National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for neutron powder diffractometer

  1. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-24

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2measurements. Asmore » a result, the new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.« less

  2. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Siewenie, Joan; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-15

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO{sub 2} measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H{sub 2} and natural gas uptake/storage.

  3. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-24

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2measurements. As a result, the new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

  4. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  5. Strain and particle size of palladium powders by time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Conant, J.W.; Talcott, C.L.; David, M.A.; Vaninetti, J.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Roof, R.B.; Hitterman, R.L.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup } 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 Nm, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  7. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer.

  8. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  9. Solutions for implementing time-of-flight techniques in low-angle neutron scattering, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.

    1992-12-01

    The implementation of small-angle (Low-momentum transfer) neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources, using time of flight methods, has meant the introduction of some new ideas in instrument design, data acquisition, data reduction and computer management of the experiment and the data. Here we recount some of the salient aspects of solutions for implementing time of fight small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed sources, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer, LQD, at Los Alamos. We consider, fortlier, some of the problems that are yet to be solved, and take a short excursion into the future of SANS instrumentation at pulsed sources.

  10. Design, implementation, and testing of a cryogenic loading capability on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, T. R.; Krishnan, V. B.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Clausen, B.; Sisneros, T.; Livescu, V.; Brown, D. W.; Bourke, M. A. M.

    2010-06-15

    A novel capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading at cryogenic temperatures on the spectrometer for materials research at temperature and stress at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This capability allowed for the application of dynamic compressive forces of up to 250 kN on standard samples controlled at temperatures between 300 and 90 K. The approach comprised of cooling thermally isolated compression platens that in turn conductively cooled the sample in an aluminum vacuum chamber which was nominally transparent to the incident and diffracted neutrons. The cooling/heat rate and final temperature were controlled by regulating the flow of liquid nitrogen in channels inside the platens that were connected through bellows to the mechanical actuator of the load frame and by heaters placed on the platens. Various performance parameters of this system are reported here. The system was used to investigate deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe shape memory alloys at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary results are presented.

  11. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  12. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  13. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  14. MnO spin-wave dispersion curves from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.

    2007-02-15

    We describe a model-independent approach for the extraction of spin-wave dispersion curves from powder neutron total scattering data. Our approach is based on a statistical analysis of real-space spin configurations to calculate spin-dynamical quantities. The RMCPROFILE implementation of the reverse Monte Carlo refinement process is used to generate a large ensemble of supercell spin configurations from MnO powder diffraction data collected at 100 K. Our analysis of these configurations gives spin-wave dispersion curves for MnO that agree well with those determined independently using neutron triple-axis spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  16. Data Processing for the SNS EQ-SANS Diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    The scattering data on the Extended Q-Range Small Angle Scattering Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source are stored as neutron events. Each event has two parts: the time of fight of the detected neutron, and an identifier for the neutron's location on the detector. In addition, each event is associated with the source pulse from which the neutron is originated. Due to the high neutron beam intensity at the SNS, the size of the stored data files can easily exceed several Gigabytes. Processing and reducing these data can be very time consuming. The standard way of handling the data at the SNS has been to first transform the data into histograms. On the EQ-SANS, these histograms are further processed into intensity I vs. neutron momentum transfer Q files, I(Q). For a large data, the whole process can take many minutes to hours to complete, which severely limits the turnaround time of an experiment. Experimenters often want to reduce the data quickly and depending on the result, make decisions on the setup of next measurements. They may also need to reduce the data using different inputs and conditions. In this work, we present the implementation of a fast data processing scheme for the EQ-SANS diffractometer. The scattering data are processed directly from neutron event files into I(Q) or other desired formats, greatly reducing the needed computation time. Further speed gains are obtained by the implementation of parallel computing under the Message Passing Interface framework. Most data on the EQ-SANS can now be handled in mere seconds. The process is highly automated. All relevant experimental information that is stored in instrument configuration files are read and processed. In addition, the new implementation is highly flexible. All the data corrections and handlings can be controlled transparently through user inputs. Finally, software implementation enables the slicing of neutron event, which can be used for the study of time dependent phenomena.

  17. Diffractometer data collecting method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-04-16

    Diffractometer data is collected without the use of a movable receiver. A scanning device, positioned in the diffractometer between a sample and detector, varies the amount of the beam diffracted from the sample that is received by the detector in such a manner that the beam is detected in an integrated form. In one embodiment, a variable diameter beam stop is used which comprises a drop of mercury captured between a pair of spaced sheets and disposed in the path of the diffracted beam. By varying the spacing between the sheets, the diameter of the mercury drop is varied. In another embodiment, an adjustable iris diaphragm is positioned in the path of the diffracted beam and the iris opening is adjusted to control the amount of the beam reaching the detector. 5 figures.

  18. Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and (Lu{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} and (Lu{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} and (Lu{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} The crystal and magnetic structures of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50})MnO{sub 3} and (Lu{sub

  19. A study of nitrogenation of a NdFe{sub 12-x}Mo{sub x} compound by in situ neutron powder diffraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.; Lin, J.; Loong, C.-K.; Short, S. M.

    1997-11-18

    The effects on the crystal lattice of a NdFe{sub 12{minus}x}Mo{sub x}(x {approx_equal} 1.7) compound which contained {approximately}12 vol% of bcc-Fe were studied by neutron powder diffraction during controlled nitrogenation over the 25-600 C temperature range. The sample inside the furnace was connected to a closed volume of ultra-pure nitrogen gas while neutron data were collected over regular time intervals during sequential heating. Substantial nitrogen absorption occurred between 500 to 600 C. During the nitrogenation process the NdFe{sub 12{minus}x}Mo{sub x}N{sub y} lattice expanded while the bcc-Fe lattice contracted. An increasing decomposition of the compound into bcc-Fe at 600 C was observed. The average size of the NdFe{sub 12{minus}x}Mo{sub x}N{sub y} crystalline grains decreased starting at {approximately}300 C, reaching a minimum at {approximately}500 C and then increased markedly at higher temperatures. The development of lattice strains, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend, i.e., a maximum at 500 C. A correlation of structural modification of the crystalline phases and the nitrogenation process is discussed.

  20. Updated flux information for neutron scattering and irradiation facilities at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Sengupta, S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Farrell, K.

    1997-08-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. While most reactors attempt to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9, used for neutron scattering and capture reactions, supporting physics, chemistry and biology experiments. All horizontal beam tubes were built tangential to the direction of the emerging neutrons, except for the H-2 beam tube, which looks directly at the core and has been used for neutron cross section measurements utilizing fast neutrons and for the TRISTAN fission product studies. In recent years, there have been some beam modifications and new instrumentation introduced at the HFBR. A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer instrument is now operating with a resolution of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at horizontal beam line H-1. To study scattering from liquid surfaces, a neutron reflection spectrometer was introduced on the CNF beam line at H-9. In the past year, a fourth beam line has been added to the CNF line at H-9. The existing beam plug at the H-6 beam line has recently been removed and a new plug, which will feature super mirrored surfaces, is now being installed. Last year, the vertical beam thimble, V-13, a fixed port filled with thirty year old samples used for HFBR material surveillance studies was replaced by a new thimble and charging station at the core edge creating an irradiation facility to substitute for the original V-13. A neutron dosimetry program has begun to measure and calculate the energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  1. A method for the monitoring of metal recrystallization based on the in-situ measurement of the elastic energy release using neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christien, F. Le Gall, R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Knight, K. S.

    2015-05-15

    A method is proposed for the monitoring of metal recrystallization using neutron diffraction that is based on the measurement of stored energy. Experiments were performed using deformed metal specimens heated in-situ while mounted at the sample position of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD (ISIS Facility), UK. Monitoring the breadth of the resulting Bragg lines during heating not only allows the time-dependence (or temperature-dependence) of the stored energy to be determined but also the recrystallized fraction. The analysis method presented here was developed using pure nickel (Ni270) specimens with different deformation levels from 0.29 to 0.94. In situ temperature ramping as well as isothermal annealing was undertaken. The method developed in this work allows accurate and quantitative monitoring of the recrystallization process. The results from neutron diffraction are satisfactorily compared to data obtained from calorimetry and hardness measurements.

  2. Neutron powder diffraction study of the layer organic-inorganic hybrid iron(II) methylphosphonate-hydrate, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Philippe Bellitto, Carlo; Bauer, Elvira M.; Righini, Guido; Andre, Gilles; Bouree, Francoise

    2008-11-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the hybrid organic-inorganic layer compound Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] have been studied by neutron powder diffraction as a function of temperature down to 1.5 K. The neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 200 K shows that the fully deuterated compound crystallizes in one of the two known forms of the undeuterated Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)]. The crystal structure is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2{sub 1}, with the following unit-cell parameters: a=5.7095(1) A, b=8.8053(3) A and c=4.7987(1) A; Z=2. The crystal structure remains unchanged on cooling from 200 to 1.5 K. Moreover, at low temperature, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] shows a commensurate magnetic structure (k=(0,0,0)). As revealed by bulk susceptibility measurements on Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)], the magnetic structure corresponds to a canted antiferromagnet with a critical temperature T{sub N}=25 K. Neutron powder diffraction reveals that below T{sub N}=23.5 K the iron magnetic moments in Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] are antiferromagnetically coupled and oriented along the b-axis, perpendicular to the inorganic layers. No ferromagnetic component is observable in the neutron powder diffraction experiment, due to its too small value (<0.1{mu}{sub B}). - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and magnetic structure of Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)].

  3. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  4. Neutron apparatus for measuring strain in composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL); Majumdar, Saurindranath (Naperville, IL); Faber, Jr., John F. (Downers Grove, IL); Singh, J. P. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for orienting a pulsed neutron source and a multi-angle diffractometer toward a sample of a ceramic-matrix or metal-matrix composite so that the measurement of internal strain (from which stress is calculated) is reduced to uncomplicated time-of-flight measurements.

  5. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Instruments | NPDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powder Diffractometer | NPDF Local Structure, Magnetism, and Nanomaterials The Neutron Powder Diffractometer (NPDF) is a high-resolution total-scattering powder diffractometer located at Flight Path 1, 32 meters from the spallation neutron target. It has 20 detector panels with 160 position-sensitive detectors in the backscattering region of the instrument. These specifications give the instrument a high resolution and a large Q-range (0.8 to 50 Å-1), and together with low and stable background

  6. Energetic powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  7. Hydrogen in polar intermetallics: Syntheses and structures of the ternary Ca5Bi3D0.93, Yb5Bi3Hx, and Sm5Bi3H~1 by powder neutron or single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon-Escamilla, E. Alejandro; Dervenagas, Panagiotis; Stasis, Constantine; Corbett, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The syntheses of the title compounds are described in detail. Structural characterizations from refinements of single crystal X-ray diffraction data for Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x} and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub 1} and of powder neutron diffraction data for Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93(3)} are reported. These confirm that all three crystallize with the heavy atom structure type of {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, and the third gives the first proof that the deuterium lies in the center of nominal calcium tetrahedra, isostructural with the Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F-type structure. These Ca and Yb phases are particularly stable with respect to dissociation to Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type product plus H{sub 2}. Some contradictions in the literature regarding Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}H{sub x} phases are considered in terms of adventitious hydrogen impurities that are generated during reactions in fused silica containers at elevated temperatures.

  8. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  9. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  10. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  11. Structural characterization of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} as a function of temperature using neutron powder diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, A. N.; Wong-Ng, W.; Huang, Q.; Tang, W.; Thompson, A.; Sharp, J.

    2014-08-28

    The structure of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material (SRM 3451)) and the related phase Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} have been characterized as a function of temperature using the neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The neutron structural studies were carried out from 20?K to 300?K for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and from 10?K to 298?K for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The EXAFS technique for studying the local structure of the two compounds was conducted from 19?K to 298?K. Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} are isostructural, with a space group of R3{sup }m. The structure consists of repeated quintuple layers of atoms, Te2-M-Te1-M-Te2 (where M?=?Bi or Sb) stacking along the c-axis of the unit cell. EXAFS was used to examine the bond distances and static and thermal disorders for the first three shells of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} as a function of temperature. The temperature dependencies of thermal disorders were analyzed using the Debye and Einstein models for lattice vibrations. The Debye and Einstein temperatures for the first two shells of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} are similar to those of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} within the uncertainty in the data. However, the Debye and Einstein temperatures for the third shell of Bi-Bi are significantly lower than those of the third shell of Sb-Sb. The Einstein temperature for the third shell is consistent with a soft phonon mode in both Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The lower Einstein temperature of Bi-Bi relative to Sb-Sb is consistent with the lower value of thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} relative to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

  12. Preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide.

  13. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  14. Precision powder feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  15. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  16. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Complex Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelon, William B.

