; Hirshman, Steven Paul [ORNL; Marrelli, L. [Association Euratom ENEA Fusion, Consorzio RFX, Padua; Pomphrey, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)
Explosive phenomena such as internal disruptions in toroidal discharges and solar flares are difficult to explain in terms of linear instabilities. A plasma approaching a linear stability limit can, however, become nonlinearly and explosively unstable, with noninfinitesimal perturbations even before the marginal state is reached. For such investigations, a nonlinear extension of the usual MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy principle is helpful. (This was obtained by Merkel and Schlueter, Sitzungsberichted. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Munich, 1976, No. 7, for Cartesian coordinate systems.) A coordinate system independent Eulerian formulation for the Lagrangian allowing for equilibria with flow and with built-in conservation laws for mass, magnetic flux, and entropy is developed in this paper which is similar to Newcomb's Lagrangian method of 1962 [Nucl. Fusion, Suppl., Pt. II, 452 (1962)]. For static equilibria nonlinear stability is completely determined by the potential energy. For a potential energy which contains second- and [ital n]th order or some more general contributions only, it is shown in full generality that linearly unstable and marginally stable systems are explosively unstable even for infinitesimal perturbations; linearly absolutely stable systems require finite initial perturbations. For equilibria with Abelian symmetries symmetry breaking initial perturbations are needed, which should be observed in numerical simulations. Nonlinear stability is proved for two simple examples, [ital m]=0 perturbations of a Bennet Z-pinch and [ital z]-independent perturbations of a [theta] pinch. The algebra for treating these cases reduces considerably if symmetries are taken into account from the outset, as suggested by M. N. Rosenbluth (private communication, 1992).
Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))
The boundary element method (BEM) has been developed for a long period of time. Cruse and Wilson developed an isoparametric quadratic element. Rizzo, Cruse, Rizzo and Shippy, and Swedlow and cruse applied the method to various problems. It shows that the BEM can provide a very good analytical result in the linear problem and it can reduce time in preparation of numerical data. Watson and Newcomb pointed out that the pressure distribution on the contact surface of the brake drum and the lining plate do not vary significantly along the axis. The deflection can be reduced by an appropriate design of the web; therefore, two dimensional analysis with the BEM is used in this analysis. Based on the authors` knowledge, this is the first paper to analyze the drum brake by using the BEM. The assumptions are the brake drum to be a rigid body, perfect interface contact between the drum and the shoe, the constant friction coefficient of the friction material and the thermal effect to be neglected. The two dimensional equations are derived based on the Somigliana`s identity. Since there is no shape function and no need of the Jacobin for the coordinate transform, to integrate numerically is easier and to write a computer code is simpler for the constant value element than the second order element. The linear element is inappropriate to treat the comer problem. Using the linear elements or second order elements creates discontinuous phenomena along the irregular boundary. The common nodal point has different normal vector and boundary conditions. It is necessary to have an extra equation to provide a unique solution for the final linear equation. Using the constant value element can get rid of this problem. The effect of the friction on the pressure distribution at the friction interface is studied. The calculated results of the pressure distribution are compared with the available data. The mathematical model can be used as a design tool to predict the performance of drum brakes.