    2013-05-13

    The thrust of this project was to investigate the structures of important materials with potential application to hydrogen storage, in an effort to meet the DOE goals for 2010 and 2015, namely 9% (wt) and 15% (wt) respectively. Unfortunately, no material has been found, despite the efforts of many laboratories, including our own, that achieves these goals in a reversible complex hydride such as ammonia borane (NH{sub 4}BH{sub 4}), and other ammonia based compounds, or with light hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4}, due either to their irreversibility or to the high decomposition temperatures and residual simple hydrides such as LiH from the decomposition of the last named compound. Nevertheless, several important technical goals have been accomplished that could be valuable to other DOE programs and would be available for collaborative research. These include the development of a high quality glove box with controlled (low) oxygen and water content, which we continue to employ for the synthesis of potential new materials (unfunded research) and the development of a high quality neutron diffraction furnace with controlled gas environment for studies of hydrogen uptake and loss as well as for studies with other gasses. This furnace was initially constructed with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) center tube to contain the sample and the flowing gas. The heaters are located in the vacuum space outside the tube and it was found that, for the low temperatures required for the study of hydrogen storage materials, the heat transfer was too poor to allow good control. At temperatures in excess of about 400C (and up to more than 1200C) the heat transfer and control are excellent. For the lower temperatures, however, the center tube was replaced by stainless steel and temperature control to 1C became possible. The paired heaters, above and below the neutron beam window allowed control of the temperature gradient to a similar precision. The high temperature capability of the furnace should make it a very valuable resource for the study of oxides being considered for application to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in that materials can be studied at potential operating temperatures in both reducing and oxidizing environments to determine their stoichiometry, and lattice parameters. Our research, which was predicated, in part, on the use of hydrogenous samples (as opposed to deuteration), demonstrated that such studies are feasible and can yield high quality, refinable data. The precision of the refined hydrogen positions appears to be more than adequate for theory calculations (molecular modeling-thermodynamics) and the uncertainty is certainly less than that achieved by attempting to extrapolate the hydrogen positions from refined deuterium positions. In fact the 2008 annual report from the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL), the world's premier neutron scattering laboratory, highlights: Another trend is the increasing interest in hydrogen. This defies the widespread assumption that neutron diffraction experiments need to be done at deuterated samples. In situ experiments on phase transitions involving hydrogen and in particular on the real time behaviour of hydrogen-storage systems increase in number and scope. Our work in this area predates the ILL efforts be several years. Unfortunately, the productivity of our program was significantly curtailed by the unavailability of the MURR powder diffractometer for almost all of the second years of the project. The diffractometer was disassembled to allow partial extraction of the beam tube and replacement of the graphite element that is penetrated by the beam tube. Re-commissioning of the instrument was substantially delayed by errors of the MURR engineering staff, which failed to properly reinstall the sapphire filter that conditions the beam prior to the neutron monochromator, and reduces the radiological background to acceptable levels.

  19. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartzel, Lawrence W. (Dayton, OH); Kettling, George E. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  20. SSRL Powder Diffraction Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    workshop on Practical Aspects of X-ray Powder Diffraction Using Synchrotron Radiation Will be held at SSRL as a part of the 25th Annual Users' Conference Date: Wed., 21st Oct. 1998...

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  10. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  11. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  12. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  13. Neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  14. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  15. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  16. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  17. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Thrust Area | Local Structure, Magnetism, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanomaterials Thrust Area Local Structure, Magnetism, and Nanomaterials The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center encompasses a set of powder diffractometers, instrument scientist specialists, and sample environments (pressure, temperature, and magnetic field) equipped to address challenges in basic and applied science in local structure, magnetism, and nanomaterials. Three powder diffractometers focus on the diffraction needs for nuclear and magnetic structure determination in the fields of

  18. Conversion method of powder inelastic scattering data for one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomiyasu, Dr. Keisuke; Fujita, Prof. Masaki; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Bewley, Robert I.; Bull, Dr. Martyn J.; Bennington, Dr. Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting dispersive magnetic excitations from inelastic neutron scattering data usually requires large single crystals. We present a simple yet powerful method for extracting such information from polycrystalline or powder data for one-dimensional systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this data treatment by extracting dispersion curves from powder inelastic neutron scattering data on the one-dimensional spin-half systems: CuGeO3 and Rb2Cu2Mo3O12. For many such materials it is not possible to grow sufficiently large crystals and this method offers a quick and efficient way to study their magnetic excitations.

  19. Neutron guide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  20. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  1. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  2. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  3. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  4. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  5. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  6. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  7. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  8. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  9. Neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  10. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  11. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Instruments | HIPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Powder Diffractometer | HIPD Local Structure, Magnetism, and Nanomaterials HIPD is a high intensity and medium resolution powder diffractometer designed for studies on...

  12. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  13. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  14. Neutron tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Reijonen, Jani (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  15. Search for neutrons from deuterated palladium subject to high electrical currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.F. |; Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Jones, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    Tritium has been detected evolving from samples of deuteriated palladium wires and powders subject to pulsed high voltage at Los Alamos. They wanted to measure whether these samples were emitting neutrons. The idea of pulsing current through the wires and powders was to drive the deuterium in and out by rapid electrical heating. With promising tritium results in hand, the experiments were prepared at Los Alamos, and then taken to BYU and run in the neutron detector located in a tunnel in Provo canyon under 35 m of rock and dirt overburden. The neutrons detector and sample setup are described. Results including total neutron counts, time distributions, and an indication of the energy distributions are discussed. The results do not provide compelling evidence of neutron production, but are not inconsistent with earlier measurements of neutrons and tritium. Difficulties in explaining the difference in tritium and neutron measurements are also discussed. Plans for further work are presented.

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  18. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  19. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  20. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-12-31

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  1. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  3. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  4. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  5. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  6. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  7. Spallation Neutron Source | Neutron Science at ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spallation Neutron Source Spallation Neutron Source SNS is a one-of-a-kind research facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. SNS produces neutrons with an accelerator-based system that delivers short (microsecond) proton pulses to a target/moderator system, where neutrons are produced by a process called spallation. State-of-the-art experiment stations provide a variety of capabilities for researchers across a

  8. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  10. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  11. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  12. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  13. Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders Ames Laboratory Contact AMES ...

  14. NEUTRON COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, C.D.; Carlson, R.L.; Tubinis, M.P.

    1958-07-29

    An ionization chamber instrument is described for cylindrical electrodes with an ionizing gag filling the channber. The inner electrode is held in place by a hermetic insulating seal at one end of the outer electrode, the other end of the outer electrode being closed by a gas filling tube. The outer surface of the inner electrode is coated with an active material which is responsive to neutron bombardment, such as uranium235 or boron-10, to produce ionizing radiations in the gas. The transverse cross sectional area of the inner electrode is small in relation to that of the channber whereby substantially all of the radiations are directed toward the outer electrode.

  15. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  16. Tritium and neutron measurements from deuterated Pd-Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Seeger, P.A.; Doty, W.R.; Rohwer, R.K. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1991-05-10

    Evidence has been found for tritium and neutron production in palladium and silicon stacks when pulsed with a high electric current. These palladium-silicon stacks consist of alternating layers of pressed palladium and silicon powder. A pulsed high electric current is thought to promote non-equilibrium conditions important for tritium and neutron production. More than 2000 hours of neutron counting time has been accumulated in a underground, low background, environment with high efficiency counters (21%). Neutron emission has occurred as infrequent bursts or as low level emission lasting for up to 20 hours. In eight of 30 cells, excess tritium greater than 3 sigma has been observed. In each of these measurements, with the powder system, the ratio of tritium detected to total integrated total neutrons inferred has been anomalously high. Recent cells have shown reproducible tritium generation at a level of about 0.5 nCi/hr. Several hydrogen and air control cells have been run with no anomalous excess tritium or neutron emission above background. A singificant amount of the total palladium inventory (18%) has been checked for tritium contamination by three independent means.

  17. Tritium and neutron measurements from deuterated Pd-Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Seeger, P.A.; Doty, W.R.; Rohwer, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Evidence has been found for tritium and neutron production in palladium and silicon stacks when pulsed with a high electric current. These palladium-silicon stacks consist of alternating layers of pressed palladium and silicon powder. A pulsed high electric current is thought to promote non equilibrium conditions important for tritium and neutron production. More than 2000 hours of neutron counting time has been accumulated in a underground, low background, environment with high efficiency counters (21%). Neutron emission has occurred as infrequent burst or as low level emission lasting for up to 20 hours. In eight of 30 cells, excess tritium greater than 3 sigma has been observed. In each of these measurements, with the powder system, the ratio of tritium detected to total integrated total neutrons inferred has been anomalously high. Recent cells have shown reproducible tritium generation at a level of about 0.5 nCi/hr. Several hydrogen and air control cells have been run with no anomalous excess tritium or neutron emission above background. A significant amount of the total palladium inventory (18%) has been checked for tritium contamination by three independent means. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  19. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  20. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional ...

  1. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  2. Powder Dropper | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The amount of powder or dust that is released is controlled by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the vibration. No.: M-800 Inventor(s): A. L Roquemore Dennis K Mansfield...

  3. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Eric A. (Waltham, MA); Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce (Waban, MA); Bowen, H. Kent (Belmont, MA)

    1985-01-01

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  5. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  6. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  7. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  8. Solid state neutron detector and method for use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick (Livermore, CA); Zwieback, Ilya (New Milford, NJ); Ruderman, Warren (Demarest, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    Crystals of lithium tetraborate or alpha-barium borate had been found to be neutron detecting materials. The crystals are prepared using known crystal growing techniques, wherein the process does not include the common practice of using a fluxing agent, such as sodium oxide or sodium fluoride, to reduce the melting temperature of the crystalline compound. Crystals prepared by this method can be sliced into thin single or polycrystalline wafers, or ground to a powder and prepared as a sintered compact or a print paste, and then configured with appropriate electronic hardware, in order to function as neutron detectors.

  9. Neutron streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-05-14

    Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

  10. Neutron streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-09-13

    Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

  11. Neutron streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1983-09-13

    Disclosed is an apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon. 4 figs.

  12. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  13. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  14. Neutronic Reactor Design to Reduce Neutron Loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, F. T.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor construction is described in which an unmoderated layer of the fissionable material is inserted between the moderated portion of the reactor core and the core container steel wall. The wall is surrounded by successive layers of pure fertile material and moderator containing fertile material. The unmoderated layer of the fissionable material will insure that a greater portion of fast neutrons will pass through the steel wall than would thermal neutrons. Since the steel has a smaller capture cross section for the fast neutrons, greater nunnbers of neutrons will pass into the blanket, thereby increasing the over-all efficiency of the reactor. (AEC)

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR DESIGN TO REDUCE NEUTRON LOSS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mills, F.T.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor construction is described in which an unmoderated layer of the fissionable material is inserted between the moderated portion of the reactor core and the core container steel wall which is surrounded by successive layers of pure fertile material and fertile material having moderator. The unmoderated layer of the fissionable material will insure that a greater portion of fast neutrons will pass through the steel wall than would thermal neutrons. As the steel has a smaller capture cross-section for the fast neutrons, then greater numbers of the neutrons will pass into the blanket thereby increasing the over-all efficiency of the reactor.

  16. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  17. QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powder River Energy Corporation QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation From: Mike Easley [mikee@precorp.coop] Sent: Wednesday, August 20, 2014 11:59 PM To: QERcomments Subject: Comment on the QER Public Meeting in Cheyenne, WY: Infrastructure Siting Attachment: Michael Easley CEO Powder River Energy Corporation - Statement.pdf Statement of Michael E Easley Panel 1-Electric Infrastructure Siting Best Regards, Mike Michael Easley CEO Powder River Energy Corporation Powder River Energy,

  18. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 6067 likes Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. Ames Laboratory Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. (IPAT) aims to become a leading domestic titanium powder producer allowing for a paradigm shift in the cost of titanium powders for metal injection molding (MIM) feedstock. Decreasing this cost will create vast opportunities for aerospace, military, biomedical, and consumer applications. Titanium

  19. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 6067 likes Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. Ames Laboratory Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. (IPAT) aims to become a leading domestic titanium powder producer allowing for a paradigm shift in the cost of titanium powders for metal injection molding (MIM) feedstock. Decreasing this cost will create vast opportunities for aerospace, military, biomedical, and consumer applications. Titanium

  20. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Korth, Gary E. (Blackfoot, ID)

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  1. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  2. Dose equivalent neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Richard V. (Pleasanton, CA); Hankins, Dale E. (Livermore, CA); Tomasino, Luigi (Rome, IT); Gomaa, Mohamed A. M. (Heliopolis, EG)

    1983-01-01

    A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurements indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer containing conversion material such as .sup.6 Li and .sup.10 B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet. The density of conversion material in the radiator layer is of an amount which is chosen so that the density of tracks produced in the detecting sheet is proportional to the biological damage done by neutrons, regardless of whether the tracks are produced as the result of moderate energy neutrons striking the radiator layer or as the result of higher energy neutrons striking the sheet of track etch material.

  3. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  4. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  5. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1985-06-19

    A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

  6. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  7. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  10. Neutrons - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons Neutron beams are available at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Available energies range of from 8 to 30 MeV, with fluxes of up to 1E8 neutrons/cm^2/sec. For more information, please contact Mike Johnson via e-mail at MBJohnson@lbl.gov, or by phone at at (510) 486-4389.

  11. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  12. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  17. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  18. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  19. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  20. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  1. Neutron scatter camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  2. Semiconductor neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-03-08

    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  3. High energy neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Rai Ko S.F. (Albany, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring dose equivalents in neutron radiation fields. The device includes nested symmetrical hemispheres (forming spheres) of different neutron moderating materials that allow the measurement of dose equivalents from 0.025 eV to past 1 GeV. The layers of moderating material surround a spherical neutron counter. The neutron counter is connected by an electrical cable to an electrical sensing means which interprets the signal from the neutron counter in the center of the moderating spheres. The spherical shape of the device allows for accurate measurement of dose equivalents regardless of its positioning.

  4. High energy neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rai, K.S.F.

    1994-01-11

    A device for measuring dose equivalents in neutron radiation fields is described. The device includes nested symmetrical hemispheres (forming spheres) of different neutron moderating materials that allow the measurement of dose equivalents from 0.025 eV to past 1 GeV. The layers of moderating material surround a spherical neutron counter. The neutron counter is connected by an electrical cable to an electrical sensing means which interprets the signal from the neutron counter in the center of the moderating spheres. The spherical shape of the device allows for accurate measurement of dose equivalents regardless of its positioning. 2 figures.

  5. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A device for detecting neutrons comprises a layer of conductive polymer sandwiched between electrodes, which may be covered on each face with a neutron transmissive insulating material layer. Conventional electrodes are used for a non-imaging integrating total neutron fluence-measuring embodiment, while wire grids are used in an imaging version of the device. The change in conductivity of the polymer after exposure to a neutron flux is determined in either case to provide the desired data. Alternatively, the exposed conductive polymer layer may be treated with a chemical reagent which selectively binds to the sites altered by neutrons to produce an image of the flux detected.

  6. Critical Experiments that Simulated Damp MOX Powders - Do They Meet the Need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Ali Nouri; Dr. Claes Nordborg

    2005-09-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) identified the MOX fuel manufacturing process as an area in which there is a need for additional integral benchmark data. The specific need focused on damp MOX powders. The WPNCS was ultimately asked by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to provide the framework for the selection and performance of new experiments that fill the identified need. A set of criteria was established to enable uniform comparison of experimental proposals with generic MOX application data. Criteria were established for five general characteristics: (1) neutronic parameters, (2) type of experiments, (3) financial aspects, (4) schedule, and (5) other considerations. Proposals were judged most importantly on their ability to match the neutronic parameters of predetermined MOX applications. The neutronic parameters that formed the basis for comparison included core average values (not local values) for flux, fission and capture rate; detailed balance data (fission and capture) for the main isotopes (Actinides, H and O); sensitivity coefficients to important nuclear reactions (fission, capture, elastic and inelastic scatter, nu-bar, mu-bar) for all uranium and plutonium isotopes, hydrogen, and oxygen; sensitivity profiles to the main nuclear reactions for uranium and plutonium isotopes; energy of average lethargy causing fission; and the average fission group energy. The focus of this paper is on the definition of the need; the neutronics criteria established to assess which, if any, of three proposed MOX experimental programs best meet the need; and the actual assessment of the proposed experimental programs.

  7. In-situ neutron scattering studies of magnetic shape memory alloys under stress, temperature, and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Donald W; Sisneros, Thomas A; Kabra, Saurabh; Schlagel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized the SMARTS engineering neutron diffractometer to study the crystallographic orientation and phase transformations in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni 2MnGa under conditions of temperature (200-600K), stress (500MPa), and magnetic field (2T). Neutrons are uniquely suited to probe the crystallographic response of materials to external stimuli because of their high penetration, which allows them to sample the bulk of the material (as opposed to the surface) as well as pass through environmental chambers. A single crystal of Ni{sub 5}MnGa was repeatedly thermally cycled through the Austenitic-Martensitic phase transformation under varying conditions of applied stress, magnetic field or both. In-situ neutron diffraction was used to quantitatively monitor the population of the crystallographic variants in the martensitic phase as a function of the external stimuli during cooling. Neutron diffraction was used to monitor variant selection in the Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Ni{sub 2}Mn Ga during austenitic to martensitic transformation under varying conditions of externally applied stress and magnetic field. Qualitatively, the results were to be expected in this simple example. The shorter and magnetically soft c-axis of the tetragonal martensitic phase aligned with the compressive stress or magnetic field. However, neutron diffraction proved useful in directly quantifying the selection of the preferred variant by external influence. For instance, by quantifying the variant selection, the neutron diffraction results made apparent that the sample 'remembered' a loading cycle following a 'reset' cycle with no external applied stress. Moreover, the power of in-situ neutron diffraction will become more apparent when applied to more complex, less understood, samples such as polycrystalline samples or composite samples.

  8. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  9. Lujan Neutron Scattering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responds to radiological incident August 27, 2012 The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), a multidisciplinary accelerator facility used for both civilian and national security research. The

  10. Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKigney, Edward A.; Stange, Sy

    2014-03-17

    These slides present a summary of previous work, conclusions, and anticipated schedule for the conclusion of our fast neutron detection evaluation.

  11. Neutron detection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    An atomic fission counting apparatus used for neutron detection is provided with spirally curved electrode plates uniformly spaced apart in a circular array and coated with fissile material.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  13. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  16. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  18. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  20. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  1. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  2. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  3. Neutron Detection Using an Embedded Sol-Gel Neutron Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Neutron Detection Using an Embedded Sol-Gel Neutron Absorber Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology...

  4. Neutron and Nuclear Science News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Recent news and events related to neutron and nuclear science at LANSCE. Neutron and Nuclear Science News Links Neutron and Nuclear Science News Media Links Profiles Events at...

  5. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  6. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  7. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  8. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L.; Miquel, Philippe F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  9. Schoenborn wins Bau Neutron Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of LANL's Bioenergy and Biome Sciences group, to receive the 2016 Bau Neutron Diffraction Award. The award recognizes exceptional research achievement in neutron...

  10. Neutron and Nuclear Science Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Recent publications related to neutron and nuclear science at LANSCE. Neutron and Nuclear Science Publications Chi-Nu Publications DANCE Publications GEANIE...

  11. Neutron capture therapies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  12. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  13. Pulsed neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, deceased, J. Craig; Rowland, Mark S.

    1989-03-21

    A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

  14. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  15. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  16. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  17. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  18. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  19. Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

    2009-03-01

    Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

  20. Neutron and Nuclear Science News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Recent news and events related to neutron and nuclear science at LANSCE. Neutron and Nuclear Science News Nuclear and Materials Science Research at LANSCE Nuclear science observations and opportunities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Links Neutron and Nuclear Science News Media Links Profiles Events at LANSCE LAPIS (LANSCE Proposal Intake System

  1. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS instrument to study how the size and shape of pores in sub-nanometer porous carbons varies, depending on the manufacturing conditions. While small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can do the job too, Melnichenko says, the SANS method broke new ground in analyzing the shape and behavior of pores at subnanometer size, when subjected to varying synthesis temperature. 'We found that these very small pores are in fact spherical, and that when we change the synthesis conditions, they become elongated, even 'slit-like', and all of this on a subnanometer scale,' Melnichenko said.

  2. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  3. Determination of the response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate to static high pressure up to 4.2 GPa by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, J.J.; Dreele, R.B. von

    1997-11-01

    Neutron powder diffraction experiments were performed on pentaerythritol tetranitrate explosive up to 4.28 GPa. For deuterated samples the changes in lattice parameters, intramolecular torsional angles and molecular rotation were measured. The lattice parameter changes were different from those observed in protonated samples. However, there is no evidence of a phase transition or change in molecular symmetry.

  4. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  5. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  6. MCViNE- An object oriented Monte Carlo neutron ray tracing simulation package

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, J. Y. Y.; Smith, Hillary L.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Winn, Barry L.; Aczel, Adam A.; Aivazis, Michael; Fultz, Brent

    2015-11-28

    MCViNE (Monte-Carlo VIrtual Neutron Experiment) is an open-source Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing software for performing computer modeling and simulations that mirror real neutron scattering experiments. We exploited the close similarity between how instrument components are designed and operated and how such components can be modeled in software. For example we used object oriented programming concepts for representing neutron scatterers and detector systems, and recursive algorithms for implementing multiple scattering. Combining these features together in MCViNE allows one to handle sophisticated neutron scattering problems in modern instruments, including, for example, neutron detection by complex detector systems, and single and multiplemore » scattering events in a variety of samples and sample environments. In addition, MCViNE can use simulation components from linear-chain-based MC ray tracing packages which facilitates porting instrument models from those codes. Furthermore it allows for components written solely in Python, which expedites prototyping of new components. These developments have enabled detailed simulations of neutron scattering experiments, with non-trivial samples, for time-of-flight inelastic instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. Examples of such simulations for powder and single-crystal samples with various scattering kernels, including kernels for phonon and magnon scattering, are presented. As a result, with simulations that closely reproduce experimental results, scattering mechanisms can be turned on and off to determine how they contribute to the measured scattering intensities, improving our understanding of the underlying physics.« less

  7. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

    1987-11-06

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

  8. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P.; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Boquist, Carl W.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  9. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Temperature programmed desorption/decomposition (TPD) were performed on PBX-9502 after 3 hours of vacuum pump. TPD data were analyzed by the technique of isoconversional analysis to obtain outgassing kinetics and moisture content of PBX-9502 powder as well as to

  10. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  11. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  12. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  13. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  14. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  16. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation PDF icon es011yakovleva2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy...

  17. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  18. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  19. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  20. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  1. Ultracold neutrons (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Ultracold neutrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultracold neutrons This series of slides describes ultracold neutrons (UCN) and their properties, various ...

  2. Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 196; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All ...

  3. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science, ranging from large-scale structures and dynamics of polymers and biological systems, to electronic properties of today's technological materials. Neutron scattering developed into a vast field, encompassing many different experimental techniques aimed at exploring different aspects of matter's atomic structure and dynamics. Modern magnetic neutron scattering includes several specialized techniques designed for specific studies and/or particular classes of materials. Among these are magnetic reflectometry aimed at investigating surfaces, interfaces, and multilayers, small-angle scattering for the large-scale structures, such as a vortex lattice in a superconductor, and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for glasses and polymers. Each of these techniques and many others offer exciting opportunities for examining magnetism and warrant extensive reviews, but the aim of this chapter is not to survey how different neutron-scattering methods are used to examine magnetic properties of different materials. Here, we concentrate on reviewing the basics of the magnetic neutron scattering, and on the recent developments in applying one of the oldest methods, the triple axis spectroscopy, that still is among the most extensively used ones. The developments discussed here are new and have not been coherently reviewed. Chapter 2 of this book reviews magnetic small-angle scattering, and modern techniques of neutron magnetic reflectometry are discussed in Chapter 3.

  4. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  5. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  6. Process for preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-06-17

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide. The process of this invention may comprise mixing one or more phosphates of Ti with a cyanide salt in the absence of oxygen and heating to a temperature sufficient to cause reaction to occur. In the preferred embodiment the ratio of cyanide salt to Ti should be at least 2 which results in the major Ti-containing product being TiN rather than sodium titanium phosphate byproducts. The process is an improvement over prior processes since the byproducts are water soluble salts of sodium which can easily be removed from the preferred TiN product by washing. 2 tabs.

  7. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-13

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (~1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K2(UO2)3O4·4H2O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (~380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO3·2H2O, with minor phases ofmore » U3O8 and UO2. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of 236U and 232U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.« less

  8. Neutron-deuteron breakup reaction as a tool for studying neutron-neutron interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konobeevski, E. S., E-mail: konobeev@inr.ru; Zuyev, S. V.; Mordovskoy, M. V.; Potashev, S. I.; Sharapov, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    An analysis of the most recent data on the reaction nd {yields} pnn revealed a serious discrepancy between theoretical predictions and cross sections measured for this reaction in various configurations where the role of neutron-neutron interactions is important. In view of this, it seems necessary both to develop theoretical approaches and to obtain new experimental data. For this purpose, a setup for studying the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction was created at the Institute for Nuclear Research on the basis of the neutron beam in the RADEX channel and deuterium targets. This facility makes it possible to perform experiments over a broad region of primary-neutron energies (10-60 MeV) and in various (final-state interaction, quasifree scattering, and spatial-star) configurations. Preliminary results of the respective experiment were obtained for configurations of final-state neutron-neutron interaction and quasifree neutron-neutron scattering.

  9. Category:Neutron Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Looking for the Neutron Log page? For detailed information on Neutron Log, click here. Category:Neutron Log Add.png Add a new Neutron Log Technique Pages in category...

  10. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  11. Clifford G. Shull, Neutron Diffraction, Hydrogen Atoms, and Neutron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Clifford Shull, Neutron Diffraction, and Neutron Scattering Resources with Additional Information Clifford G. Shull was awarded the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique". 'Professor Shull's prize was awarded for his pioneering work in neutron scattering, a technique that reveals where atoms are within a material like ricocheting bullets reveal where obstacles are in the dark. Clifford Shull Photo Courtesy of Oak Ridge

  12. Portable Neutron Sensors for Emergency Response Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Maurer, R., Detweiler, R.

    2012-06-22

    This slide-show presents neutron measurement work, including design, use and performance of different neutron detection systems.

  13. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

  14. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, Roger B. (Lafayette, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-12-18

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  15. Neutronic reactor construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Norman E.

    1976-07-06

    1. A neutronic reactor comprising a moderator including horizontal layers formed of horizontal rows of graphite blocks, alternate layers of blocks having the rows extending in one direction, the remaining alternate layers having the rows extending transversely to the said one direction, alternate rows of blocks in one set of alternate layers having longitudinal ducts, the moderator further including slotted graphite tubes positioned in the ducts, the reactor further comprising an aluminum coolant tube positioned within the slotted tube in spaced relation thereto, bodies of thermal-neutron-fissionable material, and jackets enclosing the bodies and being formed of a corrosion-resistant material having a low neutron-capture cross section, the bodies and jackets being positioned within the coolant tube so that the jackets are spaced from the coolant tube.

  16. Spherical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  17. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, R.B.; Tyree, W.H.

    1982-03-03

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  18. Neutron Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dictionary.png Neutron Log: The neutron log responds primarily to the amount of hydrogen in the formation which is contained in oil, natural gas, and water. The amount of...

  19. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  20. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  1. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  2. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  3. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  4. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  5. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  6. Dose-equivalent neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.; Tomasino, L.; Gomaa, M.A.M.

    1981-01-07

    A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurement indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer contaning conversion material such as /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet.

  7. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

  8. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

    1999-08-17

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

  9. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lujan Instruments Lujan Center Flight Paths Instrument Suite by Science Crystallography: NPDF, HIPD, HIPPO,PCS Engineering and Strain: HIPPO, SMARTS, NPDF Disordered Materials: NPDF, HIPD, HIPPO Large Scale Structures: LQD, ASTERIX Magnetism: ASTERIX, HIPD, HIPPO Biology: PCS, LQD Neutron Imaging: HIPPO, SMARTS, NPDF Nuclear Science and Technology: DANCE, FP5, FP12 Instrument Suite by Technique Powder Diffractometers: HIPD, HIPPO, NPDF, SMARTS Engineering Diffraction: SMARTS Reflectometer:

  10. Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... FISSION; FISSION NEUTRONS; FLUCTUATIONS; MULTIPLICITY; NEUTRON SOURCES; NEUTRONS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; PHYSICS; POWER REACTORS; PROBABILITY; PROGENY; RANDOMNESS; REACTOR PHYSICS; ...

  11. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  12. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  13. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  14. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  15. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  16. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  17. SHARP Neutronics Expanded | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutronics Expanded SHARP Neutronics Expanded January 29, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis Fully heterogeneous predictions of thermal neutron flux in a hypothetical metal-oxide-fueled PWR Fully heterogeneous predictions of thermal neutron flux in a hypothetical metal-oxide-fueled PWR SHARP neutronics Module Development The SHARP neutronics module, PROTEUS, includes neutron and gamma transport solvers and cross-section processing tools as well as the capability for depletion and fuel cycle analysis. The

  18. Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

    1996-08-01

    For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

  19. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  20. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  1. TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS Authors: Muth, Thomas R [1] ; Peter, William H [1] ; Yamamoto, Yukinori [1] ; Chen, Wei [1] ; Harper, David C [1] ; Harper, Kevin D [1] ; Cox, Gregory A [1] ; Lowe, Larry E [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2013-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1072995 Report Number(s):

  2. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  3. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  4. Porous material neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  5. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  6. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  7. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Seagraves, David T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  8. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  9. NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH,G.C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.

  10. Schoenborn wins Bau Neutron Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retired Laboratory Senior Fellow Benno Schoenborn to receive the 2016 Bau Neutron Diffraction Award. August 12, 2015 Benno Schoenborn Benno Schoenborn Communications Office...

  11. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the research and development, design and safety of the Advanced Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (LSP)

  12. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Knight, Kim; Loi, Elaine; Hotchkis, Michael; Moody, Kenton; Singleton, Michael; Robel, Martin; Hutcheon, Ian

    2015-04-13

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (~1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K2(UO2)3O4·4H2O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (~380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO3·2H2O, with minor phases of U3O8 and UO2. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of 236U and 232U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  13. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A. (Coker, AL); Robinson, David A. (Mobile, AL)

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  14. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Lynn Genau

    2004-12-19

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  15. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  16. Long-range magnetic ordering in Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headspith, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Battle, P.D. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Francesconi, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.francesconi@hull.ac.uk

    2007-10-15

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to determine the magnetic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional compound Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}, which contains linear [001] chains of vertex-sharing CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra, spaced apart by Ba{sup 2+} cations. At 1.5 K the Co{sup 2+} cations in the chains are antiferromagnetically ordered with an ordered magnetic moment of 1.97(4) {mu}{sub B} per cation aligned along [100]. Each Co{sup 2+} cation is ferromagnetically aligned with four cation in neighbouring chains and antiferromagnetically aligned with two others. - Graphical abstract: Neutron powder diffraction has been used to prove that Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3} shows long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures, despite the quasi-one-dimensional arrangement of the CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra in the crystal structure.

  17. Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons (Conference) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons You are accessing a document from the...

  18. Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons (Conference) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency measurements using tagged neutrons Authors: Taddeucci, Terry N 1 + Show Author...

  19. Ultracold neutrons (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Ultracold neutrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultracold neutrons You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect....

  20. SciTech Connect: "neutron scattering"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron scattering" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "neutron scattering" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  1. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Instruments | Neutron Radiography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron Radiography The recently acquired energy-dispersive neutron imaging detector can be used on various Lujan Center beam-lines to combine scattering with imaging. In most...

  2. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    objects. May 9, 2014 Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs. Neutron tomography horizontal "slice"...

  3. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  4. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  6. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  7. Aqueous slip casting of stabilized AlN powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groat, E.A.; Mroz, T.J. )

    1994-11-01

    Because of the interest in aluminum nitride (AlN) for various refractory and structural applications, methods are required to cost-effectively process a water-sensitive material into the required shapes. The existence of water-resistant AlN powders has allowed the consideration of aqueous processing of a material that previously required solvent-based formulation. The composition and procedures developed for aqueous slip-casting water-resistant AlN powders provide a manufacturing route for the fabrication of large and complex geometries. Technology to create aqueous dispersions of these powders also potentially enables other manufacturing processes, such as extrusion and spray drying, to utilize the cost advantages of aqueous processing.

  8. Maintenance neutron coincidence counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.

    1989-09-01

    A compact thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed specifically for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a reference neutron detector for maintenance activities. The counter is designed for use only with {sup 252}Cf sources in SR-CF-100 capsules. This manual describes the detector's mechanical and electrical components and its operating characteristics. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, S.; Graff, G.L.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering. 2 figs.

  10. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  11. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1985-03-12

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  12. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Brownsboro, AL); Antony, Leo V. M. (Huntsville, AL); O'Dell, Scott (Arab, AL); Power, Chris (Guntersville, AL); Tabor, Terry (Huntsville, AL)

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  13. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  14. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering.

  15. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janey, Mark A. (Concord, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular-level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  16. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  17. Fast neutron environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Lu, Ping; Brewer, Luke N.; Goods, Steven Howard; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Puskar, Joseph David; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Boyce, Brad Lee; Clark, Blythe G.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this LDRD project is to develop a rapid first-order experimental procedure for the testing of advanced cladding materials that may be considered for generation IV nuclear reactors. In order to investigate this, a technique was developed to expose the coupons of potential materials to high displacement damage at elevated temperatures to simulate the neutron environment expected in Generation IV reactors. This was completed through a high temperature high-energy heavy-ion implantation. The mechanical properties of the ion irradiated region were tested by either micropillar compression or nanoindentation to determine the local properties, as a function of the implantation dose and exposure temperature. In order to directly compare the microstructural evolution and property degradation from the accelerated testing and classical neutron testing, 316L, 409, and 420 stainless steels were tested. In addition, two sets of diffusion couples from 316L and HT9 stainless steels with various refractory metals. This study has shown that if the ion irradiation size scale is taken into consideration when developing and analyzing the mechanical property data, significant insight into the structural properties of the potential cladding materials can be gained in about a week.

  18. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  19. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  20. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  1. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  2. Boron nitride solid state neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2004-04-27

    The present invention describes an apparatus useful for detecting neutrons, and particularly for detecting thermal neutrons, while remaining insensitive to gamma radiation. Neutrons are detected by direct measurement of current pulses produced by an interaction of the neutrons with hexagonal pyrolytic boron nitride.

  3. Neutron capture therapy with deep tissue penetration using capillary neutron focusing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method for delivering thermal neutrons to a subsurface cancer or tumor which has been first doped with a dopant having a high cross section for neutron capture. The improvement is the use of a guide tube in cooperation with a capillary neutron focusing apparatus, or neutron focusing lens, for directing neutrons to the tumor, and thereby avoiding damage to surrounding tissue.

  4. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel...

  5. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  6. The Spallation Neutron Source Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) set out in the 1990s to develop a neutron scattering research facility that was ten times more powerful than the state of the art, the concept for the project...

  7. Portable Neutron Sensors for Emergency Response Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-06-24

    This article presents the experimental work performed in the area of neutron detector development at the Remote Sensing LaboratoryAndrews Operations (RSL-AO) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the last four years. During the 1950s neutron detectors were developed mostly to characterize nuclear reactors where the neutron flux is high. Due to the indirect nature of neutron detection via interaction with other particles, neutron counting and neutron energy measurements have never been as precise as gamma-ray counting measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. This indirect nature is intrinsic to all neutron measurement endeavors (except perhaps for neutron spin-related experiments, viz. neutron spin-echo measurements where one obtains ?eV energy resolution). In emergency response situations generally the count rates are low, and neutrons may be scattered around in inhomogeneous intervening materials. It is also true that neutron sensors are most efficient for the lowest energy neutrons, so it is not as easy to detect and count energetic neutrons. Most of the emergency response neutron detectors are offshoots of nuclear device diagnostics tools and special nuclear materials characterization equipment, because that is what is available commercially. These instruments mostly are laboratory equipment, and not field-deployable gear suited for mobile teams. Our goal is to design and prototype field-deployable, ruggedized, lightweight, efficient neutron detectors.

  8. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  9. CONTROL MEANS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonks, L.

    1962-08-01

    A control device surrounding the active portion of a nuclear reactor is described. The control device consists of a plurality of contiguous cylinders partly filled with a neutron absorbing material and partly filled with a neutron reflecting material, each cylinder having a longitudinal reentrant surface into which a portion of an adjacent cylinder extends, one of the cylinders having two re-entrant surfaces, and means for rotating the cylinders one at a time. (AEC)

  10. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  11. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Sipola, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  12. Tritium and neutron measurements of a solid state cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Seeger, P.A.; Rohwer, R.K.; Tuggle, D.G.; Doty, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state cold fusion'' cell was constructed to test for non-equilibrium fusion in a solid. The stimulus for the design was the hypothesis that the electrochemical surface layer in the Pons- Fleischmann cell could be replaced with a metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) barrier. Cells were constructed of alternating layers of palladium and silicon powders pressed into a ceramic form and exposed to deuterium gas at 110 psia resulting in a D/Pd ratio of 0.7. Pulses of current were passed through the cells to populate non-equilibrium states at the MIS barriers. One cell showed neutron activity and was found to have a large amount of tritium, other cells have produced tritium at a low rate consistent with neutron emission below the threshold of observability. The branching ratio for n/p has been about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} in all the experiments where a substantial amount of tritium has been found. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanophase zirconia : reverse micelle method and neutron scattering study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.

    1998-11-23

    Zirconia is an important transition-metal oxide for catalytic applications. It has been widely used in automotive exhaust treatment, methanol synthesis, isomerization, alkylation, etc. [1]. Nanophase materials have unique physiochemical properties such as quantum size effects, high surface area, uniform morphology, narrow size distribution, and improvement of sintering rates[2]. Microemulsion method provides the means for controlling the microenvironment under which specific chemical reactions may occur in favoring the formation of homogeneous, nanometer-size particles. In this paper, we report the synthesis of nanophase zirconia and the characterization of the microemulsions as well as the powders by small- and wide-angle neutron scattering techniques.

  14. At Los Alamos's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, crystallographer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a related experimental technique, debuted in 1946. Also known as neutron diffraction or neutron scattering, the method involves immersing samples in neutrons rather...

  15. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  16. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  17. The EOS of neutron matter, and the effect of Lambda hyperons to neutron star structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2015-01-13

    The following topics are addressed: the model and the method; equation of state of neutron matter, role of three-neutron force; symmetry energy; ?-hypernuclei; ?-neutron matter; and neutron star structure. In summary, quantum Monte Carlo methods are useful to study nuclear systems in a coherent framework; the three-neutron force is the bridge between Esym and neutron star structure; and neutron star observations are becoming competitive with experiments. ?-nucleon data are very limited, but ?NN is very important. The role of ? in neutron stars is far from understood; more ?N data are needed. The author's conclusion: We cannot conclude anything with present models.

  18. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  19. Surface modification of silicon nitride powder with aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.R.; Lim, C.S.; Hong, M.J.; Choi, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Surface modification of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with alumina was tried. It was achieved by simply mixing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with an alumina sol up to {approximately}2 wt% as alumina in an aqueous medium, dried, and followed by calcination at 400 C for 1 h. A TEM micrograph showed a coating layer of {approximately} 15 nm thickness. The isoelectric point of the modified Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with porous alumina was at 0H 7.8, which is different from 5.8 and 8.6 for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and amorphous alumina, respectively.

  20. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has been cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.

  1. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  2. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  3. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  4. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es011_yakovleva_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing

  5. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  6. Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

  7. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, William H; Muth, Thomas R; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Jolly, Brian C; Stone, Nigel; Cantin, G.M.D.; Barnes, John; Paliwal, Muktesh; Smith, Ryan; Capone, Joseph; Liby, Alan L; Williams, James C; Blue, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  8. Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

  9. 2013 Review of Neutron and Non-Neutron Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-05-23

    The results of a review and evaluation of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data published in the scientific literature over the past three years since the ISRD-14 Symposium has been performed and the highlights are presented. Included in the data review are the status of new chemical elements, new measurements of the isotopic composition for many chemical elements and the resulting change in the atomic weight values. New half-life measurements for both short-lived and longlived nuclides, some alpha decay and double beta decay measurements for quasistable nuclides are discussed. The latest evaluation of atomic masses has been published. Data from new measurements on the very heavy (trans-meitnerium) elements are discussed and tabulated. Data on various recent neutron cross section and resonance integral measurements are discussed and tabulated.

  10. Parity nonconservation in {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd neutron resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yuan, V.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Delheij, P.P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA)] [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA); Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y. [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)] [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stephenson, S.L. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Postma, H. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (The Netherlands)] [Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (The Netherlands); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)

    1999-11-01

    Parity nonconservation (PNC) has been studied in the neutron {ital p}-wave resonances of {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd in the energy range of 20 to 2000 eV. Longitudinal asymmetries in {ital p}-wave capture cross sections are measured using longitudinally polarized neutrons incident on {approximately}20-g metal-powder targets at LANSCE. A CsI {gamma}-ray detector array measures capture cross section asymmetries as a function of neutron energy which is determined by the neutron time-of-flight method. A total of 21 {ital p}-wave resonances in {sup 106}Pd and 21 {ital p}-wave resonances in {sup 108}Pd were studied. One statistically significant PNC effect was observed in {sup 106}Pd, and no effects were observed in {sup 108}Pd. For {sup 106}Pd a weak spreading width of {Gamma}{sub w}=34{sub {minus}28}{sup +47}{times}10{sup {minus}7} eV was obtained. For {sup 108}Pd an upper limit on the weak spreading width of {Gamma}{sub w}{lt}12{times}10{sup {minus}7} eV was determined at the 68{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korton, George (Cincinnati, OH)

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure by encompassing the sides of the fuel element between the header plates.

  12. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deirde C

    2009-01-01

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  13. BF3 Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2009-12-09

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world; thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and detection capabilities are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the efficiency of BF3 tubes at a pressure of 800 torr. These measurements were made partially to validate models of the RPM system that have been modified to simulate the performance of BF3-filled tubes. While BF3 could be a potential replacement for 3He, there are limitations to its use in deployed systems.

  14. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified TiNiMo powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of TiNiMo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2RB19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 ?m. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 2550 ?m powders was 18.4 C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 2550 ?m powders and 100150 ?m powders is only 1 C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 C.

  15. Neutron coincidence detectors employing heterogeneous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Czirr, J. Bartley (Mapleton, UT); Jensen, Gary L. (Orem, UT)

    1993-07-27

    A neutron detector relies upon optical separation of different scintillators to measure the total energy and/or number of neutrons from a neutron source. In pulse mode embodiments of the invention, neutrons are detected in a first detector which surrounds the neutron source and in a second detector surrounding the first detector. An electronic circuit insures that only events are measured which correspond to neutrons first detected in the first detector followed by subsequent detection in the second detector. In spectrometer embodiments of the invention, neutrons are thermalized in the second detector which is formed by a scintillator-moderator and neutron energy is measured from the summed signals from the first and second detectors.

  16. Spin in the Neutron | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Neutron NEWPORT NEWS, Va. - Puzzling out the source of proton and neutron spin is part of the ongoing experimental effort at Jefferson Lab to understand their structure and...

  17. 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's...

  18. Utilization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, Douglas L; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Meilleur, Flora; Jones, Amy; Bailey, William Barton; Vandergriff, David H

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the scientific utilization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Topics to be covered will include: 1) HFIR neutron scattering instruments and the formal instrument user program; 2) Recent upgrades to the neutron scattering instrument stations at the reactor, and 3) eMod a new tool for addressing instrument modifications and providing configuration control and design process for scientific instruments at HFIR and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There are 15 operating neutron instrument stations at HFIR with 12 of them organized into a formal user program. Since the last presentation on HFIR instruments at IGORR we have installed a Single Crystal Quasi-Laue Diffractometer instrument called IMAGINE; and we have made significant upgrades to HFIR neutron scattering instruments including the Cold Triple Axis Instrument, the Wide Angle Neutron Diffractometer, the Powder Diffractometer, and the Neutron Imaging station. In addition, we have initiated upgrades to the Thermal Triple Axis Instrument and the Bio-SANS cold neutron instrument detector system. All of these upgrades are tied to a continuous effort to maintain a high level neutron scattering user program at the HFIR. For the purpose of tracking modifications such as those mentioned and configuration control we have been developing an electronic system for entering instrument modification requests that follows a modification or instrument project through concept development, design, fabrication, installation, and commissioning. This system, which we call eMod, electronically leads the task leader through a series of questions and checklists that then identifies such things as ES&H and radiological issues and then automatically designates specific individuals for the activity review process. The system has been in use for less than a year and we are still working out some of the inefficiencies, but we believe that this will become a very effective tool for achieving the configuration and process control believed to be necessary for scientific instrument systems.

  19. Plastic neutron detectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in photoresponse with increasing stretch ratio. Other additives examined, including small molecules and cosolvents, did not cause any significant increase in photoresponse. Finally, we discovered an inverse-geometric particle track effect wherein increased track lengths created by tilting the detector off normal incidence resulted in decreased signal collection. This is interpreted as a trap-filling effect, leading to increased carrier mobility along the particle track direction. Estimated collection efficiency along the track direction was near 20 electrons/micron of track length, sufficient for particle counting in 50 micron thick films.

  20. ABSTRACT Bayarbadrakh, Baramsai. Neutron Capture Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bayarbadrakh, Baramsai. Neutron Capture Reactions on Gadolinium Isotopes. (Under the direction of Dr. G. E. Mitchell and U. Agvaanluvsan). The neutron capture reaction on 155 Gd, 156 Gd and 158 Gd isotopes has been studied with the DANCE calorimeter at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The highly segmented calorimeter provided detailed multiplicity distributions of the capture γ-rays. With this information the spins of the neutron capture resonances have been determined. The new technique

  1. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  2. Ultracold Neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UCN Facility LANSCE is home to one of the most intense sources of some of the coldest subatomic particles: ultracold neutrons (UCNs). The LANSCE Ultracold Neutron (UCN) source is a unique facility that produces high energy spallation neutrons and uses solid deuterium to cool the neutrons by one million billion-fold. The resulting UCNs have some unique properties that allow them to be studied precisely: they move at speeds of only a few meters per second, and are completely confined by magnetic

  3. Compact ion source neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  4. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  5. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Wang, Li (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein y=1-2.3 and n=1-3; (6) Cu.sub.x S.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; and (7) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y (SeS).sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0.07-2 and n=0.663-3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes.

  6. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  7. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B. (Fremont, CA); Fares, Stephen J. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Kim L. (Livermore, CA); Langham, Mary E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-04-17

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  8. ECCENTRIC ROLLING OF POWDER AND BONDING AGENT INTO SPHERICAL PELLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.

    1961-06-01

    A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

  9. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  10. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B; Fares, Stephen J; Tran, Kim L; Langham, Mary E

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  11. Neutron capture therapy with deep tissue penetration using capillary neutron focusing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, A.J.

    1997-08-19

    An improved method is disclosed for delivering thermal neutrons to a subsurface cancer or tumor which has been first doped with a dopant having a high cross section for neutron capture. The improvement is the use of a guide tube in cooperation with a capillary neutron focusing apparatus, or neutron focusing lens, for directing neutrons to the tumor, and thereby avoiding damage to surrounding tissue. 1 fig.

  12. Hybrid scintillators for neutron discrimination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Patrick L; Cordaro, Joseph G; Anstey, Mitchell R; Morales, Alfredo M

    2015-05-12

    A composition capable of producing a unique scintillation response to neutrons and gamma rays, comprising (i) at least one surfactant; (ii) a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent; and (iii) at least one luminophore. A method including combining at least one surfactant, a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent and at least one luminophore in a scintillation cell under vacuum or an inert atmosphere.

  13. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  14. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  15. Oxidation kinetics of calcium-doped palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.; Kodas, T.T.; Hampden-Smith, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The oxidation kinetics of submicron Ca-containing Pd powders produced by spray pyrolysis were studied in the temperature range 600 to 675 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of pure Pd powder had an activation energy of {approximately}230 kJ/mol in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% and 65 kJ/mol for oxidation > 70%. The activation energies for Pd particles containing 0.01 weight percent (w/o) and 0.4 w/o Ca in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% were {approximately}230 kJ/mol and {approximately}50 kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that the conversion of Pd to Pd{sup II}O (stoichiometric PdO) proceeds from the particle surface into the interior and not homogeneously throughout the particle. The predictions of a variety of models and rate laws (shrinking core, parabolic, cubic, logarithmic, and inverse logarithmic) were compared with the data. The comparison suggested a mechanism in which oxidation of pure Pd proceeds by chemisorption and diffusion of oxygen to form a substoichiometric oxide, followed by the conversion of substoichiometric PdO to Pd{sup II}O. Oxidation of pure Pd is then probably limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the substoichiometric PdO and/or Pd{sup II}O. The addition of Ca increased the oxidation resistance of Pd most likely by inhibiting oxygen diffusion through the metal oxide layers surrounding the Pd.

  16. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  17. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  18. GRADIENT INDEX SPHERES BY THE SEQUENTIAL ACCRETION OF GLASS POWDERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARIANO VELEZ

    2008-06-15

    The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.

  19. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  20. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  1. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  2. Method of preparing a powdered, electrically insulative separator for use in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Tom O. (Naperville, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, is compacted as layers onto an electrode to form an integral electrode structure and assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to its operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  3. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Dusek, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice.

  4. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  5. 2010 Review of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.

    2011-07-01

    The results of a review and evaluation of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data published in the scientific literature over the past three years are presented. The status of new chemical elements is examined. Ten elements have had their atomic weight and uncertainty replaced by interval values of upper and lower bounds. Data on revised values for the isotopic composition of the elements are reviewed and new recommended values are presented for germanium. Radioactive half-lives are reviewed and latest values presented which include measurements on nuclides of interest and very long-lived nuclides such as double beta decay, double electron capture, long-lived alpha decay, and long-lived beta decay. The latest information and the status on the evaluation of atomic masses are discussed. Data from new measurements on the very heavy elements (trans-meitnerium elements) are discussed and tabulated. Data on various recent neutron cross-section and resonance integral measurements are also discussed and the latest measurements are tabulated in both cases. The JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries are discussed. A new initiative on the existence and importance of isotopes is presented. (authors)

  6. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  7. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center lansce.lanl.gov lansce-user-office@lanl.gov mesaheader Beam Status Accelerator Ops (Internal) Operating Schedule Long Range Operating Schedule User Resources User Agreements Proposals Visit Registration Schedules Experiment Reports User Satisfaction Survey Reviews Users User Office User Program LANSCE User Group Rosen Scholar Rosen Prize News & Multimedia News Multimedia Events Profiles Highlights Seminars Activity Reports The Pulse User Program Headlines

  8. Survey of neutron radiography facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.G.

    1996-08-01

    A directory of neutron radiography facilities around the world was informally compiled about ten years ago under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Subcommittee E7.05 (Radiology, Neutron). The work lay dormant for a number of years, but was revived in earnest in the fall of 1995. At that time, letters were mailed to all the facilities with available addresses in the original directory, requesting updated information. Additionally, information was gathered at the Second Topical meeting on neutron Radiography Facility System Design and Beam Characterization (November, 1995, Shonan Village, Japan). A second mailing was sent for final confirmation and updates in January, 1996. About 75% of the information in the directory has now been confirmed by the facility management. This paper presents a summary of the information contained in the facility directory. An electronic version of the directory in Wordperfect 6.1, uuencode, or rtf format is available by sending e-mail to the authors at imel{at}anl.gov or imel{at}baobab.cad.cea.fr. A WWW site for the directory is presently under construction.

  9. Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veilleux, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanfield, Sean B [CCP; Wachter, Joe [CCP; Ceo, Bob [CCP

    2009-01-01

    Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are more realistic and accurate. To do so, measurements of standards and waste drums were performed with High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The data were analyzed for multiplication effects and new estimates of the multiplication error were computed. A concluding section will present alternatives for reducing the number of rejections of TRU waste containers due to neutron multiplication error.

  10. High-resolution neutron diffraction study of CuNCN: New evidence of structure anomalies at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Philipp; Houben, Andreas; Dronskowski, Richard; Tchougreff, Andrei L.; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry and Poncelet Laboratory of Mathematics in Interaction with Physics and Informatics, Independent University of Moscow, Moscow Center for Continuous Mathematical Education, Bolshoi Vlasevsky Per. 11, 119002 Moscow

    2013-12-14

    Copper carbodiimide (CuNCN) is the nitrogen-containing analogue of cupric oxide. Based on high-resolution neutron-diffraction data, CuNCN's lattice parameters are derived as a function of the temperature. In accordance with a recent synchrotron study, a clear trend in the cell parameter a is observed accompanying the changing magnetic behavior. With decreasing temperature, a slowly decreases to a minimum at ?100 K after which it rises again. The same trendalbeit more pronouncedis observed for the c lattice parameter at ?35 K. The herein presented neutron powder-diffraction data also support the conjectured sequence of transitions from the high-temperature one-dimensional resonating valence-bond (RVB) state to a transient two-dimensional RVB state and eventually, at lowest temperatures, into another two-dimensional RVB state, presumably the ground state.

  11. Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron Source at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Preliminary Report Authors: Tobin, J G ; Mirmelstein, A V ; Podlesnyak, A ; ...

  12. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  13. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2015-11-05

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  14. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, Radoslav; McLean, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  15. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  16. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  17. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.631.27 W m? K?), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings. - Graphical abstract: There are many tiny pores and grain boundaries in the multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders,which greatly decrease the thermal conductivities of the YSZ powders. - Highlights: Multi-hierarchical structured YSZ powders were successfully prepared. The prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.631.27 W m? K?). Improved high-temperature stability had been achieved for the prepared YSZ powders. The influence of the morphology on their thermophysical properties was explored.

  18. Neutronics activities for next generation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic activities for the next generation devices are the subject of this paper. The main activities include TFCX and FPD blanket/shield studies, neutronic aspects of ETR/INTOR critical issues, and neutronics computational modules for the tokamak system code and tandem mirror reactor system code. Trade-off analyses, optimization studies, design problem investigations and computational models development for reactor parametric studies carried out for these activities are summarized.

  19. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earths surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  20. Neutron storage time for the neutron EDM experiment (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Neutron storage time for the neutron EDM experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron storage time for the neutron EDM experiment × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  1. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, Thomas R; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Frederick, David Alan; Contescu, Cristian I; Chen, Wei; Lim, Yong Chae; Peter, William H; Feng, Zhili

    2013-01-01

    ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  2. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  3. Rapid cooling and structure of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Riper, K.A.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics on neutron stars: direct URCA neutrino emission; thermal evolution models; analytic model for diffusion through the crust; and core superfluidity. (LSP).

  4. Rapid cooling and structure of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Riper, K.A. ); Lattimer, J.M. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on neutron stars: direct URCA neutrino emission; thermal evolution models; analytic model for diffusion through the crust; and core superfluidity. (LSP).

  5. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  6. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  7. Compound Refractive Lenses for Thermal Neutron Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, Charles K.

    2013-11-12

    This project designed and built compound refractive lenses (CRLs) that are able to focus, collimate and image using thermal neutrons. Neutrons are difficult to manipulate compared to visible light or even x rays; however, CRLs can provide a powerful tool for focusing, collimating and imaging neutrons. Previous neutron CRLs were limited to long focal lengths, small fields of view and poor resolution due to the materials available and manufacturing techniques. By demonstrating a fabrication method that can produce accurate, small features, we have already dramatically improved the focal length of thermal neutron CRLs, and the manufacture of Fresnel lens CRLs that greatly increases the collection area, and thus efficiency, of neutron CRLs. Unlike a single lens, a compound lens is a row of N lenslets that combine to produce an N-fold increase in the refraction of neutrons. While CRLs can be made from a variety of materials, we have chosen to mold Teflon lenses. Teflon has excellent neutron refraction, yet can be molded into nearly arbitrary shapes. We designed, fabricated and tested Teflon CRLs for neutrons. We demonstrated imaging at wavelengths as short as 1.26 ? with large fields of view and achieved resolution finer than 250 ?m which is better than has been previously shown. We have also determined designs for Fresnel CRLs that will greatly improve performance.

  8. Neutrons find "missing" magnetism of plutonium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons find "missing" magnetism of plutonium Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues submit...

  9. Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VA at www.ntis.gov. The expected or mean neutron number (or density) provides an adequate characterization of the neutron population and its dynamical excursions in most neutronic...

  10. EIS-0247: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States needs a high-flux, short- pulsed neutron source to provide its scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron...

  11. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | About the School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    students calculate results About the LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering The annual Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) School on Neutron Scattering is 9- to 10-day school focusing on specific science topics to which neutron scattering makes a critical impact. The focus-driven agenda makes it distinct from other neutron schools in the nation. The LANSCE Neutron Scattering School began in 2004 and it has had a continuous and successful run to this day. General School Format The first day

  12. Bound Neutrons Pave Way to Free Ones | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bound Neutrons Pave Way to Free Ones Unexpected Connection - Some experiments seem to show that the building blocks of protons and neutrons inside a nucleus are somehow different from that of free neutrons and protons. Other experiments show protons and neutrons behave differently when they pair up. A new study shows these two different lines of research are correlated, leading to information on the internal structure of free neutrons without the assistance of a theoretical model. Bound Neutrons

  13. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  14. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  15. Facility for fast neutron irradiation tests of electronics at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Salsano, A.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Gerardin, S.; Frost, C. D.; Ansell, S.; Platt, S. P.

    2008-03-17

    The VESUVIO beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source was set up for neutron irradiation tests in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV. The neutron flux and energy spectrum were shown, in benchmark activation measurements, to provide a neutron spectrum similar to the ambient one at sea level, but with an enhancement in intensity of a factor of 10{sup 7}. Such conditions are suitable for accelerated testing of electronic components, as was demonstrated here by measurements of soft error rates in recent technology field programable gate arrays.

  16. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Bass, T. D.; Dawkins, J. M.; Fry, J.; Haddock, C.; Horton, J. C.; Luo, D.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Walbridge, S. B.; Barrn-Palos, L.; Maldonado-Velzquez, M.; Bass, C. D.; Crawford, B. E.; Crawford, C.; Esposito, D.; Gardiner, H.; Gan, K.; Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E. [University of Washington and others

    2015-05-15

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of d?/dz = 1 10{sup ?7} rad/m.

  17. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  18. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  19. Liquid Dynamics from Neutron Spectrometry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Bergsma, J.; Dasannacharya, B. A.; Pope, N. K.

    1962-10-01

    Recent experiments carried out at Chalk River on the dynamics of liquids using neutron inelastic scattering are reviewed, including one by Sakamoto et al., in which the Van Hove self-correlation functions in water at 25 and 75 deg C were determined, and another in which the correlation functions in liquid argon near its triple point were studied. The possible occurrence of short wavelength phonons in classical liquids is discussed, in analogy with their existence in the quantum liquid He4, and in connection with incomplete experiments on liquid tin. (auth)

  20. Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiencies comparable to Helium-3 detectors, with demonstrated gamma neutron discrimination. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Boron-10 Neutron...

  1. Neutron light output and detector efficiency (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron light output and detector efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron light output and detector efficiency You are accessing a document from the...

  2. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon Nanopores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in...

  3. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error estimates for fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error estimates for fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from the...

  4. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  5. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCATTERING; ISOTOPES; LEAD; LEAD 206; LEAD 207; LEVELS; NEUTRONS; SCATTERING Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in gamma rays near the signature endpoint...

  6. Nuclear Physics: The Ultracold Neutron Source (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Physics: The Ultracold Neutron Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Physics: The Ultracold Neutron Source You are accessing a ...

  7. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS...

  8. Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication You are...

  9. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home About the School Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application - Closed Schedule Poster...

  10. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2011 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home NSS 2011 About the School Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application Schedule...

  11. Neutronics at Wisconsin, ORNL advances ITER shielding and internationa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutronics at Wisconsin, ORNL advances ITER shielding and international collaboration American Fusion News Category: U.S. ITER Link: Neutronics at Wisconsin, ORNL advances ITER...

  12. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases of yield of two orders of magnitude. The first fast neutron radiographic images were obtained using neutron cameras and a new fast neutron generator. These early images demonstrated the feasibility of using fast neutrons for imaging and penetrating thick objects of high density and imaging. Fast neutrons can be used to image low atomic number materials (e.g. plastics, explosives, lubricants and ceramics) that are shielded by high density materials (e.g. lead, tungsten and uranium). Fast neutron radiography could be used as a means to screen weapons for flaws and chemical stability. X-ray radiography can not easily do this. Fast neutron imaging is technically difficult and, consequently, a completely undeveloped market. Two of the generators were designed to have small source size and high brightness, ideal for fast-neutron imaging. With these generators we successfully used two fast neutron cameras: one developed by us, and another developed by a collaborator, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, CSIRO. We have successfully used these cameras to obtain low resolution images of various objects such as pipe fittings filled with water and other mechanical objects. Higher resolution and contrast images are expected by decreasing the source size and increasing generator yield.

  13. Preparation of cuxinygazsen precursor films and powders by electroless deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Batchelor, Wendi Kay; Wiesner, Holm; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising: preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of: I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound and a indium compound; and V) a copper compound and selenium compound; each compound being present in sufficient quantity to react with each other to produce Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3); adjusting the pH of the aqueous bath solution to an acidic value by the addition of a dilute acid; and initiating an electroless reaction with an oxidizing counterelectrode for a sufficient time to cause a deposit of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) from the aqueous bath solution onto a metallic substrate.

  14. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  15. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  16. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Von L. (Murrysville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

  17. Numerical simulation of plasma heating of a composite powder particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demetriou, M.D.; Lavine, A.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of fine composite powder particles (composed of a ceramic core and a metallic coating) in plasma spraying processes is desirable in developing thin film coatings that possess high abrasion as well as high fracture resistance. Quantitative knowledge of the thermal behavior of a composite particle in a plasma beam is essential in optimizing the process variables to achieve uniform melting of the coating material. In this work, a numerical model is developed to analyze the in-flight thermal behavior of a spherically symmetric WC-Co composite particle travelling in an argon arc-jet DC plasma under strongly unsteady plasma conditions. The model gives quantitative as well as qualitative information about the thermal response of the heated particle. The important features that are addressed are the temperature response of the particle; the history of the location of the melting and vaporization fronts; and the physical state of the particle at the end of its flight. For the conditions investigated, it was determined that the internal conduction resistance is negligible as compared to the net external resistance. However, the presence of the ceramic base was found to affect the transient heating process since its content in the particle composition determines the time constant of the process. Another interesting observation is that proper selection of the particle injection speed and injection location can be effective means for optimizing the heating process and achieving uniform melting of the coating material.

  18. Boron-Lined Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-03-07

    PNNL-18938 Revision Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of a newly designed boron-lined proportional counter option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of two successive prototypes of a system manufactured by GE Reuter Stokes.

  19. Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-03-17

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.

  20. Boron-Lined Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2009-11-02

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of a newly designed boron-lined proportional counter option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Reuter Stokes.

  1. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  2. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, Bert Clayton; Brindza, Paul Daniel

    2014-03-04

    A thermal neutron shield comprising boron shielding panels with a high percentage of the element Boron. The panel is least 46% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of boron shielding panels which includes enriching the pre-cursor mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  3. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; et al

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTORS AND CONTROL MEANS THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kesselring, K.A.

    1962-08-14

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical active portion, a fixed reflector around the active portion having equally spaced apertures therein parallel to the longitudinal axis of the active portion, and rotatable cylindrical bodies in each of these apertures including parallel neutron reflector portions and parallel neutron absorber portions are described. (AEC)

  5. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton

    2013-05-28

    A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  6. Detection of Neutrons with Scintillation Counters

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hofstadter, R.

    1948-11-01

    Detection of slow neutrons by: detection of single gamma rays following capture by cadmium or mercury; detection of more than one gamma ray by observing coincidences after capture; detection of heavy charged particles after capture in lithium or baron nuclei; possible use of anthracene for counting fast neutrons investigated briefly.

  7. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  8. Binderless composite scintillator for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Jason P [Knoxville, TN; Crow, Jr; Lowell, M [Oak Ridge, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-03-10

    Composite scintillator material consisting of a binderless sintered mixture of a Lithium (Li) compound containing .sup.6Li as the neutron converter and Y.sub.2SiO.sub.5:Ce as the scintillation phosphor, and the use of this material as a method for neutron detection. Other embodiments of the invention include various other Li compounds.

  9. Safety control circuit for a neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellsworth, Howard C. (Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27

    A neutronic reactor comprising an active portion containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy, means to control a neutronic chain reaction within the reactor comprising a safety device and a regulating device, a safety device including means defining a vertical channel extending into the reactor from an aperture in the upper surface of the reactor, a rod containing neutron-absorbing materials slidably disposed within the channel, means for maintaining the safety rod in a withdrawn position relative to the active portion of the reactor including means for releasing said rod on actuation thereof, a hopper mounted above the active portion of the reactor having a door disposed at the bottom of the hopper opening into the vertical channel, a plurality of bodies of neutron-absorbing materials disposed within the hopper, and means responsive to the failure of the safety rod on actuation thereof to enter the active portion of the reactor for opening the door in the hopper.

  10. Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E

    2014-05-27

    A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.

  11. Search for the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaster, Brad

    2010-08-04

    Searches for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are motivated by their highly suppressed Standard Model value. The observation of a non-zero signal in the next generation of experiments would point unambiguously to the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Several ongoing efforts worldwide hold the potential for an up to two-orders-of-magnitude improvement beyond the current upper limit on the neutron EDM of 2.9x10{sup -6} e-cm. In this talk, I review the basic measurement principles of neutron EDM searches, then discuss a new experiment to be carried out in the United States at the Spallation Neutron Source with ultracold neutrons and an in-situ '3He''co-magnetometer'.

  12. Characteristics of alumina powders prepared by spray-drying of boehmite sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G. ); Balachandran, U. . Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    Boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate has been spray-dried to obtain micrometer-size spherical particles consisting of submicrometer crystallites. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities such as acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol. Particle-size distribution, morphology, density, compaction, and sintering characteristics of powders washed with different solvents are reported. The effect of post treatments on the boehmite-sol-derived powders toward reducing agglomeration and obtaining high-density bodies is discussed.

  13. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  14. Combustion of Bulk 84% Fe/16% KCIO{sub 4} heat powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, M.; Guidotti, R.A.; Berry, B.

    1996-05-01

    Fe/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic mixtures are used in thermal batteries to provide the heat necessary to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures of 550 to 600 C. This heat source is normally used as discs pressed from bulk powder. To evaluate the consequences associated with unexpected ignition of large amounts of heat powder, combustion of 84% Fe/16% KClO{sub 4} heat powders was conducted for various scenarios under controlled conditions and the response documented. Increasing amounts of heat powder--up to 8 lbs--were ignited in both unconfined and confined (sealed) containers in a remote area. The containers were thermocoupled and the resulting burning filmed with a standard video camera, high-speed (1,000 frames/s) film and video cameras, and an infrared video camera. A 20- minute video of the burning under the various conditions is presented.

  15. Spraying Powder Materials by the High-Enthalpy Laminar Plasma Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khutsishvili, M.; Kikvadze, L.

    2008-03-19

    One of the most promising engineering solutions of the problem of spraying powder materials is the proposed method of plasma spraying by the laminar plasma jet. Laminar plasma flow is characterized by small jet angle divergence; the powder particles are penetrated and accelerated mainly in the axial direction. The molten powder particles are transported almost to the surface of a treated work-piece inside the laminar plasma flow in an atmosphere of the plasma-forming gas with the acceleration on the entire transfer area, which leads to an increase in the particles velocity, a decrease of their oxidability, an increase in the powder deposition efficiency, density, adhesion strength with the surface to be coated.

  16. Method and apparatus for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, R.W.; Reeder, P.L.; Wogman, N.A.; Warner, R.A.; Brite, D.W.; Richey, W.C.; Goldman, D.S.

    1997-10-21

    The instant invention is a method for making and using an apparatus for detecting neutrons. Scintillating optical fibers are fabricated by melting SiO{sub 2} with a thermal neutron capturing substance and a scintillating material in a reducing atmosphere. The melt is then drawn into fibers in an anoxic atmosphere. The fibers may then be coated and used directly in a neutron detection apparatus, or assembled into a geometrical array in a second, hydrogen-rich, scintillating material such as a polymer. Photons generated by interaction with thermal neutrons are trapped within the coated fibers and are directed to photoelectric converters. A measurable electronic signal is generated for each thermal neutron interaction within the fiber. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation. When the fibers are arranged in an array within a second scintillating material, photons generated by kinetic neutrons interacting with the second scintillating material and photons generated by thermal neutron capture within the fiber can both be directed to photoelectric converters. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation. 5 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA); Warner, Ray A. (Benton City, WA); Brite, Daniel W. (Richland, WA); Richey, Wayne C. (Richland, WA); Goldman, Don S. (Orangevale, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention is a method for making and using an apparatus for detecting neutrons. Scintillating optical fibers are fabricated by melting SiO.sub.2 with a thermal neutron capturing substance and a scintillating material in a reducing atmosphere. The melt is then drawn into fibers in an anoxic atmosphere. The fibers may then be coated and used directly in a neutron detection apparatus, or assembled into a geometrical array in a second, hydrogen-rich, scintillating material such as a polymer. Photons generated by interaction with thermal neutrons are trapped within the coated fibers and are directed to photoelectric converters. A measurable electronic signal is generated for each thermal neutron interaction within the fiber. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation. When the fibers are arranged in an array within a second scintillating material, photons generated by kinetic neutrons interacting with the second scintillating material and photons generated by thermal neutron capture within the fiber can both be directed to photoelectric converters. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation.

  18. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, T.C.; Beasley, E.G.

    1961-01-17

    A fuel element for neutronic reactors, particularly the gas-cooled type of reactor, is described. The element comprises a fuel-bearing plate rolled to form a cylinder having a spiral passageway passing from its periphery to its center. In operation a coolant is admitted to the passageway at the periphery of the element, is passed through the spiral passageway, and emerges into a central channel defined by the inner turn of the rolled plate. The advantage of the element is that the fully heated coolant (i.e., coolant emerging into the central channel) is separated and thus insulated from the periphery of the element, which may be in contact with a low-temperature moderator, by the intermediate turns of the spiral fuel element.

  19. An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal powders.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal powders. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal powders. Abstract not provided. Authors: Cappillino, Patrick ; Robinson, David ; Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Cai, Trevor ; Liu, Zhi ; Stickney, John Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140790 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2265C 505441 DOE

  20. Atomic-Layer Deposition on Noble Metal Powders. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Atomic-Layer Deposition on Noble Metal Powders. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic-Layer Deposition on Noble Metal Powders. Abstract not provided. Authors: Robinson, David ; Cappillino, Patrick. ; Salloum, Maher N. ; Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Sheridan, Leah B. ; Jagannathan, Kaushik ; Benson, David M. ; Stickney, John L. Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1241747 Report Number(s): SAND2014-18364PE 537921 DOE Contract Number:

  1. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Components | Department of Energy Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon

  2. Moving to the Powder River Basin in search of the American dream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-03-15

    As the Big Three American automakers cut jobs in Michigan, Wyoming's booming but isolated coal mining industry in the Powder River Basin is trying to lure some of these dissatisfied workers. DRM has attracted workers to the benefaction plant and P & H MinePro Services working on surface mining equipment has been successful, as have Peabody's Powder River coal subsidiary and Kiewitt's Buckshin mine. 2 photos.

  3. Protons Pair Up With Neutrons (EurekAlert | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sites/default/files/ProtonsNeutrons.pdf Submitted: Thursday, May 29, 2008 - 12

  4. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron computed tomography shows soot and ash loading in a cordierite diesel particulate filter PDF icon deer09_bilheux.pdf More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters

  5. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  6. Li2Se as a Neutron Scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Mao-Hua; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-23

    We show that Li2Se:Te is a potential neutron scintillator material based on density functional calculations. Li2Se exhibits a number of properties favorable for efficient neutron detection, such as a high Li concentration for neutron absorption, a small effective atomic mass and a low density for reduced sensitivity to background gamma rays, and a small band gap for a high light yield. Our calculations show that Te doping should lead to the formation of deep acceptor complex VLi-TeSe, which can facilitate efficient light emission, similar to the emission activation in Te doped ZnSe.

  7. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  8. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negret, Alexandru [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  9. Self-regulating neutron coincidence counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baron, N.

    1980-06-16

    A device for accurately measuring the mass of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in a sample having arbitrary moderation and mixed with various contaminants. The device utilizes a thermal neutron well counter which has two concentric rings of neutron detectors separated by a moderating material surrounding the well. Neutron spectroscopic information derived by the two rings of detectors is used to measure the quantity of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu in device which corrects for background radiation, deadtime losses of the detector and electronics and various other constants of the system.

  10. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  11. Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Moment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Greene, G. L.; Ramsey, N. F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W. B.; Miller, P. D.; Perrin, P.

    1981-06-01

    The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H{sub 2}O), we find ..mu..{sub n}/..mu..{sub p} = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units.

  12. Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  13. Preparation and performances of nanosized Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Yongfa . E-mail: zhuyf@chem.tsinghua.edu.cn; Yu Fang; Man, Yi; Tian, Qingyong; He Yu; Wu Nianzu

    2005-01-15

    Nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by using sol-gel method via TaCl{sub 5} butanol solution as a precursor. Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} species can be formed under 500 deg. C via the decomposition of the precursor. The crystalline phase of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst can be obtained after being calcined above 600 deg. C for 4h. The crystal size and particle size of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst was about 50nm. A good photocatalytic performance for the degradation of gaseous formaldehyde was obtained for the nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder formed at 700 deg. C for 4h and at 650 deg. C for 12h showed the best performance. The calcination temperature and time play an important role in the crystallization and photocatalytical performance of nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder.

  14. Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

  15. Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory: A Preliminary Report (Conference) | SciTech Connect Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Preliminary Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Preliminary Report Authors: Tobin, J G ; Mirmelstein, A V ; Podlesnyak, A ; Kolesnikov, A I Publication Date: 2014-01-16 OSTI Identifier: 1132009 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-649216 DOE Contract Number:

  16. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.

  17. Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extinction/Survival Probability (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron Extinction/Survival Probability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron Extinction/Survival Probability The expected or mean neutron number (or density) provides an adequate characterization of the neutron population and its dynamical excursions in most neutronic applications, in

  18. January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009 The Department gives its initial approval to begin plans for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to build a second target station for the Spallation Neutron Source, expanding what is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron scattering facility. The new station, which will cost approximately $1

  19. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source This content will become publicly available on January 20, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source Authors: Mauro, N. A. [1] ; Vogt, A. J. [2] Search

  20. Mechanical approach to the neutrons spectra collimation and detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, H.; Roshan, M. V.

    2014-11-15

    Neutrons spectra from most of known sources require being collimated for numerous applications; among them one is the Neutron Activation Analysis. High energy neutrons are collimated through a mechanical procedure as one of the most promising methods. The output energy of the neutron beam depends on the velocity of the rotating Polyethylene disks. The collimated neutrons are then measured by an innovative detection technique with high accuracy.

  1. Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) PDF icon Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) More Documents & Publications A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of

  2. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    crust heating (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating Authors: Gupta, Sanjib [1] ; Kawano, Toshihiko [1] ; Moller, Peter [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2008-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 964960 Report Number(s): LA-UR-08-05202; LA-UR-08-5202

  3. Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    filters for medical and industrial applications (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a

  4. Neutron-driven gamma-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A lasing cylinder emits laser radiation at a gamma-ray wavelength of 0.87 .ANG. when subjected to an intense neutron flux of about 400 eV neutrons. A 250 .ANG. thick layer of Be is provided between two layers of 100 .ANG. thick layer of .sup.57 Co and these layers are supported on a foil substrate. The coated foil is coiled to form the lasing cylinder. Under the neutron flux .sup.57 Co becomes .sup.58 Co by neutron absorption. The .sup.58 Co then decays to .sup.57 Fe by 1.6 MeV proton emission. .sup.57 Fe then transitions by mesne decay to a population inversion for lasing action at 14.4 keV. Recoil from the proton emission separates the .sup.57 Fe from the .sup.57 Co and into the Be, where Mossbauer emission occurs at a gamma-ray wavelength.

  5. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  6. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  7. Neutron Imaging Calibration to Measure Void Fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Void fraction is an intuitive parameter that describes the fraction of vapor in a two-phase flow. It appears as a key variable in most heat transfer and pressure drop correlations used to design evaporating and condensing heat exchangers, as well as determining charge inventory in refrigeration systems. Void fraction measurement is not straightforward, however, and assumptions on the invasiveness of the measuring technique must be made. Neutron radiography or neutron imaging has the potential to be a truly non-invasive void fraction measuring technique but has until recently only offered qualitative descriptions of two-phase flow, in terms of flow maldistributions, for example. This paper describes the calibration approach necessary to employ neutron imaging to measure steady-state void fraction. Experiments were conducted at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold Guide 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

  8. Research in Neutron Velocity Spectroscopy. Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Rainwater, J.

    1976-10-13

    A brief summary of papers published since the last progress report (June 1974) is presented. The research represents contributions to neutron resonance spectroscopy below 100 keV. (SDF)

  9. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source Authors: Mauro, N. A. 1 ; Vogt, A. J. 2 Search DOE PAGES for author "Vogt, A. J." Search DOE PAGES for ...

  10. Neutrons used to study model vascular systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons used to study model vascular systems Neutrons used to study model vascular systems The study is the first to provide a direct measure of endothelial monolayer adhesion under physiologic shear stress conditions. January 22, 2014 Comparison of endothelial monolayers under static conditions (left panels) and laminar shear stress (right panels). Shear stress induces remodeling of endothelial proteins. Comparison of endothelial monolayers under static conditions (left panels) and laminar

  11. Neutrons used to study model vascular systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons used to study model vascular systems Neutrons used to study model vascular systems The study is the first to provide a direct measure of endothelial monolayer adhesion under physiologic shear stress conditions. January 22, 2014 Comparison of endothelial monolayers under static conditions (left panels) and laminar shear stress (right panels). Shear stress induces remodeling of endothelial proteins. Comparison of endothelial monolayers under static conditions (left panels) and laminar

  12. Christmas burst reveals neutron star collision

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Christmas burst reveals neutron star collision Christmas burst reveals neutron star collision Called the Christmas Burst, GRB 101225A was freakishly lengthy and it produced radiation at unusually varying wavelengths. December 1, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los

  13. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE » 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Lecturer Abstracts Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's Quick Links Application - Closed Reference Form - closed Schedule- tentative Poster Contacts School: neutronschool@lanl.gov School Co-Directors: A. Llobet allobet@lanl.gov H. Nakotte hnakotte@nmsu.edu Local Organizing Committee: Edwin Fohtung (Co-Chair) efohtung@nmsu.edu Ph:575.646.5631 Graham King

  14. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  15. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriesheim, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne's ZING-P and ZING-P' prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and in press'' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  16. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne`s ZING-P and ZING-P` prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and ``in press`` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  17. Pressure-Induced Structural Phase Transition in CeNi: X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies and First-Principles Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mirmelstein, A.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Ehlers, Georg; Kerbel, O.; Matvienko, V.; Sefat, A. S.; Saporov, B.; Halder, G. J.; Tobin, J. G.

    2015-08-03

    The pressure-induced structural phase transition in the intermediate-valence compound CeNi has been investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques. It is shown that the structure of the pressure-induced CeNi phase (phases) can be described in terms of the Pnma space group. Equations of state for CeNi on both sides of the phase transition are derived and an approximate P-T phase diagram is suggested for Pmorethe phase transition.less

  18. Neutron stars as laboratories for gravity physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deliduman, Cemsinan

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of neutron stars in R+?R gravity model with perturbative method. We obtain mass-radius relations for four representative equations of state (EoS). We find that, for |?|~10? cm, the results differ substantially from the results of general relativity. The effects of modified gravity are seen as mimicking a stiff or soft EoS for neutron stars depending upon whether ? is negative or positive, respectively. Some of the soft EoS that are excluded within the framework of general relativity can be reconciled for certain values of ? of this order with the 2 solar mass neutron star recently observed. Indeed, if the EoS is ever established to be soft, modified gravity of the sort studied here may be required to explain neutron star masses as large as 2 M{sub ?}. The associated length scale ?(?)~10? cm is of the order of the the typical radius of neutron stars implying that this is the smallest value we could find by using neutron stars as a probe. We thus conclude that the true value of ? is most likely much smaller than 10? cm.

  19. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed TiNi alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 C. M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 C higher than that of the powders. Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2B19 transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.

  20. BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pynn, Roger; Baker, Shenda Mary; Louca, Despo A; McGreevy, Robert L; Ekkebus, Allen E; Kszos, Lynn A; Anderson, Ian S

    2008-10-01

    In a concerted effort supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Energy, the United States is rebuilding its leadership in neutron scattering capability through a significant investment in U.S. neutron scattering user facilities and related instrumentation. These unique facilities provide opportunities in neutron scattering to a broad community of researchers from academic institutions, federal laboratories, and industry. However, neutron scattering is often considered to be a tool for 'experts only' and in order for the U.S. research community to take full advantage of these new and powerful tools, a comprehensive education and outreach program must be developed. The workshop described below is the first step in developing a national program that takes full advantage of modern education methods and leverages the existing educational capacity at universities and national facilities. During March 27-28, 2008, a workshop entitled 'Building a Network for Neutron Scattering Education' was held in Washington, D.C. The goal of the workshop was to define and design a roadmap for a comprehensive neutron scattering education program in the United States. Successful implementation of the roadmap will maximize the national intellectual capital in neutron sciences and will increase the sophistication of research questions addressed by neutron scattering at the nation's forefront facilities. (See Appendix A for the list of attendees, Appendix B for the workshop agenda, Appendix C for a list of references. Appendix D contains the results of a survey given at the workshop; Appendix E contains summaries of the contributed talks.) The workshop brought together U.S. academicians, representatives from neutron sources, scientists who have developed nontraditional educational programs, educational specialists, and managers from government agencies to create a national structure for providing ongoing neutron scattering education. A concerted effort was made to involve representatives from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and minority educational institutions (MEIs). The roadmap contained herein provides the path to a national infrastructure for education of students, faculty, and professional researchers who wish to make use of national neutron scattering facilities but do not have (or do not believe they have) the educational background to do so. Education of other stakeholders, including the public, students in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12), and policy makers is also included. The opening sessions of the workshop provided the current status of neutron scattering education in North America, Europe, and Australia. National neutron sources have individually developed outreach and advertising programs aimed at increasing awareness among researchers of the potential applications of neutron scattering. However, because their principal mission is to carry out scientific research, their outreach efforts are necessarily self-limiting. The opening session was designed to build awareness that the individual programs need to be coupled with, and integrated into, a broader education program that addresses the complete range of experience, from the student to the experienced researcher, and the wide range of scientific disciplines covered by neutron scattering. Such a program must also take full advantage of existing educational programs and expertise at universities and expand them using modern distance learning capabilities, recognizing that the landscape of education is changing.

  1. Six-axis multi-anvil press for high-pressure, high-temperature neutron diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano-Furukawa, A. Hattori, T.; Arima, H.; Yamada, A.; Tabata, S.; Kondo, M.; Nakamura, A.; Kagi, H.; Yagi, T.

    2014-11-15

    We developed a six-axis multi-anvil press, ATSUHIME, for high-pressure and high-temperature in situ time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction experiments. The press has six orthogonally oriented hydraulic rams that operate individually to compress a cubic sample assembly. Experiments indicate that the press can generate pressures up to 9.3 GPa and temperatures up to 2000 K using a 6-6-type cell assembly, with available sample volume of about 50 mm{sup 3}. Using a 6-8-type cell assembly, the available conditions expand to 16 GPa and 1273 K. Because the six-axis press has no guide blocks, there is sufficient space around the sample to use the aperture for diffraction and place an incident slit, radial collimators, and a neutron imaging camera close to the sample. Combination of the six-axis press and the collimation devices realized high-quality diffraction pattern with no contamination from the heater or the sample container surrounding the sample. This press constitutes a new tool for using neutron diffraction to study the structures of crystals and liquids under high pressures and temperatures.

  2. Material identification based upon energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying a material in a sample and imaging the sample are described herein. The material is identified by computing energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons that is caused by presence of the sample in travel paths of the neutrons. A mono-energetic neutron generator emits the neutron, which is downscattered in energy by a first detector unit. The neutron exits the first detector unit and is detected by a second detector unit subsequent to passing through the sample. Energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample is computed based upon a computed energy of the neutron, wherein such energy can be computed based upon 1) known positions of the neutron generator, the first detector unit, and the second detector unit; or 2) computed time of flight of neutrons between the first detector unit and the second detector unit.

  3. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  4. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  5. A neutron imaging device for sample alignment in a pulsed neutron scattering instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazzi, F.; Scherillo, A.; Zoppi, M.

    2009-09-15

    A neutron-imaging device for alignment purposes has been tested on the INES beamline at ISIS, the pulsed neutron source of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.). Its use, in conjunction with a set of movable jaws, turns out extremely useful for scattering application to complex samples where a precise and well-defined determination of the scattering volume is needed.

  6. Optimizing Moderator Dimensions for Neutron Scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of neutron moderator dimensions on the performance of neutron scattering instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. In a recent study of the planned second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility [1,2], we have found that the dimensions of a moderator play a significant role in determining its surface brightness. A smaller moderator may be significantly brighter for a smaller viewing area [4]. One of the immediate implications of this finding is that for modern neutron scattering instrument designs, moderator dimensions and brightness have to be incorporated as an integrated optimization parameter. Here, we establish a strategy of matching neutron scattering instruments with moderators using analytical and Monte Carlo techniques. In order to simplify our treatment, we group the instruments into two broad categories, those with natural collimation and those that use neutron guide systems. We found that the cross-sections of the sample and the neutron guide, respectively, are the deciding factors for choosing the moderator. Beam divergence plays no role as long as it is within the reach of practical constraints. Namely, the required divergence is not too large for the guide or sample to be located close enough to the moderator on an actual spallation source.

  7. Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yoon, W.Y.; Jones, J.L.; Nigg, D.W.; Harker, Y.D.

    1999-05-11

    A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0{times}10{sup 9} neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use. 3 figs.

  8. Microscopic calculations of nuclear and neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gandolfi, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the equation of state of neutron matter. The equation of state is directly related to the symmetry energy and determines the mass and radius of neutron stars, providing then a connection between terrestrial experiments and astronomical observations. As a result, we also show preliminary results of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  9. Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yoon, Woo Y. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, James L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nigg, David W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0.times.10.sup.9 neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  11. Neutron multiplicity measurements with 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald; Detwiler, Ryan; Maurer, Richard; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Liang; Athanasiades, Athanasios

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ship effect ) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called straws that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect neutron multiplicity information from spontaneous fission sources using a single panel consisting of 60 straws equally distributed over three rows in high-density polyethylenemoderator. In the following year, we developed the field-programmable gate array and associated DAQ software. This SDRD effort successfully produced a prototype NMC with*33% detection efficiency compared to a commercial fission meter.

  12. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in electron beam melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Lowe, Larry E.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Kirka, Michael M.

    2015-10-20

    In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reusemore » time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.« less

  13. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Lowe, Larry E.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Kirka, Michael M.

    2015-10-20

    In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reuse time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.

  14. Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Volume 1. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, J.; Martin, D.R.; Spadafora, S.J.; Eng, A.T.; Stark, H.

    1995-06-01

    Zero Discharge Organic Coatings project developed powder paint, Ultraviolet (UV) curable paint, and electro- coating (E-coat) paint for military Applications. These technologies offer potential for high performance coatings with little or no volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or hazardous waste generation. The ZDOC project focused on formulating non-toxic corrosion inhibitors into these coating technologies, and the applications development of powder coatings. Non-toxic replacements for traditional lead and chromate inhibitors were selected based on a previous NAWCADWAR investigation. Once incorporated, the performance of the coatings with and without inhibitors was compared. Also, the protective mechanisms of these inhibitors were studied. The applications development for powder coatings analyzed technologies to allow powder coating of non-conductive substrates and evaluated the use of IR energy to cure powder coatings. Inhibitors were successfully incorporated into electrocoatings and powder coatings, however corrosion performance results varied with coating formulation.

  15. The new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source -- Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Iverson, Erik B.; Sokol, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  16. The new cold neutron chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Niedziela, J. L.; Iverson, E. B.; Sokol, P. E.

    2011-08-15

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  17. Low-energy parameters of neutron-neutron interaction in the effective-range approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-06-15

    The effect of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy parameters of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state is studied in the effective-range approximation. On the basis of experimental values of the singlet parameters of neutron-proton scattering and the experimental value of the virtual-state energy for the neutron-neutron systemin the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: a{sub nn} = -16.59(117) fm and r{sub nn} = 2.83(11) fm. The calculated values agree well with present-day experimental results.

  18. Single phase synthesis and room temperature neutron diffraction studies on multiferroic PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Angadi, Basavaraj; Rayaprol, Sudhindra

    2013-02-05

    The lead-iron-niobate, (PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} or PFN) was synthesized by low temperature sintering Single Step / Solid State Reaction Method. The 700 Degree-Sign C/2 hrs. calcined powder was sintered at 1050 Degree-Sign C/1 hr. The sintered pellets were characterized through X-Ray Diffraction and Neutron Diffraction at room temperature. It is found from the XRD pattern that the materials is in single phase with no traces of pyrochlore phase. It was also confirmed from the neutron diffraction pattern, the structure of PFN to be monoclinic, space group Cm. Structural studies has been carried out by refining the obtained neutron diffraction data by Rietveld refinement method using Fullprof program. The neutron diffraction pattern at 300 K (room temperature) was selected to refine the structure. The lattice parameters obtained are; a = 5.6709 A, b = 5.6732 A, c = 4.0136 A, and {alpha}= 90, {beta}= 89.881, {gamma}= 90. The P-E measurements showed hysteretic behavior with high remnant polarization.

  19. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  20. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  1. Neutron elastic backscattering with resonance enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberg, H.J.; McEllistrem, M.T.

    1993-12-31

    Reliable detection of explosives and narcotics depends on generating signatures of compounds which characterize them. Major explosives and also alkaloid narcotics contain unique concentrations of Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen which provide specific elemental ratios and chemical signatures. Neutron-induced reaction methods are rapid and non-invasive means of probing container interiors for special element-ratio signatures which signal the presence of significant amounts of contraband. Among these reactions the highest probabilities occur for neutron from different light elements, allowing determination of relative abundance of these elements. The authors have already demonstrated signature for simulated explosives and simulated narcotics in experimental tests at 1-4 MeV at the University of Kentucky accelerator labs. Intensities of neutron scatter at angles near 150{degrees} from three different elements, C, N, and O, were determined. Fast neutron time-of-flight detection methods enabled measurement of neutron energies, and thus separation of scattering from the different elements. Making measurements on and off strong resonances for specific elements, increases PFD and reduces PFA. Measurements illustrating this resonance enhancement technique will be presented.

  2. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl; Grim, Gary P; Tregillis, Ian L; Wilke, Mark D; Morgan, George L; Loomis, Eric N; Wilde, Carl H; Oertel, John A; Fatherley, Valerie E; Clark, David D; Schmitt, Mark J; Merrill, Frank E; Wang, Tai - Sen F; Danly, Christopher R; Batha, Steven H; Patel, M; Sepke, S; Hatarik, R; Fittinghoff, D; Bower, D; Marinak, M; Munro, D; Moran, M; Hilko, R; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  3. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beams effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beams effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the models energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  4. ORNL Neutron Sciences Annual Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Ian S; Horak, Charlie M; Counce, Deborah Melinda; Ekkebus, Allen E

    2008-07-01

    This is the first annual report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate for calendar year 2007. It describes the neutron science facilities, current developments, and future plans; highlights of the year's activities and scientific research; and information on the user program. It also contains information about education and outreach activities and about the organization and staff. The Neutron Sciences Directorate is responsible for operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor and the Spallation Neutron Source. The main highlights of 2007 were highly successful operation and instrument commissioning at both facilities. At HFIR, the year began with the reactor in shutdown mode and work on the new cold source progressing as planned. The restart on May 16, with the cold source operating, was a significant achievement. Furthermore, measurements of the cold source showed that the performance exceeded expectations, making it one of the world's most brilliant sources of cold neutrons. HFIR finished the year having completed five run cycles and 5,880 MWd of operation. At SNS, the year began with 20 kW of beam power on target; and thanks to a highly motivated staff, we reached a record-breaking power level of 183 kW by the end of the year. Integrated beam power delivered to the target was 160 MWh. Although this is a substantial accomplishment, the next year will bring the challenge of increasing the integrated beam power delivered to 887 MWh as we chart our path toward 5,350 MWh by 2011.

  5. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blmel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  6. Transport of thermal neutrons in different forms of liquid hydrogen and the production of intense beams of cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Tewari, S.P.

    1982-10-01

    From their studies the authors find that the thermal neutron inelastic scattering kernel incorporating the chemical binding energy in liquid hydrogen is able to successfully explain various neutron transport studies such as pulsed neutron and steady-state neutron spectra. For an infinite-sized assembly, D/sub 2/ at 4 K yields a very intense flux of cold and ultracold neutrons. For the practicable finite assembly corresponding to B/sup 2/ = 0.0158 cm/sup -2/, it is found that liquid hydrogen at 11 K gives the most intense beam of cold neutrons.

  7. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenny, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omalete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1992-09-08

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  8. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1991-07-02

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  9. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, L.R.; Chick, L.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1992-05-19

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  10. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  11. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  12. In-situ Formation of Ti Alloys via Powder Injection Molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a unique blend of powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock materials in which only a small volume fraction of binder (< 8%) is required; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and a solid aromatic solvent. Because of the nature of the decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder can be completely removed from the molded component during heat treatment. Here, we present results from an initial study on in-situ titanium alloy formation in near-net shape components manufactured by this novel PIM technique.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Components Fabricated by a New Powder Injection Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Miller, Megan R.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weil, K. Scott

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a powder injection molding (PIM) binder system for titanium that employs naphthalene as the primary constituent to facilitate easy binder removal and mitigate problems with carbon contamination. In the study presented here, we examined densification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties in specimens formed by this process. In general, we found that we could achieve tensile strengths comparable to wrought titanium in the PIM-formed specimens, but that maximum elongation was less than expected. Chemical and microstructural analyses suggest that use of higher purity powder and further process optimization will lead to significant improvements in ductility.

  14. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  15. Non-aqueous spray drying as a route to ultrafine ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, J.N. ); Fanelli, A.J.; Marsh, G.M. ); Zambri, P.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Spray drying imparts unique powder handling features to a wide variety of dried products and is usually carried out in a heated air stream while feeding an aqueous suspension of some solid material. The present work, however, describes non-aqueous spray drying as a means of preparing fine powders of metal oxides. In this case an alcohol solvent was used in place of water and the slurry sprayed under an inert atmosphere. Using the non-aqueous technique, the product consists of distinct but loosely aggregated primary particles. Such materials have potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports.

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tyson Valley Powder Farm - MO 11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Tyson Valley Powder Farm - MO 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: TYSON VALLEY POWDER FARM (MO.11) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: St. Louis County , Missouri MO.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 MO.11-2 Site Operations: Storage of C-Special material (residue from production of uranium metal). MO.11-1 MO.11-2 MO.11-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to Army Corps of Engineers MO.11-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes

  17. Optimizing moderator dimensions for neutron scattering at the spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, J. K.; Robertson, J. L.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Riemer, Bernard W. [Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we investigate the effect of neutron moderator dimensions on the performance of neutron scattering instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). In a recent study of the planned second target station at the SNS facility, we have found that the dimensions of a moderator play a significant role in determining its surface brightness. A smaller moderator may be significantly brighter over a smaller viewing area. One of the immediate implications of this finding is that for modern neutron scattering instrument designs, moderator dimensions and brightness have to be incorporated as an integrated optimization parameter. Here, we establish a strategy of matching neutron scattering instruments with moderators using analytical and Monte Carlo techniques. In order to simplify our treatment, we group the instruments into two broad categories: those with natural collimation and those that use neutron guide systems. For instruments using natural collimation, the optimal moderator selection depends on the size of the moderator, the sample, and the moderator brightness. The desired beam divergence only plays a role in determining the distance between sample and moderator. For instruments using neutron optical systems, the smallest moderator available that is larger than the entrance dimension of the closest optical element will perform the best (assuming, as is the case here that smaller moderators are brighter)

  18. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  19. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  20. PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRONS USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.